Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3379

Search results for: female migrant worker’s rights

3379 Literature Review of Female Migrant Entrepreneurship Research

Authors: Dike Ike

Abstract:

Migrants foster innovation and economic development in host nations through their entrepreneurial activities. Female migrant entrepreneurship is gaining more attention from the research community, with several studies being conducted in the field. This paper presents a standalone (scoping) systematic literature review of academic literature related to female migrant entrepreneurship and focuses on their entrepreneurial experiences, strategies, outcomes, resources, and context. For this purpose, 13 articles published in research journals are studied based on their (a) objective, (b) research methods. Based on the review, several gaps in the literature were identified, and suggestions were made to fill the gaps in future research to expand the scientific knowledge on female migrant entrepreneurship.

Keywords: female migrant entrepreneurship, systematic literature review, female migrant entrepreneurship outcomes, female migrant entrepreneurship experiences, female migrant entrepreneurship strategies

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3378 Economic and Social Well-Being for Migrant Workers: Asian Experiences

Authors: Mohsin Reza, Thirunaukarasu Subramaniam, M. Rezaul Islam

Abstract:

In Asia, economic and social well-being issues are rarely addressed. The major characteristics of the migrant workers in Asian countries are seriously exploited, marginalized, and infrequently looked from human rights perspective. This paper explored the opportunities and shortages of economic and social well-being for the migrant workers in Asia. A Qualitative Interpretative Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was conducted to analyze the contextual socio-economic factors that characterized migrant workers’ economic and social well-being. It is perceived that in most of the recruiting countries, there are lacks of government commitments to the international protocols, conventions and laws that they ratified towards safeguarding migrant workers’ economic and social well-being. Results showed that the migrant workers had lack of job security, poor salary, long working hours, low access to the public services, poor health, poor living and working conditions, lack of legal rights, physical and mental threats. The finding would be important guideline to the governments, policy makers, legal rights practitioners, and human rights organizations.

Keywords: Asia, economic well-being, social well-being, migrant workers, human rights

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3377 Migrant Women’s Rights “with Chinese Characteristics: The State of Migrant Women in the People’s Republic of China

Authors: Leigha C. Crout

Abstract:

This paper will investigate the categorical disregard of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in establishing and maintaining a baseline standard of civil guarantees for economic migrant women and their dependents. In light of the relative forward strides in terms of policy facilitating the ascension of female workers in China, this oft-invisible subgroup of women remains neglected from the modern-day “iron rice bowl” of the self-identified communist state. This study is being undertaken to rectify the absence of data on this subject and provide a baseline for future studies on the matter, as the human rights of migrants has become an established facet of transnational dialogue and debate. The basic methodology of this research will consist of the evaluation of China’s compliance with its own national guidelines, and the eight international human rights law treaties it has ratified. Data will be extracted and cross-checked from a number of relevant sources to monitor the extent of compliance, including but by no means limited to the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) Universal Periodic Review (UPR) reports and responses, submissions and responses of international human rights treaty bodies, local and international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and their annual reports, and articles and commentaries authored by specialists on the modern state and implementation of Chinese law. Together, these data will illuminate the vast network of compliance that has forced many migrant women to work within situations of extreme economic precarity. The structure will proceed as follows: first, an outline of the current status of migrant workers and the enforcement of stipulated protections will be provided; next, the analysis of the oft-debated regulations directing and the outline of mandatory services guaranteed to external and internal migrants; and finally, a conclusion incorporating various recommendations to improve transparency and gradually decrease the amount of migrant work turned forced labor that typifies the economic migrant experience, especially in the case of women. The internal and international migrant workers in China are bound by different and uncomplimentary systems. The first, which governs Chinese citizens moving to different regions or provinces to find more sustainable employment (internal migrants), is called the hukou (or huji) residency system. This law enforces strict regulation of the movement of peoples, while ensuring that residents of urban areas receive preferential benefits to those received by their so-called “agricultural” resident counterparts. Given the overwhelming presence of the Communist Party of China throughout the vast state, the management of internal migrants and the disregard for foreign domestic workers is, at minimum, a surprising oversight. This paper endeavors to provide a much-needed foundation for future commentary and discussion on the treatment of female migrant workers and their families in the People’s Republic of China.

Keywords: female migrant worker’s rights, the People’s Republic of China, forced labor, Hukou residency system

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3376 Best Perform of Rights and Justice in the Brothel Based Female Sex Worker's Community

Authors: Md. Kabir Azaharul Islam

Abstract:

