Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 352

Search results for: fermentation

262 Hybrid Fermentation System for Improvement of Ergosterol Biosynthesis

Authors: Alexandra Tucaliuc, Alexandra C. Blaga, Anca I. Galaction, Lenuta Kloetzer, Dan Cascaval


Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol), also known as provitamin D2, is the precursor of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), because it is converted under UV radiation to this vitamin. The natural sources of ergosterol are mainly the yeasts (Saccharomyces sp., Candida sp.), but it can be also found in fungus (Claviceps sp.) or plants (orchids). In the yeasts cells, ergosterol is accumulated in membranes, especially in free form in the plasma membrane, but also as esters with fatty acids in membrane lipids. The chemical synthesis of ergosterol does not represent an efficient method for its production, in these circumstances, the most attractive alternative for producing ergosterol at larger-scale remains the aerobic fermentation using S. cerevisiae on glucose or by-products from agriculture of food industry as substrates, in batch or fed-batch operating systems. The aim of this work is to analyze comparatively the influence of aeration efficiency on ergosterol production by S. cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch fermentations, by considering different levels of mixing intensity, aeration rate, and n-dodecane concentration. The effects of the studied factors are quantitatively described by means of the mathematical correlations proposed for each of the two fermentation systems, valid both for the absence and presence of oxygen-vector inside the broth. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory stirred bioreactor, provided with computer-controlled and recorded parameters. n-Dodecane was used as oxygen-vector and the ergosterol content inside the yeasts cells has been considered at the fermentation moment related to the maximum concentration of ergosterol, 9 hrs for batch process and 20 hrs for fed-batch one. Ergosterol biosynthesis is strongly dependent on the dissolved oxygen concentration. The hydrocarbon concentration exhibits a significant influence on ergosterol production mainly by accelerating the oxygen transfer rate. Regardless of n-dodecane addition, by maintaining the glucose concentration at a constant level in the fed-batch process, the amount of ergosterol accumulated into the yeasts cells has been almost tripled. In the presence of hydrocarbon, the ergosterol concentration increased by over 50%. The value of oxygen-vector concentration corresponding to the maximum level of ergosterol depends mainly on biomass concentration, due to its negative influences on broth viscosity and interfacial phenomena of air bubbles blockage through the adsorption of hydrocarbon droplets–yeast cells associations. Therefore, for the batch process, the maximum ergosterol amount was reached for 5% vol. n-dodecane, while for the fed-batch process for 10% vol. hydrocarbon.

Keywords: bioreactors, ergosterol, fermentation, oxygen-vector

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261 Effect of Amount of Crude Fiber in Grass or Silage to the Digestibility of Organic Matter in Suckler Cow Feeding Systems

Authors: Scholz Heiko, Kuhne Petra, Heckenberger Gerd


Problems during the calving period (December to May) often result in a high body condition score (BCS) at this time. At the end of the grazing period (frequently after early weaning), however, an increase of BCS can often be observed under German conditions. In the last eight weeks before calving, the body condition should be reduced or at least not increased. Rations with a higher amount of crude fiber can be used (rations with straw or late mowed grass silage). Fermentative digestion of fiber is slow and incomplete; that’s why the fermentative process in the rumen can be reduced over a long feeding time. Viewed in this context, feed intake of suckler cows (8 weeks before calving) in different rations and fermentation in the rumen should be checked by taking rumen fluid. Eight suckler cows (Charolais) were feeding a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in the last eight weeks before calving and grass silage after calving. By the addition of straw (30 % [TMR1] vs. 60 % [TMR2] of dry matter) was varied the amount of crude fiber in the TMR (grass silage, straw, mineral) before calving. After calving of the cow's grass, silage [GS] was fed ad libitum, and the last measurement of rumen fluid took place on the pasture [PS]. Rumen fluid, plasma, body weight, and backfat thickness were collected. Rumen fluid pH was assessed using an electronic pH meter. Volatile fatty acids (VFA), sedimentation, methylene-blue and amount of infusorians were measured. From these 4 parameters, an “index of rumen fermentation” [IRF] in the rumen was formed. Fixed effects of treatment (TMR1, TMR2, GS and PS) and a number of lactations (3-7 lactations) were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS Version 25.0 (significant by p ≤ 5 %). Rumen fluid pH was significant influenced by variants (TMR 1 by 6.6; TMR 2 by 6.9; GS by 6.6 and PS by 6.9) but was not affected by other effects. The IRF showed disturbed fermentation in the rumen by feeding the TMR 1+2 with a high amount of crude fiber (Score: > 10.0 points) and a very good environment for fermentation during grazing the pasture (Score: 6.9 points). Furthermore, significant differences were found for VFA, methylene blue and the number of infusorians. The use of rations with the high amount of crude fiber from weaning to calving may cause deviations from undisturbed fermentation in the rumen and adversely affect the utilization of the feed in the rumen.

Keywords: suckler cow, feeding systems, crude fiber, digestibilty of organic matter

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260 Production of Bioethanol through Hydrolysis of Agro-Industrial Banana Crop Residues

Authors: Sánchez Acuña, Juan Camilo, Granados Gómez, Mildred Magaly, Navarrete Rodríguez, Luisa Fernanda


Nowadays, the main biofuels source production as bioethanol is food crops. This means a high competition between foods and energy production. For this reason, it is necessary to take into account the use of new raw materials friendly to the environment. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of the agro-industrial banana crop residues in the production of bioethanol. A factorial design of 24 was used, the design has variables such as pH, time and concentration of hydrolysis, another variable is the time of fermentation that is of 7 or 15 days. In the hydrolysis phase, the pH is acidic (H2SO4) or basic (NaOH), the time is 30 or 15 minutes and the concentration is 0.1 or 0.5 M. It was observed that basic media, low concentrations, fermentation, and higher pretreatment times produced better performance in terms of biofuel obtained.

