Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10340

Search results for: familial paired design

10340 Estimating the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve from Clustered Data and Case-Control Studies

Authors: Yalda Zarnegarnia, Shari Messinger

Abstract:

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have been widely used in medical research to illustrate the performance of the biomarker in correctly distinguishing the diseased and non-diseased groups. Correlated biomarker data arises in study designs that include subjects that contain same genetic or environmental factors. The information about correlation might help to identify family members at increased risk of disease development, and may lead to initiating treatment to slow or stop the progression to disease. Approaches appropriate to a case-control design matched by family identification, must be able to accommodate both the correlation inherent in the design in correctly estimating the biomarker’s ability to differentiate between cases and controls, as well as to handle estimation from a matched case control design. This talk will review some developed methods for ROC curve estimation in settings with correlated data from case control design and will discuss the limitations of current methods for analyzing correlated familial paired data. An alternative approach using Conditional ROC curves will be demonstrated, to provide appropriate ROC curves for correlated paired data. The proposed approach will use the information about the correlation among biomarker values, producing conditional ROC curves that evaluate the ability of a biomarker to discriminate between diseased and non-diseased subjects in a familial paired design.

Keywords: biomarker, correlation, familial paired design, ROC curve

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10339 Introduction to Paired Domination Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Puttaswamy, Anwar Alwardi, Nayaka S. R.

Abstract:

One of the algebraic representation of a graph is the graph polynomial. In this article, we introduce the paired-domination polynomial of a graph G. The paired-domination polynomial of a graph G of order n is the polynomial Dp(G, x) with the coefficients dp(G, i) where dp(G, i) denotes the number of paired dominating sets of G of cardinality i and γpd(G) denotes the paired-domination number of G. We obtain some properties of Dp(G, x) and its coefficients. Further, we compute this polynomial for some families of standard graphs. Further, we obtain some characterization for some specific graphs.

Keywords: domination polynomial, paired dominating set, paired domination number, paired domination polynomial

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10338 Upper Bounds on the Paired Domination Number of Cubic Graphs

Authors: Bin Sheng, Changhong Lu

Abstract:

Let G be a simple undirected graph with no isolated vertex. A paired dominating set of G is a dominating set which induces a subgraph that has a perfect matching. The paired domination number of G, denoted by γₚᵣ(G), is the size of its smallest paired dominating set. Goddard and Henning conjectured that γₚᵣ(G) ≤ 4n/7 holds for every graph G with δ(G) ≥ 3, except the Petersen Graph. In this paper, we prove this conjecture for cubic graphs.

Keywords: paired dominating set, upper bound, cubic graphs, weight function

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10337 Enhancing Strategic Counter-Terrorism: Understanding How Familial Leadership Influences the Resilience of Terrorist and Insurgent Organizations in Asia

Authors: Andrew D. Henshaw

Abstract:

The research examines the influence of familial and kinship based leadership on the resilience of politically violent organizations. Organizations of this type frequently fight in the same conflicts though are called 'terrorist' or 'insurgent' depending on political foci of the time, and thus different approaches are used to combat them. The research considers them correlated phenomena with significant overlap and identifies strengths and vulnerabilities in resilience processes. The research employs paired case studies to examine resilience in organizations under significant external pressure, and achieves this by measuring three variables. 1: Organizational robustness in terms of leadership and governance. 2. Bounce-back response efficiency to external pressures and adaptation to endogenous and exogenous shock. 3. Perpetuity of operational and attack capability, and political legitimacy. The research makes three hypotheses. First, familial/kinship leadership groups have a significant effect on organizational resilience in terms of informal operations. Second, non-familial/kinship organizations suffer in terms of heightened security transaction costs and social economics surrounding recruitment, retention, and replacement. Third, resilience in non-familial organizations likely stems from critical external supports like state sponsorship or powerful patrons, rather than organic resilience dynamics. The case studies pair familial organizations with non-familial organizations. Set 1: The Haqqani Network (HQN) - Pair: Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT). Set 2: Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) - Pair: The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG). Case studies were selected based on three requirements, being: contrasting governance types, exposure to significant external pressures and, geographical similarity. The case study sets were examined over 24 months following periods of significantly heightened operational activities. This enabled empirical measurement of the variables as substantial external pressures came into force. The rationale for the research is obvious. Nearly all organizations have some nexus of familial interconnectedness. Examining familial leadership networks does not provide further understanding of how terrorism and insurgency originate, however, the central focus of the research does address how they persist. The sparse attention to this in existing literature presents an unexplored yet important area of security studies. Furthermore, social capital in familial systems is largely automatic and organic, given at birth or through kinship. It reduces security vetting cost for recruits, fighters and supporters which lowers liabilities and entry costs, while raising organizational efficiency and exit costs. Better understanding of these process is needed to exploit strengths into weaknesses. Outcomes and implications of the research have critical relevance to future operational policy development. Increased clarity of internal trust dynamics, social capital and power flows are essential to fracturing and manipulating kinship nexus. This is highly valuable to external pressure mechanisms such as counter-terrorism, counterinsurgency, and strategic intelligence methods to penetrate, manipulate, degrade or destroy the resilience of politically violent organizations.

Keywords: Counterinsurgency (COIN), counter-terrorism, familial influence, insurgency, intelligence, kinship, resilience, terrorism

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10336 Parents of Mentally Disabled Children in Iran: A Study of Their Parenting Stress Levels and Mental Health

Authors: Mohsen Amiri

Abstract:

This study aimed at investigating the relationship between familial functioning, child characteristics, demographic variables and parenting stress and mental health among parents of children with mental disabilities. 200 parents (130 mothers and 70 fathers) were studied and they completed the Parenting Stress Index, General Health Questionnaire, Family Assessment Device and demographic questionnaires for parents and children. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. Regression analysis showed that child characteristics, familial functioning and parents demographic factors could predict 8, 4 and 17 percent of variance in parental stress and 3.6, 16 and 10 percent of variance in mental health, respectively. Familial functioning, child characteristics and parental demographic variables correlated with mental health and parental stress and could predict them.

