Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 148

Search results for: fecal coliform

148 Infection Risk of Fecal Coliform Contamination in Drinking Water Sources of Urban Slum Dwellers: Application of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment

Authors: Sri Yusnita Irda Sari, Deni Kurniadi Sunjaya, Ardini Saptaningsih Raksanagara

Abstract:

Water is one of the fundamental basic needs for human life, particularly drinking water sources. Although water quality is getting better, fecal-contamination of water is still found around the world, especially in the slum area of mid-low income countries. Drinking water source contamination in urban slum dwellers increases the risk of water borne diseases. Low level of sanitation and poor drinking water supply known as risk factors for diarrhea, moreover bacteria-contaminated drinking water source is the main cause of diarrhea in developing countries. This study aimed to assess risk infection due to Fecal Coliform contamination in various drinking water sources in urban area by applying Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). A Cross-sectional survey was conducted in a period of August to October 2015. Water samples were taken by simple random sampling from households in Cikapundung river basin which was one of urban slum area in the center of Bandung city, Indonesia. About 379 water samples from 199 households and 15 common wells were tested. Half of the households used treated drinking water from water gallon mostly refill water gallon which was produced in drinking water refill station. Others used raw water sources which need treatment before consume as drinking water such as tap water, borehole, dug well and spring water source. Annual risk to get infection due to Fecal Coliform contamination from highest to lowest risk was dug well (1127.9 x 10-5), spring water (49.7 x 10-5), borehole (1.383 x 10-5) and tap water (1.121 x 10-5). Annual risk infection of refill drinking water was 1.577 x 10-5 which is comparable to borehole and tap water. Household water treatment and storage to make raw water sources drinkable is essential to prevent risk of water borne diseases. Strong regulation and intense monitoring of refill water gallon quality should be prioritized by the government; moreover, distribution of tap water should be more accessible and affordable especially in urban slum area.

Keywords: drinking water, quantitative microbiological risk assessment, slum, urban

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147 Water Resources and Sanitation in Public Schools of Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao

Authors: Lahaina U. Dilangalen

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Using descriptive-experimental research methods, this study aimed to identify the main resources of water, assessed the water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices, and extent of implementation. Complete enumeration was done in 28 elementary public schools of Datu Odin Sinsuat Municipality. Questionnaires were given to the school advisers. Water samples were obtained from the same schools and were submitted to the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) Region XII for microbial analysis, specifically the presence of fecal coliform bacteria. Four water resources such as hand pump, faucet, deep well and spring were found being used in the 28 schools. Of water resources, the only treated was from the faucet. Most of the schools used the water for drinking and washing. Two schools strongly agreed, nine schools agreed and seventeen schools disagreed that they implemented DepEd Order no.56 s. 2009. In addition, two schools strongly agreed and twenty six agreed that they implemented DepEd Order No. 65 s. 2009. Five schools had water supply that were safe to drink while sixteen schools had water supply that were not safe to drink due to high fecal coliform count and did not undergo chemical treatment. The only safe for drinking were water resources that came from faucet because they were chemically treated. Seven out of 28 schools did not have water supply due to their location in mountainous areas. More than half of the schools did not comply with the DepEd Order No. 56 s. 2009 due to the lack of funds and support from the PTA and LGU. It is recommended that the Department of Education must have an urgent assessment of implementing both DepEd Orders No.56 and 65, to assure that the schoolchildren be protected from water and sanitation related ailments. Also, all water resources that are not treated must be used for washing only. Ideally, all the water resources must be treated to assure the safety of all school constituents. Moreover, the school administrators and teachers in the municipality must be provided copies of the results of this study for reference in implementing the said programs.

Keywords: assessment, drinking water, fecal coliform, groundwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
146 Application of Random Forest Model in The Prediction of River Water Quality

Authors: Turuganti Venkateswarlu, Jagadeesh Anmala

Abstract:

Excessive runoffs from various non-point source land uses, and other point sources are rapidly contaminating the water quality of streams in the Upper Green River watershed, Kentucky, USA. It is essential to maintain the stream water quality as the river basin is one of the major freshwater sources in this province. It is also important to understand the water quality parameters (WQPs) quantitatively and qualitatively along with their important features as stream water is sensitive to climatic events and land-use practices. In this paper, a model was developed for predicting one of the significant WQPs, Fecal Coliform (FC) from precipitation, temperature, urban land use factor (ULUF), agricultural land use factor (ALUF), and forest land-use factor (FLUF) using Random Forest (RF) algorithm. The RF model, a novel ensemble learning algorithm, can even find out advanced feature importance characteristics from the given model inputs for different combinations. This model’s outcomes showed a good correlation between FC and climate events and land use factors (R2 = 0.94) and precipitation and temperature are the primary influencing factors for FC.