Keywords: bioethanol, biofuels, banana waste, hydrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
259 Device for Mechanical Fragmentation of Organic Substrates Before Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski


This publication presents a device designed for mechanical fragmentation of plant substrate before methane fermentation. The device is equipped with a perforated rotary cylindrical drum coated with a thermal layer, connected to a substrate feeder and driven by a motoreducer. The drum contains ball- or cylinder-shaped weights of different diameters, while its interior is mounted with lateral permanent magnets with an attractive force ranging from 100 kg to 2 tonnes per m2 of the surface. Over the perforated rotary drum, an infrared radiation generator is mounted, producing 0.2 kW to 1 kW of infrared radiation per 1 m2 of the perforated drum surface. This design reduces the energy consumption required for the biomass destruction process by 10-30% in comparison to the conventional ball mill. The magnetic field generated by the permanent magnets situated within the perforated rotary drum promotes this process through generation of free radicals that act as powerful oxidants, accelerating the decomposition rate. Plant substrate shows increased susceptibility to biodegradation when subjected to magnetic conditioning, reducing the time required for biomethanation by 25%. Additionally, the electromagnetic radiation generated by the radiator improves substrate destruction by 10% and the efficiency of the process. The magnetic field and the infrared radiation contribute synergically to the increased efficiency of destruction and conversion of the substrate.

Keywords: biomass pretreatment, mechanical fragmentation, biomass, methane fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
258 Large Scale Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from Waste Water: A Study of Techno-Economics, Energy Use, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Authors: Cora Fernandez Dacosta, John A. Posada, Andrea Ramirez


The biodegradable family of polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates are interesting substitutes for convectional fossil-based plastics. However, the manufacturing and environmental impacts associated with their production via intracellular bacterial fermentation are strongly dependent on the raw material used and on energy consumption during the extraction process, limiting their potential for commercialization. Industrial wastewater is studied in this paper as a promising alternative feedstock for waste valorization. Based on results from laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, a conceptual process design, techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment are developed for the large-scale production of the most common type of polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyhydroxbutyrate. Intracellular polyhydroxybutyrate is obtained via fermentation of microbial community present in industrial wastewater and the downstream processing is based on chemical digestion with surfactant and hypochlorite. The economic potential and environmental performance results help identifying bottlenecks and best opportunities to scale-up the process prior to industrial implementation. The outcome of this research indicates that the fermentation of wastewater towards PHB presents advantages compared to traditional PHAs production from sugars because the null environmental burdens and financial costs of the raw material in the bioplastic production process. Nevertheless, process optimization is still required to compete with the petrochemicals counterparts.

Keywords: circular economy, life cycle assessment, polyhydroxyalkanoates, waste valorization

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257 FTIR Spectroscopy for in vitro Screening in Microbial Biotechnology

Authors: V. Shapaval, N. K. Afseth, D. Tzimorotas, A. Kohler


Globally there is a dramatic increase in the demand for food, energy, materials and clean water since natural resources are limited. As a result, industries are looking for ways to reduce rest materials and to improve resource efficiency. Microorganisms have a high potential to be used as bio factories for the production of primary and secondary metabolites that represent high-value bio-products (enzymes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, bio-plastics, glucans, etc.). In order to find good microbial producers, to design suitable substrates from food rest materials and to optimize fermentation conditions, rapid analytical techniques for quantifying target bio products in microbial cells are needed. In the EU project FUST (R4SME, Fp7), we have developed a fully automated high-throughput FUST system based on micro-cultivation and FTIR spectroscopy that facilitates the screening of microorganisms, substrates and fermentation conditions for the optimization of the production of different high-value metabolites (single cell oils, bio plastics). The automated system allows the preparation of 100 samples per hour. Currently, The FUST system is in use for screening of filamentous fungi in order to find oleaginous strains with the ability to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the optimization of cheap substrates, derived from food rest materials, and the optimization of fermentation conditions for the high yield of single cell oil.

Keywords: FTIR spectroscopy, FUST system, screening, biotechnology

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256 Investigation of Influence of Maize Stover Components and Urea Treatment on Dry Matter Digestibility and Fermentation Kinetics Using in vitro Gas Techniques

Authors: Anon Paserakung, Chaloemphon Muangyen, Suban Foiklang, Yanin Opatpatanakit


Improving nutritive values and digestibility of maize stover is an alternative way to increase their utilization in ruminant and reduce air pollution from open burning of maize stover in the northern Thailand. The present study, 2x3 factorial arrangements in completely randomized design was conducted to investigate the effect of maize stover components (whole and upper stover; cut above 5th node). Urea treatment at levels 0, 3, and 6% DM on dry matter digestibility and fermentation kinetics of maize stover using in vitro gas production. After 21 days of urea treatment, results illustrated that there was no interaction between maize stover components and urea treatment on 48h in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). IVDMD was unaffected by maize stover components (P > 0.05), average IVDMD was 55%. However, using whole maize stover gave higher cumulative gas and gas kinetic parameters than those of upper stover (P<0.05). Treating maize stover by ensiling with urea resulted in a significant linear increase in IVDMD (P<0.05). IVDMD increased from 42.6% to 53.9% when increased urea concentration from 0 to 3% and maximum IVDMD (65.1%) was observed when maize stover was ensiled with 6% urea. Maize stover treated with urea at levels of 0, 3, and 6% linearly increased cumulative gas production at 96h (31.1 vs 50.5 and 59.1 ml, respectively) and all gas kinetic parameters excepted the gas production from the immediately soluble fraction (P<0.50). The results indicate that maize stover treated with 6% urea enhance in vitro dry matter digestibility and fermentation kinetics. This study provides a practical approach to increasing utilization of maize stover in feeding ruminant animals.