Keywords: parenting stress, mental health, mentally disabled children, familial functioning, demographic variables

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10335 Potential for Biological Control of Postharvest Fungal Rot of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) Tubers in Storage with Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Victor Iorungwa Gwa, Ebenezer Jonathan Ekefan

Abstract:

Potential of Trichoderma harzianum for biological control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) tubers in storage was studied. Pathogenicity test revealed the susceptibility of healthy looking yam tubers to Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonganae after fourteen days of inoculation. Treatments comprising A. niger, B. theobromae, and F. oxysporum each paired with T. harzianum and were arranged in completely randomized design and stored for five months. Experiments were conducted between December 2015 and April 2016 and December 2016 and April 2017. Results showed that tubers treated with the pathogenic fungi alone caused mean percentage rot of between 6.67 % (F. oxysporum) and 22.22 % (A. niger) while the paired treatments produced only between 2.22 % (T. harzianum by F. oxysporum) and 6.67 % (T. harzianum by A. niger). In the second year of storage, mean percentage rot was found to be between 13.33 % (F. oxysporum) and 28.89 % (A. niger) while in the paired treatment rot was only between 6.67 % (F. oxysporum) and 8.89% (A. niger). Tubers treated with antagonist alone produced 0.00 % and 2.22 % in the first and second year, respectively. Result revealed that there was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in mean percentage rot between the first year and the second year except where B. theobromae was inoculated alone, A. niger and T. harzianum paired and B. theobromae and T. harzianum paired. The most antagonised fungus in paired treatment for both years was F. oxysporum f. sp. melonganae, while the least antagonised, was A. niger and B. theobromae. It is, therefore, concluded that T. harzianum has potentials to control rot causing pathogens of yam tubers in storage. This can compliment or provide better alternative ways of reducing rot in yam tubers than by the use of chemical fungicides which are not environmentally friendly.

Keywords: biological control, fungal rot, postharvest, Trichoderma harzianum, white yam

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10334 Atypical Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Secondary to Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Mutation With Coexistent Axonal Polyneuropathy: A Challenging Diagnosis

Authors: Seraj Makkawi, Abdulaziz A. Alqarni, Himyan Alghaythee, Suzan Y. Alharbi, Anmar Fatani, Reem Adas, Ahmad R. Abuzinadah

Abstract:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a neurodegenerative disease that involves both the upper and lower motor neurons. Familial ALS, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation, accounts for 5-10% of all cases of ALS. Typically, the symptoms of ALS are purely motor, though coexistent sensory symptoms have been reported in rare cases. In this report, we describe the case of a 47- year-old man who presented with progressive bilateral lower limb weakness and numbness for the last four years. A nerve conduction study (NCS) showed evidence of coexistent axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in addition to the typical findings of ALS in needle electromyography. Genetic testing confirmed the diagnosis of familial ALS secondary to the SOD1 genetic mutation. This report highlights that the presence of sensory symptoms should not exclude the possibility of ALS in an appropriate clinical setting.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, polyneuropathy, SOD1 gene mutation, familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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10333 Bone Mineral Density in Egyptian Children with Familial Mediterranean Fever

Authors: S. Salah, S. A. El-Masry, H. F. Sheba, R. A. El-Banna, W. Saad

Abstract:

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) has episodic or subclinical inflammation that may lead to a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). Objective: To assess BMD in Egyptian children with FMF on genetic basis. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study included 45 FMF patients and 25 control children of both sexes, with age range between 3-16 years old. The patients were reclassified into 2 groups: Group I (A) 23 cases used colchicines for 1 month or less, and Group I (B) 22 cases used colchicines for more than 6 months. For both patients and control, MEFV mutations were defined using molecular genetics technique and BMD was measured by DXA at 2 sites: proximal femur and the lumber spines. Results: four frequent gene mutations were found in the patient group: E148Q (35.6%), V726A (33.3%), M680I (28.9.0%) and M694V (2.2%). There were also 4 heterozygous gene mutations in 40% of control children. Patients received colchicines treatment for less than 1 month had highly significant lower values of BMD at femur and lumber spines than control children (p<0.05). Patients received colchicines treatment for more than 6 months had improved values of BMD at femur compared to control, but there were still significant differences between them at lumbar spine (p>0.05). There are insignificant effect of type of gene mutation on BMD and the risk of osteopenia among the patients. Conclusion: FMF had significant effect on BMD. However, regular use of colchicines treatment improves this effect mainly at femur.

Keywords: familial mediterranean fever, bone mineral density, genes, children

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10332 The Triad Experience: Benefits and Drawbacks of the Paired Placement of Student Teachers in Physical Education

Authors: Todd Pennington, Carol Wilkinson, Keven Prusak

Abstract:

Traditional models of student teaching practices typically involve the placement of a student teacher with an experienced mentor teacher. However, due to the ever-decreasing number of quality placements, an alternative triad approach is the paired placement of student teachers with one mentor teacher in a community of practice. This study examined the paired-placement of student teachers in physical education to determine the benefits and drawbacks after a 14-week student teaching experience. PETE students (N = 22) at a university in the United States were assigned to work in a triad with a student teaching partner and a mentor teacher, making up eleven triads for the semester. The one exception was a pair that worked for seven weeks at an elementary school and then for seven weeks at a junior high school, thus having two mentor teachers and participating in two triads. A total of 12 mentor teachers participated in the study. All student teachers and mentor teachers volunteered and agreed to participate. The student teaching experience was structured so that students engaged in: (a) individual teaching (one teaching the lesson with the other observing), (b) co-planning, and (c) peer coaching. All students and mentor teachers were interviewed at the conclusion of the experience. Using interview data, field notes, and email response data, the qualitative data was analyzed using the constant comparative method. The benefits of the paired placement experience emerged into three categories (a) quality feedback, (b) support, and (c) collaboration. The drawbacks emerged into four categories (a) unrealistic experience, (b) laziness in preparation, (c) lack of quality feedback, and (d) personality mismatch. Recommendations include: providing in-service training prior to student teaching to optimize the triad experience, ongoing seminars throughout the experience specifically designed for triads, and a hybrid model of paired placement for the first half of student teaching followed by solo student teaching for the second half of the experience.