Background: The purpose of this interventions was to describe the source and extent to increase health seeking rights and uptake of quality integrated maternal health, family planning and HIV information, clinical-non clinical services, and commodities amongst young people age 10-24 among brothel based Female Sex Worker’s in Bangladesh. Such Knowledge will equip with information to develop more appropriate and effective interventions that address the problem of HIV/AIDS and SRHR within the brothel based female sex worker’s community. Methods: Before start the intervention we observed situation in brothel and identify lack of knowledge about health issues, modern health facility, sexual harassment and violence & health rights. To enable access to the intervention obtained permission from a series of stakeholders within the brothel system. This intervention to the most vulnerable young key people during January 2014 to December, 2015, it designed an intervention that focuses on using peer education and sensitization meeting with self help group leader’s, pimbs, swardarni, house owner, local leaders, law enforcement agencies and target young key people (YKPs) through peer educator’s distributed BCC materials and conducted one to one and group session issues of HIV/AIDS, life skill education, maternal health, sexual reproductive health & rights, gender based violence, STD/STI and drug users in the community. Set up community based satellite clinic to provided clinical-non clinical services and commodities for SRH, FP and HIV including general health among brothel based FSWs. Peer educator frequently move and informed target beneficiaries’ age 10-24 YKPs about satellite clinic as well as time & date in the community. Results: This intervention highly promotes of brothel based FSW utilization of local facility based health providers private and public health facilities.2400 FSWs age 10-24 received information on SRHR, FP and HIV as well as existing health facilities, most of FSWs to received service from traditional healer before intervention. More than 1080 FSWs received clinical-non clinical services and commodities from satellite clinic including 12 ANC, 12 PNC and 25 MR. Most of young FSW age 10-24 are treated bonded girls under swardarni, house owner and pimbs, they have no rights to free movement as per need. As a result, they have no rights for free movement. However the brothel self help group (SHG) has become sensitized flowing this intervention. Conclusions: The majority of female sex workers well being regarding information on SRHR, FP and HIV as well as local health facilities now they feel free to go outside facilities for better health service. not only increased FSWs’ vulnerability to HIV infection and sexual reproductive health rights but also had huge implications for their human rights. This means that even when some clients impinged FSW’s rights (for example avoiding payment for services under the pretext of dissatisfaction), they might not be able to seek redress for fear of being ejected from the brothel. They raise voice national & local level different forum.

Keywords: ANC, HIV, PNC, SRHR

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3375 Male Sex Workers’ Constructions of Selling Sex in South Africa

Authors: Tara Panday, Despina Learmonth

Abstract:

Sex work is often constructed as being an interaction between male clients and female sex workers. As a result, street-based male sex workers are continuously overlooked in the South African literature. This qualitative study explored male sex workers’ subjective experiences and constructions of their male clients’ identities and the client-sex worker relationship. This research was conducted from a social-constructionist perspective, which allowed for a deeper understanding of the reasons and context driving the choices and actions of male sex workers. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 10 South African men working as sex workers in Cape Town. Data was analysed through thematic analysis. The findings of the study construct the client-sex worker relationship in terms of a professional relationship, constrained choice, sexual identity and need, as well as companionship for pay, potentially highlighting underlying reasons for supply and demand. The data which emerged around the client-sex worker relationship and the clients’ identities also served to illuminate the power-dynamics in the client-sex worker relationship. This data increases insight into the exploitation and disempowerment experienced by male sex workers through verbal abuse, physical and sexual violence, and unfairly enforced laws and regulations. The findings of this study suggest that, in the context of South Africa, male sex workers' experiences of the client-sex worker relationship cannot be completely understood without considering the intersectionality of the triple stigmatisation of: the criminality of sex work, race, and the lack of economic power, which systematically maintains marginalization. Motivating for the Law Reform Commission to continue to review all emerging research may assist with guiding related policy and thereby, the provision of equal human rights and adequate health and social interventions for all sex workers in South Africa.

Keywords: human rights, prostitution, power relations, sex work

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3374 Gendered Narratives of ‘Respectability’: Migrant Garo Women and Their Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

Authors: A. Drong, K. S. Kerkhoff

Abstract:

Migration affects women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper reports on the social constructs of gender, and livelihood pursuits as beauty parlours workers amongst the young Garo women in Bangladesh, and studies changes in their accessibility to the healthcare services due to migration and livelihood. The paper is based on in-depth interviews and participant-led group discussions with 30 women working in various beauty parlours across the city. The data indicate that social perceptions of ‘good’, ‘bad’ and ‘respectable’ determine the expression of sexuality, and often dictates sexual and reproductive practices for these women. This study also reveals that unregulated work conditions, and the current cost of local healthcare services, have a strong impact on the women’s accessibility to the healthcare services; thus often limiting their choices to only customary and/or unqualified practitioners for abortions and child-births. Development programmes on migrant indigenous women’s health must, therefore, take the contextual gender norms and livelihood choices into account.

Keywords: gender, indigenous women, reproductive rights, sexual rights, Garo, migration, livelihood, healthcare

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3373 Intersectional Perspectives on Gender Equality in Higher Education: A Survey on Swiss Universities of Applied Science

Authors: Birgit Schmid, Brigitte Liebig, Susanne Burren, Maritza Le Breton, Martin Boehnel, Celestina Porta

Abstract:

Internationalization of students is part of the agenda of many universities worldwide. Yet, how well do universities achieve to guarantee educational success for male and female students of migrant background? This contribution aims on analyzing the effects of the Swiss university environment on perceived educational outcome of migrant students from a gender sensitive perspective. Social selectivity and gender inequalities strongly influence students’ access and success at universities. However, the complex interaction between universities and their disciplinary environments, and educational success of migrant students of both sex remains rarely examined so far. Starting from an intersectional perspective and neo-institutional approaches on higher education organizations, this contribution addresses formal/informal factors in the university environment in its impact on male/female students’ perception of well-being, success and dropout motivation. The paper starts from a most recent Swiss online-survey of Bachelor-students in two Universities of Applied Science and a University of Education in Switzerland. It compares students’ perspectives in four large BA degree courses with different male/female ratio, i.e. educational science, technical/computer science, economy, and social work (N=9`608). Results highlight the complex interplay of gender, migrant background and further dimensions of social differentiation on students’ perception in these different fields of education. Further, they illustrate correlations between students’ perception of discriminatory contexts, poor ratings of social integration and study success, as well a higher rate of dropout ideas. The paper lines out, that formal aspects of internationalization are less important for successfully integrating male/female migrant students than informal university conditions, such as a culture of diversity, which has to become integral part of internationalization strategies.

