Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 352

Search results for: fermentation

142 Improvement of Monacolin K. and Decreasing of Citrinin Content in Korkor 6 (RD 6) Red Yeast Rice

Authors: Emon Chairote, Panatda Jannoey, Griangsak Chairote

Abstract:

A strain of Monascus purpureus CMU001 was used to prepared red yeast rice from Thai glutinous rice Korkor 6 (RD 6). Adding of different amounts of histidine (156, 312, 625, and 1250 mg in 100 g of rice grains)) under aerobic and air limitation (air-lock) condition were used in solid fermentation. Determination of the yield as well as monacolin K content was done. Citrinin content was also determined in order to confirm the safety use of prepared red yeast rice. It was found that under air-lock condition with 1250 mg of histidine addition gave the highest yield of 37.40 g of dried red yeast rice prepared from 100 g of rice. Highest 5.72 mg content of monacolin K was obtained under air-lock condition with 312 mg histidine addition. In the other hand, citrinin content was found to be less than 24462 ng/g of all dried red yeast rice samples under the experimental methods used in this work.

Keywords: red yeast rice, Thai glutinous rice, monacolin K., citrinin

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
141 Cereal Bioproducts Conversion to Higher Value Feed by Using Pediococcus Strains Isolated from Spontaneous Fermented Cereal, and Its Influence on Milk Production of Dairy Cattle

Authors: Vita Krungleviciute, Rasa Zelvyte, Ingrida Monkeviciene, Jone Kantautaite, Rolandas Stankevicius, Modestas Ruzauskas, Elena Bartkiene

Abstract:

The environmental impact of agricultural bioproducts from the processing of food crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Currently, cereal bran has been used as a low-value ingredient for both human consumption and animal feed. The most popular bioprocessing technologies for cereal bran nutritional and technological functionality increasing are enzymatic processing and fermentation, and the most popular starters in fermented feed production are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) including pediococci. However, the ruminant digestive system is unique, there are billions of microorganisms which help the cow to digest and utilize nutrients in the feed. To achieve efficient feed utilization and high milk yield, the microorganisms must have optimal conditions, and the disbalance of this system is highly undesirable. Pediococcus strains Pediococcus acidilactici BaltBio01 and Pediococcus pentosaceus BaltBio02 from spontaneous fermented rye were isolated (by rep – PCR method), identified, and characterized by their growth (by Thermo Bioscreen C automatic turbidometer), acidification rate (2 hours in 2.5 pH), gas production (Durham method), and carbohydrate metabolism (by API 50 CH test ). Antimicrobial activities of isolated pediococcus against variety of pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial strains previously isolated from diseased cattle, and their resistance to antibiotics were evaluated (EFSA-FEEDAP method). The isolated pediococcus strains were cultivated in barley/wheat bran (90 / 10, m / m) substrate, and developed supplements, with high content of valuable pediococcus, were used for Lithuanian black and white dairy cows feeding. In addition, the influence of supplements on milk production and composition was determined. Milk composition was evaluated by the LactoScope FTIR” FT1.0. 2001 (Delta Instruments, Holland). P. acidilactici BaltBio01 and P. pentosaceus BaltBio02 demonstrated versatile carbohydrate metabolism, grown at 30°C and 37°C temperatures, and acidic tolerance. Isolated pediococcus strains showed to be non resistant to antibiotics, and having antimicrobial activity against undesirable microorganisms. By barley/wheat bran utilisation using fermentation with selected pediococcus strains, it is possible to produce safer (reduced Enterobacteriaceae, total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold count) feed stock with high content of pediococcus. Significantly higher milk yield (after 33 days) by using pediococcus supplements mix for dairy cows feeding could be obtained, while similar effect by using separate strains after 66 days of feeding could be achieved. It can be stated that barley/wheat bran could be used for higher value feed production in order to increase milk production. Therefore, further research is needed to identify what is the main mechanism of the positive action.

Keywords: barley/wheat bran, dairy cattle, fermented feed, milk, pediococcus

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
140 Investigation of Growth Yield and Antioxidant Activity of Monascus purpureus Extract Isolated from Stirred Tank Bioreactor

Authors: M. Pourshirazi, M. Esmaelifar, A. Aliahmadi, F. Yazdian, A. S. Hatamian Zarami, S. J. Ashrafi

Abstract:

Monascus purpureus is an antioxidant-producing fungus whose secondary metabolites can be used in drug industries. The growth yield and antioxidant activity of extract were investigated in 3-L liquid fermentation media in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor (STD) at 30°C, pH 5.93 and darkness for 4 days with 150 rpm agitation and 40% dissolved oxygen. Results were compared to extract isolated from Erlenmeyer flask with the same condition. The growth yield was 0.21 and 0.17 in STD condition and Erlenmeyer flask, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity was 256.32 µg/ml and 150.43 µg/ml for STD extract and flask extract, respectively. Our data demonstrated that transferring the growth condition into the STD caused an increase in growth yield but not in antioxidant activity. Accordingly, there is no relationship between growth rate and secondary metabolites formation. More studies are needed to determine the mass transfer coefficient and also evaluating the hydrodynamic condition have to be done in the future studies.