Keywords: water quality, land use factors, random forest, fecal coliform

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
145 Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions on Water Quality in Primary Schools of Pakistan

Authors: Jamil Ahmed, Li P. Wong, Yan P. Chua

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The United Nation's sustainable development goals include the target to ensure access to water and sanitation for all; however, very few studies have assessed school-based drinking water in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to characterize water quality in primary schools of Pakistan and to characterize how recent WASH interventions were associated with school water quality. We conducted a representative cross-sectional study of primary schools in the Sindh province of Pakistan. We used structured observations and structured interviews to ascertain the school’s WASH conditions. Our primary exposures of interest were the implementation of previous WASH interventions in the school and the water source type. Outcomes of interest included water quality (measured by various chemical and microbiological indicators) and water availability at the school’s primary drinking water source. We used log-binomial regression to characterize how WASH exposures were associated with water quality outcomes. We collected data from 256 schools. Groundwater was the primary drinking water source at most schools (87%). Water testing showed that 14% of the school’s water had arsenic above the WHO recommendations, and over 50% of the water samples exceeded recommendations for both lead and cadmium. A majority of the water sources (52%) had fecal coliform contamination. None of the schools had nitrate contamination (0%), and few had fluoride contamination (5%). Regression results indicated that having a recent WASH intervention at the school was not associated with either arsenic contamination (prevalence ratio=0.97; 95% CI: 0.46-2.1) or with fecal coliform contamination (PR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.67-1.17). Our assessment unveiled several water quality gaps that exist, including high heavy metal and fecal contamination. Our findings will help various stakeholders to take suitable action to improve water quality in Pakistani schools.

Keywords: WASH interventions, water quality, primary school children, heavy metals

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144 Assessment of Water Quality of Selected Lakes of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: K. P. Ganesh, T. Gomathi, L. Arul Pragasan

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Degradation of lake water quality is one of the serious environmental threats for the last few decades, particularly, the lakes situated in and around urban and industrial areas. The present study aimed to analyze the physicochemical and biological parameters, and metal elements to determine the water quality of Krishnampathi, Ukkadam, Kurichi, Sulur and Singanallur Lakes. Of the 23 physicochemical parameters analyzed in the five lakes, except TDS, Chloride and Total hardness values all the 20 parameters were found within the prescribed limit as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). In case of biological parameter, both Total Coliform and Fecal Coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli) were identified. This indicates the contamination of lakes by fecal matter, and warns of potential of disease causing by viruses, bacteria and other organisms. Among the twelve metal elements (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd and Pb) determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, except Cd (for all lakes), and Pb (for Ukkadam, Kurichi, Sulur & Singanallur), all the elements were found above the prescribed limits of BIS. The results of the present study revealed that all the five major lakes of Coimbatore were contaminated. It is recommended that proper implementation of the new wetland waste management system and monitoring of water quality be of the urgent need to sustain the water bodies for future generations.

Keywords: heavy metals, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, physicochemical and biological parameters, water quality

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143 Bacteriological Safety of Sachet Drinking Water Sold in Benin City, Nigeria

Authors: Stephen Olusanmi Akintayo

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Access to safe drinking water remains a major challenge in Nigeria, and where available, the quality of the water is often in doubt. An alternative to the inadequate clean drinking water is being found in treated drinking water packaged in electrically heated sealed nylon and commonly referred to as “sachet water”. “Sachet water” is a common thing in Nigeria as the selling price is within the reach of members of the low socio- economic class and the setting up of a production unit does not require huge capital input. The bacteriological quality of selected “sachet water” stored at room temperature over a period of 56 days was determined to evaluate the safety of the sachet drinking water. Test for the detection of coliform bacteria was performed, and the result showed no coliform bacteria that indicates the absence of fecal contamination throughout 56 days. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) was done at an interval 14 days, and the samples showed HPC between 0 cfu/mL and 64 cfu/mL. The highest count was observed on day 1. The count decreased between day 1 and 28, while no growths were observed between day 42 and 56. The decrease in HPC suggested the presence of residual disinfectant in the water. The organisms isolated were identified as Staphylococcus epidermis and S. aureus. The presence of these microorganisms in sachet water is indicative for contamination during processing and handling.

Keywords: coliform, heterotrophic plate count, sachet water, Staphyloccocus aureus, Staphyloccocus epidermidis

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142 Bacteriological Quality and Physicochemical Water Beaches of the City of Annaba (Mediterranean Sea)

Authors: Wahiba Boudraa, Farah Chettibbi, Meriem Aberkane, Fatma Djamaa, Moussa Houhamdi

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The intensity of human activities in regions surrounding the Mediterranean Sea always has a strong long-term environmental impact resulting in coastal and marine degradation, as well as an aggravated risk of more serious damage. The available data on water quality show that most water resources in Algeria are polluted by uncontrolled discharges from municipal sewage and untreated industrial effluents. Annaba is a coastal town in Algeria; The Gulf of Annaba, responds to these changes as it receives the continental inputs and urban waste, industrial without prior treatment of a highly industrialized and urbanized city, subject to the same environmental problems that know the rest of the Algerian coast. In later year, the beaches of bacterial enumeration process waters showed relatively high levels of bacterial indicators of fecal contamination (group D streptococci, total and fecal coliforms), which reflect the risks to people attending these beaches. During the twelve months of our study, we isolated from three beaches in the city of Annaba (St. Cloud, El-Kettara, and Djenane El Bey) a number of pathogenic microorganisms considered, namely: Salmonella, Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Yersinia, Enterococcus, and E.coli. The microbial count revealed elevated levels of coliform bacteria, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci quite high especially in urban beaches (St. Cloud and El-Kettara). They are widely popular during the summer by many vacationers. For the physico-chemical parameters, there exist some weak values which increase during the pluvial period, hivernal and festival saison. These values remain, nevertheless, weak to be able to cause an organic or metallic pollution.

Keywords: quality microbiology, pollution of water, fecal contamination, physico-chemistry, beaches of Annaba city, Algeria.

