Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 353

Search results for: fermentation

293 Stability of Ochratoxin a During Bread Making Process

Authors: Sara Heidari, Jafar Mohammadzadeh Milani, Elmira Pouladi Borj


In this research, stability of Ochratoxin A (OTA) during bread making process including fermentation with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Sourdough (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C were examined. Bread was prepared on a pilot-plant scale by using wheat flour spiked with standard solution of OTA. During this process, mycotoxin levels were determined after fermentation of the dough with sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast after further baking 200°C by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. According to the results, the highest stability of was observed in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest stability was observed in the baking stage in comparison to contaminated flour. In addition, compressed yeast showed the maximum impact on stability of OTA during bread making process.

Keywords: Ochratoxin A, bread, dough, yeast, sourdough

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292 Antioxidant Activities, Chemical Components, Physicochemical, and Sensory Characteristics of Kecombrang Tea (Etlingera elatior)

Authors: Rifda Naufalin, Nurul Latifasari, Siti Nuryanti, Muna Ridha Hanifah


Kecombrang is a Zingiberaceae plant which has antioxidant properties. The high antioxidant content in kecombrang flowers has the potential to be processed as a functional beverage raw material so that it can be used as an ingredient in making herbal teas. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical components, physicochemistry, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of kecombrang tea. The research methodology was carried out by using a completely randomized design with processing factors of kecombrang tea namely blanching and non-blanching, fermentation and non-fermentation, and the optimal time for drying kecombrang tea. The best treatment combination based on the effective index method is the treatment of the blanching process followed by drying at a temperature of 50ᵒC until the 2% moisture content can produce kecombrang tea with a total phenol content of 5.95 mg Tannic Acid Equivalent (TAE) / gram db, total flavonoid 3%, pH 4.5, and antioxidant activity 82.95%, red color, distinctive aroma of tea, fresh taste, and preferred by panelists.

Keywords: kecombrang tea, blanching, fermentation, total phenol, and antioxidant activity

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291 Effects of Rations with High Amount of Crude Fiber on Rumen Fermentation in Suckler Cows

Authors: H. Scholz, P. Kuehne, G. Heckenberger


Problems during the calving period (December until May) often are results in a high body condition score (BCS) at this time. At the end of the grazing period (frequently after early weaning), however, an increase of BCS can often be observed under German conditions. In the last eight weeks before calving, the body condition should be reduced or at least not increased. Rations with a higher amount of crude fiber can be used (rations with straw or late mowed grass silage). Fermentative digestion of fiber is slow and incomplete; that’s why the fermentative process in the rumen can be reduced over a long feeding time. Viewed in this context, feed intake of suckler cows (8 weeks before calving) in different rations and fermentation in the rumen should be checked by taking rumen fluid. Eight suckler cows (Charolais) were feeding a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in the last eight weeks before calving and grass silage after calving. By the addition of straw (30 % [TMR1] vs. 60 % [TMR2] of dry matter) was varied the amount of crude fiber in the TMR (grass silage, straw, mineral) before calving. After calving of the cow's grass, silage [GS] was fed ad libitum, and the last measurement of rumen fluid took place on the pasture [PS]. Rumen fluid, plasma, body weight, and backfat thickness were collected. Rumen fluid pH was assessed using an electronic pH meter. Volatile fatty acids (VFA), sedimentation, methylene-blue, and amount of infusorians were measured. From these 4 parameters, an “index of rumen fermentation” [IRF] in the rumen was formed. Fixed effects of treatment (TMR1, TMR2, GS, and PS) and a number of lactations (3-7 lactations) were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS Version 25.0 (significant by p ≤ 5 %). Rumen fluid pH was significantly influenced by variants (TMR 1 by 6.6; TMR 2 by 6.9; GS by 6.6 and PS by 6.9) but was not affected by other effects. The IRF showed disturbed fermentation in the rumen by feeding the TMR 1+2 with a high amount of crude fiber (Score: > 10.0 points) and a very good environment for fermentation during grazing the pasture (Score: 6.9 points). Furthermore, significant differences were found for VFA, methylene blue, and the number of infusorians. The use of rations with a high amount of crude fiber from weaning to calving may cause deviations from undisturbed fermentation in the rumen and adversely affect the utilization of the feed in the rumen.

Keywords: rumen fermentation, suckler cow, digestibility organic matter, crude fiber

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290 Fermentation of Wood Waste by Treating with H₃PO₄-Acetone for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Keonwook Nam, Young Hoon Roh


Wood waste is a potentially significant resource for economic and environment-friendly recycling. Wood waste represents a key sustainable source of biomass for transformation into bioethanol. Unfortunately, wood waste is highly recalcitrant for biotransformation, which limits its use and prevents economically viable conversion into bioethanol. As a result, an effective pretreatment is necessary to degrade cellulose of the wood waste, which improves the accessibility of cellulase. In this work, a H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment was selected among the various pretreatment methods and used to dissolve cellulose and lignin. When the H₃PO₄ and acetone were used, 5–6% of the wood waste was found to be very appropriate for saccharification. Also, when the enzymatic saccharification was conducted in the mixture of the wood waste and 0.05 M citrate buffer solution, glucose and xylose were measured to be 80.2 g/L and 9.2 g/L respectively. Furthermore, ethanol obtained after 70 h of fermentation by S. cerevisiae was 30.4 g/L. As a result, the conversion yield from wood waste to bioethanol was calculated to be 57.4%. These results show that the pretreated wood waste can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production and that the H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment can effectively increase the yield of ethanol production.