Keywords: community of practice, paired placement, physical education, student teaching

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10331 Designing a Crowbar for Women: An Ergonomic Approach

Authors: Prakash Chandra Dhara, Rupa Maity, Mousumi Chatterjee

Abstract:

Crowbars are used for the gardening purpose. The same tools are used by both male and female gardeners. The existing crowbars are suitable for the female gardeners. The present study was aimed to design a crowbar, which was required to use by the women for the gardening purpose, from the viewpoints of ergonomics. The study was carried out on 50 women in different villages of Howrah districts in West Bengal state. Different models of existing crowbars which were commonly used by the women were collected and evaluated by examining their shape and size. The problems of using existing crowbar were assessed by direct observation during its operation. The musculoskeletal disorder of the subjects for using the crowbar was evaluated by modified Nordic questionnaire method. The anthropometric dimensions, especially hand dimension, of the subjects were taken in standardized static conditions. Considering the problems of using the existing crowbars some design concepts were developed and accordingly three prototypes models (P1, P2, P3) of crowbar were prepared for designing of a modified crowbar for women. Psychophysical analysis of those prototypes was made by paired comparison tests. In the above test subjective preference for different characteristics of the crowbar, e.g., length, weight, length and breadth of the blade, handle diameter, position of the handle, were determined. From the results of the paired comparison test and percentile values of hand dimensions, a modified design of crowbar was suggested. The prototype model P1 possessed more preferred characteristics of the tool than that of other prototype models. In the final design, the weight of the tool and length of the blade was reduced from that of the existing crowbar. Other dimensions were also changed. Two handles were suggested in the redesigned tool for better gripping and operation. The modified crowbar was evaluated by studying the body joint angles, viz., wrist, shoulder and elbow, for assessing the suitability of the design. It was concluded that the redesigned crowbar was suitable for women’s use.

Keywords: body dimension, crowbar, ergo-design, women, hand anthropometry

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10330 Contribution of PALB2 and BLM Mutations to Familial Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1/2 Negative South African Breast Cancer Patients Detected Using High-Resolution Melting Analysis

Authors: N. C. van der Merwe, J. Oosthuizen, M. F. Makhetha, J. Adams, B. K. Dajee, S-R. Schneider

Abstract:

Women representing high-risk breast cancer families, who tested negative for pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, are four times more likely to develop breast cancer compared to women in the general population. Sequencing of genes involved in genomic stability and DNA repair led to the identification of novel contributors to familial breast cancer risk. These include BLM and PALB2. Bloom's syndrome is a rare homozygous autosomal recessive chromosomal instability disorder with a high incidence of various types of neoplasia and is associated with breast cancer when in a heterozygous state. PALB2, on the other hand, binds to BRCA2 and together, they partake actively in DNA damage repair. Archived DNA samples of 66 BRCA1/2 negative high-risk breast cancer patients were retrospectively selected based on the presence of an extensive family history of the disease ( > 3 affecteds per family). All coding regions and splice-site boundaries of both genes were screened using High-Resolution Melting Analysis. Samples exhibiting variation were bi-directionally automated Sanger sequenced. The clinical significance of each variant was assessed using various in silico and splice site prediction algorithms. Comprehensive screening identified a total of 11 BLM and 26 PALB2 variants. The variants detected ranged from global to rare and included three novel mutations. Three BLM and two PALB2 likely pathogenic mutations were identified that could account for the disease in these extensive breast cancer families in the absence of BRCA mutations (BLM c.11T > A, p.V4D; BLM c.2603C > T, p.P868L; BLM c.3961G > A, p.V1321I; PALB2 c.421C > T, p.Gln141Ter; PALB2 c.508A > T, p.Arg170Ter). Conclusion: The study confirmed the contribution of pathogenic mutations in BLM and PALB2 to the familial breast cancer burden in South Africa. It explained the presence of the disease in 7.5% of the BRCA1/2 negative families with an extensive family history of breast cancer. Segregation analysis will be performed to confirm the clinical impact of these mutations for each of these families. These results justify the inclusion of both these genes in a comprehensive breast and ovarian next generation sequencing cancer panel and should be screened simultaneously with BRCA1 and BRCA2 as it might explain a significant percentage of familial breast and ovarian cancer in South Africa.

Keywords: Bloom Syndrome, familial breast cancer, PALB2, South Africa

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10329 Children’s Concept of Forgiveness

Authors: Lida Landicho, Analiza R. Adarlo, Janine Mae V. Corpuz, Joan C. Villanueva

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Testing the idea that the process of forgiveness is intrinsically different across diverse relationships, this study examined whether forgiveness can already be facilitated by children ages 4-6. Two different intervention sessions which consists of 40 children (half heard stories about unfair blame and half heard stories about a double standard (between subjects variable) was completed. Investigators performed experimental analyses to examine the role of forgiveness in social and familial context. Results indicated that forgiveness can already be facilitated by children. Children see scenarios on double standard to be more unfair than normal scenarios (Scenario 2 (double standard) (M=7.54) Scenario 1 (unfair blame) (M=4.50), Scenario 4 (double standard) (M=7.) Scenario 3 (getting blamed for something the friend did) (M=6.80)p <.05.The findings confirmed that children were generally willing to grant forgiveness to a mother even though she was unfair, but less so to a friend. Correlations between sex, age and forgiveness were analyzed. Significant relationships was found on scenarios presented and caring task scores (rxy= -.314).Their tendency to forgive was related to dispositional and situational factors.