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141 Seasonal Effect of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria into the Environment from Treated Sewage Effluents

Authors: S. N. Al-Bahry, S. K. Al-Musharafi, I. Y. Mahmoud

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Recycled treated sewage effluents (TSE) is used for agriculture, Public park irrigation and industrial purposes. TSE was found to play a major role in the distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. Fecal coliform and enterococci counts were significantly higher during summer compared to winter seasons. Oman has low annual rainfall with annual average temperature varied between 15-45oC. The main source of potable water is from seawater desalination. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antibiotics (Amikacin, Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycine, minocylin, nalidixicacid, neomycin, streptomycin, Tetracycline, Tobramycin, and Trimethoprim) was tested. Both fecal coliforms and enterococci were multiple resistant to 2-10 antibiotics. However, temperature variation during summer and winter did not affect resistance of the isolates to antibiotics. The significance of this investigation may be indicator to the environmental TSE pollution.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacteria, environment, sewage treated effluent

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140 Investigation of Pollution and the Physical and Chemical Condition of Polour River, East of Tehran, Iran

Authors: Azita Behbahaninia

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This research has been carried out to determine the water quality and physico-chemical properties Polour River, one of the most branch of Haraz River. Polour River was studied for a period of one year Samples were taken from different stations along the main branch of River polour. In water samples determined pH, DO, SO4, Cl, PO4, NO3, EC, BOD, COD, Temprature, color and number of Caliform per liter. ArcGIS was used for the zoning of phosphate concentration in the polour River basin. The results indicated that the river is polluted in polour village station, because of discharge domestic wastewater and also river is polluted in Ziar village station, because of agricultural wastewater and water is contaminated in aquaculture station, because of fish ponds wastewater. Statistical analysis shows that between independent traits and coliform regression relationship is significant at the 1% level. Coefficient explanation index indicated independent traits control 80% coliform and 20 % is for unknown parameters. The causality analysis showed Temperature (0.6) has the most positive and direct effect on coliform and sulfate has direct and negative effect on coliform. The results of causality analysis and the results of the regression analysis are matched and other forms direct and indirect effects were negligible and ignorable. Kruskal-Wallis test showed, there is different between sampling stations and studied characters. Between stations for temperature, DO, COD, EC, sulfate and coliform is at 1 % and for phosphate 5 % level of significance.

Keywords: coliform, GIS, pollution, phosphate, river

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139 Risperidone for the Treatment of Retentive Fecal Incontinence in Children and Adolescents: A Randomize Clinical Trial

Authors: Ghazal Zahed, Leila Tabatabaee, Amirhossein Hosseini, Somaye Fatahi

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Functional retentive overflow incontinence (Retentive FI) is the most common cause of fecal soiling in children. Affected patients may have more problems with their parents and peer group, self-esteem issues, and more psychiatric comorbidities than the general population. Therapeutic interventions for Retentive FI and related problems and comorbid conditions are needed at the same time. Based on the clinical experiences, patients with retentive FI and comorbid psychiatric disorders, were accelerated in their treatment of fecal incontinence when they were being treated with Risperidone for their psychiatric comorbidities, therefore this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Risperidone in the treatment of Retentive FI in children and adolescents. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 136 patients aged 4-18 years eligible for the study were randomly divided into two groups receiving Risperidone and placebo. About half of these patients had newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders and were drug naïve, this was considered in their division. In addition to polyethylene glycol, all the participants received family counseling and education for withholding behaviors and related behavioral interventions, and nonpharmacological interventions for psychiatric comorbidities. A significant correlation was observed between the duration of treatment with risperidone and the presence of psychiatric comorbidities (P <0.001) for diurnal fecal incontinence. Based on our findings in this study, Risperidone, used commonly for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, may be useful in the treatment of retentive fecal incontinence in the presence of psychiatric comorbidities, and along with other interventions.

Keywords: Retentive Fecal Incontinence, Risperidone, Treatment, Pediatric, Encopresis, Atypical Antipsychotics, Fecal Soiling

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138 Identifying Future Helminth Zoonotic in Indonesian Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang)

Authors: Nafisatul Ulfa, Elok Budi Retnani, R. P. Agus Lelana

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Emerging zoonotic parasite infection could originate in wildlife so its time very important to identify zoonotic agents in wild populations or maintained. According to the International Union Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Sumateran slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) was protected primate which have vulnerable status. Their population in wildlife decreased cause hunting for trade and destroy habitat. Helminthiasis can caused dead regularly and its so The study was conducted to know prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infection of slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) in The Centre of Primate Rehabilitation of International Animal Rescue Indonesia (YIARI). Total of 13 fecal sampel from captive group of Nycticebus coucang were collected for 6 days and analysed from Februari-Mei 2014 by using McMaster, flotasion and Baermann technique. All fecal sampel was examined based on its fecal pool. Out of 13 fecal sampel examined, all of sampel (100%) was infected with five types of helminth Ascaris (84,61%), Hymenolepis (76,92%), Strongylid (61,54%), Oxyurid (15,38%) dan Trichuris (7,69%). The average number of egg per gram (EPG) was 11-1810.