Keywords: wood waste, H₃PO₄-acetone, bioethanol, fermentation

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289 Solid State Fermentation: A Technological Alternative for Enriching Bioavailability of Underutilized Crops

Authors: Vipin Bhandari, Anupama Singh, Kopal Gupta


Solid state fermentation, an eminent bioconversion technique for converting many biological substrates into a value-added product, has proven its role in the biotransformation of crops by nutritionally enriching them. Hence, an effort was made for nutritional enhancement of underutilized crops viz. barnyard millet, amaranthus and horse gram based composite flour using SSF. The grains were given pre-treatments before fermentation and these pre-treatments proved quite effective in diminishing the level of antinutrients in grains and in improving their nutritional characteristics. The present study deals with the enhancement of nutritional characteristics of underutilized crops viz. barnyard millet, amaranthus and horsegram based composite flour using solid state fermentation (SSF) as the principle bioconversion technique to convert the composite flour substrate into a nutritionally enriched value added product. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiments. The variables selected for the fermentation experiments were substrate particle size, substrate blend ratio, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and moisture content having three levels of each. Seventeen designed experiments were conducted randomly to find the effect of these variables on microbial count, reducing sugar, pH, total sugar, phytic acid and water absorption index. The data from all experiments were analyzed using Design Expert 8.0.6 and the response functions were developed using multiple regression analysis and second order models were fitted for each response. Results revealed that pretreatments proved quite handful in diminishing the level of antinutrients and thus enhancing the nutritional value of the grains appreciably, for instance, there was about 23% reduction in phytic acid levels after decortication of barnyard millet. The carbohydrate content of the decorticated barnyard millet increased to 81.5% from initial value of 65.2%. Similarly popping and puffing of horsegram and amaranthus respectively greatly reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity. Puffing of amaranthus also reduced the tannin content appreciably. Bacillus subtilis was used as the inoculating specie since it is known to produce phytases in solid state fermentation systems. These phytases remarkably reduce the phytic acid content which acts as a major antinutritional factor in food grains. Results of solid state fermentation experiments revealed that phytic acid levels reduced appreciably when fermentation was allowed to continue for 72 hours at a temperature of 35°C. Particle size and substrate blend ratio also affected the responses positively. All the parameters viz. substrate particle size, substrate blend ratio, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and moisture content affected the responses namely microbial count, reducing sugar, pH, total sugar, phytic acid and water absorption index but the effect of fermentation time was found to be most significant on all the responses. Statistical analysis resulted in the optimum conditions (particle size 355µ, substrate blend ratio 50:20:30 of barnyard millet, amaranthus and horsegram respectively, fermentation time 68 hrs, fermentation temperature 35°C and moisture content 47%) for maximum reduction in phytic acid. The model F- value was found to be highly significant at 1% level of significance in case of all the responses. Hence, second order model could be fitted to predict all the dependent parameters. The effect of fermentation time was found to be most significant as compared to other variables.

Keywords: composite flour, solid state fermentation, underutilized crops, cereals, fermentation technology, food processing

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288 Effect of Alcoholic and Acetous Fermentations on Phenolic Acids of Kei-Apple (Dovyalis Caffra L.) Fruit

Authors: Neil Jolly, Louisa Beukes, Santiago Benito-SaEz


Kei-apple is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of alcoholic and acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals. The fruit has increased L-malic, ascorbic, and phenolic acids. Juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to induce alcoholic fermentation and acetous fermentation using acetic acid bacteria. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe wines and vinegars had highest pH. Total acidity, soluble solids and L-malic acid decreased during alcoholic and acetous fermentation with highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. Volatile acidity was highest in S. pombe vinegars but not different from S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae+S. pombe. Gallic acid was highest in S. pombe wines and vinegars. Syringic acid was highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. S. cerevisiae+S. pombe wines were highest in caffeic, p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe vinegars were highest in caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Ferulic and sinapic acids were highest in S. pombe and S. cerevisiae wines, respectively. Chlorogenic acid was most abundant in both wines and vinegars. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe and S. cerevisiae had a positive effect on most phenolic acids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae +acetic acid bacteria had an increased effect on syringic and chlorogenic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe+acetic acid bacteria resulted in an increase in gallic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Acetic acid bacteria had minimal performance with respect to volatile acidity production in comparison to commercial vinegars. Acetic acid bacteria selection should therefore be reconsidered and the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated.

Keywords: acetic acid bacteria, liquid chromatography, phenolics, saccharomyces cerevisiae, schizosaccharomyces pombe

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287 Biohydrogen Production from Starch Residues

Authors: Francielo Vendruscolo


This review summarizes the potential of starch agroindustrial residues as substrate for biohydrogen production. Types of potential starch agroindustrial residues, recent developments and bio-processing conditions for biohydrogen production will be discussed. Biohydrogen is a clean energy source with great potential to be an alternative fuel, because it releases energy explosively in heat engines or generates electricity in fuel cells producing water as only by-product. Anaerobic hydrogen fermentation or dark fermentation seems to be more favorable, since hydrogen is yielded at high rates and various organic waste enriched with carbohydrates as substrate result in low cost for hydrogen production. Abundant biomass from various industries could be source for biohydrogen production where combination of waste treatment and energy production would be an advantage. Carbohydrate-rich nitrogen-deficient solid wastes such as starch residues can be used for hydrogen production by using suitable bioprocess technologies. Alternatively, converting biomass into gaseous fuels, such as biohydrogen is possibly the most efficient way to use these agroindustrial residues.

Keywords: biofuel, dark fermentation, starch residues, food waste

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286 Optimization of Process Parameters for Peroxidase Production by Ensifer Species

Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh


Given the high utility of peroxidase in several industrial processes, the search for novel microorganisms with enhanced peroxidase production capacity is of keen interest. This study investigated the process conditions for optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp, new ligninolytic proteobacteria with peroxidase production potential. Also, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimum at an initial medium pH 7, incubation temperature of 30 °C and agitation speed of 100 rpm using alkali lignin fermentation medium supplemented with guaiacol as the most effective inducer and ammonium sulphate as the best inorganic nitrogen. Optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp. was attained at 48 h with specific productivity of 12.76 ± 1.09 U mg⁻¹. Interestingly, probable laccase production was observed with optimum specific productivity of 12.76 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ at 72 h. The highest peroxidase yield was observed with sawdust as solid substrate under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, Ensifer sp. possesses the capacity for enhanced peroxidase production that can be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

Keywords: catalase-peroxidase, enzyme production, peroxidase, polymerase chain reaction, proteobacteria