Keywords: forgiveness, situational and dispositional factors, familial context, social context

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10328 Khon Kaen University Family Health Assessment Tool Training Program on Primary Care Unit Nurses’ Skills

Authors: Suwarno, D. Jongudomkarn

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Family Health Assessment (FHA) is a key process to identify the family health needs, family health problems, and family health history. Assessing the family health is not only from the assessment tool but also from health care provider especially Nurse. Nurses’ have duties to assess the family as holistic view and they have to increase their capacities (knowledge, skills and experiences) in FHA. Thus, the continuing nursing education-training program on using the KKU FHA Tool was aimed to enhance the participant nurses’ capacities in (FHA) based on such tool. The aim of this study was to evaluate the KKU FHA Tool training program on PCU nurses’ capacity before and after training program in Primary Care Unit Bantul, Yogyakarta. The Quasi-Experiment with one group pre-, post-test design as a research design with convenient sampling technique and one group pre- post test formula for Nurses who work in Six PCU Bantul, Yogyakarta as much as fourteen respondents. The research processes were used training program with module, video and handbook KKU FHA Tool, KKU FHA tool form and capacities questionnaires. It was analyzed by descriptive data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Paired Sample t-test. The overall comparing analysis of paired sample t-test revealed that the mean values of pre-test were 3.35 with SD 0.417, post-test was 3.86 with SD 0.154 and post-test in later two weeks was 4.00 with SD 0.243. It was found that the p value of among the pre-test, the intermediate post-test and the post–test in later two weeks were 0.000. The p value of the intermediate post-test and post-test in later two weeks was 0.053. KKU FHA Tool training program in PCU Bantul Yogyakarta was enhanced the participant nurses’ capacities significantly. In conclusion, we are recommending KKU FHA Tool forms have to develop and implement with qualitative research as complementary data in PCU Bantul Yogyakarta by Focus Group Discussion.

Keywords: family health assessment, KKU FHA tool, training program, nurses capacities

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10327 In-Vivo Study of Annacardium occidentale L. Emulgel Extract Using Non-Invasive Probes

Authors: Akhtar Naveed, Kanwal Shahla, Khan HMS, Rasool Fatima, Ijaz Shakeel

Abstract:

The focus of the study was to design, develop and characterize in vivo, a stable Emulgel formulation containing Anacardium occidentale L.(cashew extract) as an active ingredient. The formulation was prepared and kept at 8ºC, 25 ºC, 40ºC and 40ºC±RH for a period of 28 days. During this time period, stability, pH values, conductivity, organoleptic features (color, liquefaction, phase separation) were conducted at the intervals of day 1st, 2nd, 3rd , 7th, 14th and 28th days. In In vivo studies, the test formulation (5% Anacardium occidentale L, extract) and a base formulation (without cashew extract) were prepared and both were applied on cheek areas of healthy human female volunteers, after the skin sensitivity test of each volunteer, for a study period of 8 weeks after getting consent from them. Various parameters of skin like Melanin level, Erythema level, and skin elasticity were measured at regular time intervals. Results of the study were analyzed by statistical techniques i.e. Two Way ANOVA and paired sample t-test. The result showed significant results as the p ≤ 0.05. Findings of paired sample t-test explained that test formulation have profound effects on skin parameters when compared with control formulation.

Keywords: Anacardium occientale L., anti-oxidant, cashew nut, emulgel

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10326 Studying the Dynamical Response of Nano-Microelectromechanical Devices for Nanomechanical Testing of Nanostructures

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji

Abstract:

Characterizing the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures is one of the most challenging tasks in nanoscience and nanotechnology due to lack of a MEMS/NEMS device for generating uniform cyclic loadings at high frequencies. Here, the dynamic response of a recently proposed MEMS/NEMS device under different inputs signals is completely investigated. This MEMS/NEMS device is designed and modeled based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents, known as Ampere’s Force Law (AFL). Since this MEMS/NEMS device only uses two paired wires for actuation part and sensing part, it represents highly sensitive and linear response for nanostructures with any stiffness and shapes (single or arrays of nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets or nanowalls). In addition to studying the maximum gains at different resonance frequencies of the MEMS/NEMS device, its dynamical responses are investigated for different inputs and nanostructure properties to demonstrate the capability, usability, and reliability of the device for wide range of nanostructures. This MEMS/NEMS device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures as well as their softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and/or propagation of nanocracks in them.

Keywords: MEMS/NEMS devices, paired wire actuators and sensors, dynamical response, fatigue and fracture characterization, Ampere’s force law

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10325 School Choice and Institutional or Familial Habitus: Reciprocity in Parents-School Relationships

Authors: Fatemeh Yazdani

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This paper explores the student intake policies in high-performing private schools in Iran by studying both sides involved in the school choice processes, parents and the school leaders. It is based on in-depth interviews with 27 parents and private schools’ staff and principals supplemented by ethnographic observation in two private schools in Tehran. From the Bourdieusian point of view, this paper argues that the school leadership engineers the composition of private schools’ students via different gatekeeping strategies, and these strategies represent and reconstruct the school’s institutional habitus. It further explores the ways that parents who look for quality education among non-state education providers deal with the school's institutional habitus based on their familial habitus and possessed economic, social, and cultural capital. The conclusion highlights that investigating school choice as a reciprocal process between family and school leadership can shed more light on the ways that an exclusive environment has been created in some high-performing private schools for certain class strata maintaining a distance that needs to be kept from ‘others.’ In a broader sense, this paper engages into an exploration of social inequality reproduction through private education.

Keywords: institutional habitus, private education, school choice, social inequality, student intake

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10324 Identification of New Familial Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes: Are We There Yet?