Keywords: Monascus purpureus, bioreactor, antioxidant, growth yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
139 Bioethanol Synthesis Using Cellulose Recovered from Biowaste

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Noridah Abdullah, Mimi Sakinah

Abstract:

Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates, Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as castor shell waste, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production Cellulose extracted from biomass sources is considered the future feedstock for many products due to the availability and eco-friendly nature of cellulose. In this study, castor shell (CS) biowaste resulted from the extraction of Castor oil from castor seeds was evaluated as a potential source of cellulose. The cellulose was extracted after pretreatment process was done on the CS. The pretreatment process began with the removal of other extractives from CS, then an alkaline treatment, bleaching process with hydrogen peroxide, and followed by a mixture of acetic and nitric acids. CS cellulose was analysed by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The result showed that the overall process was adequate to produce cellulose with high purity and crystallinity from CS waste. The cellulose was then hydrolyzed to produce glucose and then fermented to bioethanol.

Keywords: bioethanol, castor shell, cellulose, biowaste

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
138 Measurements of Chitin by Ochratoxigenic Fungi and Its Relationship to Ochratoxin a Production

Authors: Jamal Elzwai, Kofi Aidoo, Alan Candlish

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Production of OTA was detected after 24hr by Aspergillus ochraceus isolate whereas at 36hr for A. carbonarius isolate and Penicillium verrucosum IMI 285522 and 60hr for A. ochraceus CBS 588.68. Highest OTA level was produced by A. carbonarius isolate followed by A. ochraceus CBS 588.68, Penicillium verrucosum IMI 285522 and finally A. ochraceus isolate. Glucosamine content of barley sample before fermentation was found to be negligible and remained almost constant during the incubation time. Glucosamine content started to increase at 12 hours after incubation with A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate and A. ochraceus CBS 588.68, and after 12 hours with P. verrucosum IMI 285522. Highest glucosamine content, as a result of increase in fungal biomass, was produced by A. ochraceus CBS 588.68 followed by A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate, and finally by P. verrucosum IMI 285522. It appears that there is a correlation between OTA synthesis and glucosamine content with A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate and A. ochraceus CBS 588.68 but not with P. verrucosum IMI 285522.

Keywords: chitin, barley, Ochratoxin A, Aspergiluus ochraceus, A. carbonarius, Penicillium verrucosum

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
137 Kinetic Studies of Bioethanol Production from Salt-Pretreated Sugarcane Leaves

Authors: Preshanthan Moodley, E. B. Gueguim Kana

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This study examines the kinetics of S. cerevisiae BY4743 growth and bioethanol production from sugarcane leaf waste (SLW), utilizing two different optimized pretreatment regimes; under two fermentation modes: steam salt-alkali filtered enzymatic hydrolysate (SSA-F), steam salt-alkali unfiltered (SSA-U), microwave salt-alkali filtered (MSA-F) and microwave salt-alkali unfiltered (MSA-U). The kinetic coefficients were determined by fitting the Monod, modified Gompertz, and logistic models to the experimental data with high coefficients of determination R² > 0.97. A maximum specific growth rate (µₘₐₓ) of 0.153 h⁻¹ was obtained under SSA-F and SSA-U whereas, 0.150 h⁻¹ was observed with MSA-F and MSA-U. SSA-U gave a potential maximum bioethanol concentration (Pₘ) of 31.06 g/L compared to 30.49, 23.26 and 21.79g/L for SSA-F, MSA-F and MSA-U respectively. An insignificant difference was observed in the μmax and Pm for the filtered and unfiltered enzymatic hydrolysate for both SSA and MSA pretreatments, thus potentially reducing a unit operation. These findings provide significant insights for process scale up.

Keywords: lignocellulosic bioethanol, microwave pretreatment, sugarcane leaves, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
136 Modelling and Simulation of Bioethanol Production from Food Waste Using CHEMCAD Software

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Noluzuko Monakali, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

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On a global scale, there is an alarming generation of food waste. Food waste is generated across the food supply chain. Worldwide urbanization, as well as global economic growth, have contributed to this amount of food waste the environment is receiving. Food waste normally ends on illegal dumping sites when not properly disposed, or disposed to landfills. This results in environmental pollution due to inadequate waste management practices. Food waste is rich in organic matter and highly biodegradable; hence, it can be utilized for the production of bioethanol, a type of biofuel. In so doing, alternative energy will be created, and the volumes of food waste will be reduced in the process. This results in food waste being seen as a precious commodity in energy generation instead of a pollutant. The main aim of the project was to simulate a biorefinery, using a software called CHEMCAD 7.12. The resulting purity of the ethanol from the simulation was 98.9%, with the feed ratio of 1: 2 for food waste and water. This was achieved by integrating necessary unit operations and optimisation of their operating conditions.