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285 Fermentation of Pretreated Herbaceous Cellulosic Wastes to Ethanol by Anaerobic Cellulolytic and Saccharolytic Thermophilic Clostridia

Authors: Lali Kutateladze, Tamar Urushadze, Tamar Dudauri, Besarion Metreveli, Nino Zakariashvili, Izolda Khokhashvili, Maya Jobava


Lignocellulosic waste streams from agriculture, paper and wood industry are renewable, plentiful and low-cost raw materials that can be used for large-scale production of liquid and gaseous biofuels. As opposed to prevailing multi-stage biotechnological processes developed for bioconversion of cellulosic substrates to ethanol where high-cost cellulase preparations are used, Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP) offers to accomplish cellulose and xylan hydrolysis followed by fermentation of both C6 and C5 sugars to ethanol in a single-stage process. Syntrophic microbial consortium comprising of anaerobic, thermophilic, cellulolytic, and saccharolytic bacteria in the genus Clostridia with improved ethanol productivity and high tolerance to fermentation end-products had been proposed for achieving CBP. 65 new strains of anaerobic thermophilic cellulolytic and saccharolytic Clostridia were isolated from different wetlands and hot springs in Georgia. Using new isolates, fermentation of mechanically pretreated wheat straw and corn stalks was done under oxygen-free nitrogen environment in thermophilic conditions (T=550C) and pH 7.1. Process duration was 120 hours. Liquid and gaseous products of fermentation were analyzed on a daily basis using Perkin-Elmer gas chromatographs with flame ionization and thermal detectors. Residual cellulose, xylan, xylose, and glucose were determined using standard methods. Cellulolytic and saccharolytic bacteria strains degraded mechanically pretreated herbaceous cellulosic wastes and fermented glucose and xylose to ethanol, acetic acid and gaseous products like hydrogen and CO2. Specifically, maximum yield of ethanol was reached at 96 h of fermentation and varied between 2.9 – 3.2 g/ 10 g of substrate. The content of acetic acid didn’t exceed 0.35 g/l. Other volatile fatty acids were detected in trace quantities.

Keywords: anaerobic bacteria, cellulosic wastes, Clostridia sp, ethanol

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284 Design of Identification Based Adaptive Control for Fermentation Process in Bioreactor

Authors: J. Ritonja


The biochemical technology has been developing extremely fast since the middle of the last century. The main reason for such development represents a requirement for large production of high-quality biologically manufactured products such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and beverages. The impact of the biochemical industry on the world economy is enormous. The great importance of this industry also results in intensive development in scientific disciplines relevant to the development of biochemical technology. In addition to developments in the fields of biology and chemistry, which enable to understand complex biochemical processes, development in the field of control theory and applications is also very important. In the paper, the control for the biochemical reactor for the milk fermentation was studied. During the fermentation process, the biophysical quantities must be precisely controlled to obtain the high-quality product. To control these quantities, the bioreactor’s stirring drive and/or heating system can be used. Available commercial biochemical reactors are equipped with open loop or conventional linear closed loop control system. Due to the outstanding parameters variations and the partial nonlinearity of the biochemical process, the results obtained with these control systems are not satisfactory. To improve the fermentation process, the self-tuning adaptive control system was proposed. The use of the self-tuning adaptive control is suggested because the parameters’ variations of the studied biochemical process are very slow in most cases. To determine the linearized mathematical model of the fermentation process, the recursive least square identification method was used. Based on the obtained mathematical model the linear quadratic regulator was tuned. The parameters’ identification and the controller’s synthesis are executed on-line and adapt the controller’s parameters to the fermentation process’ dynamics during the operation. The use of the proposed combination represents the original solution for the control of the milk fermentation process. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the progress of the control systems for the biochemical reactors. The proposed adaptive control system was tested thoroughly. From the obtained results it is obvious that the proposed adaptive control system assures much better following of the reference signal as a conventional linear control system with fixed control parameters.

Keywords: adaptive control, biochemical reactor, linear quadratic regulator, recursive least square identification

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283 Biohydrogen Production Derived from Banana Pseudo Stem of Agricultural Residues by Dark Fermentation

Authors: Kholik


Nowadays, the demand of renewable energy in general is increasing due to the crisis of fossil fuels. Biohydrogen is an alternative fuel with zero emission derived from renewable resources such as banana pseudo stem of agricultural residues. Banana plant can be easily found in tropical and subtropical areas, so the resource is abundant and readily available as a biohydrogen substrate. Banana pseudo stem has not been utilised as a resource or substrate of biohydrogen production and it mainly contains 45-65% cellulose (α-cellulose), 5-15% hemicellulose and 20-30% Lignin, which indicates that banana pseudo stem will be renewable, sustainable and promising resource as lignocellulosic biomass. In this research, biohydrogen is derived from banana pseudo stem by dark fermentation. Dark fermentation is the most suitable approach for practical biohydrogen production from organic solid wastes. The process has several advantages including a fast reaction rate, no need of light, and a smaller footprint. 321 million metric tonnes banana pseudo stem of 428 million metric tonnes banana plantation residues in worldwide for 2013 and 22.5 million metric tonnes banana pseudo stem of 30 million metric tonnes banana plantation residues in Indonesia for 2015 will be able to generate 810.60 million tonne mol H2 and 56.819 million tonne mol H2, respectively. In this paper, we will show that the banana pseudo stem is the renewable, sustainable and promising resource to be utilised and to produce biohydrogen as energy generation with high yield and high contain of cellulose in comparison with the other substrates.

Keywords: banana pseudo stem, biohydrogen, dark fermentation, lignocellulosic

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282 Bioproduction of Phytohormones by Liquid Fermentation Using a Mexican Strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae

Authors: Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Hernandez Castillo Daniel, Martinez Hernandez José Luis, Arredondo Valdes Roberto, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Anguiano Cabello Julia Cecilia


Plant hormones are a group of molecules that control different processes ranging from the growth and development of the plant until their response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the capacity of production of various phytohormones was evaluated from a strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae by liquid fermentation system using the modified Mierch medium added with a hydrolyzate compound of mead all in a reactor without agitation at 28 °C for 15 days. Quantification of the metabolites was performed using high performance liquid chromatography techniques. The results showed that a microbial broth with at least five different types of plant hormones was obtained: gibberellic acid, zeatin, kinetin, indoleacetic acid and jasmonic acid, the last one was higher than the others metabolites produced. The production of such hormones using a single type of microorganism could be in the future a great alternative to reduce production costs and similarly reduce the use of synthetic chemicals.

