Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2337

Search results for: facial image

2337 Improving the Performance of Deep Learning in Facial Emotion Recognition with Image Sharpening

Authors: Ksheeraj Sai Vepuri, Nada Attar


We as humans use words with accompanying visual and facial cues to communicate effectively. Classifying facial emotion using computer vision methodologies has been an active research area in the computer vision field. In this paper, we propose a simple method for facial expression recognition that enhances accuracy. We tested our method on the FER-2013 dataset that contains static images. Instead of using Histogram equalization to preprocess the dataset, we used Unsharp Mask to emphasize texture and details and sharpened the edges. We also used ImageDataGenerator from Keras library for data augmentation. Then we used Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) model to classify the images into 7 different facial expressions, yielding an accuracy of 69.46% on the test set. Our results show that using image preprocessing such as the sharpening technique for a CNN model can improve the performance, even when the CNN model is relatively simple.

Keywords: facial expression recognittion, image preprocessing, deep learning, CNN

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2336 Noninvasive Evaluation of Acupuncture by Measuring Facial Temperature through Thermal Image

Authors: An Guo, Hieyong Jeong, Tianyi Wang, Na Li, Yuko Ohno


Acupuncture, known as sensory simulation, has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years. However, present studies had not addressed approaches for noninvasive measurement in order to evaluate therapeutic effect of acupuncture. The purpose of this study is to propose a noninvasive method to evaluate acupuncture by measuring facial temperature through thermal image. Three human subjects were recruited in this study. Each subject received acupuncture therapy for 30 mins. Acupuncture needles (Ø0.16 x 30 mm) were inserted into Baihui point (DU20), Neiguan points (PC6) and Taichong points (LR3), acupuncture needles (Ø0.18 x 39 mm) were inserted into Tanzhong point (RN17), Zusanli points (ST36) and Yinlingquan points (SP9). Facial temperature was recorded by an infrared thermometer. Acupuncture therapeutic effect was compared pre- and post-acupuncture. Experiment results demonstrated that facial temperature changed according to acupuncture therapeutic effect. It was concluded that proposed method showed high potential to evaluate acupuncture by noninvasive measurement of facial temperature.

Keywords: acupuncture, facial temperature, noninvasive evaluation, thermal image

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
2335 Automatic Facial Skin Segmentation Using Possibilistic C-Means Algorithm for Evaluation of Facial Surgeries

Authors: Elham Alaee, Mousa Shamsi, Hossein Ahmadi, Soroosh Nazem, Mohammad Hossein Sedaaghi


Human face has a fundamental role in the appearance of individuals. So the importance of facial surgeries is undeniable. Thus, there is a need for the appropriate and accurate facial skin segmentation in order to extract different features. Since Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm doesn’t work appropriately for noisy images and outliers, in this paper we exploit Possibilistic C-Means (PCM) algorithm in order to segment the facial skin. For this purpose, first, we convert facial images from RGB to YCbCr color space. To evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm, the database of Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran was used. In order to have a better understanding from the proposed algorithm; FCM and Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms are also used for facial skin segmentation. The proposed method shows better results than the other segmentation methods. Results include misclassification error (0.032) and the region’s area error (0.045) for the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: facial image, segmentation, PCM, FCM, skin error, facial surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
2334 DBN-Based Face Recognition System Using Light Field

Authors: Bing Gu


Abstract—Most of Conventional facial recognition systems are based on image features, such as LBP, SIFT. Recently some DBN-based 2D facial recognition systems have been proposed. However, we find there are few DBN-based 3D facial recognition system and relative researches. 3D facial images include all the individual biometric information. We can use these information to build more accurate features, So we present our DBN-based face recognition system using Light Field. We can see Light Field as another presentation of 3D image, and Light Field Camera show us a way to receive a Light Field. We use the commercially available Light Field Camera to act as the collector of our face recognition system, and the system receive a state-of-art performance as convenient as conventional 2D face recognition system.

Keywords: DBN, face recognition, light field, Lytro

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2333 Facial Biometric Privacy Using Visual Cryptography: A Fundamental Approach to Enhance the Security of Facial Biometric Data

Authors: Devika Tanna


'Biometrics' means 'life measurement' but the term is usually associated with the use of unique physiological characteristics to identify an individual. It is important to secure the privacy of digital face image that is stored in central database. To impart privacy to such biometric face images, first, the digital face image is split into two host face images such that, each of it gives no idea of existence of the original face image and, then each cover image is stored in two different databases geographically apart. When both the cover images are simultaneously available then only we can access that original image. This can be achieved by using the XM2VTS and IMM face database, an adaptive algorithm for spatial greyscale. The algorithm helps to select the appropriate host images which are most likely to be compatible with the secret image stored in the central database based on its geometry and appearance. The encryption is done using GEVCS which results in a reconstructed image identical to the original private image.