Keywords: maize stover, urea treatment, ruminant feed, gas production

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255 The Effect of Parameter Controls for Manure Composting in Waste Recycling Process

Authors: Junyoung Kim, Shangwha Cha, Soomee Kang, Jake S. Byun


This study shows the effect of parameter controls for livestock manure composting in waste recycling process for the development of a new design of a microorganism-oriented- composting system. Based on the preliminary studies, only the temperature control by changing mechanical mixing can reduce microorganisms’ biodegradability from 3 to 6 months to 15 days, saving the consumption of energy and manual labor. The final degree of fermentation in just 5 days of composting increased to ‘3’ comparing the compost standard level ‘4’ in Korea, others standards were all satisfied. This result shows that the controlling the optimum microorganism parameter using an ICT device connected to mixing condition can increase the effectiveness of fermentation system and reduce odor to nearly zero, and lead to upgrade the composting method than the conventional

Keywords: manure composting, odor removal, parameter control, waste recycling

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254 Biobutanol Production from Date Palm Waste by Clostridium acetobutylicum

Authors: Diya Alsafadi, Fawwaz Khalili, Mohammad W. Amer


Butanol is an important industrial solvent and potentially a better liquid transportation biofuel than ethanol. The cost of feedstock is one key problem associated with the biobutanol production. Date palm is sugar-rich fruit and highly abundant. Thousands of tons of date wastes that generated from date processing industries are thrown away each year and imposing serious environmental problems. To exploit the utilization of renewable biomass feedstock, date palm waste was utilized for butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731. Fermentation conditions were optimized by investigating several parameters that affect the production of butanol such as temperature, substrate concentration and pH. The highest butanol yield (1.0 g/L) and acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) content (1.3 g/L) were achieved at 20 g/L date waste, pH 5.0 and 37 °C. These results suggest that date palm waste can be used for biobutanol production.

Keywords: biofuel, acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation, date palm waste, Clostridium acetobutylicum

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253 Adaptative Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria during Brewers' Spent Grain Fermentation

Authors: M. Acin-Albiac, P. Filannino, R. Coda, Carlo G. Rizzello, M. Gobbetti, R. Di Cagno


Demand for smart management of large amounts of agro-food by-products has become an area of major environmental and economic importance worldwide. Brewers' spent grain (BSG), the most abundant by-product generated in the beer-brewing process, represents an example of valuable raw material and source of health-promoting compounds. To the date, the valorization of BSG as a food ingredient has been limited due to poor technological and sensory properties. Tailored bioprocessing through lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is a versatile and sustainable means for the exploitation of food industry by-products. Indigestible carbohydrates (e.g., hemicelluloses and celluloses), high phenolic content, and mostly lignin make of BSG a hostile environment for microbial survival. Hence, the selection of tailored starters is required for successful fermentation. Our study investigated the metabolic strategies of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum strains to exploit BSG as a food ingredient. Two distinctive BSG samples from different breweries (Italian IT- and Finish FL-BSG) were microbially and chemically characterized. Growth kinetics, organic acid profiles, and the evolution of phenolic profiles during the fermentation in two BSG model media were determined. The results were further complemented with gene expression targeting genes involved in the degradation cellulose, hemicelluloses building blocks, and the metabolism of anti-nutritional factors. Overall, the results were LAB genus dependent showing distinctive metabolic capabilities. Leuc. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 may degrade BSG xylans while sucrose metabolism could be furtherly exploited for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production to enhance BSG pro-technological properties. Although L. plantarum strains may follow the same metabolic strategies during BSG fermentation, the mode of action to pursue such strategies was strain-dependent. L. plantarum PU1 showed a great preference for β-galactans compared to strain WCFS1, while the preference for arabinose occurred at different metabolic phases. Phenolic compounds profiling highlighted a novel metabolic route for lignin metabolism. These findings will allow an improvement of understanding of how lactic acid bacteria transform BSG into economically valuable food ingredients.

Keywords: brewery by-product valorization, metabolism of plant phenolics, metabolism of lactic acid bacteria, gene expression

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252 Brewing in a Domestic Refrigerator Using Freeze-Dried Raw Materials

Authors: Angelika-Ioanna Gialleli, Gousi Mantha, Maria Kanellaki, Bekatorou Argyro, Athanasios Koutinas


In this study, a new brewing technology with dry raw materials is proposed with potential application in home brewing. Bio catalysts were prepared by immobilization of the psychrotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 on tubular cellulose. Both the word and the biocatalysts were freeze-dried without any cryoprotectants and used for low temperature brewing. The combination of immobilization and freeze-drying techniques was applied successfully, giving a potential for supplying breweries with preserved and ready-to-use immobilized cells. The effect of wort sugar concentration (7°, 8.5°, 10°Be), temperature (2, 5, 7° C) and carrier concentration (5, 10, 20 g/L) on fermentation kinetics and final product quality (volatiles, colour, polyphenols, bitterness) was assessed. The same procedure was repeated with free cells for comparison of the results. The results for immobilized cells were better compared to free cells regarding fermentation kinetics and organoleptic characteristics.

Keywords: brewing, tubular cellulose, low temperature, biocatalyst

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251 Molecular Approach for the Detection of Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Kenyan Spontaneously Fermented Milk, Mursik

Authors: John Masani Nduko, Joseph Wafula Matofari


Many spontaneously fermented milk products are produced in Kenya, where they are integral to the human diet and play a central role in enhancing food security and income generation via small-scale enterprises. Fermentation enhances product properties such as taste, aroma, shelf-life, safety, texture, and nutritional value. Some of these products have demonstrated therapeutic and probiotic effects although recent reports have linked some to death, biotoxin infections, and esophageal cancer. These products are mostly processed from poor quality raw materials under unhygienic conditions resulting to inconsistent product quality and limited shelf-lives. Though very popular, research on their processing technologies is low, and none of the products has been produced under controlled conditions using starter cultures. To modernize the processing technologies for these products, our study aims at describing the microbiology and biochemistry of a representative Kenyan spontaneously fermented milk product, Mursik using modern biotechnology (DNA sequencing) and their chemical composition. Moreover, co-creation processes reflecting stakeholders’ experiences on traditional fermented milk production technologies and utilization, ideals and senses of value, which will allow the generation of products based on common ground for rapid progress will be discussed. Knowledge of the value of clean starting raw material will be emphasized, the need for the definition of fermentation parameters highlighted, and standard equipment employment to attain controlled fermentation discussed. This presentation will review the available information regarding traditional fermented milk (Mursik) and highlight our current research work on the application of molecular approaches (metagenomics) for the valorization of Mursik production process through starter culture/ probiotic strains isolation and identification, and quality and safety aspects of the product. The importance of the research and future research areas on the same subject will also be highlighted.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, high throughput biotechnology, spontaneous fermentation, Mursik