Keywords: biosystem, plant hormones, Botryodiplodia theobromae, fermentation

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281 Comparative Study on Sensory Profiles of Liquor from Different Dried Cocoa Beans

Authors: Khairul Bariah Sulaiman, Tajul Aris Yang


Malaysian dried cocoa beans have been reported to have low quality flavour and are often sold at discounted prices. Various efforts have been made to improve the Malaysian beans quality. Among these efforts is introduction of the shallow box fermentation technique and pulp preconditioned through pods storage. However, after nearly four decades of the effort was done, Malaysian cocoa farmers still received lower prices for their beans. So, this study was carried out in order to assess the flavour quality of dried cocoa beans produced by shallow box fermentation techniques, combination of shallow box fermentation with pods storage and compared to dried cocoa beans obtained from Ghana. A total of eight samples of dried cocoa was used in this study, which one of the samples was Ghanaian beans (coded with no.8), while the rest were Malaysian cocoa beans with different post-harvest processing (coded with no. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7). Cocoa liquor was prepared from all samples in the prescribed techniques and sensory evaluation was carried out using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) Method with 0-10 scale by Malaysian Cocoa Board trained panelist. Sensory evaluation showed that cocoa attributes for all cocoa liquors ranging from 3.5 to 5.3, whereas bitterness was ranging from 3.4 to 4.6 and astringent attribute ranging from 3.9 to 5.5, respectively. Meanwhile, all cocoa liquors were having acid or sourness attribute ranging from 1.6 to 3.6, respectively. In general cocoa liquor prepared from sample coded no 4 has almost similar flavour profile and no significantly different at p < 0.05 with Ghana, in term of most flavour attributes as compared to the other six samples.

Keywords: cocoa beans, flavour, fermentation, shallow box, pods storage

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280 The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Biogas Production Efficiency Using Different Plant Substrates

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski


The purpose of the present work was to assess the impact of using electromagnetic microwave radiation as a means of stimulating the thermal conditions in anaerobic reactors on biomethanation efficiency of different plant substrates, as measured by the quantity and quality of the resultant biogas. Using electromagnetic microwave radiation to maintain optimal thermal conditions during biomethanation allows for achievement of much higher technological effects in comparison with a conventional heating system. After subjecting different plant substrates to fermentation in the model fermentation chambers, the largest improvements in regard to biogas production efficiency and biogas quality were recorded in the series with corn silage and grass silage. In the first case, the quantity of methane produced in the microwave-stimulated technological system exceeded by 15.26% the quantities produced in reactors heated conventionally. When grass silage was utilized as the organic substrate in the process of biomethanation, anaerobic reactors treated with microwave radiation produced 12.62% more methane.

Keywords: microwave radiation, biogas, methane fermentation, biomass

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279 A Novel Marketable Dried Mixture for High-Quality Sweet Wine Production in Domestic Refrigerator Using Tubular Cellulose

Authors: Ganatsios Vassilios, Terpou Antonia, Maria Kanellaki, Bekatorou Argyro, Athanasios Koutinas


In this study, a new fermentation technology is proposed with potential application in home wine-making. Delignified cellulosic material was used to preserve Tubular Cellulose (TC), an effective fermentation support material in high osmotic pressure, low temperature, and alcohol concentration. The psychrotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 was immobilized on TC to preserve a novel home wine making biocatalyst (HWB) and the entrapment was examined by SEM. Various concentrations of HWB was added in high-density grape must and the mixture was dried immediately. The dried mixture was stored for various time intervals and its fermentation examined after addition of potable water. The percentage of added water was also examined to succeed high alcohol and residual sugar concentration. The effect of low temperature (1-10 oC) on fermentation kinetics was studied revealing the ability of HBW on low-temperature sweet wine making. Sweet wines SPME GC-MS analysis revealed the promotion effect of TC on volatile by-products formation in comparison with free cells. Kinetics results and aromatic profile of final product encouraged the efforts of high-quality sweet wine making in domestic refrigerator and potential marketable opportunities are also assessed and discussed.

Keywords: tubular cellulose, sweet wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1, residual sugar concentration

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278 Ultrasound Disintegration as a Potential Method for the Pre-Treatment of Virginia Fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita) Biomass before Methane Fermentation Process

Authors: Marcin Dębowski, Marcin Zieliński, Mirosław Krzemieniewski


As methane fermentation is a complex series of successive biochemical transformations, its subsequent stages are determined, to a various extent, by physical and chemical factors. A specific state of equilibrium is being settled in the functioning fermentation system between environmental conditions and the rate of biochemical reactions and products of successive transformations. In the case of physical factors that influence the effectiveness of methane fermentation transformations, the key significance is ascribed to temperature and intensity of biomass agitation. Among the chemical factors, significant are pH value, type, and availability of the culture medium (to put it simply: the C/N ratio) as well as the presence of toxic substances. One of the important elements which influence the effectiveness of methane fermentation is the pre-treatment of organic substrates and the mode in which the organic matter is made available to anaerobes. Out of all known and described methods for organic substrate pre-treatment before methane fermentation process, the ultrasound disintegration is one of the most interesting technologies. Investigations undertaken on the ultrasound field and the use of installations operating on the existing systems result principally from very wide and universal technological possibilities offered by the sonication process. This physical factor may induce deep physicochemical changes in ultrasonicated substrates that are highly beneficial from the viewpoint of methane fermentation processes. In this case, special role is ascribed to disintegration of biomass that is further subjected to methane fermentation. Once cell walls are damaged, cytoplasm and cellular enzymes are released. The released substances – either in dissolved or colloidal form – are immediately available to anaerobic bacteria for biodegradation. To ensure the maximal release of organic matter from dead biomass cells, disintegration processes are aimed to achieve particle size below 50 μm. It has been demonstrated in many research works and in systems operating in the technical scale that immediately after substrate supersonication the content of organic matter (characterized by COD, BOD5 and TOC indices) was increasing in the dissolved phase of sedimentation water. This phenomenon points to the immediate sonolysis of solid substances contained in the biomass and to the release of cell material, and consequently to the intensification of the hydrolytic phase of fermentation. It results in a significant reduction of fermentation time and increased effectiveness of production of gaseous metabolites of anaerobic bacteria. Because disintegration of Virginia fanpetals biomass via ultrasounds applied in order to intensify its conversion is a novel technique, it is often underestimated by exploiters of agri-biogas works. It has, however, many advantages that have a direct impact on its technological and economical superiority over thus far applied methods of biomass conversion. As for now, ultrasound disintegrators for biomass conversion are not produced on the mass-scale, but by specialized groups in scientific or R&D centers. Therefore, their quality and effectiveness are to a large extent determined by their manufacturers’ knowledge and skills in the fields of acoustics and electronic engineering.