Keywords: gender and migration, higher education, internationalization, success

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3372 The Nexus between Migration and Human Security: The Case of Ethiopian Female Migration to Sudan

Authors: Anwar Hassen Tsega

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International labor migration is an integral part of the modern globalized world. However, the phenomenon has its roots in some earlier periods in human history. This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of female migration in Africa. In the past, African women migrants were only spouses or dependent family members. But as modernity swept most African societies, with rising unemployment rates, there is evidence everywhere in Africa that women labor migration is a growing phenomenon that deserves to be understood in the context of human security research. This work explores these issues further, focusing on the experience of Ethiopian women labor migrants to Sudan. The migration of Ethiopian people to Sudan is historical; nevertheless, labor migration mainly started since the discovery and subsequent exploration of oil in the Sudan. While the paper is concerned with the human security aspect of the migrant workers, we need to be certain that the migration process will provide with a decent wage, good working conditions, the necessary social security coverage, and labor protection as a whole. However, migration to Sudan is not always safe and female migrants become subject to violence at the hands of brokers, employers and migration officials. For this matter, the paper argued that identifying the vulnerable stages and major problem facing female migrant workers at various stages of migration is a prerequisite to combat the problem and secure the lives of the migrant workers. The major problems female migrants face include extra degrees of gender-based violence, underpayment, various forms of abuse like verbal, physical and sexual and other forms of torture which include beating and slaps. This peculiar situation could be attributed to the fact that most of these women are irregular migrants and fall under the category of unskilled and/or illiterate migrants.

Keywords: Ethiopia, human security, labor migration, Sudan

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3371 Unscrupulous Intermediaries in International Labour Migration of Nepal

Authors: Anurag Devkota

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Foreign employment serves to be the strongest pillar in engendering employment options for a large number of the young Nepali population. Nepali workers are forced to leave the comfort of their homes and are exposed to precarious conditions while on a journey to earn enough money to live better their lives. The exponential rise in foreign labour migration has produced a snowball effect on the economy of the nation. The dramatic variation in the economic development of the state has proved to establish the fact that migration is increasingly significant for livelihood, economic development, political stability, academic discourse and policy planning in Nepal. The foreign employment practice in Nepal largely incorporates the role of individual agents in the entire process of migration. With the fraudulent acts and false promises of these agents, the problems associated with every Nepali migrant worker starts at home. The workers encounter tremendous pre-departure malpractice and exploitation at home by different individual agents during different stages of processing. Although these epidemic and repetitive ill activities of intermediaries are dominant and deeply rooted, the agents have been allowed to walk free in the absence of proper laws to curb their wrongdoings and misconduct. It has been found that the existing regulatory mechanisms have not been utilised to their full efficacy and often fall short in addressing the actual concerns of the workers because of the complex legal and judicial procedures. Structural changes in the judicial setting will help bring perpetrators under the law and victims towards access to justice. Thus, a qualitative improvement of the overall situation of Nepali migrant workers calls for a proper 'regulatory' arrangement vis-à-vis these brokers. Hence, the author aims to carry out a doctrinal study using reports and scholarly articles as a major source of data collection. Various reports published by different non-governmental and governmental organizations working in the field of labour migration will be examined and the research will focus on the inductive and deductive data analysis. Hence, the real challenge of establishing a pro-migrant worker regime in recent times is to bring the agents under the jurisdiction of the court in Nepal. The Gulf Visit Study Report, 2017 prepared and launched by the International Relation and Labour Committee of Legislature-Parliament of Nepal finds that solving the problems at home solves 80 percent of the problems concerning migrant workers in Nepal. Against this backdrop, this research study is intended to determine the ways and measures to curb the role of agents in the foreign employment and labour migration process of Nepal. It will further dig deeper into the regulatory mechanisms of Nepal and map out essential determinant behind the impunity of agents.

Keywords: foreign employment, labour migration, human rights, migrant workers

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3370 Passport Confiscation as a Violation of Human Rights: Analysing the Kafala System

Authors: Samantha Vargas-Alfonso

Abstract:

The phenomenon of migration has been long-recorded since ancient history but never has mobility in huge numbers been so rapid and constant than that of the present. A significant portion of these migrants move for the promise of better economic subsistence by finding employment in foreign lands; while there are local and international instruments to protect these migrant workers, they still face human rights violations amongst other hurdles in integrating themselves into their host country. This research aims to look at the occurrence of Passport Confiscation for Filipino migrant workers (blue-collar workers) who are situated in Saudi Arabia. In addition to this, the study will look at the Kafala System which GCC countries practice regulating their foreign employees. The research attempts to prove that international conventions lack power in constraining the occurrence of passport confiscation and that while the kafala system exists, there is very little opportunity to address this issue.

Keywords: kafala, labor, migration, passport

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3369 Public Interest Law for Gender Equality: An Exploratory Study of the 'Single Woman Reproductive Rights' Movement in China

Authors: Xiaofei Zhu

Abstract:

As a 'weapon of the weak', the Public Interest Law can provide a better perspective for the cause of gender justice. In recent years, the legal practice of single female reproductive rights in China has already possessed the elements of public interest law activities and the possibility of public interest law operation. Through the general operating procedures of public interest law practice, that is, from the choice of subject, the planning of the case, the operation of the strategy and the later development, the paper analyzes the gains and losses of the legal practice of single female reproductive rights in China, and puts forward some ideas on its possible operation path. On this basis, it is believed that the cause of women's rights should be carried out under the broad human rights perspective; it is necessary to realize the particularity of different types of women's rights protection practice; the practice of public interest law needs to accurately grasp the constituent elements of all aspects of the case, and strive to find the opportunities of institutional and social change; the practice of public welfare law of gender justice should be carried out from a long-term perspective.