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
250 Biotechnological Recycling of Apple By-Products: A Reservoir Model to Produce a Dietary Supplement Fortified with Biogenic Phenolic Compounds

Authors: Ali Zein Aalabiden Tlais, Alessio Da Ros, Pasquale Filannino, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Gobbetti, Raffaella Di Cagno


This study is an example of apple by-products (AP) recycling through a designed fermentation by selected autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum AFI5 and Lactobacillus fabifermentans ALI6 used singly or as binary cultures with the selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae AYI7. Compared to Raw-, Unstarted- and Chemically Acidified-AP, Fermented-AP promoted the highest levels of total and insoluble dietary fibers, antioxidant activity, and free phenolics. The binary culture of L. plantarum AFI5 and S. cerevisiae AYI7 had the best effect on the bioavailability phenolic compounds as resulted by the Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated method. The accumulation of phenolic acid derivatives highlighted microbial metabolism during AP fermentation. Bio-converted phenolic compounds were likely responsible for the increased antioxidant activity. The potential health-promoting effects of Fermented-AP were highlighted using Caco-2 cells. With variations among single and binary cultures, fermented-AP counteracted the inflammatory processes and the effects of oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells and preserved the integrity of tight junctions. An alternative and suitable model for food by-products recycling to manufacture a dietary supplement fortified with biogenic compounds was proposed. Highlighting the microbial metabolism of several phenolic compounds, undoubted additional value to such downstream wastes was created.

Keywords: apple by-products, antioxidant, fermentation, phenolic compounds

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249 Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations

Authors: Mun Yee Chan, Sin Ming Goh, Lisa Gaik Ai Ong


Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly, which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system. Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study, fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3 (1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates. Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile dyes.

Keywords: bioremediation, dyes, fermentation, laccase

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
248 Exploring Paper Mill Sludge and Sugarcane Bagasse as Carrier Matrix in Solid State Fermentation for Carotenoid Pigment Production by Planococcus sp. TRC1

Authors: Subhasree Majumdar, Sovan Dey, Sayari Mukherjee, Sourav Dutta, Dalia Dasgupta Mandal


Bacterial isolates from Planococcus genus are known for the production of yellowish orange pigment that belongs to the carotenoid family. These pigments are of immense pharmacological importance as antioxidant, anticancer, eye and liver protective agent, etc. The production of this pigment in a cost effective manner is a challenging task. The present study explored paper mill sludge (PMS), a solid lignocellulosic waste generated in large quantities from pulp and paper mill industry as a substrate for carotenoid pigment production by Planococcus sp. TRC1. PMS was compared in terms of efficacy with sugarcane bagasse, which is a highly explored substrate for valuable product generation via solid state fermentation. The results showed that both the biomasses yielded the highest carotenoid during 48 hours of incubation, 31.6 mg/gm and 42.1 mg/gm for PMS and bagasse respectively. Compositional alterations of both the biomasses showed reduction in lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content by 41%, 15%, 1% for PMS and 38%, 25% and 6% for sugarcane bagasse after 72 hours of incubation. Structural changes in the biomasses were examined by FT-IR, FESEM, and XRD which further confirmed modification of solid biomasses by bacterial isolate. This study revealed the potential of PMS to act as cheap substrate for carotenoid pigment production by Planococcus sp. TRC1, as it showed a significant production in comparison to sugarcane bagasse which gave only 1.3 fold higher production than PMS. Delignification of PMS by TRC1 during pigment production is another important finding for the reuse of this waste from the paper industry.

Keywords: carotenoid, lignocellulosic, paper mill sludge, Planococcus sp. TRC1, solid state fermentation, sugarcane bagasse

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247 Selective Fermentations of Monosaccharides by Osmotolerant Yeast Cultures

Authors: Elizabeth Loza-Valerdi, Victor Pardiñas-Rios, Arnulfo Pluma-Pluma, Andres Breton-Toral, Julio Cercado-Jaramillo


The purification processes for mixtures of isomeric monosaccharides using industrial chromatographic methods poses a serious technical challenge. Mixtures of 2 or 3 monosaccharides are difficult to separate by strictly physical or chemical techniques. Differential fermentation by microbial cultures is an increasingly interesting way of selective enrichment in a particular kind of monosaccharides when a mixture of them is present in the solution, and only one has economical value. Osmotolerant yeast cultures provide an interesting source of biocatalysts for the selective catabolism of monosaccharides in media containing high concentrations of total soluble sugars. A collection of 398 yeast strains has been obtained using endemic and unique sources of fruit juices, industrial syrups, honey, and other high sugar content substrates, either natural or man made, products and by-products from Mexico. The osmotolerance of the strains was assessed by plate assay both in glucose (20-40-60%w/w). Strains were classified according to their osmotolerance in low, medium or highly tolerant to high glucose concentrations. The purified cultures were tested by their ability to growth in a solid plate media or liquid media of Yeas Nitrogen Base (YNB), added with specific monosaccharides as sole carbon source (glucose, galactose, lactose and fructose). Selected strains were subsequently tested in fermentation experiments with mixtures of two monosaccharides (galactose/glucose and glucose/fructose). Their ability to grow and selectively catabolize one monosaccharide was evaluated. Growth, fermentation activity and products of metabolism were determined by plate counts, CO2 production, turbidity and chromatographic analysis by HPLC. Selective catabolism of one monosaccharide in liquid media containing two monosaccharides was confirmed for 8 strains. Ion Exchange chromatographic processes were used in production of high fructose or galactose syrup. Laboratory scale processes for the production of fructose or galactose enriched syrups is now feasible, with important applications in food (like high fructose syrup as edulcorant) and fermentation technology (for GOS production).