Keywords: ultrasound disintegration, biomass, methane fermentation, biogas, Virginia fanpetals

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277 Application of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and Electronic Nose in On-line Monitoring of Dough Proofing

Authors: Madhuresh Dwivedi, Navneet Singh Deora, Aastha Deswal, H. N. Mishra


FT-NIR spectroscopy and electronic nose was used to study the kinetics of dough proofing. Spectroscopy was conducted with an optic probe in the diffuse reflectance mode. The dough leavening was carried out at different temperatures (25 and 35°C) and constant RH (80%). Spectra were collected in the range of wave numbers from 12,000 to 4,000 cm-1 directly on the samples, every 5 min during proofing, up to 2 hours. NIR spectra were corrected for scatter effect and second order derivatization was done to transform the spectra. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for the leavening process and process kinetics was calculated. PCA was performed on data set and loadings were calculated. For leavening, four absorption zones (8,950-8,850, 7,200-6,800, 5,250-5,150 and 4,700-4,250 cm-1) were involved in describing the process. Simultaneously electronic nose was also used for understanding the development of odour compounds during fermentation. The electronic nose was able to differential the sample on the basis of aroma generation at different time during fermentation. In order to rapidly differentiate samples based on odor, a Principal component analysis is performed and successfully demonstrated in this study. The result suggests that electronic nose and FT-NIR spectroscopy can be utilized for the online quality control of the fermentation process during leavening of bread dough.

Keywords: FT-NIR, dough, e-nose, proofing, principal component analysis

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276 High Titer Cellulosic Ethanol Production Achieved by Fed-Batch Prehydrolysis Simultaneous Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Sulfite Pretreated Softwood

Authors: Chengyu Dong, Shao-Yuan Leu


Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can reduce our reliance on fossil fuel, mitigate climate change, and stimulate rural economic development. The relative low ethanol production (60 g/L) limits the economic viable of lignocellulose-based biorefinery. The ethanol production can be increased up to 80 g/L by removing nearly all the non-cellulosic materials, while the capital of the pretreatment process increased significantly. In this study, a fed-batch prehydrolysis simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process (PSSF) was designed to converse the sulfite pretreated softwood (~30% residual lignin) to high concentrations of ethanol (80 g/L). The liquefaction time of hydrolysis process was shortened down to 24 h by employing the fed-batch strategy. Washing out the spent liquor with water could eliminate the inhibition of the pretreatment spent liquor. However, the ethanol yield of lignocellulose was reduced as the fermentable sugars were also lost during the process. Fed-batch prehydrolyzing the while slurry (i.e. liquid plus solid fraction) pretreated softwood for 24 h followed by simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process at 28 °C can generate 80 g/L ethanol production. Fed-batch strategy is very effectively to eliminate the “solid effect” of the high gravity saccharification, so concentrating the cellulose to nearly 90% by the pretreatment process is not a necessary step to get high ethanol production. Detoxification of the pretreatment spent liquor caused the loss of sugar and reduced the ethanol yield consequently. The tolerance of yeast to inhibitors was better at 28 °C, therefore, reducing the temperature of the following fermentation process is a simple and valid method to produce high ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulosic ethanol, sulfite pretreatment, Fed batch PSSF, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
275 Phytoestrogen Content of Fermented Lupin Tempeh and Natto

Authors: Niranjani Wickramsinghe, Mario Soares, Stuart Johnson, Ranil Cooray, Vijay Jayasena


Tempeh is a traditional fermented soya bean food in Indonesia which is produced from de-hulled soya fermented with Rhizopusoligosporus. Natto is a traditional Japanese food made from whole soya bean seed fermentation with the bacteriaBacillus subtilis natto. Lupin is a grain legume with a low content of the phytoestrogenic isoflavones genistein and daidzein compared to soya. However due a comparable nutrition profile and increased cost effectiveness relative to soy, lupin has been substituted into various oriental fermented foods such as tempe and natto. Lupin tempeh and lupin natto were prepared using either WS or DHS. Analysis for genistein and daidzein content was conducted using HPLC for time points zero, 12h, 24h, 36h, 48h and 72h after fermentation. Results revealed that the amount of genistein and daidzein significantly increased with time in both tempeh and natto. Both isoflavones peaked at 48h in lupin tempeh and earlier at 36h in lupin natto. WS tempeh and WS natto had significantly more genistein than WHS tempe and WHS natto. Diadzeincontent of WHS tended to be higher than WS across both products. It is concluded that, fermentation time increased the amount of genistein and daidzein content in both lupin tempeh and natto and the form of lupin raw material used affected the genistein level and to some extent the daidzein content of fermented products.