Keywords: fecal, helminth, Nycticebus coucang, parasite, prevalence, slow loris

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137 Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variations of Some Biological Water Quality Parameters in Mat River, Albania

Authors: Etleva Hamzaraj, Eva Kica, Anila Paparisto, Pranvera Lazo

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Worldwide demographic developments of recent decades have been associated with negative environmental consequences. For this reason, there is a growing interest in assessing the state of natural ecosystems or assessing human impact on them. In this respect, this study aims to evaluate the change in water quality of the Mat River for a period of about ten years to highlight human impact. In one year, period of study, several biological and environmental parameters are determined to evaluate river water quality, and the data collected are compared with those of a similar study in 2007. Samples are collected every month in five stations evenly distributed along the river. Total coliform bacteria, the number of heterotrophic bacteria in water, and benthic macroinvertebrates are used as biological parameters of water quality. The most probable number index is used for evaluation of total coliform bacteria in water, while the number of heterotrophic bacteria is determined by counting colonies on plates with Plate Count Agar, cultivated with 0.1 ml sample after series dilutions. Benthic macroinvertebrates are analyzed by the number of individuals per taxa, the value of biotic index, EPT Richness Index value and tolerance value. Environmental parameters like pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity are measured onsite. As expected, the bacterial load was higher near urban areas, and the pollution increased with the course of the river. The maximum concentration of fecal coliforms was 1100 MPN/100 ml in summer and near the most urbanized area of the river. The data collected during this study show that after about ten years, there is a change in water quality of Mat River. According to a similar study carried out in 2007, the water of Mat River was of ‘excellent’ quality. But, according to this study, the water was classified as of ‘excellent’ quality only in one sampling site, near river source, while in all other stations was of ‘good’ quality. This result is based on biological and environmental parameters measured. The human impact on the quality of water of Mat River is more than evident.

Keywords: water quality, coliform bacteria, MPN index, benthic macroinvertebrates, biotic index

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136 M. J. Rodríguez, F. M. Sánchez, B. Velardo, P. Calvo, M. J. Serradilla, J. Delgado, J. M. López

Authors: Q. Rzina, M. Lahrouni, S. Rida, N. Saadaoui, Y. Almossaid, K. Oufdou, K. Fares

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Many organic solid wastes are produced in the world. Poultry manure (PM), municipal organic wastes (MOW) and sugar beet lime sludge (LS) are produced in large quantities in Morocco. The co-composting of these organic wastes was investigated. The recycling and the valorization of such wastes is environmentally and economically beneficial especially for PM which is known source of bacterial pathogens. The aerobic biodegradation process was carried out by using three windrows of variable compositions: C1 prepared without LS (only MOW were composted with PM), C2 prepared from MOW plus PM and10% LS; and the last one C3 from MOW plus PM and 20% LS. The main process physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, humidity and C/N) and microbiological populations (mesophilic and thermophilic flora, total coliform, fecal coliform, Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic fungi) were monitored over three months to ascertain the compost maturity and to ensure the compost hygienic aspect. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 10.6-10.9. The organic matter degradation was reached approximately 59% for C2 and C3. In addition, the monitoring of the microbial population showed that the produced composts are mature and hygienic. The agronomic valorization of the final composts was tested on radish plant with tree level of composts and poultry manure without composting. The primary results of field trial showed a growth of radish plant biomass and root development without any phytotoxicity detected which reflects the quality of the composts produced. As for poultry manure it allowed to have a better results than other composts because of its readily available nitrogen.

Keywords: compost, municipal organic wastes, poultry manure, radish crop, sugar beet lime sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
135 Bacteria Removal from Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

Authors: Boudjema Nouara, Mameri Nabil

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Bacteria have played an important role in water contamination as a consequence of organic pollution. In this study, an electrocoagulation process was adopted to remove fecal contamination and pathogenic bacteria from waste water. The effect of anode/cathodes materials as well as operating conditions for bacteria removal from water, such as current intensity and initial pH and temperature. The results indicated that the complete removal was achevied when using aluminium anode as anode at current intensity of 3A, initial pH of 7-8 and electrolysis time of 30 minutes. This process showed a bactericidal effect of 95 to 99% for the total and fecal coliforms and 99% to 100% for Eschercichia coli and fecal Streptococci. A decrease of 72% was recorded for sulphite-reducing Clostridia. Thus, this process has the potential to be one the options for treatment where high amount of bacteria in wastewater river.

Keywords: bacteria, el Harrach river, electrocoagulation, wastewater, treatment

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134 The Impact of Open Defecation on Fecal-Oral Infections: A Case Study in Burat and Ngaremara Wards of Isiolo County, Kenya

Authors: Kimutai Joan Jepkorir, Moturi Wilkister Nyaora

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The practice of open defecation can be devastating for human health as well as the environment, and this practice persistence could be due to ingrained habits that individuals continue to engage in despite having a better alternative. Safe disposal of human excreta is essential for public health protection. This study sought to find if open defecation relates to fecal-oral infections in Burat and Ngaremara Wards in Isiolo County. This was achieved through conducting a cross-sectional study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 385 households that were used in the study. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires and observation checklists. The result show that 66% of the respondents disposed-off fecal matter in a safe manner, whereas 34% disposed-off fecal matter in unsafe manner through open defecation. The prevalence proportions per 1000 of diarrhea and intestinal worms among children under-5 years of age were 142 and 21, respectively. The prevalence proportions per 1000 of diarrhea and typhoid among children over-5 years of age were 20 and 20, respectively.