Keywords: osmotolerant yeasts, selective metabolism, fructose syrup, GOS

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246 Yeasts Associated to Spontaneous Date Vinegar Process

Authors: F. Halladj, H. Amellal, S. Benamara


Current consumer trends go towards natural products defined as the products obtained by a traditional manufacturing method. Vinegar is one of those products marketed; it may be industrially obtained by a submerged (fast) or traditional (slow) processes. The latter exhibited a high quality because of its complex microbiological transformations (or two-stage fermentation) by the native must flora. Moreover, although that Acetic acid bacteria have traditionally been considered to play the leading role in vinegar production, some studies have recently highlighted that also yeasts metabolism can affect traditional vinegar chemical properties in a remarkable way. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor a traditional slow process of vinegar as applied in the south of Algeria using date with hard texture (Degla-Beida variety) to isolate and identify the involved yeasts in order to select them as starter culture. Phenotypic and molecular analysis show that the non-Saccharomyces were the main yeasts species isolated throughout the alcoholic spontaneous fermentation and they included Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Torulaspora delbrueckii.

Keywords: date vinegar, traditional production, yeasts, Phenotypic, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
245 Mitigating Ruminal Methanogenesis Through Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Faiz-Ul Hassan, Yanfen Cheng


According to FAO, enteric methane (CH4) production is about 44% of all greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. Ruminants produce CH4 as a result of fermentation of feed in the rumen especially from roughages which yield more CH4 per unit of biomass ingested as compared to concentrates. Efficient ruminal fermentation is not possible without abating CO2 and CH4. Methane abatement strategies are required to curb the predicted rise in emissions associated with greater ruminant production in future to meet ever increasing animal protein requirements. Ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and avenues for its mitigation can be identified through various genomic and transcriptomic techniques. Programs such as Hungate1000 and the Global Rumen Census have been launched to enhance our understanding about global ruminal microbial communities. Through Hungate1000 project, a comprehensive reference set of rumen microbial genome sequences has been developed from cultivated rumen bacteria and methanogenic archaea along with representative rumen anaerobic fungi and ciliate protozoa cultures. But still many species of rumen microbes are underrepresented especially uncultivable microbes. Lack of sequence information specific to the rumen's microbial community has inhibited efforts to use genomic data to identify specific set of species and their target genes involved in methanogenesis. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic study of entire microbial rumen populations offer new perspectives to understand interaction of methanogens with other rumen microbes and their potential association with total gas and methane production. Deep understanding of methanogenic pathway will help to devise potentially effective strategies to abate methane production while increasing feed efficiency in ruminants.

Keywords: Genome sequences, Hungate1000, methanogens, ruminal fermentation

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244 Effects of Vegetable Oils Supplementation on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production in Buffaloes

Authors: Avijit Dey, Shyam S. Paul, Satbir S. Dahiya, Balbir S. Punia, Luciano A. Gonzalez


Methane emitted from ruminant livestock not only reduces the efficiency of feed energy utilization but also contributes to global warming. Vegetable oils, a source of poly unsaturated fatty acids, have potential to reduce methane production and increase conjugated linoleic acid in the rumen. However, characteristics of oils, level of inclusion and composition of basal diet influences their efficacy. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of sunflower (SFL) and cottonseed (CSL) oils on methanogenesis, volatile fatty acids composition and feed fermentation pattern by in vitro gas production (IVGP) test. Four concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4ml /30ml buffered rumen fluid) of each oil were used. Fresh rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from two rumen cannulated buffalo steers fed a mixed ration. In vitro incubation was carried out with sorghum hay (200 ± 5 mg) as substrate in 100 ml calibrated glass syringes following standard IVGP protocol. After 24h incubation, gas production was recorded by displacement of piston. Methane in the gas phase and volatile fatty acids in the fermentation medium were estimated by gas chromatography. Addition of oils resulted in increase (p<0.05) in total gas production and decrease (p<0.05) in methane production, irrespective of type and concentration. Although the increase in gas production was similar, methane production (ml/g DM) and its concentration (%) in head space gas was lower (p< 0.01) in CSL than in SFL at corresponding doses. Linear decrease (p<0.001) in degradability of DM was evident with increasing doses of oils (0.2ml onwards). However, these effects were more pronounced with SFL. Acetate production tended to decrease but propionate and butyrate production increased (p<0.05) with addition of oils, irrespective of type and doses. The ratio of acetate to propionate was reduced (p<0.01) with addition of oils but no difference between the oils was noted. It is concluded that both the oils can reduce methane production. However, feed degradability was also affected with higher doses. Cotton seed oil in small dose (0.1ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) exerted greater inhibitory effects on methane production without impeding dry matter degradability. Further in vivo studies need to be carried out for their practical application in animal ration.

Keywords: buffalo, methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, vegetable oils

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243 Optimization of Media for Enhanced Fermentative Production of Mycophenolic Acid by Penicillium brevicompactum

Authors: Shraddha Digole, Swarali Hingse, Uday Annapure


Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressant; produced by Penicillium Sp. Box-Behnken statistical experimental design was employed to optimize the condition of Penicillium brevicompactum NRRL 2011 for mycophenolic acid (MPA) production. Initially optimization of various physicochemical parameters and media components was carried out using one factor at a time approach and significant factors were screened by Taguchi L-16 orthogonal array design. Taguchi design indicated that glucose, KH2PO4 and MgSO4 had significant effect on MPA production. These variables were selected for further optimization studies using Box-Behnken design. Optimised fermentation condition, glucose (60 g/L), glycine (28 g/L), L-leucine (1.5g/L), KH2PO4 (3g/L), MgSO4.7H2O (1.5g/L), increased the production of MPA from 170 mg/L to 1032.54 mg/L. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high value of coefficient of determination R2 (0.9965), indicating a good agreement between experimental and predicted values and proves validity of the statistical model.