Keywords: single women’s reproductive rights, public interest law, gender justice, legal strategies, legal change

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3368 Cultural Self-Efficacy of Child Protection Social Workers in Norway: Barriers and Opportunities in Working with Migrant Families

Authors: Justyna Mroczkowska

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Social worker's ability to provide culturally sensitive assistance in child protection is taken for granted; given limited training opportunities and lack of clear guidance, practitioners report working with migrant families more demanding in comparison to working with native families. In this study, the author developed and factor analyzed the Norwegian Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale to describe the level of cultural capability among Norwegian child protection professionals. The study aimed to determine the main influencing factors to cultural efficacy and examine the relationship between self-efficacy and perceived difficulty in working with migrant families. The scale was administered to child protection workers in Norway (N=251), and the reliability of the scale measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .904. The confirmatory factor analysis of social work cultural self-efficacy found support for four separate but correlated subscales: Assessment, Communication, Support Request, and Teamwork. Regression analyses found the experience in working with migrant families, training and support from external agencies, and colleague support to be significant predictors of cultural self-efficacy. Self-efficacy in assessment skills and self-efficacy in communication skills were moderately related to the perceived difficulty to work with migrant families. The findings conclude with previous research and highlight the need for both professional development programs and institutional resources to be provided to support the practitioner's preparation for multicultural practice in child protection.

Keywords: child protection, cultural self-efficacy, cultural competency, migration, resources

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3367 Marginalized Children's Drawings Speak for Themselves: Self Advocacy for Protecting Their Rights

Authors: Bhavneet Bharti, Prahbhjot Malhi, Vandana Thakur

Abstract:

Introduction: Children of the urban migrant laborers have great difficulty in accessing government programs which are otherwise routinely available in rural settings. These include programs for child care, nutrition, health and education. There are major communicative fault-lines preventing advocacy for these marginalized children. The overarching aim of this study was to investigate the role of an innovative strategy of children’s drawings in supporting communication between children, social workers, pediatricians and other child advocates to fulfil their fundamental child rights. Materials and Methods: The data was collected over a period of one-year April 2015 to April 2016 during the routine visits by the members of the Social Pediatrics team including a social worker, pediatricians and an artist to the makeshift colony of migrant laborers. Once a week a drawing session was organized where the children including adolescents were asked to any drawing and provide a narrative thereafter. 5-30 children attended these weekly sessions for one year. All these drawings were then classified into various themes and exhibited on 16th April 2016 in the Govt. College of Art Museum. The forum was used for advocacy of Child Rights of these underprivileged children to Secretary social welfare. Results: Mean (SD) age of children in present observational study was 8.5 (2.5) years, with 60% of the boys. Majority of children demonstrated themes which were local and contextualized to their daily needs, threats and festivals which clearly underscored their fundamental right to basic services and equality of opportunities to achieve their full development Drawings of tap with flowing water, queues of people collecting water from hand pumps reflect the local problem of water availability for these children. Young children talking about fear of rape and murder following their drawings indicate the looming threat of potential abuse and neglect. Besides reality driven drawing, children also echoed supernatural beliefs, dangers and festivities in their drawings. Anyone who watched these children at work with art materials was able to see the intense level of absorption, clearly indicating the enjoyment they received, making it a meaningful activity. Indeed, this self-advocacy through art exhibition led to the successful establishment of mobile Anganwadi (A social safety net programme of the government) in their area of stay. Conclusions: This observational study is an example of how children were able to do self-advocacy to protect their rights. Of particular importance, these drawings address how psychologists and other child advocates can ensure in a child-centered manner that the voice of children is heard and represented in all assessments of their well-being and future care options.

Keywords: child advocacy, children drawings, child rights, marginalized children

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3366 Need for a Tailor Made HIV Prevention Services to the Migrants Community: Evidence from Implementing Migrant Service Delivery System (MSDS) among Migrant Workers, National AIDS Control Program, and India

Authors: Debasish Chowdhury, Sunil Mekale, Sarvanamurthy Sakthivel, Sukhvinder Kaur, Rambabu Khambampati, Ashok Agarwal

Abstract:

Introduction: The migrant intervention in India was initiated during the National AIDS Control Program (NACP) Phase-2 (2002-2007). HIV Sentinel surveillance Studies (HSS) conducted in 2012-13 indicated higher HIV prevalence among migrants (0.99%) compared to general populations (0.35%). Migrants continue to bear a heightened risk of HIV infection which results from the condition and structure of the migration process. USAID PHFI-PIPPSE project in collaboration with the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) developed a unique system called Migrant Service Delivery System (MSDS) to capture migrants profile with respect to their risk profile and to provide tailor made services to them. Description: MSDS is a web-based system, designed and implemented to increase service uptake among migrants through evidence based planning. 110 destination migrants Targeted Intervention (TI) from 11 states were selected for study with varied target populations in terms of occupations; to understand occupation related risk behaviors among the migrants. Occupation wise registration data of high risk vulnerable migrants were analyzed through MSDS for the period April 2014–June 2016. Analysis was made on specific indicators among these occupational groups to understand the risk behavior and their vulnerability to HIV and STIs. Findings: Out of total HIV positive migrant’s workers (N= 847) enrolled in MSDS HIV rate is found to be highest among Auto-Rickshaw (18.66%) followed by Daily wage laborers (14.46%), Loom workers (10.73%), Industrial workers (10.04%) and Construction worker 7.93%. With 45.14% positivity, industrial workers are found to be most vulnerable to Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) (N=10057) among all occupational categories followed by loom workers (16.28%), Skilled worker (Furniture, Jeweler)-7.14%, daily wage laborers (5.45%). Conclusion: MSDS is an effective tool to assess migrants’ risk and their vulnerability to HIV for designing evidence informed program. This system calls for a replication across all destination TIs by NACO for differential strategies for different occupation groups to ensure better yield through scientific planning of intervention among high risk and high vulnerable migrants.