Keywords: fermentation, bioethanol, food waste, hydrolysis, simulation, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
135 Effect of Capsule Storage on Viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Yogurt Powder

Authors: Kanchana Sitlaothaworn

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Yogurt capsule was made by mixing 14% w/v of reconstitution of skim milk with 2% FOS. The mixture was fermented by commercial yogurt starter comprising Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. These yogurts were made as yogurt powder by freeze-dried. Yogurt powder was put into capsule then stored for 28 days at 4oc. 8ml of commercial yogurt was found to be the most suitable inoculum size in yogurt production. After freeze-dried, the viability of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus reduced from 109 to 107 cfu/g. The precence of sucrose cannot help to protect cell from ice crystal formation in freeze-dried process, high (20%) sucrose reduced L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth during fermentation of yogurt. The addition of FOS had reduced slowly the viability of both L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus similar to control (without FOS) during 28 days of capsule storage. The viable cell exhibited satisfactory viability level in capsule storage (6.7x106cfu/g) during 21 days at 4oC.

Keywords: yogurt capsule, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, freeze-drying, sucrose

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
134 Soybean Lecithin Based Reverse Micellar Extraction of Pectinase from Synthetic Solution

Authors: Sivananth Murugesan, I. Regupathi, B. Vishwas Prabhu, Ankit Devatwal, Vishnu Sivan Pillai

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Pectinase is an important enzyme which has a wide range of applications including textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, purification of plant viruses, oil extraction etc. Selective separation and purification of pectinase from fermentation broth and recover the enzyme form process stream for reuse are cost consuming process in most of the enzyme based industries. It is difficult to identify a suitable medium to enhance enzyme activity and retain its enzyme characteristics during such processes. The cost effective, selective separation of enzymes through the modified Liquid-liquid extraction is of current research interest worldwide. Reverse micellar extraction, globally acclaimed Liquid-liquid extraction technique is well known for its separation and purification of solutes from the feed which offers higher solute specificity and partitioning, ease of operation and recycling of extractants used. Surfactant concentrations above critical micelle concentration to an apolar solvent form micelles and addition of micellar phase to water in turn forms reverse micelles or water-in-oil emulsions. Since, electrostatic interaction plays a major role in the separation/purification of solutes using reverse micelles. These interaction parameters can be altered with the change in pH, addition of cosolvent, surfactant and electrolyte and non-electrolyte. Even though many chemical based commercial surfactant had been utilized for this purpose, the biosurfactants are more suitable for the purification of enzymes which are used in food application. The present work focused on the partitioning of pectinase from the synthetic aqueous solution within the reverse micelle phase formed by a biosurfactant, Soybean Lecithin dissolved in chloroform. The critical micelle concentration of soybean lecithin/chloroform solution was identified through refractive index and density measurements. Effect of surfactant concentrations above and below the critical micelle concentration was considered to study its effect on enzyme activity, enzyme partitioning within the reverse micelle phase. The effect of pH and electrolyte salts on the partitioning behavior was studied by varying the system pH and concentration of different salts during forward and back extraction steps. It was observed that lower concentrations of soybean lecithin enhanced the enzyme activity within the water core of the reverse micelle with maximizing extraction efficiency. The maximum yield of pectinase of 85% with a partitioning coefficient of 5.7 was achieved at 4.8 pH during forward extraction and 88% yield with a partitioning coefficient of 7.1 was observed during backward extraction at a pH value of 5.0. However, addition of salt decreased the enzyme activity and especially at higher salt concentrations enzyme activity declined drastically during both forward and back extraction steps. The results proved that reverse micelles formed by Soybean Lecithin and chloroform may be used for the extraction of pectinase from aqueous solution. Further, the reverse micelles can be considered as nanoreactors to enhance enzyme activity and maximum utilization of substrate at optimized conditions, which are paving a way to process intensification and scale-down.

Keywords: pectinase, reverse micelles, soybean lecithin, selective partitioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
133 Using Nanofiber-Like Attapulgite Microfiltration Membranes to Treat Oily Wastewater

Authors: Shouyong Zhou, Meisheng Li, Yijiang Zhao

Abstract:

The environmentally acceptable disposal of oily wastewater is a current challenge to many industries. The membrane separation technologies, which is no phase change, without pharmaceutical dosing, reprocessing costs low, less energy consumption, etc., have been widely applied in oily wastewater treatment. In our lab, a kind of low cost ceramic microfiltration membranes with a separation layer of attapulgite nanofibers (attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membranes) has been prepared and applied in the purification of cellulase fermentation broth and TiO2 nanoparticles system successfully. In this paper, this new attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane was selected to try to separate water from oily wastewater. The oil-in water emulsion was obtained from mixing 1 g/L engine oil, 0.5 g/L Tween-80, 0.5 g/L Span-80 and distilled water at mild speed in blender for 2 min. The particle size distribution of the oil-in-water emulsion was controlled. The maximum steady flux and COD rejection for a 0.2 um attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane can reach about 450 L. m-2. h-1 and 98% at 0.2 MPa. The results obtained in this work indicated that the attapulgite microfiltration membrane may represent a feasible pretreatment for oily wastewater.