Keywords: Box-Behnken design, fermentation, mycophenolic acid, Penicillium brevicompactum

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242 Evaluation of the Capabilities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in Improvement of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Carob Kibble

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes


Carob kibble has recently received attention due to the presence of high level of polyphenol antioxidants. The capacity of microorganisms to improve antioxidant activities and total phenolics in carob kibble was investigated in the study. Two types of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used in single and in their combination as starters. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities were assessed scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study found that S. cerevisiae alone considerably improved 55% total phenolics content at 15 h, while L. plantarum caused in a loss of 20% through the process. Antioxidant capacity of the yeast-fermented samples significantly increased by 43 % and 10 % in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. However, reduction of 13 % and 32 % inhibition were recorded in the carob treated with L. plantarum. In the combination of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum (1:1), both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carob kibble were a similar trend as these of S. cerevisiae single, but a lower improvement. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their total phenolic contents (R=0.75). The results suggested that S. cerevisiae alone was the better for enhancement of both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in carob kibble using submerged fermentation. The efficiency of fermentation reached the highest at 15h. Thus submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae offers a tool with simple and cost effective to further increase the bioactive potential of carob kibble, which is in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, lactobacillus plantarum, saccharomyces cerevisiae, total phenolics

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241 Hydrogen Production from Solid Waste of Sago Processing Industries in Indonesia: Effect of Chemical and Biological Pretreatment

Authors: Pratikno Hidayat, Khamdan Cahyari


Hydrogen is the ultimate choice of energy carriers in future. It contents high energy density (42 kJ/g), emits only water vapor during combustion and has high energy conversion up to 50% in fuel cell application. One of the promising methods to produce hydrogen is from organic waste through dark fermentation method. It utilizes sugar-rich organic waste as substrate and hydrogen-producing microorganisms to generate the hydrogen. Solid waste of sago processing industries in Indonesia is one of the promising raw materials for both producing biofuel hydrogen and mitigating the environmental impact due to the waste disposal. This research was meant to investigate the effect of chemical and biological pretreatment i.e. acid treatment and mushroom cultivation toward lignocellulosic waste of these sago industries. Chemical pretreatment was conducted through exposing the waste into acid condition using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) (various molar i.e. 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 M and various duration of exposure i.e. 30, 60 and 90 minutes). Meanwhile, biological treatment was conducted through utilization of the solid waste as growth media of mushroom (Oyster and Ling-zhi) for 3 months. Dark fermentation was conducted at pH 5.0, temperature 27℃ and atmospheric pressure. It was noticed that chemical and biological pretreatment could improve hydrogen yield with the highest yield at 3.8 ml/g VS (31%v H2). The hydrogen production was successfully performed to generate high percentage of hydrogen, although the yield was still low. This result indicated that the explosion of acid chemical and biological method might need to be extended to improve degradability of the solid waste. However, high percentage of hydrogen was resulted from proper pretreatment of residual sludge of biogas plant to generate hydrogen-producing inoculum.

Keywords: hydrogen, sago waste, chemical, biological, dark fermentation, Indonesia

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240 Ruminal Fermentation of Biologically Active Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages

Authors: Robin Anderson, David Nisbet


Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) are biologically active chemicals that can accumulate naturally in rangeland grasses forages consumed by grazing cattle, sheep and goats. While toxic to livestock if accumulations and amounts consumed are high enough, particularly in animals having no recent exposure to the forages, these chemicals are known to be potent inhibitors of methane-producing bacteria inhabiting the rumen. Consequently, there is interest in examining their potential use as anti-methanogenic compounds to decrease methane emissions by grazing ruminants. Presently, rumen microbes, collected freshly from a cannulated Holstein cow maintained on 50:50 corn based concentrate:alfalfa diet were mixed (10 mL fluid) in 18 x 150 mm crimp top tubes with 0.5 of high nitrate-containing barley (Hordeum vulgare; containing 272 µmol nitrate per g forage dry matter), and NPA- or NPOH- containing milkvetch forages (Astragalus canadensis and Astragalus miser containing 80 and 174 soluble µmol NPA or NPOH/g forage dry matter respectively). Incubations containing 0.5 g alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were used as controls. Tubes (3 per each respective forage) were capped and incubated anaerobically (using oxygen free carbon dioxide) for 24 h at 39oC after which time amounts of total gas produced were measured via volume displacement and headspace samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to determine concentrations of hydrogen and methane. Fluid samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to measure accumulations of fermentation acids. A completely randomized analysis of variance revealed that the nitrate-containing barley and both the NPA- and the NPOH-containing milkvetches significantly decreased methane production, by > 50%, when compared to methane produced by populations incubated similarly with alfalfa (70.4 ± 3.6 µmol/ml incubation fluid). Accumulations of hydrogen, which are typically increased when methane production is inhibited, by incubations with the nitrate-containing barley and the NPA- and NPOH-containing milkvetches did not differ from accumulations observed in the alfalfa controls (0.09 ± 0.04 µmol/mL incubation fluid). Accumulations of fermentation acids produced in the incubations containing the high-nitrate barley and the NPA- and NPOH-containing milkvetches likewise did not differ from accumulations observed in incubations containing alfalfa (123.5 ± 10.8, 36.0 ± 3.0, 17.1 ± 1.5, 3.5 ± 0.3, 2.3 ± 0.2, 2.2 ± 0.2 µmol/mL incubation fluid for acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, respectively). This finding indicates the microbial populations did not compensate for the decreased methane production via compensatory changes in production of fermentative acids. Stoichiometric estimation of fermentation balance revealed that > 77% of reducing equivalents generated during fermentation of the forages were recovered in fermentation products and the recoveries did not differ between the alfalfa incubations and those with the high-nitrate barley or the NPA- or NPOH-containing milkvetches. Stoichiometric estimates of amounts of hexose fermented similarly did not differ between the nitrate-, NPA and NPOH-containing incubations and those with the alfalfa, averaging 99.6 ± 37.2 µmol hexose consumed/mL of incubation fluid. These results suggest that forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH may be useful to reduce methane emissions of grazing ruminants provided risks of toxicity can be effectively managed.