Keywords: adaptive algorithm, database, host images, privacy, visual cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2332 Facial Expression Phoenix (FePh): An Annotated Sequenced Dataset for Facial and Emotion-Specified Expressions in Sign Language

Authors: Marie Alaghband, Niloofar Yousefi, Ivan Garibay


Facial expressions are important parts of both gesture and sign language recognition systems. Despite the recent advances in both fields, annotated facial expression datasets in the context of sign language are still scarce resources. In this manuscript, we introduce an annotated sequenced facial expression dataset in the context of sign language, comprising over 3000 facial images extracted from the daily news and weather forecast of the public tv-station PHOENIX. Unlike the majority of currently existing facial expression datasets, FePh provides sequenced semi-blurry facial images with different head poses, orientations, and movements. In addition, in the majority of images, identities are mouthing the words, which makes the data more challenging. To annotate this dataset we consider primary, secondary, and tertiary dyads of seven basic emotions of "sad", "surprise", "fear", "angry", "neutral", "disgust", and "happy". We also considered the "None" class if the image’s facial expression could not be described by any of the aforementioned emotions. Although we provide FePh as a facial expression dataset of signers in sign language, it has a wider application in gesture recognition and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems.

Keywords: annotated facial expression dataset, gesture recognition, sequenced facial expression dataset, sign language recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2331 In vivo Mechanical Characterization of Facial Skin Combining Digital Image Correlation and Finite Element

Authors: Huixin Wei, Shibin Wang, Linan Li, Lei Zhou, Xinhao Tu


Facial skin is a biomedical material with complex mechanical properties of anisotropy, viscoelasticity, and hyperelasticity. The mechanical properties of facial skin are crucial for a number of applications including facial plastic surgery, animation, dermatology, cosmetic industry, and impact biomechanics. Skin is a complex multi-layered material which can be broadly divided into three main layers, the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis. Collagen fibers account for 75% of the dry weight of dermal tissue, and it is these fibers which are responsible for the mechanical properties of skin. Many research on the anisotropic mechanical properties are mainly concentrated on in vitro, but there is a great difference between in vivo and in vitro for mechanical properties of the skin. In this study, we presented a method to measure the mechanical properties of facial skin in vivo. Digital image correlation (DIC) and indentation tests were used to obtain the experiment data, including the deformation of facial surface and indentation force-displacement curve. Then, the experiment was simulated using a finite element (FE) model. Application of Computed Tomography (CT) and reconstruction techniques obtained the real tissue geometry. A three-dimensional FE model of facial skin, including a bi-layer system, was obtained. As the epidermis is relatively thin, the epidermis and dermis were regarded as one layer and below it was hypodermis in this study. The upper layer was modeled as a Gasser-Ogden-Holzapfel (GOH) model to describe hyperelastic and anisotropic behaviors of the dermis. The under layer was modeled as a linear elastic model. In conclusion, the material properties of two-layer were determined by minimizing the error between the FE data and experimental data.

Keywords: facial skin, indentation test, finite element, digital image correlation, computed tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
2330 Facial Emotion Recognition Using Deep Learning

Authors: Ashutosh Mishra, Nikhil Goyal


A 3D facial emotion recognition model based on deep learning is proposed in this paper. Two convolution layers and a pooling layer are employed in the deep learning architecture. After the convolution process, the pooling is finished. The probabilities for various classes of human faces are calculated using the sigmoid activation function. To verify the efficiency of deep learning-based systems, a set of faces. The Kaggle dataset is used to verify the accuracy of a deep learning-based face recognition model. The model's accuracy is about 65 percent, which is lower than that of other facial expression recognition techniques. Despite significant gains in representation precision due to the nonlinearity of profound image representations.