Keywords: lupin, natto, soya, tempeh

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274 Bioethanol Production from Marine Algae Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum Swartzii: Saccharification and Process Optimization

Authors: M. Jerold, V. Sivasubramanian, A. George, B.S. Ashik, S. S. Kumar


Bioethanol is a sustainable biofuel that can be used alternative to fossil fuels. Today, third generation (3G) biofuel is gaining more attention than first and second-generation biofuel. The more lignin content in the lignocellulosic biomass is the major drawback of second generation biofuels. Algae are the renewable feedstock used in the third generation biofuel production. Algae contain a large number of carbohydrates, therefore it can be used for the fermentation by hydrolysis process. There are two groups of Algae, such as micro and macroalgae. In the present investigation, Macroalgae was chosen as raw material for the production of bioethanol. Two marine algae viz. Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum swartzii were used for the experimental studies. The algal biomass was characterized using various analytical techniques like Elemental Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to understand the physio-Chemical characteristics. The batch experiment was done to study the hydrolysis and operation parameters such as pH, agitation, fermentation time, inoculum size. The saccharification was done with acid and alkali treatment. The experimental results showed that NaOH treatment was shown to enhance the bioethanol. From the hydrolysis study, it was found that 0.5 M Alkali treatment would serve as optimum concentration for the saccharification of polysaccharide sugar to monomeric sugar. The maximum yield of bioethanol was attained at a fermentation time of 9 days. The inoculum volume of 1mL was found to be lowest for the ethanol fermentation. The agitation studies show that the fermentation was higher during the process. The percentage yield of bioethanol was found to be 22.752% and 14.23 %. The elemental analysis showed that S. swartzii contains a higher carbon source. The results confirmed hydrolysis was not completed to recover the sugar from biomass. The specific gravity of ethanol was found to 0.8047 and 0.808 for Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum swartzii, respectively. The purity of bioethanol also studied and found to be 92.55 %. Therefore, marine algae can be used as a most promising renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

Keywords: algae, biomass, bioethaol, biofuel, pretreatment

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273 Hyper-Production of Lysine through Fermentation and Its Biological Evaluation on Broiler Chicks

Authors: Shagufta Gulraiz, Abu Saeed Hashmi, Muhammad Mohsin Javed


Lysine required for poultry feed is imported in Pakistan to fulfil the desired dietary needs. Present study was designed to produce maximum lysine by utilizing cheap sources to save the foreign exchange. To achieve the goal of lysine production through fermentation, large scale production of lysine was carried out in 7.5 L stirred glass vessel fermenter with wild and mutant Brevibacterium flavum (B. flavum) using all pre-optimized conditions. The identification of produced lysine was carried out by TLC and amino acid analyzer. Toxicity evaluation of produced lysine was performed before feeding to broiler chicks. During biological trial concentrated fermented broth having 8% lysine was used in poultry rations as a source of Lysine for test birds. Fermenter scale studies showed that the maximum lysine (20.8 g/L) was produced at 250 rpm, 1.5 vvm aeration, 6.0% inoculum under controlled pH conditions after 56 h of fermentation with wild culture but mutant (BFENU2) gave maximum yield of lysine 36.3 g/L under optimized condition after 48 h. Amino acid profiling showed 1.826% Lysine in fermented broth by wild B. flavum and 2.644% by mutant strain (BFENU2). Toxicity evaluation report showed that the produced lysine is safe for consumption by broilers. Biological evaluation results showed that produced lysine was equally good as commercial lysine in terms of weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. A cheap and practical bioprocess of Lysine production was concluded, that can be exploited commercially in Pakistan to save foreign exchange.

Keywords: lysine, fermentation, broiler chicks, biological evaluation

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272 Biohydrogen and Potential Vinegar Production from Agricultural Wastes Using Thermotoga neopolitana

Authors: Nidhi Nalin


This study is theoretical modelling of the fermentation process of glucose in agricultural wastes like discarded peaches to produce hydrogen, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide using Thermotoga neopolitana bacteria. The hydrogen gas produced in this process can be used in hydrogen fuel cells to generate power, and the fermented broth with acetic acid and salts could be utilized as salty vinegar if enough acetic acid is produced. The theoretical modelling was done using SuperPro software, and the results indicated how much sugar (discarded peaches) is required to produce both hydrogen and vinegar for the process to be profitable.

Keywords: fermentation, thermotoga, hydrogen, vinegar, biofuel

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271 Optimization of Digestive Conditions of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten using Food-Grade Enzymes

Authors: Byung Wook Yang, Sae Kyul Kim, Seung Il Ahn, Jae Hee Choi, Heejung Jung, Yejin Choi, Byung Yong Kim, Young Tae Hahm


Opuntia ficus-indica is a member of the Cactaceae family that is widely grown in all the semiarid countries throughout the world. Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS), commonly known as prickly pear cactus, is commercially cultivated as a dietary foodstuffs and medicinal stuffs in Jeju Island, Korea. Owing to high viscosity of OFS’ pad, its application to the commercial field has been limited. When the low viscosity of OFS’s pad is obtained, it is useful for the manufacture of healthy food in the related field. This study was performed to obtain the optimal digestion conditions of food-grade enzymes (Pectinex, Viscozyme and Celluclast) with the powder of OFS stem. And also, the contents of water-soluble dietary fiber (WSDF) of the dried powder prepared by the extraction of OFS stem were monitored and optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM), which included 20 experimental points with 3 replicates for two independent variables (fermentation temperature and time). A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of fermentation temperature (30-90 °C, X1) and fermentation time (1-10h, X2) on dependent variables, such as viscosity (Y1), water-soluble dietary fiber (Y2) and dietary fiber yield (Y3). Estimated maximum values at predicted optimum conditions were in agreement with experimental values. Optimum temperature and duration were 50°C and 12 hours, respectively. Viscosity value reached 3.4 poise. Yield of water-soluble dietary fiber is determined in progress.