Authors: Ian Campbell, Gillian Mitchell, Paul James, Na Li, Ella Thompson

Abstract:

The genetic cause of the majority of multiple-case breast cancer families remains unresolved. Next generation sequencing has emerged as an efficient strategy for identifying predisposing mutations in individuals with inherited cancer. We are conducting whole exome sequence analysis of germ line DNA from multiple affected relatives from breast cancer families, with the aim of identifying rare protein truncating and non-synonymous variants that are likely to include novel cancer predisposing mutations. Data from more than 200 exomes show that on average each individual carries 30-50 protein truncating mutations and 300-400 rare non-synonymous variants. Heterogeneity among our exome data strongly suggest that numerous moderate penetrance genes remain to be discovered, with each gene individually accounting for only a small fraction of families (~0.5%). This scenario marks validation of candidate breast cancer predisposing genes in large case-control studies as the rate-limiting step in resolving the missing heritability of breast cancer. The aim of this study is to screen genes that are recurrently mutated among our exome data in a larger cohort of cases and controls to assess the prevalence of inactivating mutations that may be associated with breast cancer risk. We are using the Agilent HaloPlex Target Enrichment System to screen the coding regions of 168 genes in 1,000 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer cases and 1,000 cancer-naive controls. To date, our interim analysis has identified 21 genes which carry an excess of truncating mutations in multiple breast cancer families versus controls. Established breast cancer susceptibility gene PALB2 is the most frequently mutated gene (13/998 cases versus 0/1009 controls), but other interesting candidates include NPSR1, GSN, POLD2, and TOX3. These and other genes are being validated in a second cohort of 1,000 cases and controls. Our experience demonstrates that beyond PALB2, the prevalence of mutations in the remaining breast cancer predisposition genes is likely to be very low making definitive validation exceptionally challenging.

Keywords: predisposition, familial, exome sequencing, breast cancer

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10323 Activation of Mitophagy and Autophagy in Familial Forms of Parkinson's Disease, as a Potential Strategy for Cell Protection

Authors: Nafisa Komilova, Plamena Angelova, Andrey Abramov, Ulugbek Mirkhodjaev

Abstract:

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is induced by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. The mechanism of neurodegeneration is associated with the aggregation of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial disfunction. Considering this, the process of removal of unwanted organelles or proteins by autophagy is vitally important in neurons, and activation of these processes could be protective in PD. Short-time acidification of cytosol can activate mitophagy and autophagy, and here we used sodium pyruvate and sodium lactate in human fibroblasts with PD mutations (Pink1, Pink1/Park2, α-syn triplication, A53T) to induce changes in intracellular pH. We have found that both lactate and pyruvate in millimolar concentrations can induce short-time acidification of cytosol in these cells. It induced activation of mitophagy and autophagy in control and PD fibroblasts and protected against cell death. Importantly, the application of lactate to acute brain slices of control and Pink1 knockout mice also induced a reduction of pH in neurons and astrocytes that increase the level of mitophagy. Thus, acidification of cytosol by compounds which play important role in cell metabolism also can activate mitophagy and autophagy and protect cells in the familial form of PD.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, mutations, mitophagy, autophagy

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10322 Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in Spontaneously Occurring Canine Melanoma

Authors: Simona Perga, Chiara Beltramo, Floriana Fruscione, Isabella Martini, Federica Cavallo, Federica Riccardo, Paolo Buracco, Selina Iussich, Elisabetta Razzuoli, Katia Varello, Lorella Maniscalco, Elena Bozzetta, Angelo Ferrari, Paola Modesto

Abstract:

Introduction: Human and canine melanoma have common clinical, histologic characteristics making dogs a good model for comparative oncology. The identification of specific genes and a better understanding of the genetic landscape, signaling pathways, and tumor–microenvironmental interactions involved in the cancer onset and progression is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies against this tumor in both species. In the present study, the differential expression of genes in spontaneously occurring canine melanoma and in paired normal tissue was investigated by targeted RNAseq. Material and Methods: Total RNA was extracted from 17 canine malignant melanoma (CMM) samples and from five paired normal tissues stored in RNA-later. In order to capture the greater genetic variability, gene expression analysis was carried out using two panels (Qiagen): Human Immuno-Oncology (HIO) and Mouse-Immuno-Oncology (MIO) and the miSeq platform (Illumina). These kits allow the detection of the expression profile of 990 genes involved in the immune response against tumors in humans and mice. The data were analyzed through the CLCbio Genomics Workbench (Qiagen) software using the Canis lupus familiaris genome as a reference. Data analysis were carried out both comparing the biologic group (tumoral vs. healthy tissues) and comparing neoplastic tissue vs. paired healthy tissue; a Fold Change greater than two and a p-value less than 0.05 were set as the threshold to select interesting genes. Results and Discussion: Using HIO 63, down-regulated genes were detected; 13 of those were also down-regulated comparing neoplastic sample vs. paired healthy tissue. Eighteen genes were up-regulated, 14 of those were also down-regulated comparing neoplastic sample vs. paired healthy tissue. Using the MIO, 35 down regulated-genes were detected; only four of these were down-regulated, also comparing neoplastic sample vs. paired healthy tissue. Twelve genes were up-regulated in both types of analysis. Considering the two kits, the greatest variation in Fold Change was in up-regulated genes. Dogs displayed a greater genetic homology with humans than mice; moreover, the results have shown that the two kits are able to detect different genes. Most of these genes have specific cellular functions or belong to some enzymatic categories; some have already been described to be correlated to human melanoma and confirm the validity of the dog as a model for the study of molecular aspects of human melanoma.