Keywords: attapulgite, microfiltration membrane, oily wastewater, cross-flow filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
132 Effects of Camel Casein Hydrolysate Addition on Rheological Properties of Yoghurt

Authors: A. A. Al-Saleh, E. A. Ismail, A. A. Metwalli

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Effects of camel and cow casein hydrolysates by trypsin enzyme on rheological and sensory properties and growth of starter culture of the yoghurts made from cow milk have been investigated. The hydrolysates strongly decreased the fermentation and coagulation time of the yoghurts. The rate of pH decrease was higher with camel casein hydrolysate in comparison with cow casein hydrolysate at all concentrations used (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5%). Viscosities of the yoghurt made with hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to control samples. The addition of the hydrolysates significantly (p <0.05) increased the hardness and adhesiveness of the yoghurts. No significant differences in water holding capacity of control and treated samples were obsereved at 0.5 and 1.0% casein hydrolysate addition. However, increasing casein hydrolysate addition to 1.5% decreased water holding capacity of yoghurt samples. The sensory evaluation scores of the yoghurts were significantly (p<0.05) improved with the addition of casein hydrolysates.

Keywords: yoghurt, camel casein hydrolysates, cow casein hydrolysate, sensory evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
131 The Effect of Fermented Organic Feed into Nutritive Contents of Kampong Chicken Meat

Authors: Wahyu Widodo, Imbang Dwi Rahayu, Adi Sutanto

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The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of the fermented organic feed to dry matter, ash, organic matter, protein, fat and crude fiber contents of kampong chicken meat. The research had conducted at January until June, 2016. One hundreds chickens were used in this research. Experimental method and completely randomized design were used to support this research. We had 4 treatment namely P0: organic feed without fermentation, P1: Organic feed with fermented rice bran, P2: Organic feed with fermented corn, P3: Organic feed with fermented rice bran and corn with 5 replication. The conclusion was the treatment had not a significant effect in the dry matter, ash, organic matter and protein contents of chicken meat. On the other hand, it had a significant effect in the fat and crude fiber contents of chicken meat.

Keywords: corn, fermented organic feed, nutritive contents, rice bran

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
130 The Production of B-Group Vitamin by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Importance in Food Industry

Authors: Goksen Arik, Mihriban Korukluoglu

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been used commonly in the food industry. They can be used as natural preservatives because acidifying carried out in the medium can protect the last product against microbial spoilage. Besides, other metabolites produced by LAB during fermentation period have also an antimicrobial effect on pathogen and spoilage microorganisms in the food industry. LAB are responsible for the desirable and distinctive aroma and flavour which are observed in fermented food products such as pickle, kefir, yogurt, and cheese. Various LAB strains are able to produce B-group vitamins such as folate (B11), riboflavin (B2) and cobalamin (B12). Especially wild-type strains of LAB can produce B-group vitamins in high concentrations. These cultures may be used in food industry as a starter culture and also the microbial strains can be used in encapsulation technology for new and functional food product development. This review is based on the current applications of B-group vitamin producing LAB. Furthermore, the new technologies and innovative researches about B vitamin production in LAB have been demonstrated and discussed for determining their usage availability in various area in the food industry.

Keywords: B vitamin, food industry, lactic acid bacteria, starter culture, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
129 Pre-Treatment of Anodic Inoculum with Nitroethane to Improve Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Rajesh P.P., Md. Tabish Noori, Makarand M. Ghangrekar

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Methanogenic substrate loss is reported to be a major bottleneck in microbial fuel cell which significantly reduces the power production capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE) of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Nitroethane is found to be a potent inhibitor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in rumen fermentation process. Influence of nitroethane pre-treated sewage sludge inoculum on suppressing the methanogenic activity and enhancing the electrogenesis in MFC was evaluated. MFC inoculated with nitroethane pre-treated anodic inoculum demonstrated a maximum operating voltage of 541 mV, with coulombic efficiency and sustainable volumetric power density of 39.85 % and 14.63 W/m3 respectively. Linear sweep voltammetry indicated a higher electron discharge on the anode surface due to enhancement of electrogenic activity while suppressing methanogenic activity. A 63 % reduction in specific methanogenic activity was observed in anaerobic sludge pre-treated with nitroethane; emphasizing significance of this pretreatment for suppressing methanogenesis and its utility for enhancing electricity generation in MFC.