Keywords: migrants, migrant service delivery system, risk, vulnerability

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3365 Critical Reading Achievement of Rural Migrant Children in China: The Roles of Educational Expectation

Authors: Liman Zhao, Jianlong Zhang, Mingman Ren, Chuang Wang, Jian Liu

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Rural migrant children have become a fast-growing population in China as a consequence of the large-scale population flow from rural to urban areas in the context of urbanization. In China, the socioeconomic status of migrant children is relatively low in comparison to non-migrant children. Parents of migrant children often work in occupations with long working hours, high labor intensity, and low pay due to their poor academic qualifications. Most migrant children's parents have not received higher education and have no time to read with their children. The family of migrant children usually does not have a good collection of books either, which leads to these children’s insufficient reading and low reading levels. Moreover, migrant children frequently relocate with their parents, and their needs for knowledge and reading are often neglected by schools, which puts migrant children at risk of academic failure in China. Therefore, the academic achievement of rural migrant children has become a focus of education in China. This study explores the relationship between the educational expectation of rural migrant children and their critical reading competence in general and the moderating effect of the difference between parental educational expectation to their children and the children’s own educational expectation. The responses to a survey from 5113 seventh-grade children in a district of the capital city in China revealed that children who moved to cities in grades 4-6 of primary school performed the best in critical reading, and children who moved to cities after middle school showed the worst performance in critical reading. In addition, parents’ educational expectations of their children and their own educational expectations were both significant predictors of rural migrant children’s reading competence. The higher a child's expectations of a degree and the smaller the gap between parents' expectations of a child's education and the child's own education expectations, the better the child's performance in critical reading.

Keywords: educational expectation, critical reading competence, rural migrant children, moderating effect

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3364 Transformation and Integration: Iranian Women Migrants and the Use of Social Media in Australia

Authors: Azadeh Davachi

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Although there is a growing interest in Iranian female migration and gender roles, little attention has been paid to how Iranian migrant women in Australia access and sustain social networks, both locally and spatially dispersed over time. Social network theories have much to offer an analysis of migrant’s social ties and interpersonal relationships. Thus, it is important to note that social media are not only new communication channels in a migration network but also that they actively transform the nature of these networks and thereby facilitate migration for migrants. Drawing on that, this article will focus on Iranian women migrants and the use of social media in migration in Australia. Based on the case of main social networks such as Facebook and Instagram; this paper will investigate that how women migrants use these networks to facilitate the process of migration and integration. In addition, with the use of social networks, they could promote their home business and as a result become more engaged economically in Australian society. This paper will focus on three main Iranian pages in Instagram and Facebook, they will contend that compared to men, women are more active in these social networks. Consequently, as this article will discuss with the use of these social media Iranian migrant women can become more engaged and overcome post migration hardships, thus, gender plays a key role in using social media in migrant communities. Based on these findings from these social media pages, this paper will conclude that social media are transforming migration networks and thereby lowering the threshold for migration. It also will be demonstrated that these networks boost Iranian women’s confidence and lead them to become more visible in Iranian migrant communities comparing to men.

Keywords: integration, gender, migration, women migrants

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3363 European Refugee Camps and the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living: Advancing Accountability under International Human Rights Law

Authors: Genevieve Zingg

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Since the onset of the 2015 ‘refugee crisis’ in the European Union (EU), migrant deaths have overwhelmingly occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. However, far less attention has been paid to the startling number of injuries, deaths, and allegations of systematic human rights violations occurring within European refugee camps. Most troubling is the assertion that injuries and deaths in EU refugee camps have occurred as a result of negligent management and poor access to healthcare, food, water and sanitation, and other elements that comprise an adequate standard of living under international human rights law. Using available evidence and documentation, this paper will conduct a thorough examination of the causes of death and injury in EU refugee camps, with a specific focus on Greece, in order to identify instances of negligence or conditions that amount to potential breaches of human rights law. Based on its analysis, this paper will subsequently explore potential legal avenues to achieving justice and accountability under international human rights law in order to effectively address and remedy inadequate standards of living causing wrongful death or injury in European refugee camps.

Keywords: European Union, Greece, human rights, international human rights law, migration, refugees

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3362 Female Labor as a Social Right: A Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Claudia Borges Colcerniani

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The paper is about a qualitative study whose main objective is to know how labor, as a Brazilian constitutionally established social right, can promote the social inclusion of female heads of one-parent families in a situation of poverty. The participants are six women, mothers, and workers living in Rocinha, a community located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. According to the Brazilian Federal Constitution, social rights are based on the idea that socioeconomic inequalities should not limit or eliminate civil and political rights. In this perspective, labor can be a way to reach social justice, according to the theory of Nancy Fraser, the theoretical framework adopted in this research. Data were collected through socioeconomic questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews applied individually. The results analysis was made using the content analysis/categorical content analysis, according to Bardin's perspective. The results indicate that labor (as a social right) is considered, by the interviewed women, as an opportunity for social inclusion when there are the characteristics of the formality in accordance with the international labor regulations (Decent Work - International Labour Organization/United Nations).