Keywords: Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten, enzymatic fermentation, response surface methodology, water-soluble dietary fiber, viscosity

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270 Usage of Crude Glycerol for Biological Hydrogen Production, Experiments and Analysis

Authors: Ilze Dimanta, Zane Rutkovska, Vizma Nikolajeva, Janis Kleperis, Indrikis Muiznieks


Majority of word’s steadily increasing energy consumption is provided by non-renewable fossil resources. Need to find an alternative energy resource is essential for further socio-economic development. Hydrogen is renewable, clean energy carrier with high energy density (142 MJ/kg, accordingly – oil has 42 MJ/kg). Biological hydrogen production is an alternative way to produce hydrogen from renewable resources, e.g. using organic waste material resource fermentation that facilitate recycling of sewage and are environmentally benign. Hydrogen gas is produced during the fermentation process of bacteria in anaerobic conditions. Bacteria are producing hydrogen in the liquid phase and when thermodynamic equilibrium is reached, hydrogen is diffusing from liquid to gaseous phase. Because of large quantities of available crude glycerol and the highly reduced nature of carbon in glycerol per se, microbial conversion of it seems to be economically and environmentally viable possibility. Such industrial organic waste product as crude glycerol is perspective for usage in feedstock for hydrogen producing bacteria. The process of biodiesel production results in 41% (w/w) of crude glycerol. The developed lab-scale test system (experimental bioreactor) with hydrogen micro-electrode (Unisense, Denmark) was used to determine hydrogen production yield and rate in the liquid phase. For hydrogen analysis in the gas phase the RGAPro-100 mass-spectrometer connected to the experimental test-system was used. Fermentative bacteria strains were tested for hydrogen gas production rates. The presence of hydrogen in gaseous phase was measured using mass spectrometer but registered concentrations were comparatively small. To decrease the hydrogen partial pressure in liquid phase reactor with a system for continuous bubbling with inert gas was developed. H2 production rate for the best producer in liquid phase reached 0,40 mmol H2/l, in gaseous phase - 1,32 mmol H2/l. Hydrogen production rate is time dependent – higher rate of hydrogen production is at the fermentation process beginning when concentration increases, but after three hours of fermentation, it decreases.

Keywords: bio-hydrogen, fermentation, experimental bioreactor, crude glycerol

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269 Conversion of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse to Sugars for Succinic Acid Production

Authors: Enlin Lo, Ioannis Dogaris, George Philippidis


Succinic acid is a compound used for manufacturing lacquers, resins, and other coating chemicals. It is also used in the food and beverage industry as a flavor additive. It is predominantly manufactured from petrochemicals, but it can also be produced by fermentation of sugars from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. Bio-based succinic acid has great potential in becoming a platform chemical (building block) for commodity and high-value chemicals. In this study, the production of bio-based succinic acid from sweet sorghum was investigated. Sweet sorghum has high fermentable sugar content and can be cultivated in a variety of climates. In order to avoid competition with food feedstocks, its non-edible ‘bagasse’ (the fiber part after extracting the juice) was targeted. Initially, various conditions of pretreating sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) were studied in an effort to remove most of the non-fermentable components and expose the cellulosic fiber containing the fermentable sugars (glucose). Concentrated (83%) phosphoric acid was utilized at temperatures 50-80 oC for 30-60 min at various SSB loadings (10-15%), coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis using commercial cellulase (Ctec2, Novozymes) enzyme, to identify the conditions that lead to the highest glucose yields for subsequent fermentation to succinic acid. As the pretreatment temperature and duration increased, the bagasse color changed from light brown to dark brown-black, indicating decomposition, which ranged from 15% to 72%, while the theoretical glucose yield is 91%. With Minitab software statistical analysis, a model was built to identify the optimal pretreatment condition for maximum glucose released. The projected theoretical bio-based succinic acid production is 23g per 100g of SSB, which will be confirmed with fermentation experiments using the bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes.

Keywords: biomass, cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, pretreatment, succinic acid

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268 Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Extracellular Production of the Oncolytic Enzyme, L-Asparaginase, by New Subsp. Streptomyces Rochei Subsp. Chromatogenes NEAE-K Using Response Surface Methodology under Solid State Fermentation

Authors: Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar


L-asparaginase is an important enzyme as therapeutic agents used in combination therapy with other drugs in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. L-asparaginase producing actinomycete strain, NEAE-K, was isolated from soil sample and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence as new subsp. Streptomyces rochei subsp. chromatogenes NEAE-K and sequencing product (1532 bp) was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number KJ200343. The study was conducted to screen parameters affecting the production of L-asparaginase by Streptomyces rochei subsp. chromatogenes NEAE-K on solid state fermentation using Plackett–Burman experimental design. Sixteen different independent variables including incubation time, moisture content, inoculum size, temperature, pH, soybean meal+ wheat bran, dextrose, fructose, L-asparagine, yeast extract, KNO3, K2HPO4, MgSO4.7H2O, NaCl, FeSO4. 7H2O, CaCl2, and three dummy variables were screened in Plackett–Burman experimental design of 20 trials. The most significant independent variables affecting enzyme production (dextrose, L-asparagine and K2HPO4) were further optimized by the central composite design. As a result, a medium of the following formula is the optimum for producing an extracellular L-asparaginase by Streptomyces rochei subsp. chromatogenes NEAE-K from solid state fermentation: g/L (soybean meal+ wheat bran 15, dextrose 3, fructose 4, L-asparagine 8, yeast extract 2, KNO3 1, K2HPO4 2, MgSO4.7H2O 0.5, NaCl 0.1, FeSO4. 7H2O 0.02, CaCl2 0.01), incubation time 7 days, moisture content 50%, inoculum size 3 mL, temperature 30°C, pH 8.5.

Keywords: streptomyces rochei subsp. chromatogenes neae-k, 16s rrna, identification, solid state fermentation, l-asparaginase production, plackett-burman design, central composite design

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267 Production of Lignocellulosic Enzymes by Bacillus safensis LCX Using Agro-Food Wastes in Solid State Fermentation

Authors: Abeer A. Q. Ahmed, Tracey McKay


The increasing demand for renewable fuels and chemicals is pressuring manufacturing industry toward finding more sustainable cost-effective resources. Lignocellulose, such as agro-food wastes, is a suitable equivalent to petroleum for fine chemicals and fuels production. The complex structure of lignocellulose, however, requires a variety of enzymes in order to degrade its components into their respective building blocks that can be used further for the production of various value added products. This study aimed to isolate bacterial strain with the ability to produce a variety of lignocellulosic enzymes. One bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as Bacillus safensis LCX found to have CMCase, xylanase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and laccase activities. The enzymes production was induced by growing Bacillus safensis LCX in solid state fermentation using wheat straw, wheat bran, and corn stover. The activities of enzymes were determined by specific colorimetric assays. This study presents Bacillus safensis LCX as a promising source for lignocellulosic enzymes. These findings can extend the knowledge on agro-food wastes valorization strategies toward a sustainable production of fuels and chemicals.