Keywords: faecal-oral infections, open defecation, prevalence proportion, sanitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
133 Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota: A Signature in Fecal Samples from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Mina Hojat Ansari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Ali Reza Safarpour

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common bowel disorder which is usually diagnosed through the abdominal pain, fecal irregularities and bloating. Alteration in the intestinal microbial composition is implicating to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders which is recently also noted as an IBS feature. Owing to the potential importance of microbiota implication in both efficiencies of the treatment and prevention of the diseases, we examined the association between the intestinal microbiota and different bowel patterns in a cohort of subjects with IBS and healthy controls. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 50 subjects, 30 of whom met the Rome IV criteria for IBS and 20 Healthy control. Total DNA was extracted and library preparation was conducted following the standard protocol for small whole genome sequencing. The pooled libraries sequenced on an Illumina Nextseq platform with a 2 × 150 paired-end read length and obtained sequences were analyzed using several bioinformatics programs. The majority of sequences obtained in the current study assigned to bacteria. However, our finding highlighted the significant microbial taxa variation among the studied groups. The result, therefore, suggests a significant association of the microbiota with symptoms and bowel characteristics in patients with IBS. These alterations in fecal microbiota could be exploited as a biomarker for IBS or its subtypes and suggest the modification of the microbiota might be integrated into prevention and treatment strategies for IBS.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal microbiota, small whole genome sequencing, fecal samples, Illumina

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132 A Comparison Study of Different Methods Used in the Detection of Giardia lamblia on Fecal Specimen of Children

Authors: Muhammad Farooq Baig

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained using a single fecal specimen for O&P examination, direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), and two conventional staining methods. Design: Hundred and fifty children fecal specimens were collected and examined by each method. The O&P and the DFA were used as the reference method. Setting: The study was performed at the laboratory in the Basic Medical Science Institute JPMC Karachi. Patients or Other Participants: The fecal specimens were collected from children with a suspected Giardia lamblia infection. Main Outcome Measures: The amount of agreement and disagreement between methods.1) Presence of giardiasis in our population. 2) The sensitivity and specificity of each method. Results: There was 45(30%) positive 105 (70%) negative on DFA, 41 (27.4%) positive 109 (72.6%) negative on iodine and 34 (22.6%) positive 116(77.4%) on saline method. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparision to iodine were 92.2%, 92.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparisoin to saline method were 91.2%, 87.9% respectively. The sensitivity of iodine method and saline method in compariosn to DFA were 82.2%, 68.8% respectively. There is mark diffrence in sensitivity of DFA to conventional method. Conclusion: The study supported findings of other investigators who concluded that DFA method have the greater sensitivity. The immunologic methods were more efficient and quicker than the conventional O&P method.

Keywords: direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), ova and parasite (O&P), Giardia lamblia, children, medical science

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131 Salmonella Spp. and Essential Oil of Laurus nobilis

Authors: Karima Oldyerou, B. Meddah, A. Tirtouil

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The food borne infections have a significant impact on public health. Salmonella is the first bacterial cause, especially because of its general availability in the intestinal tract of poultry, pigs and cattle. This bacteria and essential oil of Laurus nobilis subject in this article. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity shows a sensitivity of Salmonella spp. with a MIC of 2.5 mg.ml -1 in vivo after infection of wistar rats and administered orally this essential oil, microbiological results fecal material shows the antibacterial effect of this oil on Salmonella spp.

Keywords: Laurus nobilis, essential oil, salmonella, antibacterial activity, fecal matte

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130 Fecal Immunochemical Testing to Deter Colon Cancer

Authors: Valerie A. Conrade

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Introduction: A large body of literature suggests patients who complete fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) kits are likely to identify colorectal cancer sooner than those who do not complete FIT kits. Background: Patients who do not participate in preventative measures such as the FIT kit are at a higher risk of colorectal cancer growing unnoticed. The objective was to see if the method the principal investigator (PI) uses to educate clinical staff on the importance of FIT kit administration provides an increased amount of FIT kit dissemination to patients post clinical education. Methodologies: Data collection via manual tallies took place before and after the clinical staff was educated on the importance of FIT kits. Results: The results showed an increase in FIT kit dissemination post clinical staff education. Through enhanced instruction to the clinical staff regarding the importance of FIT kits, expanding their knowledge on preventative measures to detect colorectal cancer positively impacted nurses and, in turn, their patients.

Keywords: colon cancer, education, fecal immunochemical testing, nursing

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129 Changes in the fecal Microbiome of Periparturient Dairy Cattle and Associations with the Onset of Salmonella Shedding

Authors: Lohendy Munoz-Vargas, Stephen O. Opiyo, Rose Digianantonio, Michele L. Williams, Asela Wijeratne, Gregory Habing

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Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen with critical importance in animal and public health. The persistence of Salmonella on farms affects animal productivity and health, and represents a risk for food safety. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in the colonization and invasion of this ubiquitous microorganism. To overcome the colonization resistance imparted by the gut microbiome, Salmonella uses invasion strategies and the host inflammatory response to survive, proliferate, and establish infections with diverse clinical manifestations. Cattle serve as reservoirs of Salmonella, and periparturient cows have high prevalence of Salmonella shedding; however, to author`s best knowledge, little is known about the association between the gut microbiome and the onset of Salmonella shedding during the periparturient period. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the association between changes in bacterial communities and the onset of Salmonella shedding in cattle approaching parturition. In a prospective cohort study, fecal samples from 98 dairy cows originating from four different farms were collected at four time points relative to calving (-3 wks, -1 wk, +1 wk, +3 wks). All 392 samples were cultured for Salmonella. Sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina platform was completed to evaluate the fecal microbiome in a selected sample subset. Analyses of microbial composition, diversity, and structure were performed according to time points, farm, and Salmonella onset status. Individual cow fecal microbiomes, predominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, and Proteobacteria phyla, significantly changed before and after parturition. Microbial communities from different farms were distinguishable based on multivariate analysis. Although there were significant differences in some bacterial taxa between Salmonella positive and negative samples, our results did not identify differences in the fecal microbial diversity or structure for cows with and without the onset of Salmonella shedding. These data suggest that determinants other than the significant changes in the fecal microbiome influence the periparturient onset of Salmonella shedding in dairy cattle.