Keywords: animal model, canine melanoma, gene expression, spontaneous tumors, targeted RNAseq

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10321 Effect of Hypertension Exercise and Slow Deep Breathing Combination to Blood Pressure: A Mini Research in Elderly Community

Authors: Prima Khairunisa, Febriana Tri Kusumawati, Endah Luthfiana

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension in elderly, caused by cardiovascular system cannot work normally, because the valves thickened and inelastic blood vessels. It causes vasoconstriction of the blood vessels. Hypertension exercise, increase cardiovascular function and the elasticity of the blood vessels. While slow deep breathing helps the body and mind feel relax. Combination both of them will decrease the blood pressure. Objective: To know the effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to blood pressure in elderly. Method: The study conducted with one group pre-post test experimental design. The samples were 10 elderly both male and female in a Village in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The tool was manual sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure. Result: Based on paired t-test between hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with systole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0.045, while paired t-test between hypertension exercise hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with diastole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0,343. The changes of systole blood pressure were 127.5 mmHg, and diastole blood pressure was 80 mmHg. Systole blood pressure decreases significantly because the average of systole blood pressure before implementation was 135-160 mmHg. While diastole blood pressure was not decreased significantly. It was influenced by the average of diastole blood pressure before implementation of hypertension exercise was not too high. It was between 80- 90 mmHg. Conclusion: There was an effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to the blood pressure in elderly after 6 times implementations.

Keywords: hypertension exercise, slow deep breathing, elderly, blood pressure

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10320 Remote BioMonitoring of Mothers and Newborns for Temperature Surveillance Using a Smart Wearable Sensor: Techno-Feasibility Study and Clinical Trial in Southern India

Authors: Prem K. Mony, Bharadwaj Amrutur, Prashanth Thankachan, Swarnarekha Bhat, Suman Rao, Maryann Washington, Annamma Thomas, N. Sheela, Hiteshwar Rao, Sumi Antony

Abstract:

The disease burden among mothers and newborns is caused mostly by a handful of avoidable conditions occurring around the time of childbirth and within the first month following delivery. Real-time monitoring of vital parameters of mothers and neonates offers a potential opportunity to impact access as well as the quality of care in vulnerable populations. We describe the design, development and testing of an innovative wearable device for remote biomonitoring (RBM) of body temperatures in mothers and neonates in a hospital in southern India. The architecture consists of: [1] a low-cost, wearable sensor tag; [2] a gateway device for ‘real-time’ communication link; [3] piggy-backing on a commercial GSM communication network; and [4] an algorithm-based data analytics system. Requirements for the device were: long battery-life upto 28 days (with sampling frequency 5/hr); robustness; IP 68 hermetic sealing; and human-centric design. We undertook pre-clinical laboratory testing followed by clinical trial phases I & IIa for evaluation of safety and efficacy in the following sequence: seven healthy adult volunteers; 18 healthy mothers; and three sets of babies – 3 healthy babies; 10 stable babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and 1 baby with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). The 3-coin thickness, pebble-design sensor weighing about 8 gms was secured onto the abdomen for the baby and over the upper arm for adults. In the laboratory setting, the response-time of the sensor device to attain thermal equilibrium with the surroundings was 4 minutes vis-a-vis 3 minutes observed with a precision-grade digital thermometer used as a reference standard. The accuracy was ±0.1°C of the reference standard within the temperature range of 25-40°C. The adult volunteers, aged 20 to 45 years, contributed a total of 345 hours of readings over a 7-day period and the postnatal mothers provided a total of 403 paired readings. The mean skin temperatures measured in the adults by the sensor were about 2°C lower than the axillary temperature readings (sensor =34.1 vs digital = 36.1); this difference was statistically significant (t-test=13.8; p<0.001). The healthy neonates provided a total of 39 paired readings; the mean difference in temperature was 0.13°C (sensor =36.9 vs digital = 36.7; p=0.2). The neonates in the NICU provided a total of 130 paired readings. Their mean skin temperature measured by the sensor was 0.6°C lower than that measured by the radiant warmer probe (sensor =35.9 vs warmer probe = 36.5; p < 0.001). The neonate with HIE provided a total of 25 paired readings with the mean sensor reading being not different from the radian warmer probe reading (sensor =33.5 vs warmer probe = 33.5; p=0.8). No major adverse events were noted in both the adults and neonates; four adult volunteers reported mild sweating under the device/arm band and one volunteer developed mild skin allergy. This proof-of-concept study shows that real-time monitoring of temperatures is technically feasible and that this innovation appears to be promising in terms of both safety and accuracy (with appropriate calibration) for improved maternal and neonatal health.

Keywords: public health, remote biomonitoring, temperature surveillance, wearable sensors, mothers and newborns

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10319 Cross Professional Team-Assisted Teaching Effectiveness

Authors: Shan-Yu Hsu, Hsin-Shu Huang

Abstract:

The main purpose of this teaching research is to design an interdisciplinary team-assisted teaching method for trainees and interns and review the effectiveness of this teaching method on trainees' understanding of peritoneal dialysis. The teaching research object is the fifth and sixth-grade trainees in a medical center's medical school. The teaching methods include media teaching, demonstration of technical operation, face-to-face communication with patients, special case discussions, and field visits to the peritoneal dialysis room. Evaluate learning effectiveness before, after, and verbally. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS paired-sample t-test to analyze whether there is a difference in peritoneal dialysis professional cognition before and after teaching intervention. Descriptive statistics show that the average score of the previous test is 74.44, the standard deviation is 9.34, the average score of the post-test is 95.56, and the standard deviation is 5.06. The results of the t-test of the paired samples are shown as p-value = 0.006, showing the peritoneal dialysis professional cognitive test. Significant differences were observed before and after. The interdisciplinary team-assisted teaching method helps trainees and interns to improve their professional awareness of peritoneal dialysis. At the same time, trainee physicians have positive feedback on the inter-professional team-assisted teaching method. This teaching research finds that the clinical ability development education of trainees and interns can provide cross-professional team-assisted teaching methods to assist clinical teaching guidance.

Keywords: monitor quality, patient safety, health promotion objective, cross-professional team-assisted teaching methods

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10318 Engaging Students in Multimedia Constructivist Learning: Analysis of Students' Science Achievement

Authors: Maria Georgiou

Abstract:

This study examined whether there was a statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest achievement scores for students who received multimedia-based instructions in science. The paired samples t-test was used to address the research question and to establish whether there was a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores that may have occurred based on the students’ learning experience with multimedia technology. Findings indicated that there was a significant difference in students’ achievement scores before and after a multimedia-based instruction. Students’ achievement scores were increased by approximately two points, after students received multimedia-based instruction. On a paired samples t-test, a high level of significance was found, p = 0.000. Opportunities to learn with multimedia are more likely to result in sustained improvements in student achievement and a deeper understanding of science content. Multimedia can make learning more active and student-centered and activate student motivation.