Keywords: coulombic efficiency, methanogenesis inhibition, microbial fuel cell, nitroethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
128 Effects of Specific Essential Oil Compounds on, Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Ruminal Environment in Dairy Cows during Heat Exposure

Authors: Kamran Reza-Yazdi, Mohammad Fallah, Mahdi Khodaparast, Farshad Kateb, Morteza Hosseini-Ghaffari

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The objective of this study was to determine effect of dietary essential oil (EO) compounds, which contained cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, peppermint, coriander, cumin, lemongrass, and an organic carrier on feed intake, milk composition, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows during heat exposure. Thirty-two Holstein cows (days in milk= 60 ± 5) were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a Control and EO fed. The experiment lasted 28 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured daily while and milk production was measured weekly. Our result showed that DMI and milk yield was decreased (P < 0.01) in control cows relative to EO cows. Furthermore, supplementation with EO was associated with a decrease in the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.05) and increase (P < 0.05) in acetate to propionate ratio. In conclusion, EO supplementations in diets can be useful nutritional modification to alleviate for the decrease DMI and milk production during heat exposure in lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: dairy cow, feed additive, plant extract, eugenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 527
127 Efficacy of Nemafric-BL Phytonematicide on Suppression of Root-Knot Nematodes and Growth of Tomato Plants

Authors: Pontsho E. Tseke, Phatu W. Mashela

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Cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides had been consistent in suppressing root-knot (Meloidogyne species) when used in dried crude form, with limited evidence whether the efficacy could be affected when fresh fruits were used during fermentation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide prepared using fermented crude extracts of fresh fruit from wild watermelon (Cucumis africanus) on the growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and suppression of Meloidogyne species. Seedlings of tomato cultivar ‘Floradade’ were inoculated with 3 000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita race 2 in pot trials, with treatments comprising 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 % Nemafric-BL phytonematicide. At 56 days after inoculation, the phytonematicide reduced eggs and J2 in roots by 84-97%, J2 in soil by 49-96% and total nematodes by 70-97%. Plant variables and concentrations of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide exhibited positive quadratic relations, with 74-98% associations. In conclusion, fresh fruit of C. africanus could be used for the preparation of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide, particularly in cases where the dry infrastructure is not available.

Keywords: Cucurbitacin B, density-dependent growth, effective microorganisms, quadratic relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
126 The Optimization of Immobilization Conditions for Biohydrogen Production from Palm Industry Wastewater

Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Sveta Thakur, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim

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Clostridium sp. LS2 was immobilised by entrapment in polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel beads to improve the biohydrogen production rate from palm oil mill effluent (POME). We sought to explore and optimise the hydrogen production capability of the immobilised cells by studying the conditions for cell immobilisation, including PEG concentration, cell loading and curing times, as well as the effects of temperature and K2HPO4 (500–2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (0.1–5.0 mg/L), FeCl2 (100–400 mg/L) MgSO4 (50–200 mg/L) concentrations on hydrogen production rate. The results showed that by optimising the PEG concentration (10% w/v), initial biomass (2.2 g dry weight), curing time (80 min) and temperature (37 °C), as well as the concentrations of K2HPO4 (2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (1 mg/L), FeCl2 (300 mg/L) and MgSO4 (100 mg/L), a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7.3 L/L-POME/day and a yield of 0.31 L H2/g chemical oxygen demand were obtained during continuous operation. We believe that this process may be potentially expanded for sustained and large-scale hydrogen production.

Keywords: hydrogen, polyethylene glycol, immobilised cell, fermentation, palm oil mill effluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
125 Variation of Phenolic Compounds in Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Fredijs Dimins, Inta Krasnova, Daina Karklina

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Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples total phenolic compounds, tannins and individual phenolic compounds content were determined. The total phenolic content of different variety apple juices ranged from 650mg L-1 to 4265mg L-1. Chlorogenic acid is the predominant phenolic compound in all juice samples and ranged from 143.99mg L-1 in ‘Quaker Beauty’ apple juice to 617.66mg L-1 in ‘Kerr’ juice. Some dessert and crab apple juices have similar phenolic composition, but in several varieties such as ‘Cornelie’, ‘Hyslop’ and ‘Riku’ it was significantly higher. For cider production it is better to blend different kinds of apple juices including apples rich in high phenol content ('Rick', 'Cornelie') and also, for successful fermentation, apples rich in sugars and soluble solids content should be used in blends.