Keywords: facial recognition, computational intelligence, convolutional neural network, depth map

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2329 Human-Machine Cooperation in Facial Comparison Based on Likelihood Scores

Authors: Lanchi Xie, Zhihui Li, Zhigang Li, Guiqiang Wang, Lei Xu, Yuwen Yan


Image-based facial features can be classified into category recognition features and individual recognition features. Current automated face recognition systems extract a specific feature vector of different dimensions from a facial image according to their pre-trained neural network. However, to improve the efficiency of parameter calculation, an algorithm generally reduces the image details by pooling. The operation will overlook the details concerned much by forensic experts. In our experiment, we adopted a variety of face recognition algorithms based on deep learning, compared a large number of naturally collected face images with the known data of the same person's frontal ID photos. Downscaling and manual handling were performed on the testing images. The results supported that the facial recognition algorithms based on deep learning detected structural and morphological information and rarely focused on specific markers such as stains and moles. Overall performance, distribution of genuine scores and impostor scores, and likelihood ratios were tested to evaluate the accuracy of biometric systems and forensic experts. Experiments showed that the biometric systems were skilled in distinguishing category features, and forensic experts were better at discovering the individual features of human faces. In the proposed approach, a fusion was performed at the score level. At the specified false accept rate, the framework achieved a lower false reject rate. This paper contributes to improving the interpretability of the objective method of facial comparison and provides a novel method for human-machine collaboration in this field.

Keywords: likelihood ratio, automated facial recognition, facial comparison, biometrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2328 Management of Facial Nerve Palsy Following Physiotherapy

Authors: Bassam Band, Simon Freeman, Rohan Munir, Hisham Band


Objective: To determine efficacy of facial physiotherapy provided for patients with facial nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective study Subjects: 54 patients diagnosed with Facial nerve palsy were included in the study after they met the selection criteria including unilateral facial paralysis and start of therapy twelve months after the onset of facial nerve palsy. Interventions: Patients received the treatment offered at a facial physiotherapy clinic consisting of: Trophic electrical stimulation, surface electromyography with biofeedback, neuromuscular re-education and myofascial release. Main measures: The Sunnybrook facial grading scale was used to evaluate the severity of facial paralysis. Results: This study demonstrated the positive impact of physiotherapy for patient with facial nerve palsy with improvement of 24.2% on the Sunnybrook facial grading score from a mean baseline of 34.2% to 58.2%. The greatest improvement looking at different causes was seen in patient who had reconstructive surgery post Acoustic Neuroma at 31.3%. Conclusion: The therapy shows significant improvement for patients with facial nerve palsy even when started 12 months post onset of paralysis across different causes. This highlights the benefit of this non-invasive technique in managing facial nerve paralysis and possibly preventing the need for surgery.

Keywords: facial nerve palsy, treatment, physiotherapy, bells palsy, acoustic neuroma, ramsey-hunt syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
2327 A Robust Spatial Feature Extraction Method for Facial Expression Recognition

Authors: H. G. C. P. Dinesh, G. Tharshini, M. P. B. Ekanayake, G. M. R. I. Godaliyadda


This paper presents a new spatial feature extraction method based on principle component analysis (PCA) and Fisher Discernment Analysis (FDA) for facial expression recognition. It not only extracts reliable features for classification, but also reduces the feature space dimensions of pattern samples. In this method, first each gray scale image is considered in its entirety as the measurement matrix. Then, principle components (PCs) of row vectors of this matrix and variance of these row vectors along PCs are estimated. Therefore, this method would ensure the preservation of spatial information of the facial image. Afterwards, by incorporating the spectral information of the eigen-filters derived from the PCs, a feature vector was constructed, for a given image. Finally, FDA was used to define a set of basis in a reduced dimension subspace such that the optimal clustering is achieved. The method of FDA defines an inter-class scatter matrix and intra-class scatter matrix to enhance the compactness of each cluster while maximizing the distance between cluster marginal points. In order to matching the test image with the training set, a cosine similarity based Bayesian classification was used. The proposed method was tested on the Cohn-Kanade database and JAFFE database. It was observed that the proposed method which incorporates spatial information to construct an optimal feature space outperforms the standard PCA and FDA based methods.