Keywords: constructivist learning, hyperstudio, multimedia, multimedia-based instruction

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10317 Evaluation of Brca1/2 Mutational Status among Algerian Familial Breast Cancer

Authors: Arab M., Ait Abdallah M., Zeraoulia N., Boumaza H., Aoutia M., Griene L., Ait Abdelkader B.,

Abstract:

breast and ovarian cancer are respectively the first and fourth leading causes of cancer among women in Algeria. A family story of cancer in the most important risk factor, and in most cases of families with breast and /or ovarian cancer, the pattern of cancer family can be attributed to mutation in BRCA1/2genes. objectibes: the aim of our study in to investigate the spectrum of BRCA1/2 germiline mutation in familial breast and /or ovarian cancer and to determine the prevalence and the nature of BRCA1/2mutation in Algeria methods: we deremined the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutation within a cohort of 161 probands selected according the eisinger score double stranded sanger sequencing of all coding exons of BRCA1/2including flanking intronic region were performed results: we identified a total of 23 distinct deleterious mutations (class5) 12 differents mutations in BRCA1(52%) and 11 in BRCA2(48%). 78% (18/23) were protein truncating and 22%(5/23) missens mutations.3 novel deleterious mutations have been identified, which have not been described in public mutation database. one new mutation were found in two unrelated patients. the overall mutation detection rate in our study is 28,5%(46/161).more over, an UVS c7783 located in BRCA2 is found in two unrelated probands and segregate in the 02 families/ conclusion: our results sugget of large spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutation in Algerian breast/ovarian cancer family. The nature and prevalence of BRCA1/2mutation in algerian families are ongoing in a larger study, 80 probands are to day under investigation. This study which may therefore identify the genetic particularity of Algerian breast /ovarian cancer.

Keywords: BRCA1/2 mutations, hereditary breast cancer, algerian women, prvalence

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10316 Individual Differences and Paired Learning in Virtual Environments

Authors: Patricia M. Boechler, Heather M. Gautreau

Abstract:

In this research study, postsecondary students completed an information learning task in an avatar-based 3D virtual learning environment. Three factors were of interest in relation to learning; 1) the influence of collaborative vs. independent conditions, 2) the influence of the spatial arrangement of the virtual environment (linear, random and clustered), and 3) the relationship of individual differences such as spatial skill, general computer experience and video game experience to learning. Students completed pretest measures of prior computer experience and prior spatial skill. Following the premeasure administration, students were given instruction to move through the virtual environment and study all the material within 10 information stations. In the collaborative condition, students proceeded in randomly assigned pairs, while in the independent condition they proceeded alone. After this learning phase, all students individually completed a multiple choice test to determine information retention. The overall results indicated that students in pairs did not perform any better or worse than independent students. As far as individual differences, only spatial ability predicted the performance of students. General computer experience and video game experience did not. Taking a closer look at the pairs and spatial ability, comparisons were made on pairs high/matched spatial ability, pairs low/matched spatial ability and pairs that were mismatched on spatial ability. The results showed that both high/matched pairs and mismatched pairs outperformed low/matched pairs. That is, if a pair had even one individual with strong spatial ability they would perform better than pairs with only low spatial ability individuals. This suggests that, in virtual environments, the specific individuals that are paired together are important for performance outcomes. The paper also includes a discussion of trends within the data that have implications for virtual environment education.

Keywords: avatar-based, virtual environment, paired learning, individual differences

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10315 Role of Family in Child Behavior Problems: A General Overview of Dissertations and Thesis at Turkey

Authors: Selen Demirtas Zorbaz, Ozlem Ulas

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Examining the reasons of child behaviour problems has been one of the focus of psychology and related disciplines for so long. It can be said there is a lot of reasons of child behaviour problems and familial factors might be the leading ones. When taking into account the prevalence of the children having behaviour problems in Turkey, it can be said that it is important to carry out studies putting forward the reasons of behaviour problems. From this point of view, the aim of this study is to examine dissertations and thesis putting forward the relationship between problem behaviour of the children (12-year-old and younger) and teenagers (12-18 years old), and familial factors. For that purpose, 46 dissertations that were chosen according to the study criteria out of 141 dissertations scanned by using the keywords of ‘behaviour problems’ and ‘behaviour disorder’ at Higher Education Thesis Centre between the years of 1989 and 2016 have been taken into the scope of the study. ‘Thesis Examination Draft Form’ has been prepared for the purpose of being used for data collecting tool. For the analysis of the data, percentage, and frequency analysis methods have been used. When the results of these studies are evaluated on the whole, it is seen that all the dissertations and thesis done are descriptive study, and it was not encountered any studies designed as experimental. When looked at the distribution of dissertations by years, it is seen that the first thesis was done in 1989 and the most number of dissertations were done in the years of 2014 and 2016. When looked at the department in which the dissertations were done, it can be said that dissertations and thesis were done in many different fields of disciplines ranging from psychology and special education. In addition to this, when investigated the group taken into the scope of dissertations and thesis research, it is seen that the children mostly worked with are below the age of 12 and types of studies are master’s thesis. When the dissertations and thesis are examined by means of topics, it is seen that mostly-studied topics are demographic variables such as gender, whether the family is fragmented or not, education level of the family and the parents’ attitude. Obtained findings have been examined in the light of literature.