Keywords: apple juice, phenolic compounds, hierarchical cluster analysis, cider production

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
124 Production of Ethanol from Mission Grass

Authors: Darin Khumsupan, Tidarat Komolwanich, Sirirat Prasertwasu, Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit

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Bioethanol production has become a subject of interest for many researchers due to its potential to replace fossil fuels. Since the most popular sources of bioethanol originate from food crops including corn and sugarcane, many people become more concerned with increasing demand for food supply. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as grass, could be a practical alternative to replace the conventional fossil fuels due to its low cost, renewability, and abundance in nature. Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion) is one of the candidates for bioethanol production. This research is focused on the detoxification and fermentation of hydrolysate from mission grass. Glucose in the hydrolysate was detoxified by overliming process at various pH. Although overliming at pH 12 gave the highest yeast population, the ethanol yield was low due to glucose degradation. Overliming at pH 10 showed the highest yield of ethanol production. Various strains of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) will be utilized to produce ethanol at the optimal overliming pH.

Keywords: Pennisetum polystachion, lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol production, detoxification, overliming, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
123 Development and Characterisation of a Microbioreactor 'Cassette' for Cell Culture Applications

Authors: Nelson Barrientos, Matthew J. Davies, Marco C. Marques, Darren N. Nesbeth, Gary J. Lye, Nicolas Szita

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Microbioreactor technology is making important advances towards its application in cell culture and bioprocess development. In particular, the technology promises flexible and controllable devices capable to perform parallelised experimentation at low cost. Currently, state of the art methods (e.g. optical sensors) allow the accurate monitoring of the microbioreactor operation. In addition, the laminar flow regime encountered in these devices allows more predictive fluid dynamics modelling, improving the control over the soluble, physical and mechanical environment of the cells. This work describes the development and characterisation of a novel microbioreactor cassette system (microbioreactor volume is 150 μL. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) and mixing time have been characterised to be between 25 to 113 h-1 and 0.5 and 0.1 s, respectively. In addition, the Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis confirms that the reactor operates at well mixed conditions. Finally, Staphylococcus carnosus TM300 growth is demonstrated via batch culture experiments. Future work consists in expanding the optics of the microbioreactor design to include the monitoring of variables such as fluorescent protein expression, among others.

Keywords: microbioreactor, cell-culture, fermentation, microfluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
122 By-Product Alcohol: Fusel Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: Omar Awad, R. Mamat, F. Yusop, M. M. Noor, I. M. Yusri

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Fusel oil is a by-product obtained through the fermentation of some agricultural products. The fusel oil properties are closer to other alternative combustible types and the limited number of studies on the use of fusel oil as an alcohol derivative in SI engines constitutes to the base of this study. This paper experimentally examined the impacts of a by-product of alcohol, which is fusel oil by blending it with gasoline, on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions in a 4-cylinder SI engine. The test was achieved at different engine speeds and a 60 % throttle valve (load). As results, brake power, BTE, and BSFC of F10 are higher at all engine speeds. Maximum engine BTE was 33.9%, at the lowest BSFC with F10. Moreover, it is worth seeing that the F10 under rich air-fuel ratio has less variation of COVIMEP compared to the F20 and gasoline. F10 represents shorter combustion duration, thereby, the engine power increased. NOx emission for F10 at 4500 rpm was lower than gasoline. The highest value of HC emission is obtained with F10 compared to gasoline and F20 with an average increase of 11% over the engine speed range. CO and CO2 emissions increased when using fusel oil blends.

Keywords: fusel oil, spark ignition engine, by-product alcohol, combustion characteristics, engine emissions, alternative fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
121 Genetic Change in Escherichia coli KJ122 That Improved Succinate Production from an Equal Mixture of Xylose and Glucose

Authors: Apichai Sawisit, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Sunthorn Kanchanatawee, Lonnie O. Ingram, Kaemwich Jantama

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Escherichia coli KJ122 was engineered to produce succinate from glucose using the wild type GalP for glucose uptake instead of the native phosphotransferase system (ptsI mutation). This strain ferments 10% (w/v) xylose poorly. Mutants were selected by serial transfers in AM1 mineral salts medium with 10% (w/v) xylose. Evolved mutants exhibited a similar improvement, co-fermentation of an equal mixture of xylose and glucose. One of these, AS1600a, produced 84.26±1.37 g/L succinate, equivalent to that produced by the parent (KJ122) strain from 10% glucose (85.46±1.78 g/L). AS1600a was sequenced and found to contain a mutation in galactose permease (GalP, G236D). Expressing the galP* mutation gene in KJ122ΔgalP resembled the xylose utilization phenotype of the mutant AS1600a. The strain AS1600a and KJ122ΔgalP (pLOI5746; galP*) also co-fermented a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for succinate production.