Keywords: female labor, social justice, inclusion, women, decent work

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3361 A Study Concerning Foreign Worker Migration in Thailand

Authors: Napatsorn Suput-Anyaporn

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This paper aimed to investigate multilateral relationships across the factors which included labor shortage, trade union, turnover rate of employee, labor law and regulation, and effectiveness of foreign worker administration in the scope of foreign workers in the industrial manufacturing sector of Thailand. The research employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches, in which foreign workers from Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia in the industrial manufacturing sector in selected areas of Thailand were sampled for the quantitative data collection, and persons in the chief executive management and the supervisor levels, and persons in the academic area in relation with foreign workers were selected as the sample for the qualitative data collection method. Thus, a questionnaire, in-depth interview and focus group were utilized as tools in this research paper. The discussion placed an emphasis on the fact that Thailand should design more effective law and regulations for the foreign workers administration and management in response to preparing for the coming ASEAN Economic Community with the declaration of the free- flow labor movement policy.

Keywords: industrial manufacturing sector, labor law and regulation, labor shortage, migrant worker, trade union, turnover rate of employee

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3360 An Ethnographic Study on How Namibian Sex Workers Experience Their Violation of Rights

Authors: Tessa Verhallen, Mama Africa

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By co-constructing personal narratives of sex workers in Namibia this paper represents how sex workers experience their violation of rights in Namibia. It is written from an emic (as an advisor for a sex worker-led organization named Rights not Rescue Trust) and an etic (as an ethnographer) point of view, in collaboration with the staff of the organization Rights not Rescue Trust. This organization represents circa 3000 members. The paper describes the current deplorable situation of sex workers in Namibia, encompassing the stigma and discrimination they face, their struggle to have their work decriminalized and their urge to advocate for human rights and the end of violations. Based on a triangular research design (ethnography, narratives, literature study, human rights’ training and counseling sessions) the authors show that sex workers, particularly LGBTI sex workers, are extremely vulnerable to emotional, physical, and sexual violence in Namibia. The main perpetrators of violence turn out to be not only clients and intimate partners but also law enforcement officers and health care workers who are supposed to protect and support sex workers. The sex workers’ narratives voice their disgraceful circumstances regarding how their rights are violated. It also highlights their importance to fight for their rights and access to health care, legal services and education in order to improve the sexual reproductive health of sex workers.

Keywords: HIV/aids, LGBTI, methodological innovative, sex work

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3359 Evaluation of Postural Stability in Female Patients with Structural Scoliosis

Authors: Ghada M. R. Koura, Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi

Abstract:

Background: structural scoliosis is a twisting deformity in the curve of vertebral column to the lateral side with simultaneous rotation of the vertebrae, which occurs during the growing years from 10 years to the puberty. Purpose: Studies investigating balance problems specific to scoliotic patients showed that those patients reveal variable balance abnormalities. In this study we evaluated the difference in postural stability responses between female patients (students, office worker and shish weapon players) with structural scoliosis and normal subjects. Methods: sixty subjects participated in this study. Thirty female patients with structural scoliosis with a mean age of (19.5 ± 3.26) years, with Cobb's angle ranged from 20º to 40° in the major curves, and thirty healthy female subjects with a mean age of (19.36 ± 2.41) years. Postural stability of both groups were evaluated by the Biodex Stability System. Results: There was no significant difference between both groups in dynamic balance test. Interpretation/Conclusion: As there was no significant difference between both groups in balance response, it is not recommended to add balance training as an extra physical therapy program for AIS female patients.

Keywords: structural scoliosis, postural stability, female patients, evaluation

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3358 Implied Fundamental Rights under Article 21 of the Constitution of India: Effects and Applicability

Authors: N. Sathish Gowda

Abstract:

A constitution without fundamental rights will become zero. The very object of constitution of three organs viz, legislature, executive and judiciary under the constitution of India is to protect, preserve and promote fundamental rights guaranteed under part-III. In India, along with express fundamental rights, Supreme Court has also recognized implied fundamental rights. But, unfortunately State has not been implementing these implied fundamental rights. In this regard, this research paper discusses the catalogue of implied fundamental rights evolved by the judiciary in interpreting Article 21 of the Constitution of India and seeks to examine the effects and applicability of these rights in India.