Keywords: nitrate, nitropropanol, nitropropionic acid, rumen methane emissions

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239 Development and Characterization of Kefir Drinks from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida)

Authors: Uthumporn Utra, Y. N. Shariffa, M. Maizura, A. S. Ruri


This research is to study the utilization of pumpkin and winter melon as the main substrate for kefir fermentation in the production of pumpkin and winter melon-based fermented drinks. Optimized temperature and time were chosen for fermentation of pumpkin and winter melon. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluations were conducted to the end products: P (fermented pumpkin juice) and K (fermented winter melon juice). Ethanol content was detected at low concentration of 0.9% (v/wt) in P, and 1.0% (v/wt) in K. Level of glucose and fructose increased significantly (p < 0.05) in both fermented drinks when compared to unfermented pumpkin (CP) and winter melon (CK) juices. Total phenolic content in P & K was higher than CP and CK, while %DPPH inhibition of both decreased significantly. Total Lactobacilli counts in P & K were 8.9 and 7.88 log cfu/ml respectively, while acetic acid bacteria counts were 8.62 and 7.57 log cfu/ml respectively, yeast counts were 4.71 and 5 log cfu/ml, and no E.coli was detected in all samples. Sensory evaluation yield comparable properties in P & K. This concluded that pumpkin and winter melon fermented drinks inoculated by water kefir grains could be promising source of nutrients with probiotic potency.

Keywords: fermented drinks, functional beverage, kefir, pumpkin, winter melon

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238 Selection of a Potential Starter Culture for Milk Fermentation

Authors: Stephen Olusanmi Akintayo, Ilesanmi Fadahunsi


The ability of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to grow and survive in milk is being exploited in industrial and biotechnological applications. Although considerable studies have been reported on the fermentation of milk, however, not so much work has been documented on the selection of LAB strains from milk of the Nigerian local cattle breeds for their starter culture potentials. A total of 110 LAB were isolated from raw milk of Sokoto gudali cattle breed. The isolates were screened for their proteolytic activities on skimmed milk media with isolates A07, F06 and A01 showing the highest zone of clearance of 18.5mm, 18.5mm, and 18.0mm respectively and were selected for the studies of their growth in different constituents of milk. A01, F06, and A07 were identified as Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Leuconostoc mesenteriodes respectively using cultural, biochemical, physiological and molecular characterization techniques. Leuconostoc mesenteriodes showed the highest growth in all the milk components that were used in this study. The three LAB species selected showed a growth range of 6.46 log cfu/ml to 10.91 log cfu/ml in lactose with Leuconostoc mesenteriodes showing the highest growth of 10.91 log cfu/ml while Pediococcus acidilactici recorded the lowest growth of 9.78 log cfu/ml. In medium containing leucine as the only amino acid, the viable counts of Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactococcus raffinolactis and Leuconostoc mesenteriodes in log cfu/ml at zero hour were 6.39, 6.36 and 6.38 respectively which increased to 9.31 log cfu/ml, 9.21 log cfu/ml, 9.92 log cfu/ml respectively after 24 hours. Similarly, in all other substrates (casein, lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid ) tested in this study, Leuconostoc mesenteriodes showed the highest growth. It was observed that the highest quantity of lactic acid (15.31mg/ml) was produced by Leuconostoc mesenteriodes. The same trend was also observed in the production of diacetyl and hydrogen peroxide by the three tested microorganisms. Due to its ability to grow maximally in milk components, Leuconostoc mesenteriodes shows potential as starter culture for milk fermentation.

Keywords: Leuconostoc mesenteriodes, lactic acid bacteria, Sokoto gudali, starter culture

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237 Technological Development of a Biostimulant Bioproduct for Fruit Seedlings: An Engineering Overview

Authors: Andres Diaz Garcia


The successful technological development of any bioproduct, including those of the biostimulant type, requires to adequately completion of a series of stages allied to different disciplines that are related to microbiological, engineering, pharmaceutical chemistry, legal and market components, among others. Engineering as a discipline has a key contribution in different aspects of fermentation processes such as the design and optimization of culture media, the standardization of operating conditions within the bioreactor and the scaling of the production process of the active ingredient that it will be used in unit operations downstream. However, all aspects mentioned must take into account many biological factors of the microorganism such as the growth rate, the level of assimilation to various organic and inorganic sources and the mechanisms of action associated with its biological activity. This paper focuses on the practical experience within the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Agrosavia), which led to the development of a biostimulant bioproduct based on native rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, oriented mainly to plant growth promotion in cape gooseberry nurseries and fruit crops in Colombia, and the challenges that were overcome from the expertise in the area of engineering. Through the application of strategies and engineering tools, a culture medium was optimized to obtain concentrations higher than 1E09 CFU (colony form units)/ml in liquid fermentation, the process of biomass production was standardized and a scale-up strategy was generated based on geometric (H/D of bioreactor relationships), and operational criteria based on a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration and that took into account the differences in the capacity of control of the process in the laboratory and pilot scales. Currently, the bioproduct obtained through this technological process is in stages of registration in Colombia for cape gooseberry fruits for export.