Keywords: xylose, furfural, succinate, sugarcane bagasse, E. coli

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
120 Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Food

Authors: Wilailak Siripornadulsil, Siriyanapat Tasaku, Jutamas Buahorm, Surasak Siripornadulsil

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to isolate LAB from various sources, dietary supplement, Thai traditional fermented food, and freshwater fish and to characterize their potential as probiotic cultures. Out of 1,558 isolates, 730 were identified as LAB based on isolation on MRS agar supplemented with a bromocresol purple indicator and CaCO3 and gram-positive, catalase and oxidase negative characteristics. Eight isolates showed the potential probiotic properties including tolerance to acid, bile salt and heat, proteolytic, amylolytic and lipolytic activities and oxalate-degrading capability. They all showed the antimicrobial activity against some Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, they were identified as Enterococcus faecalis BT2 and MG30, Leconostoc mesenteroides SW64 and Pediococcus pentosaceous BD33, CF32, NP6, PS34 and SW5. The health beneficial effects and food safety will be further investigated and developed as a probiotic or protective culture used in Nile tilapia belly flap meat fermentation.

Keywords: probiotic, lactic acid bacteria, pathogen, protective culture

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119 The Effect of Double Fortification of Iron and Zinc of Synbiotic Fermented Milk on Growth of Rat

Authors: Endri Yuliati, Siti Helmyati, Narendra Yoga Hendarta, Moh. Darussalam, Maharani Jibbriella, Fauziah Oktavira Hayati Fakhruddin, Faisal Hanin

Abstract:

Background: Both of iron and zinc has vital role in growth. The prebiotics fermentation by probiotics lower the acidity of intestine thus increase mineral absorption. Objective: To know the effect of double fortification of synbiotic fermented milk on growth. Methods: An Indonesian local isolate, Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 and Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used in making synbiotic fermented milk. It, then was double fortified with 100 ppm Fe and 50 ppm Zn. A total of 15 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and given: synbiotic fermented milk (CO), synbiotic fermented milk with NaFeEDTA and Zn acetate (NZ) and synbiotic fermented milk with Fe gluconate and Zn acetate (FZ) every day for one month. Body weight and body length were measured before, every week and after intervention. Results: Body weight and body length were similar at baseline among three groups (p > 0.05). All groups showed similar growth after intervention, from 62,40 + 6,1 to 109,0 + 9,0; 62,0 + 7,9 to 110,3 + 14,2; and 64,40 + 4,7 to 115,1 + 7,7 g for CO, NZ, and FZ, respectively (p > 0.05). The body length after intervention was also similar (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Fortification of iron and zinc did not modify effect of synbiotic fermented milk on growth.

Keywords: probiotics, prebiotics, iron, zinc, growth

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118 Investigation of Film and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)

Authors: Reyhan Özdoğan, Özgür Ceylan, Mehmet Arif Kaya, Mithat Çelebi

Abstract:

Food packaging is important for the food industry. Bioplastics have been used as food packaging materials. According to the European Bioplastics organization, bioplastics can be defined as plastics based on renewable resources (bio-based) or as plastics which are biodegradable and/or compostable. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has an industrially importance of bioplastic polymers. PLA is a family of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester made from renewable resources. It is produced by conversion of corn, or other carbohydrate sources, into dextrose, followed by fermentation into lactic acid through direct polycondensation of lactic acid monomers or through ring-opening polymerization of lactide. The processing possibilities of this transparent material are very wide, ranging from injection molding and extrusion over cast film extrusion to blow molding and thermoforming. In this study, PLA films were prepared by solution casting method. PLAs which are different molecular weights were plasticized with glycerol and the morphology of films was monitored by optical microscopy. Properties of mechanical and film of PLA were researched with the mechanical testing machine.

Keywords: biodegradable, bioplastics, morphology, solution casting, poly(lactic acid)

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117 Cytotoxicity of a Short Chain Fatty Acid Histone Deactylase Inhibitor on HCT116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: N. A. Kazemi Sefat, M. M. Mohammadi, J. Hadjati, S. Talebi, M. Ajami, H. Daneshvar

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer metastases result in a significant number of cancer related deaths. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. Sodium butyrate (SB) is a short chain fatty acid, belongs to HDAC inhibitors which is released in the colonic lumen as a consequence of fiber fermentation. In this study, we are about to assess the effect of sodium butyrate on HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cell line. The viability of cells was measured by microscopic morphologic study and MTT assay. After 48 hours, treatments more than 10 mM lead to cell injury in HCT116 by increasing cell granulation and decreasing cell adhesion (p>0.05). After 72 hours, treatments at 10 mM and more lead to significant cell injury (p<0.05). Our results may suggest that the gene expression which is contributed in cell proliferation and apoptosis has been changed under pressure of HDAC inhibition.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, sodium butyrate, cytotoxicity, MTT

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116 Factors Affecting the Results of in vitro Gas Production Technique

Authors: O. Kahraman, M. S. Alatas, O. B. Citil

Abstract:

In determination of values of feeds which, are used in ruminant nutrition, different methods are used like in vivo, in vitro, in situ or in sacco. Generally, the most reliable results are taken from the in vivo studies. But because of the disadvantages like being hard, laborious and expensive, time consuming, being hard to keep the experiment conditions under control and too much samples are needed, the in vitro techniques are more preferred. The most widely used in vitro techniques are two-staged digestion technique and gas production technique. In vitro gas production technique is based on the measurement of the CO2 which is released as a result of microbial fermentation of the feeds. In this review, the factors affecting the results obtained from in vitro gas production technique (Hohenheim Feed Test) were discussed. Some factors must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings obtained in these studies and also comparing the findings reported by different researchers for the same feeds. These factors were discussed in 3 groups: factors related to animal, factors related to feeds and factors related with differences in the application of method. These factors and their effects on the results were explained. Also it can be concluded that the use of in vitro gas production technique in feed evaluation routinely can be contributed to the comprehensive feed evaluation, but standardization is needed in this technique to attain more reliable results.