Keywords: dairy cattle, microbiome, periparturient, Salmonella

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128 Effects of Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Composition of Bacteria in Feces of Finishing Steers

Authors: Yan Li, Qingxiang Meng, Bo Zhou, Zhenming Zhou

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The objective of this study was to compare the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML), and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP) on fecal bacterial communities in Simmental crossbred finishing steers fed the following 3 diets: a standard TMR diet, standard diet containing EML and standard diet containing SMFP, and the diets had similar protein and energy levels. Bacterial communities in the fecal content were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplification. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the selected bacterial species in the feces. Most of the sequences were assigned to phyla Firmicutes (56.67%) and Bacteroidetes(35.90%), followed by Proteobacteria(1.86%), Verrucomicrobia(1.80%) and Tenericutes(1.37%). And the predominant genera included the 5-7N15 (5.91%), CF231 (2.49%), Oscillospira (2.33%), Paludibacter (1.23%) and Akkermansia(1.11%). As for the treatments, no significant differences were observed in Firmicutes (p = 0.28), Bacteroidetes (p = 0.63), Proteobacteria (p = 0.46), Verrucomicrobia (p = 0.17) and Tenericutes (p = 0.75). On the genus level, classified genera with high abundance (more than 0.1%) mainly came from two phyla: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Also no differences were observed in most genera level, 5-7N15 (p = 0.21), CF231 (p = 0.62), Oscillospira (p = 0.9), Paludibacter (p = 0.33) and Akkermansia (p = 0.37), except that rc4-4 were lower in the CON and SMFP groups compared to the EML animals (p = 0.02). Additionally, there were no differences in richness estimate and diversity indices (p > 0.16), and treatments had no significant effect on most selected bacterial species in the fecal (p > 0.06), except that Ruminococcus albus were higher in the EML group (p < 0.01) and Streptococcus bovis were lower in the CON group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, diets supplemented with EML and SMFP have little influence on fecal bacterial community composition in finishing steers.

Keywords: fecal bacteria community composition, sequencing, ensiled mulberry leaves (EML), sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP)

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127 Absence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Amongst Urban and Rural Hooded Crows in Hungary

Authors: Isma Benmazouz, Bálint Joszef Nagy, Bence Bálacs, Gábor Kardos, László Kővér

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Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are among the major nosocomial threats, which have a potential for zoonotic transmission due to the ubiquity of enterococci in the environment and in animal microbiota, e.g., wild birds. . In order to assess the prevalence in an urbanized bird species, 221 fecal samples were collected from Hooded crows (Corvus cornix) in 2020. Fecal samples were screened using VRE agar plates. None of the samples yielded VRE. The absence of VRE isolates in sampled urban hooded crows indicates that crows residing in the city do not necessarily constitute a reservoir of VREs.

Keywords: resistance, crows, Enterococci, wild birds

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126 Analysis of Microbiological Quality and Detection of Antibiotic Residue in Bovine Raw Milk Produced in Blida State, Algeria

Authors: M. N. Boukhatem, M. A. Ferhat, K. Mansour

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Bovine raw milk represents a favorable environment for the growth of several food-spoilage strains and some pathogens. It must meet stringent standards to ensure the highest microbiological and toxicological qualities.In order to assess the microbiological risks associated with the consumption of this food, we conducted this study to determine the microbiological quality of bovine raw milk (54 samples) commercialized at the state of Blida (Algeria). The samples analyzed were unsatisfactory in terms of total flora where 61.11% of samples were considered as non acceptable in terms of quality standards, fecal coliforms (40.74%), fecal streptococci (55.55%) and staphylococci (74.07%). Salmonella and Clostridium strains were not detected in all the samples. Furthermore, antibiotic residues were found in 26% of analysed samples. These results reflect non-compliance with the rules of good hygiene practices at milking, storage, transportatio, and sale of milk. Bovine raw milk consumed presents a serious health risk to the population of the study areas.The livestock coaching actors and dissemination of good hygiene practices throughout the production chain are needed to improve the quality of local milk.

Keywords: bovine raw milk, microbiological quality, fecal coliforms, antibiotic residue, Blida state

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125 The Determination of Contamination Rate of Traditional White Cheese in Behbahan Markets to Coliforms and Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar, Hossaini Seyahi Zohreh

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Infections and food intoxication caused by microbial contamination of food is of major issues in different countries, and diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated food included a large percentage of the country's health problems. Since traditional cheese for cultural reasons, good taste and smell in many parts of the area still has the important place in people's food basket, transmission of pathogenic bacteria could be at risk human health through the consumption of this food. In this study selected randomly 100 samples of 250 grams of traditional cheeses supplied in the city Behbahan market and adjacent to the ice was transferred to the laboratory and microbiological tests were performed immediately. According to the results, from 100 samples tested traditional cheese, 94 samples (94% of samples) were contaminated with coliforms, which of this number 75 samples (75% of samples) the contamination rate was higher than the limit (more than 100 cfu/g). Of the total samples, 36 samples (36% of samples) were contaminated with fecal coliform which of this number 30 samples (30% of samples) were contaminated with Escherichia.coli bacteria. Based on the results of agglutination test,no samples was found positive as pathogenic Escherichia.coli.