Keywords: family, child behaviour problem, dissertations, thesis

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10314 High Expression Levels and Amplification of rRNA Genes in a Mentally Retarded Child with 13p+: A Familial Case Study

Authors: Irina S. Kolesnikova, Alexander A. Dolskiy, Natalya A. Lemskaya, Yulia V. Maksimova, Asia R. Shorina, Alena S. Telepova, Alexander S. Graphodatsky, Dmitry V. Yudkin

Abstract:

A cytogenetic and molecular genetic study of the family with a male child who had mental retardation and autistic features revealed an abnormal chromosome 13 bearing an enlarged p-arm with amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in a boy and his father. Cytogenetic analysis using standard G-banding and FISH with labeled rDNA probes revealed an abnormal chromosome 13 with an enlarged p-arms due to rDNA amplification in a male child, who had clinically confirmed mental retardation and an autistic behavior. This chromosome is evidently inherited from the father, who has morphologically the same chromosome, but is healthy. The karyotype of the mother was normal. Ag-NOR staining showed brightly stained large whole-p-arm nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in a child and normal-sized NORs in his father with 13p+-NOR-amount mosaicism. qRT-PCR with specific primers showed highly increased levels of 18S, 28S and 5,8 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in the patient’s blood samples compared to a normal healthy control donor. Both patient’s father and mother had no elevated levels of rRNAs expression. Thus, in this case, rRNA level seems to correlate with mental retardation in familial individuals with 13p+. Our findings of rRNA overexpression in a patient with mental retardation and his parents may show a possible link between the karyotype (p-arm enlargement due to rDNA amplification), rDNA functionality (rRNA overexpression), functional changes in the brain and mental retardation. The study is supported by Russian Science Foundation Grant 15-15-10001.

Keywords: mental retardation, ribosomal DNA–rDNA, ribosomal RNA–rRNA, nucleolus organizer region–NOR, chromosome 13

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10313 Investigating the Efficacy of Developing Critical Thinking through Literature Reading

Authors: Julie Chuah Suan Choo

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Due to the continuous change in workforce and the demands of the global workplace, many employers had lamented that the majority of university graduates were not prepared in the key areas of employment such as critical thinking, writing, self-direction and global knowledge which are most needed for the purposes of promotion. Further, critical thinking skills are deemed as integral parts of transformational pedagogy which aims at having a more informed society. To add to this, literature teaching has recently been advocated for enhancing students’ critical thinking and reasoning. Thus this study explored the effects of incorporating a few strategies in teaching literature, namely a Shakespeare play, into a course design to enhance these skills. An experiment involving a pretest and posttest using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) were administered on 80 first-year students enrolled in the Bachelor of Arts programme who were randomly assigned into the control group and experimental group. For the next 12 weeks, the experimental group was given intervention which included guided in-class discussion with Socratic questioning skills, learning log to detect their weaknesses in logical reasoning; presentations and quizzes. The results of CCTST which included paired T-test using SPSS version 22 indicated significant differences between the two groups. Findings have significant implications on the course design as well as pedagogical practice in using literature to enhance students’ critical thinking skills.

Keywords: literature teaching, critical thinking, California critical thinking skills test (CCTST), course design

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10312 Moving beyond the Social Model of Disability by Engaging in Anti-Oppressive Social Work Practice

Authors: Irene Carter, Roy Hanes, Judy MacDonald

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Considering that disability is universal and people with disabilities are part of all societies; that there is a connection between the disabled individual and the societal; and that it is society and social arrangements that disable people with impairments, contemporary disability discourse emphasizes the social model of disability to counter medical and rehabilitative models of disability. However, the social model does not go far enough in addressing the issues of oppression and inclusion. The authors indicate that the social model does not specifically or adequately denote the oppression of persons with disabilities, which is a central component of progressive social work practice with people with disabilities. The social model of disability does not go far enough in deconstructing disability and offering social workers, as well as people with disabilities a way of moving forward in terms of practice anchored in individual, familial and societal change. The social model of disability is expanded by incorporating principles of anti-oppression social work practice. Although the contextual analysis of the social model of disability is an important component there remains a need for social workers to provide service to individuals and their families, which will be illustrated through anti-oppressive practice (AOP). By applying an anti-oppressive model of practice to the above definitions, the authors not only deconstruct disability paradigms but illustrate how AOP offers a framework for social workers to engage with people with disabilities at the individual, familial and community levels of practice, promoting an emancipatory focus in working with people with disabilities. An anti- social- oppression social work model of disability connects the day-to-day hardships of people with disabilities to the direct consequence of oppression in the form of ableism. AOP theory finds many of its basic concepts within social-oppression theory and the social model of disability. It is often the case that practitioners, including social workers and psychologists, define people with disabilities’ as having or being a problem with the focus placed upon adjustment and coping. A case example will be used to illustrate how an AOP paradigm offers social work a more comprehensive and critical analysis and practice model for social work practice with and for people with disabilities than the traditional medical model, rehabilitative and social model approaches.

Keywords: anti-oppressive practice, disability, people with disabilities, social model of disability

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10311 Six Sigma-Based Optimization of Shrinkage Accuracy in Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Sky Chou, Joseph C. Chen

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This paper focuses on using six sigma methodologies to reach the desired shrinkage of a manufactured high-density polyurethane (HDPE) part produced by the injection molding machine. It presents a case study where the correct shrinkage is required to reduce or eliminate defects and to improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an injection molding process. To improve this process and keep the product within specifications, the six sigma methodology, design, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) approach, was implemented in this study. The six sigma approach was paired with the Taguchi methodology to identify the optimized processing parameters that keep the shrinkage rate within the specifications by our customer. An L9 orthogonal array was applied in the Taguchi experimental design, with four controllable factors and one non-controllable/noise factor. The four controllable factors identified consist of the cooling time, melt temperature, holding time, and metering stroke. The noise factor is the difference between material brand 1 and material brand 2. After the confirmation run was completed, measurements verify that the new parameter settings are optimal. With the new settings, the process capability index has improved dramatically. The purpose of this study is to show that the six sigma and Taguchi methodology can be efficiently used to determine important factors that will improve the process capability index of the injection molding process.

Keywords: injection molding, shrinkage, six sigma, Taguchi parameter design

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