Keywords: fundamental rights, nuances of Article 21, express fundamental rights, implied fundamental rights, procedure established by law

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3357 Second-Generation Mozambican Migrant Youth’s Identity and Sense of Belonging in South Africa: The Case of Rural Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga

Authors: Betty Chiyangwa

Abstract:

This paper explores the complexities surrounding second-generation Mozambican migrant youth’s identity and sense of belonging in post-apartheid South Africa, Bushbuckridge. Established in 1884, Bushbuckridge is one of the earliest districts to accommodate first-generation Mozambicans who migrated to South Africa in the 1970s. This is a single case study informed by data from 24 semi-structured interviews and narratives with migrant youth (18-34 years) born and raised in South Africa to Mozambican parent(s) living in Bushbuckridge. Drawing from Sen’s Capability and Crenshaw’s Intersectionality approaches, this paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge on South to South migration by demonstrating how the role of participants’ identity status influences their agency and capability. The subject of youth migrants is often under-researched in the context of migration in South African thus, their opinions and views have often been marginalized in sociology. Through exploring participants’ experiences, this paper reveals that lack of identity status was described to be a huge hindrance to participants to identify as South Africans and they explained that is a constant distortion of their sense of belonging. Un-documentation status restricts participants and threatens their mobility and hinders their agency to access human rights and perpetuates social inequalities as well as hampering future aspirations. This paper concludes there is a strong association between identity status and levels of social integration. The development of a multi-layered comprehensive model in enhancing participants’ identity is recommended. This model encourages a collaborative effort from multiple stakeholders in enhancing and harnessing migrant youth capabilities in host societies.

Keywords: migrant youth, mozambique, second-generation, south africa

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3356 The Impact of Customary Law on Children's Rights in Botswana

Authors: Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema

Abstract:

Botswana has a dual legal system, one based on customary law and the other on the received law. This appears clearly from the Constitution that ring-fenced customary law from any constitutional scrutiny. A customary practice may continue even if it discriminates against women and children. As a result of this, numerous human rights of children are infringed. Firstly, if parents are married under customary law and separated, the custody is granted to the father and the mother merely having the right to visit. Secondly, female children are not entitled to inherit property. Thirdly, there is no age for marriage under customary law and even a child at the age of 10 years can get married. Lastly, marital power of a husband still continues under customary law and therefore females are still treated as perpetual minors. The latter infringement of rights is not in the best interests of children and conflicts with Botswana’s international obligations. Botswana is a signatory of various international and regional human rights instruments and it is suggested that it has to accelerate the incorporation of human rights instruments into domestic law in order to safeguard the best interest of children.

Keywords: custody, marital power, children's best interest, customary law

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3355 Human Rights Abuse in the Garment Factory in Bekasi Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

Abstract:

Although the Indonesian human rights protection has increased in recent years, but human rights violations still occur in the industrial sector. Crimes against human rights continue to occur and go unnoticed in spite of the government's legislation on human rights, employment law in addition to an international treaty that has been ratified by Indonesia. The increasing number of garment companies in Bekasi, also give rise to increased human rights violations since the government does not have a commitment to protect it. The Indonesian government and industry owners should pay attention to and protect the human rights of workers and treat them accordingly. This paper will review the human rights violations experienced by workers at garment factories in the context of the law, as well as ideas to improve the protection of workers' rights.

Keywords: human rights protection, human rights violations, workers’ rights, justice, security

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3354 An AHP Study on The Migrant and Refugee Employees Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Turkey

Authors: Cengiz Akyildiz, Ismail Ekmekci

Abstract:

In the past 15 years, many people have sought refuge and emigrated to developed countries due to the civil war in Syria, terrorism and turmoil in Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan, hunger problems in Africa and the purpose of work. Many of these people came to Turkey. By the end of the 2019, in Turkey, regular and irregular migrants, asylum seekers and foreigners under international protection are about 6 million people. The majority of these people are Syrians. Approximately 2 800 000 immigrants and refugees are in the workforce. Migrant workers in our country constitute the largest proportion among all countries in the world according to the local labor force. 2.5 million of these employees, with a high rate of about 90%, work informally and do not have legal records and valid employment contracts as a workforce; They cannot benefit from Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) services. Migrant workers generally receive less wages than local workers, working longer hours and worse conditions; they are often subjected to human rights violations, harassment, human trafficking and violence. Migrant workers face problems such as OHS practices, environmental and occupational exposures, language / cultural barriers, access to health services, and lack of documentation. Therefore, the OHS problems of these employees are becoming an increasingly problematic area. However, there is not enough research, analysis and academic studies in this field. The order of importance should be known for the radical solution of the problems, because of the problems with high severity are also at high risk. In this study, for the first time, a Search Conference was held with the participation of 45 stakeholders to reveal the OHS problems of regular and irregular migrant workers in our country. The problems arising from this workshop were compared with the problems in the literature and the problems in this field were determined and weighted for our country. Later, to determine the significance levels of these problems, AHP study, which is a Multi Criteria Decision Making Method in which 15 experts participated, was conducted and the significance levels of these problems were determined. When the data obtained are evaluated, it has been seen that the OSH risks of migrant workers arise from 58% laws and government policies, 29% from employers, 13% from personal faults of employees. An academic study has been carried out for the first time in this field regarding the OHS problems of migrant workers, and an academic study has been created to guide which of the problems should be prioritized.

Keywords: environmental conditions, migrant workers, OHS issues, workplace conditions

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3353 Sacred Spaces, Scarred Bodies: Understanding Forms of and Meanings Associated with Female Circumcision amongst Somali Women in Johannesburg

Authors: Z. Jinnah

Abstract:

International migration is associated with a disruption of social environments and social control. At the same time, the reproduction of cultural and social norms in the Diaspora provides a space for the (re)negotiation of gender roles, rights, and practices. This paper explores the relationship between mobility and the practice of female circumcision amongst Somalis in Johannesburg. Based on 4 years of ethnographic fieldwork, this paper explores the social determinants of cultural norms and practices, the linkages between class and tradition, and argues that the new social environment in South Africa conditions the ways in which Somali women relate to their bodies, and therefore understand the meanings associated with and practices of female circumcision.