Keywords: determination, traditional cheese, Behbahan, Escherichia coli

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124 Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Fermented Feed Mulberry(Morus alba L.) on Reproductive Performance and Fecal M Icro Biota of Pregnant Sows

Authors: Yuping Zhang, Teng Ma, Nadia Everaert, Hongfu Zhang

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Supplying dietary fiber during gestation is known to improve the welfare of feed-restricted sows. However, whether high fiber supplementation during pregnancy can improve the performance of sows and their offspring depends on the type, amount, source, etc., in which the solubility plays a key important role. Insoluble fibers have been shown to increase feed intake of sows in lactation, meet the needs of sows for milk production, reduce sow’s weight and backfat loss, and thus improve the performance of sows and their offspring. In this study, we investigated the effect of the addition of fermented feed mulberry (FFM), rich in insoluble fiber, during the whole gestation on the performance of sows and their offspring and explored possible mechanisms by determining serum hormones and fecal microbiota. The FFM-diet contained 25.5% FFM (on dry matter basis) and was compared with the control–diet (CON, corn, and soybean meal diet). The insoluble fiber content of the FFM and CON diet are respectively 29.3% and 19.1%. both groups were allocated 20 multiparous sows, and they are fed different feed allowance to make sure all the sows get the same digestible energy for each day. After farrowing, all sows were fed the same lactation diet ad libitum. The serum estradiol, progesterone concentration, blood glucose, and insulin levels at gestation day 0, 20, and 60 were tested. And also, the composition and differences fecal microbiota at day 60 of gestation were analyzed. Fecal consistency was determined with Bristol stool scale method, those with a score below 3 were counted as constipation The results showed that there was no impact of the FFM treatment on sows’ backfat, bodyweight changes, blood glucose, serum estradiol, and progesterone concentration, litter size, and performance of the offspring(p > 0.05), Except significant decrease in the concentration of insulin in sows’ serum at 60 days of gestation were observed in the FFM group compare to the CON group (P < 0.01). FFM diet also significantly increased feed intake on the first, third, and 21st days of sow lactation. (p < 0.01); The α- and β- diversity and abundance of the microbiota were significant increased (p < 0.01) compared with the CON group, The abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were significantly increased, meanwhile the abundances of Spirochetes, Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota, were significantly reduced in the feces of the FFM group. We also analyzed the fecal microbiota of constipated sows vs non-constipated sows and found that the diversity and abundance did also differ between these two groups. FFM and CON group < 0.01). The relationship between sow’s constipation and microbiota merits further investigation.

Keywords: fermented feed mulberry, reproductive performance, fecal flora, sow

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
123 Fecal Prevalence, Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia

Authors: Tadesse Eguale, Ephrem Engdawork, Wondwossen Gebreyes, Dainel Asrat, Hile Alemayehu, John Gunn

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Salmonella is one of the major zoonotic pathogens affecting wide range of vertebrates and humans worldwide. Consumption of contaminated dairy products and contact with dairy cattle represent the common sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in humans. Fecal samples were collected from 132 dairy herds in central Ethiopia and cultured for Salmonella to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility. Salmonella was recovered from the feces of at least one cattle in 10(7.6%) of the dairy farms. Out of 1193 fecal samples 30(2.5%) were positive for Salmonella. Large farm size, detection of diarrhea in one or more animals during sampling and keeping animals completely indoor compared to occasional grazing outside were associated with Salmonella positivity of the farms. Farm level prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in young animals below 6 months of age compared to other age groups(X2=10.24; p=0.04). Nine different serotypes were isolated. The four most frequently recovered serotypes were S. Typhimurium (23.3%),S. Saintpaul (20%) and S. Kentucky and S. Virchow (16.7%) each. All isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 18 drugs tested. Twenty-six (86.7%), 20(66.7%), 18(60%), 16(53.3%) of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline respectively. Resistance to 2 drugs was detected in 93.3% of the isolates. Resistance to 3 or more drugs were detected in 21(70%) of the total isolates while multi-drug resistance (MDR) to 7 or more drugs were detected in 12 (40%) of the isolates. The rate of occurrence of MDR in Salmonella strains isolated from dairy farms in Addis Ababa was significantly higher than those isolated from farms outside of Addis Ababa((p= 0.009). The detection of high MDR in Salmonella isolates originating from dairy farms warrants the need for strict pathogen reduction strategy in dairy cattle and spread of these MDR strains to human population.

Keywords: salmonella, antimicrobial resistance, fecal prevalence

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122 Impact of Environmental Changes on Blood Parameters in the Pelophylax ridibundus