Keywords: Bacillus safensis LCX, high valued chemicals, lignocellulosic enzymes, solid state fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
266 Development of the Manufacturing Process of Low Salt-Fermented Soy Sauce

Authors: Young-Ran Song, Byeong-Uk Lim, Sang-Ho Baik


This study was initiated in order to develop a method for soy sauce fermentation at low salt concentrations without decreasing quality. Soy sauce was fermented with the fermentation starter (meju) and different salt contents (8-14%, w/v) by inoculating two strains or not, in which Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia guilliermondii strains having different abilities to induce sterilizing effects or enhance flavor production were used. As the results, there were microbial and biochemical differences among prepared soy sauce. First, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. in addition to Bacillus genus that is the most important bacteria in Korean fermented soy product were detected by salt reduction. However, application of yeast starters can inhibit the undesirable bacterial growth. Moreover, PCA bi-plots of major principal components on various biochemical parameters (final pH, total acidity, soluble sugar, reducing sugar, ethanol and 32 volatile flavor compounds) were drawn to demonstrate the physicochemical differences and similarities among the samples. It was confirmed that the soy sauce samples produced with different salt concentrations were clearly different since salt reduction induced low contents of acids, alcohols and esters with higher acidity. However despite low salt concentration, combining two different yeasts appeared to have similar characteristics to the high salt-fermented soy sauce with elevated concentrations of ethanol, some alcohols, and most ketones, hence resulted in a balance of more complex and richer flavors with a flavor profile pattern identical to that of high-salt.

Keywords: Soy sauce, low salt, fermentation, yeast.

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
265 Effect of Local Processing Techniques on the Nutrients and Anti-Nutrients Content of Bitter Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

Authors: J. S. Alakali, A. R. Ismaila, T. G. Atume


The effects of local processing techniques on the nutrients and anti-nutrients content of bitter cassava were investigated. Raw bitter cassava tubers were boiled, sundried, roasted, fried to produce Kuese, partially fermented and sun dried to produce Alubo, fermented by submersion to produce Akpu and fermented by solid state to produce yellow and white gari. These locally processed cassava products were subjected to proximate, mineral analysis and anti-nutrient analysis using standard methods. The result of the proximate analysis showed that, raw bitter cassava is composed of 1.85% ash, 20.38% moisture, 4.11% crude fibre, 1.03% crude protein, 0.66% lipids and 71.88% total carbohydrate. For the mineral analysis, the raw bitter cassava tuber contained 32.00% Calcium, 12.55% Magnesium, 1.38% Iron and 80.17% Phosphorous. Even though all processing techniques significantly increased the mineral content, fermentation had higher mineral increment effect. The anti-nutrients analysis showed that the raw tuber contained 98.16mg/100g cyanide, 44.00mg/100g oxalate 304.20mg/100g phytate and 73.00mg/100g saponin. In general all the processing techniques showed a significant reduction of the phytate, oxalate and saponin content of the cassava. However, only fermentation, sun drying and gasification were able to reduce the cyanide content of bitter cassava below the safe level (10mg/100g) recommended by Standard Organization of Nigeria. Yellow gari(with the addition of palm oil) showed low cyanide content (1.10 mg/100g) than white gari (3.51 mg/100g). Processing methods involving fermentation reduce cyanide and other anti-nutrients in the cassava to levels that are safe for consumption and should be widely practiced.

Keywords: bitter cassava, local processing, fermentation, anti-nutrient.

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
264 Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Complementary Food from Fermented Acha (Digitaria exilis), Soybean and Orange-Flesh Sweet Potato Blends

Authors: N. C. Okoronkwo, I. E. Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, C. P. Agbata


Childhood malnutrition is one of the most persistent public health problems throughout developing countries, including Nigeria. Demographic and Health survey data from twenty-one developing countries indicated that poor complementary feeding of children aged 6- 23 months contributes to negative growth trends. To reduce malnutrition among children in the society, formulation of complimentary food rich in essential nutrient for optimum growth and development of infants is essential. This study focused on the evaluation of complementary food produced by solid-state fermentation of Acha and Soybean using Rhizopus oligosporus (2710) and Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) using Lactobacillus planterum (B-41621). The raw materials were soaked separately, each in four volumes of 0.9M acetic acid for 16 hours, rinsed with clean water, steam cooked and cooled. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was carried out by inoculating Acha and Soybean with spore suspension (1x 10⁶spores/ml) of Rhizopus oligosporus (2710) and OFSP with spore suspension (1x 106spores/ml) of Lactobacillus planterum (B-41621). Fermentation which lasted for 72hours was carried out with 24hours sampling. The samples were blended in the following ratios: Acha and soybean 100: 100 (AS), Acha/soybean and OFSP 50: 50(ASO), made into gruel and compared with a commercial infant formula (Cerelac) which served as the control (CTRL). The samples were analyzed for proximate composition using AOAC methods and sensory attributes using a hedonic scale. Results showed that moisture, crude protein, fibre and ash content increased significantly (p<0.05) as fermentation progressed, while carbohydrate and fat content decreased. The protein, moisture, fibre and ash content ranged from 17.10-19.02%, 54.97-56.27%, 7.08-7.60% and2.09-2.38%, respectively, while carbohydrate and fat content ranged from 12.95-10.21% and 5.81-4.52%, respectively. In sensory scores, there were no significant (p>0.05) difference between the average mean scores of colours, texture and consistency of the samples. The sensory score for the overall acceptability ranged from 6.20-7.80. Sample CTRL had the highest score, while sample ASO had the least score. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference between samples CTRL and AS. Solid-state fermentation improved the nutritional content and flavour of the developed complementary food, which is needed for infant growth and development.

Keywords: Complementary food, malnutrition, proximate composition, solid-state fermentation

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