Keywords: facial expression recognition, principle component analysis (PCA), fisher discernment analysis (FDA), eigen-filter, cosine similarity, bayesian classifier, f-measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
2326 Quantification and Preference of Facial Asymmetry of the Sub-Saharan Africans' 3D Facial Models

Authors: Anas Ibrahim Yahaya, Christophe Soligo


A substantial body of literature has reported on facial symmetry and asymmetry and their role in human mate choice. However, major gaps persist, with nearly all data originating from the WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich and Developed) populations, and results remaining largely equivocal when compared across studies. This study is aimed at quantifying facial asymmetry from the 3D faces of the Hausa of northern Nigeria and also aimed at determining their (Hausa) perceptions and judgements of standardised facial images with different levels of asymmetry using questionnaires. Data were analysed using R-studio software and results indicated that individuals with lower levels of facial asymmetry (near facial symmetry) were perceived as more attractive, more suitable as marriage partners and more caring, whereas individuals with higher levels of facial asymmetry were perceived as more aggressive. The study conclusively asserts that all faces are asymmetric including the most beautiful ones, and the preference of less asymmetric faces was not just dependent on single facial trait, but rather on multiple facial traits; thus the study supports that physical attractiveness is not just an arbitrary social construct, but at least in part a cue to general health and possibly related to environmental context.

Keywords: face, asymmetry, symmetry, Hausa, preference

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2325 Gender Recognition with Deep Belief Networks

Authors: Xiaoqi Jia, Qing Zhu, Hao Zhang, Su Yang


A gender recognition system is able to tell the gender of the given person through a few of frontal facial images. An effective gender recognition approach enables to improve the performance of many other applications, including security monitoring, human-computer interaction, image or video retrieval and so on. In this paper, we present an effective method for gender classification task in frontal facial images based on deep belief networks (DBNs), which can pre-train model and improve accuracy a little bit. Our experiments have shown that the pre-training method with DBNs for gender classification task is feasible and achieves a little improvement of accuracy on FERET and CAS-PEAL-R1 facial datasets.

Keywords: gender recognition, beep belief net-works, semi-supervised learning, greedy-layer wise RBMs

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
2324 A Geometric Based Hybrid Approach for Facial Feature Localization

Authors: Priya Saha, Sourav Dey Roy Jr., Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mita Nasipuri, Barin Kumar De, Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik


Biometric face recognition technology (FRT) has gained a lot of attention due to its extensive variety of applications in both security and non-security perspectives. It has come into view to provide a secure solution in identification and verification of person identity. Although other biometric based methods like fingerprint scans, iris scans are available, FRT is verified as an efficient technology for its user-friendliness and contact freeness. Accurate facial feature localization plays an important role for many facial analysis applications including biometrics and emotion recognition. But, there are certain factors, which make facial feature localization a challenging task. On human face, expressions can be seen from the subtle movements of facial muscles and influenced by internal emotional states. These non-rigid facial movements cause noticeable alterations in locations of facial landmarks, their usual shapes, which sometimes create occlusions in facial feature areas making face recognition as a difficult problem. The paper proposes a new hybrid based technique for automatic landmark detection in both neutral and expressive frontal and near frontal face images. The method uses the concept of thresholding, sequential searching and other image processing techniques for locating the landmark points on the face. Also, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) based software is designed that could automatically detect 16 landmark points around eyes, nose and mouth that are mostly affected by the changes in facial muscles. The proposed system has been tested on widely used JAFFE and Cohn Kanade database. Also, the system is tested on DeitY-TU face database which is created in the Biometrics Laboratory of Tripura University under the research project funded by Department of Electronics & Information Technology, Govt. of India. The performance of the proposed method has been done in terms of error measure and accuracy. The method has detection rate of 98.82% on JAFFE database, 91.27% on Cohn Kanade database and 93.05% on DeitY-TU database. Also, we have done comparative study of our proposed method with other techniques developed by other researchers. This paper will put into focus emotion-oriented systems through AU detection in future based on the located features.

Keywords: biometrics, face recognition, facial landmarks, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
2323 Comparing Emotion Recognition from Voice and Facial Data Using Time Invariant Features

Authors: Vesna Kirandziska, Nevena Ackovska, Ana Madevska Bogdanova


The problem of emotion recognition is a challenging problem. It is still an open problem from the aspect of both intelligent systems and psychology. In this paper, both voice features and facial features are used for building an emotion recognition system. A Support Vector Machine classifiers are built by using raw data from video recordings. In this paper, the results obtained for the emotion recognition are given, and a discussion about the validity and the expressiveness of different emotions is presented. A comparison between the classifiers build from facial data only, voice data only and from the combination of both data is made here. The need for a better combination of the information from facial expression and voice data is argued.