Keywords: migration, gender, Somali women, female circumcision, Johannesburg

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3352 Asylum Seekers' Legal Limbo under the Migrant Protection Protocols: Implications from a US-Mexico Border Project

Authors: Tania M. Guerrero, Ileana Cortes Santiago

Abstract:

Estamos Unidos Asylum Project has served more than 2,000 asylum seekers and migrants who are under the Migrant Protection Protocols (MPP) policy in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. The U.S. policy, implemented in January 2019, has stripped asylum seekers of their rights—forcing people fleeing violence and discrimination to wait in similar or worse conditions from which they fled and navigate their entire asylum process in a different country. Several civil rights groups, including the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), challenged MPP in U.S. federal courts in February 2019, arguing a violation of international U.S. obligations towards refugees and asylum-seekers under the 1951 Refugee Convention and the Refugee Act of 1980 in regards to the non-refoulement principle. MPP has influenced Mexico's policies, enforcement, and prioritization of the presence of asylum seekers and migrants; it has also altered the way international non-governmental organizations work at the Mexican Northern border. Estamos Unidos is a project situated in a logistical conundrum, as it provides needed legal services to a population in a legal and humanitarian void, i.e., a liminal space. The liminal space occupied by asylum seekers living under MPP is one that, in today's world, should not be overlooked; it dilutes asylum law and U.S. commitments to international protections. This paper provides analysis of and broader implications from a project whose main goal is to uphold the protections of asylum seekers and international refugee law. The authors identified and analyzed four critical points based on field work conducted since August 2019: (1) strategic coalition building with international, local, and national organizations; (2) brokering between domestic and international contexts and critical legal constraints; (3) flexibility to sudden policy changes and the diverse needs of the multiethnic groups of migrants and asylum seekers served by the project; and (4) the complexity of providing legal assistance to asylum seekers who are survivors of trauma. The authors concur with scholarship when highlighting the erosion of protections of asylum seekers and migrants as a dangerous and unjust global phenomenon.

Keywords: asylum, human rights, migrant protection protocols, refugees law

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3351 Informalization and Feminization of Labour Force in the Context of Globalization of Production: Case Study of Women Migrant Workers in Kinfra Apparel Park of India

Authors: Manasi Mahanty

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In the current phase of globalization, the mobility of capital facilitates outsourcing and subcontracting of production processes to the developing economies for cheap and flexible labour force. In such process, the globalization of production networks operates at multi-locational points within the nation. Under the new quota regime in the globalization period, the Indian manufacturing exporters came under the influence of corporate buyers and large retailers from the importing countries. As part of such process, the garment manufacturing sector is expected to create huge employment opportunities and to expand the export market in the country. While following these, expectations, the apparel and garment industries mostly target to hire female migrant workers with a purpose of establishing more flexible industrial relations through the casual nature of employment contract. It leads to an increasing women’s participation in the labour market as well as the rise in precarious forms of female paid employment. In the context, the main objective of the paper is to understand the wider dynamics of globalization of production and its link with informalization, feminization of labour force and internal migration process of the country. For this purpose, the study examines the changing labour relations in the KINFRA Apparel Park at Kerala’s Special Economic Zone which operates under the scheme ‘Apparel Parks for Export’ (APE) of the Government of India. The present study was based on both quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the first, the secondary sources of data were collected from the source location (SEAM centre) and destination (KINFRA Park). The official figures and data were discussed and analyzed in order to find out the various dimensions of labour relations under globalization of production. In the second, the primary survey was conducted to make a comparative analysis of local and migrant female workers. The study is executed by taking 100 workers in total. The local workers comprised of 53% of the sample whereas the outside state workers were 47%. Even personal interviews with management staff, and workers were also made for collecting the information regarding the organisational structure, nature, and mode of recruitment, work environment, etc. The study shows the enormous presence of rural women migrant workers in KINFRA Apparel Park. A Public Private Partnership (PPP) arranged migration system is found as Skills for Employment in Apparel Manufacturing (SEAM) from where young women and girls are being sent to work in garment factories of Kerala’s KINFRA International Apparel Park under the guise of an apprenticeship based recruitment. The study concludes that such arrangements try to avoid standard employment relationships and strengthen informalization, casualization and contractualization of work. In this process, the recruitment of women migrant workers is to be considered as best option for the employers of private industries which could be more easily hired and fired.

Keywords: female migration, globalization, informalization, KINFRA apparel park

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3350 Effect of National Sovereignty of Non-Citizens Human Rights Standards: Mediterranean Irregular Immigrants Case

Authors: Azin Karami, Bahareh Heydari

Abstract:

There is a difference between national sovereignty ( national security guarantee) and human rights standards (human security guarantee). Under the pretext of providing security for the majority, Governments violate human rights standards and lead to populism. This paper illustrates despite the human rights standards of non-citizens, they mostly confront different practical and social realities. (a large gap between the reality and the truth). This paper has focused on one of vulnerable irregular non-citizens immigrants from Mediterranean . In addition, it has considered challenges of the basic and primary human rights standards of this group. It shows how government policies affect the flow of irregular immigration. This paper is based upon UN data about Mediterranean immigrants and polls answered by 68 people who intended to migrate from Mediterranean (28 female and 40 male people, the average age of 30 to 40). The model is supposed to be a convenient one to present objective, real evidence of irregular immigrants and discusses the challenges that this group of immigrants confront them .This paper shows clear concept of immigrants.

Keywords: human rights, human security, national sovereignty, irregular immigrants

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