Keywords: biochemical engineering, liquid fermentation, plant growth promoting, scale-up process

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236 Mutation of Galp Improved Fermentation of Mixed Sugars to Succinate Using Engineered Escherichia coli As1600a

Authors: Apichai Sawisit, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Sunthorn Kanchanatawee, Lonnie O. Ingram, Kaemwich Jantama


Escherichia coli KJ122 was engineered to produce succinate from glucose using the wild type GalP for glucose uptake instead of the native phosphotransferase system (ptsI mutation). This strain ferments 10% (w/v) xylose poorly. Mutants were selected by serial transfers in AM1 mineral salts medium with 10% (w/v) xylose. Evolved mutants exhibited a similar improvement, co-fermentation of an equal mixture of xylose and glucose. One of these, AS1600a, produced 84.26±1.37 g/L succinate, equivalent to that produced by the parent (KJ122) strain from 10% glucose (85.46±1.78 g/L). AS1600a was sequenced and found to contain a mutation in galactose permease (GalP, G236D). Expressing the galP* mutation gene in KJ122ΔgalP resembled the xylose utilization phenotype of the mutant AS1600a. The strain AS1600a and KJ122ΔgalP (pLOI5746; galP*) also co-fermented a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for succinate production.

Keywords: xylose, furfural, succinat, sugarcane bagasse, E. coli

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235 Feasibility of Applying a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Generator as a Method for Intensification of Methane Fermentation Process of Virginia Fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita) Biomass

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski


The anaerobic degradation of substrates is limited especially by the rate and effectiveness of the first (hydrolytic) stage of fermentation. This stage may be intensified through pre-treatment of substrate aimed at disintegration of the solid phase and destruction of substrate tissues and cells. The most frequently applied criterion of disintegration outcomes evaluation is the increase in biogas recovery owing to the possibility of its use for energetic purposes and, simultaneously, recovery of input energy consumed for the pre-treatment of substrate before fermentation. Hydrodynamic cavitation is one of the methods for organic substrate disintegration that has a high implementation potential. Cavitation is explained as the phenomenon of the formation of discontinuity cavities filled with vapor or gas in a liquid induced by pressure drop to the critical value. It is induced by a varying field of pressures. A void needs to occur in the flow in which the pressure first drops to the value close to the pressure of saturated vapor and then increases. The process of cavitation conducted under controlled conditions was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of anaerobic conversion of organic substrates having various characteristics. This phenomenon allows effective damage and disintegration of cellular and tissue structures. Disintegration of structures and release of organic compounds to the dissolved phase has a direct effect on the intensification of biogas production in the process of anaerobic fermentation, on reduced dry matter content in the post-fermentation sludge as well as a high degree of its hygienization and its increased susceptibility to dehydration. A device the efficiency of which was confirmed both in laboratory conditions and in systems operating in the technical scale is a hydrodynamic generator of cavitation. Cavitators, agitators and emulsifiers constructed and tested worldwide so far have been characterized by low efficiency and high energy demand. Many of them proved effective under laboratory conditions but failed under industrial ones. The only task successfully realized by these appliances and utilized on a wider scale is the heating of liquids. For this reason, their usability was limited to the function of heating installations. Design of the presented cavitation generator allows achieving satisfactory energy efficiency and enables its use under industrial conditions in depolymerization processes of biomass with various characteristics. Investigations conducted on the laboratory and industrial scale confirmed the effectiveness of applying cavitation in the process of biomass destruction. The use of the cavitation generator in laboratory studies for disintegration of sewage sludge allowed increasing biogas production by ca. 30% and shortening the treatment process by ca. 20 - 25%. The shortening of the technological process and increase of wastewater treatment plant effectiveness may delay investments aimed at increasing system output. The use of a mechanical cavitator and application of repeated cavitation process (4-6 times) enables significant acceleration of the biogassing process. In addition, mechanical cavitation accelerates increases in COD and VFA levels.

Keywords: hydrodynamic cavitation, pretreatment, biomass, methane fermentation, Virginia fanpetals

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234 Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Libyan Traditional Fermented Milk "Laban"

Authors: M. H. Nahaisi, N. M. Almaroum


Laban is a Libyan traditional fermented milk product. This lactic fermentation has been known in many cities of Libya long time ago as stable, nutritious, refreshing drink especially during the summer. 16 naturally fermented milk samples were collected from different cities located in North West of Libya. The average pH, titratable acidity, fat and total solids were 4.16, 0.73%, 1.54% and 8.12 % respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴ and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml. respectively. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of one hundred forty two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests have revealed that the most frequently Lactobacillus species was found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris.

Keywords: traditional fermented milk, laban, lactococcus, streptococcus, mesophilic lactobacillus, thermophilic lactobacillus counts

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233 Enhanced Anti-Obesity Effect of Soybean by Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum P1201 in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte

Authors: Chengliang Xie, Jinhyun Ryu, Hyun Joon Kim, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Sang Soo Kang, Kye Man Cho, Dong Hoon Lee


Obesity has become a global health problem and a source of major metabolic diseases like type-2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver and cancer. Synthetic anti-obesity drugs are effective but very costly and with undesirable side effects, so natural products such as soybean are needed as an alternative for obesity treatment. Lactobacillus Plantarum P1201is a probiotic bacterial strain reported to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and increase the ratio of aglycone-isoflavone of soybean, both of which have anti-obesity effect. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of the fermented soybean extract with P1201 (FSE) will be evaluated compared with that of the soybean extract (SE) by 3T3-L1 cells as an in vitro model of adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with SE and FSE during the nine days of the differentiation, lipid accumulation was evaluated by oil-red staining and triglyceride content and the mRNA expression level of adipogenic or lipogenic genes were analyzed by RT-PCR and qPCR. The results showed that formation of lipid droplets in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited and triglyceride content was reduced by 23.1% after treated with 1000 μg/mL of FSE compared with control. For SE-treated groups, no delipidating effect was observed. The effect of FSE on adipogenesis inhibition can be attributed to the down-regulation of mRNA expressionof CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and CoA carboxylase (ACC). Our results demonstrated that the anti-obesity effect of soybean can be improved by fermentation with P1201, and P1201can be used as a potential probiotic bacterial strain to produce natural anti-obesity food.

Keywords: fermentation, Lactobacillus plantarum P1201, obesity, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 249