Authors: Murat Tosunoglu, Cigdem Gul, Nurcihan Hacioglu, Nurdan Tepeova

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Amphibian and Reptilian species are influenced by pollution and habitat destruction. Blood parameters of Amphibia species were particularly affected by the negative environmental conditions. Studied frog samples 36 clinically normal Pelophylax ridibundus individuals were captured along the Biga Stream between April–June 2014. When comparing our findings with the Turkish legislation (Water pollution control regulation), the 1. Locality of the Biga stream in terms of total coliform classified as "high quality water" (Coliform: 866.66 MPN/100 mL), while the 2. locality was a "contaminated water" (Coliform: 53266.66 MPN/100 mL). Blood samples of the live specimens were obtained in the laboratory within one day of their capture. The blood samples were taken from the etherized frogs by means of ventriculus punctures, via heparinized hematocrit capillaries. Hematological and biochemical analyses based on high quality water and contaminated water, respectively, are as follows: Red blood cell count (444210.52-426846.15 per cubic millimeter of blood), white blood cell count (4215.78-4684.61 per cubic millimeter of blood), hematocrit value (29.25-29.43 %), hemoglobin concentration (7.76-7.22 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (637.64-719.99 fl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (184.78-174.75 pg), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (29.44-24.82 %), glucose (103.74-124.13 mg/dl), urea (87.68-81.72 mg/L), cholesterol (148.20-197.39 mg/dl), creatinine (0.29-0.28 mg/dl), uric acid (10.26-7.55 mg/L), albumin (1.13-1.39 g/dl), calcium (11.45-9.70 mg/dl), triglyceride (135.23-155.85 mg/dl), total protein (4.26-3.73 g/dl), phosphorus (6.83-17.86 mg/dl), and magnesium (0.95-1.06 mg/dl). The some hematological parameters in P. ridibundus specimens are given for the first time in this study. No water quality dependent variation was observed in clinic hematology parameters measured.

Keywords: Pelophylax ridibundus, hematological parameters, biochemistry, freshwater quality

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121 Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Farm Animals by Copro-Culture

Authors: Mosaab A. Omar, Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody

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In the present study, examination of 442 faecal samples was performed: 171 from cattle, 128 from buffaloes and 143 from sheep. During the period from May, 2014 to April, 2015, fecal examination showed the infection rate with abomasal nematodes was 30% in cattle, 22.6% in buffaloes, and 31.4% in sheep. Fecal culture gave results of 47.5%, 30%, and 50.3% in cattle, buffaloes and sheep respectively. Seasonal infection with abomasal nematodes as shown by faecal culture in cattle, reveals the highest infection rate is in summer (55.9%), followed by spring (54.1%), autumn (50%), and winter (33.3%). Cooperia spp. is the most prevalent larva in both cattle and buffaloes; Strongyloides papillosus is the most predominant one in sheep. Here we introduce the first study of abomasal worms infection in ruminants in Qena, Egypt. The prevalence is found to be so high among the all examined animals, that we recommend that the authorities apply suitable control programs.

Keywords: haemonchus, ostertagia, seasonal dynamics, floatation

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
120 Intestinal Parasites Detected by Fecal Examination in Cats in the Konya Province, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici

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The cat is one of the potential hosts for parasitic zoonoses, such as Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliense, A. tubaeforme, Uncinaria stenocephala, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia sp. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasites in household cats in Konya, Turkey. In this study, a total of 100 stool samples with different ages and sex were used as a material. They were examined for infections with endoparasites by the use of native, Fulleborn flotation and Benedek sedimentation methods in University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 15%. A total of 6 parasite species was recorded: Giardia sp (6%), Toxocara cati (4%), Isospora sp (3%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei, Taenia sp (1%), Trichuris sp (1%). The most common intestinal parasites in cats were Giardia sp (6%) and Toxocara cati (4%). Younger cats up to 1 year of age were more frequently infected with endoparasites than animals over 1 year of age (p < 0.05). Giardia sp and Toxocara cati were detected significantly more often in younger than 1 year of age (p < 0.05). In fecal examination, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma sp. Joyeuxiella pasqualei, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris sp were found in cats in Turkey. In this study, based on microscopic and macroscopic fecal examinations, Giardia sp (6%), Toxocara cati (4%), Isospora sp (3%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (%2), Taenia sp (1%), Trichuris sp (1%) was detected in cats. In conclusion, zoonotic intestinal parasites in household cats such as Giardia sp and Toxocara cati should be considered more seriously and it is necessary to take precautions against these infections. Cats should be routinely checked by faecal examination for endoparasite infections.

Keywords: cat, intestinal parasites, faecal, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
119 The Prevalence of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia Coli O157 (VTEC) in Dairy Cattle in Tripoli Area, Libya

Authors: Imad Buishi, Almabrouk Fares, Hallowma Helmi

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Infection with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in humans can lead to mild or bloody diarrhea with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) as a possible complication. Cattle appear to be important reservoirs for VTEC O157. Epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of VTEC O157 in dairy cattle in Libya have never been conducted. To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with VTEC O157 on dairy farms in Tripoli region, fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy cows were collected once from 15 randomly selected dairy farms in the period July 2010 through September 2010. All fecal samples were examined for the prevalence of VTEC O157 by conventional plating using Sorbitol-MacConkey agar (SMAC). Isolated of E. coli were subjected to slide agglutination test using E. coli O157 antiserum. The results pointed out that the prevalence within-herd and among herds were 9% and 60% respectively. The prevalence of VTEC O157 in fecal samples of dairy cattle was significantly associated with husbandry practices on farm-level such as signs of diarrhoea (p=0.02, OR=3.2) and sharing water trough (p= 0.03, OR=3.0). It was concluded that dairy cattle in Tripoli area are important reservoirs of VTEC O157 strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. When aiming at reducing risks for human by intervention at farm-level, it is of importance to reduce the number of positive animals and farms. For this, more research is needed to devise mitigation strategies that will reduce the on-farm contamination of VTEC O157.

Keywords: VTEC O157, prevalence, dairy cattle, tripoli

Procedia PDF Downloads 608