Keywords: In vitro, gas production technique, Hohenheim feed test, standardization

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115 Urea Treatment of Low Dry Matter Oat Silage

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Kashif Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the preservative and upgrading potential of urea (70g/kg DM) added to high moisture oat silage at laboratory scale trial and urea was hydrolysed 95%. Microbial activity measured by pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate production was reduced (p<0.001) by the urea addition. The pH of oat silage (without treated) was measured 5.7 and increased up to 8.00 on average while; volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was decreased. Relative proportions of fermentation acids changed after urea addition, increasing the acetate and butyrate and decreasing the propionate and lactate proportions. The addition of urea to oat silages increased (P<0.001) water soluble and ammonium nitrogen of the forage. These nitrogen fractions represented more than 40% of total nitrogen. After urea addition, total nitrogen content of oat silages increased from 21.0 g/kg DM to 28 g/kg DM. Application of urea at a rate of 70 g/kg DM significantly increased (P<0.001) the in situ degradation of neutral-detergent fibre after 48h of rumen incubation (NDF-situ). The NDF-situ was 200 g/kg NDF higher on oat forages ensiled with urea than on oat forages ensiled without urea. Oat silages can be effectively preserved and upgraded by ensiling with 70 g urea/kg dry matter. Further studies are required to evaluate voluntary intake of this forage.

Keywords: oat, silage, urea, pH, forage

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114 Influence of Maturation Degree of Arbutus (Arbutus unedo L.) Fruits in Spirit Composition and Quality

Authors: Goreti Botelho, Filomena Gomes, Fernanda M. Ferreira, Ilda Caldeira

Abstract:

The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) is a small tree or shrub from botanical Ericaceae family that grows spontaneously nearby the Mediterranean basin and produce edible red fruits. A traditional processed fruit application, in Mediterranean countries, is the production of a spirit (known as aguardente de medronho, in Portugal) obtained from the fermented fruit. The main objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge about the influence of the degree of maturation of fruits in the volatile composition and quality of arbutus spirit. The major volatiles in the three distillates fractions (head, heart and tail) obtained from fermentation of two different fruit maturation levels were quantified by GC-FID analysis and ANOVA one-way was performed. Additionally, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds of both arbutus fruit spirits were determined, by ABTS and Folin-Ciocalteau method, respectively. The methanol concentration is superior (1022.39 g/hL a.a.) in the spirit made from fruits with highest total soluble solids, which is a value above the legal limit (1000 g/hL a.a.). Overall, our study emphasizes, for the first time, the influence of maturation degree of arbutus fruits in the spirit volatile composition and quality.

Keywords: arbutus fruit, maturation, quality, spirit

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113 Preservation of Coconut Toddy Sediments as a Leavening Agent for Bakery Products

Authors: B. R. Madushan, S. B. Navaratne, I. Wickramasinge

Abstract:

Toddy sediment (TS) was cultured in a PDA medium to determine initial yeast load, and also it was undergone sun, shade, solar, dehumidified cold air (DCA) and hot air oven (at 400, 500 and 60oC) drying with a view to preserve viability of yeast. Thereafter, this study was conducted according to two factor factorial design in order to determine best preservation method. Therein the dried TS from the best drying method was taken and divided into two portions. One portion was mixed with 3: 7 ratio of TS: rice flour and the mixture was divided in to two again. While one portion was kept under in house condition the other was in a refrigerator. Same procedure was followed to the rest portion of TS too but it was at the same ratio of corn flour. All treatments were vacuum packed in triple laminate pouches and the best preservation method was determined in terms of leavening index (LI). The TS obtained from the best preservation method was used to make foods (bread and hopper) and organoleptic properties of it were evaluated against same of ordinary foods using sensory panel with a five point hedonic scale. Results revealed that yeast load or fresh TS was 58×106 CFU/g. The best drying method in preserving viability of yeast was DCA because LI of this treatment (96%) is higher than that of other three treatments. Organoleptic properties of foods prepared from best preservation method are as same as ordinary foods according to Duo trio test.

Keywords: biological leavening agent, coconut toddy, fermentation, yeast

Procedia PDF Downloads 216