Keywords: emotion recognition, facial recognition, signal processing, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
2322 Improved Feature Extraction Technique for Handling Occlusion in Automatic Facial Expression Recognition

Authors: Khadijat T. Bamigbade, Olufade F. W. Onifade


The field of automatic facial expression analysis has been an active research area in the last two decades. Its vast applicability in various domains has drawn so much attention into developing techniques and dataset that mirror real life scenarios. Many techniques such as Local Binary Patterns and its variants (CLBP, LBP-TOP) and lately, deep learning techniques, have been used for facial expression recognition. However, the problem of occlusion has not been sufficiently handled, making their results not applicable in real life situations. This paper develops a simple, yet highly efficient method tagged Local Binary Pattern-Histogram of Gradient (LBP-HOG) with occlusion detection in face image, using a multi-class SVM for Action Unit and in turn expression recognition. Our method was evaluated on three publicly available datasets which are JAFFE, CK, SFEW. Experimental results showed that our approach performed considerably well when compared with state-of-the-art algorithms and gave insight to occlusion detection as a key step to handling expression in wild.

Keywords: automatic facial expression analysis, local binary pattern, LBP-HOG, occlusion detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2321 Emotion Recognition with Occlusions Based on Facial Expression Reconstruction and Weber Local Descriptor

Authors: Jadisha Cornejo, Helio Pedrini


Recognition of emotions based on facial expressions has received increasing attention from the scientific community over the last years. Several fields of applications can benefit from facial emotion recognition, such as behavior prediction, interpersonal relations, human-computer interactions, recommendation systems. In this work, we develop and analyze an emotion recognition framework based on facial expressions robust to occlusions through the Weber Local Descriptor (WLD). Initially, the occluded facial expressions are reconstructed following an extension approach of Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA). Then, WLD features are extracted from the facial expression representation, as well as Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG). The feature vector space is reduced using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Finally, K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers are used to recognize the expressions. Experimental results on three public datasets demonstrated that the WLD representation achieved competitive accuracy rates for occluded and non-occluded facial expressions compared to other approaches available in the literature.

Keywords: emotion recognition, facial expression, occlusion, fiducial landmarks

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
2320 Classifying Facial Expressions Based on a Motion Local Appearance Approach

Authors: Fabiola M. Villalobos-Castaldi, Nicolás C. Kemper, Esther Rojas-Krugger, Laura G. Ramírez-Sánchez


This paper presents the classification results about exploring the combination of a motion based approach with a local appearance method to describe the facial motion caused by the muscle contractions and expansions that are presented in facial expressions. The proposed feature extraction method take advantage of the knowledge related to which parts of the face reflects the highest deformations, so we selected 4 specific facial regions at which the appearance descriptor were applied. The most common used approaches for feature extraction are the holistic and the local strategies. In this work we present the results of using a local appearance approach estimating the correlation coefficient to the 4 corresponding landmark-localized facial templates of the expression face related to the neutral face. The results let us to probe how the proposed motion estimation scheme based on the local appearance correlation computation can simply and intuitively measure the motion parameters for some of the most relevant facial regions and how these parameters can be used to recognize facial expressions automatically.

Keywords: facial expression recognition system, feature extraction, local-appearance method, motion-based approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
2319 Somatosensory-Evoked Blink Reflex in Peripheral Facial Palsy

Authors: Sarah Sayed El- Tawab, Emmanuel Kamal Azix Saba


Objectives: Somatosensory blink reflex (SBR) is an eye blink response obtained from electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves or skin area of the body. It has been studied in various neurological diseases as well as among healthy subjects in different population. We designed this study to detect SBR positivity in patients with facial palsy and patients with post facial syndrome, to relate the facial palsy severity and the presence of SBR, and to associate between trigeminal BR changes and SBR positivity in peripheral facial palsy patients. Methods: 50 patients with peripheral facial palsy and post-facial syndrome 31 age and gender matched healthy volunteers were enrolled to this study. Facial motor conduction studies, trigeminal BR, and SBR were studied in all. Results: SBR was elicited in 67.7% of normal subjects, in 68% of PFS group, and in 32% of PFP group. On the non-paralytic side SBR was found in 28% by paralyzed side stimulation and in 24% by healthy side stimulation among PFP patients. For PFS group SBR was found on the non- paralytic side in 48%. Bilateral SBR elicitability was higher than its unilateral elicitability. Conclusion: Increased brainstem interneurons excitability is not essential to generate SBR. The hypothetical sensory-motor gating mechanism is responsible for SBR generation.

Keywords: somatosensory evoked blink reflex, post facial syndrome, blink reflex, enchanced gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 523
2318 Facial Emotion Recognition with Convolutional Neural Network Based Architecture

Authors: Koray U. Erbas


Neural networks are appealing for many applications since they are able to learn complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. As the number of neurons and layers in a neural network increase, it is possible to represent more complex relationships with automatically extracted features. Nowadays Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are widely used in Computer Vision problems such as; classification, object detection, segmentation image editing etc. In this work, Facial Emotion Recognition task is performed by proposed Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based DNN architecture using FER2013 Dataset. Moreover, the effects of different hyperparameters (activation function, kernel size, initializer, batch size and network size) are investigated and ablation study results for Pooling Layer, Dropout and Batch Normalization are presented.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, deep learning, deep learning based FER, facial emotion recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2317 3D Dentofacial Surgery Full Planning Procedures

Authors: Oliveira M., Gonçalves L., Vale F., Caramelo F., Francisco I., Vale, F., Sanz D., Domingues M., Lopes M., Moreia D., Lopes T., Santos T., Cardoso H.


The ARTHUR project consists of a platform that allows the virtual performance of maxillofacial surgeries, offering, in a photorealistic concept, the possibility for the patient to have an idea of the surgical changes before they are performed on their face. For this, the system brings together several image formats, dicoms and objs that, after loading, will generate the bone volume, soft tissues and hard tissues. The system also incorporates the patient's stereophotogrammetry, in addition to their data and clinical history. After loading and inserting data, the clinician can virtually perform the surgical operation and present the final result to the patient, generating a new facial surface that contemplates the changes made in the bone and tissues of the maxillary area. This tool acts in different situations that require facial reconstruction, however this project focuses specifically on two types of use cases: bone congenital disfigurement and acquired disfiguration such as oral cancer with bone attainment. Being developed a cloud based solution, with mobile support, the tool aims to reduce the decision time window of patient. Because the current simulations are not realistic or, if realistic, need time due to the need of building plaster models, patient rates on decision, rely on a long time window (1,2 months), because they don’t identify themselves with the presented surgical outcome. On the other hand, this planning was performed time based on average estimated values of the position of the maxilla and mandible. The team was based on averages of the facial measurements of the population, without specifying racial variability, so the proposed solution was not adjusted to the real individual physiognomic needs.

Keywords: 3D computing, image processing, image registry, image reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
2316 Disentangling Audio Content and Emotion with Adaptive Instance Normalization for Expressive Facial Animation Synthesis

Authors: Che-Jui Chang, Long Zhao, Mubbasir Kapadia


3D facial animation synthesis from audio has been a focus in recent years. However, most existing works in the literature are designed for the mapping between audio and visual content, providing limited knowledge regarding the relationship between emotion in audio and expressive facial animation. In this paper, we aim to generate audio-matching facial animations with the specified emotion label. In such a task, we argue that separating the content from audio is indispensable -the proposed model must learn to generate facial contents from audio contents while expressions from the specified emotion. We achieve it by an adaptive instance normalization (AdaIN) module that isolates the content in the audio and combines the emotion embedding from the specified label. The joint content-emotion embedding is then used to generate 3D facial vertices and texture maps. We compare our method with state-of-the-art baselines, including the facial segmentation-based and voice conversion-based disentanglement approaches. We also conducted a user study to evaluate the performance of emotion conditioning, and the results indicate our proposed method outperforms the baselines in both the animation quality and accuracy of expression categorization.

Keywords: adaptive instance normalization, audio-driven animation, content-emotion disentanglement, emotion-conditioning, expressive facial animation synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2315 KSVD-SVM Approach for Spontaneous Facial Expression Recognition

Authors: Dawood Al Chanti, Alice Caplier


Sparse representations of signals have received a great deal of attention in recent years. In this paper, the interest of using sparse representation as a mean for performing sparse discriminative analysis between spontaneous facial expressions is demonstrated. An automatic facial expressions recognition system is presented. It uses a KSVD-SVM approach which is made of three main stages: A pre-processing and feature extraction stage, which solves the problem of shared subspace distribution based on the random projection theory, to obtain low dimensional discriminative and reconstructive features; A dictionary learning and sparse coding stage, which uses the KSVD model to learn discriminative under or over dictionaries for sparse coding; Finally a classification stage, which uses a SVM classifier for facial expressions recognition. Our main concern is to be able to recognize non-basic affective states and non-acted expressions. Extensive experiments on the JAFFE static acted facial expressions database but also on the DynEmo dynamic spontaneous facial expressions database exhibit very good recognition rates.

Keywords: dictionary learning, random projection, pose and spontaneous facial expression, sparse representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2314 Individualized Emotion Recognition Through Dual-Representations and Ground-Established Ground Truth

Authors: Valentina Zhang


While facial expression is a complex and individualized behavior, all facial emotion recognition (FER) systems known to us rely on a single facial representation and are trained on universal data. We conjecture that: (i) different facial representations can provide different, sometimes complementing views of emotions; (ii) when employed collectively in a discussion group setting, they enable more accurate emotion reading which is highly desirable in autism care and other applications context sensitive to errors. In this paper, we first study FER using pixel-based DL vs semantics-based DL in the context of deepfake videos. Our experiment indicates that while the semantics-trained model performs better with articulated facial feature changes, the pixel-trained model outperforms on subtle or rare facial expressions. Armed with these findings, we have constructed an adaptive FER system learning from both types of models for dyadic or small interacting groups and further leveraging the synthesized group emotions as the ground truth for individualized FER training. Using a collection of group conversation videos, we demonstrate that FER accuracy and personalization can benefit from such an approach.

Keywords: neurodivergence care, facial emotion recognition, deep learning, ground truth for supervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
2313 Facial Pose Classification Using Hilbert Space Filling Curve and Multidimensional Scaling

Authors: Mekamı Hayet, Bounoua Nacer, Benabderrahmane Sidahmed, Taleb Ahmed


Pose estimation is an important task in computer vision. Though the majority of the existing solutions provide good accuracy results, they are often overly complex and computationally expensive. In this perspective, we propose the use of dimensionality reduction techniques to address the problem of facial pose estimation. Firstly, a face image is converted into one-dimensional time series using Hilbert space filling curve, then the approach converts these time series data to a symbolic representation. Furthermore, a distance matrix is calculated between symbolic series of an input learning dataset of images, to generate classifiers of frontal vs. profile face pose. The proposed method is evaluated with three public datasets. Experimental results have shown that our approach is able to achieve a correct classification rate exceeding 97% with K-NN algorithm.

Keywords: machine learning, pattern recognition, facial pose classification, time series

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
2312 Monocular 3D Person Tracking AIA Demographic Classification and Projective Image Processing

Authors: McClain Thiel


Object detection and localization has historically required two or more sensors due to the loss of information from 3D to 2D space, however, most surveillance systems currently in use in the real world only have one sensor per location. Generally, this consists of a single low-resolution camera positioned above the area under observation (mall, jewelry store, traffic camera). This is not sufficient for robust 3D tracking for applications such as security or more recent relevance, contract tracing. This paper proposes a lightweight system for 3D person tracking that requires no additional hardware, based on compressed object detection convolutional-nets, facial landmark detection, and projective geometry. This approach involves classifying the target into a demographic category and then making assumptions about the relative locations of facial landmarks from the demographic information, and from there using simple projective geometry and known constants to find the target's location in 3D space. Preliminary testing, although severely lacking, suggests reasonable success in 3D tracking under ideal conditions.

Keywords: monocular distancing, computer vision, facial analysis, 3D localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
2311 Semi-Automated Tracking of Vibrissal Movements in Free-Moving Rodents Captured by High-Speed Videos

Authors: Hyun June Kim, Tailong Shi, Seden Akdagli, Sam Most, Yuling Yan


Quantitative analysis of mouse whisker movement can be used to study functional recovery and regeneration of facial nerve after an injury. However, it is challenging to accurately track mouse whisker movements, and most whisker tracking methods require manual intervention, e.g. fixing the head of the mouse during a study. Here we describe a semi-automated image processing method that is applied to high-speed video recordings of free-moving mice to track whisker movements. We first track the head movement of a mouse by delineating the lower head contour frame-by-frame to locate and determine the orientation of its head. Then, a region of interest is identified for each frame, with subsequent application of the Hough transform to track individual whisker movements on each side of the head. Our approach is used to examine the functional recovery of damaged facial nerves in mice over a course of 21 days.

Keywords: mystacial macrovibrissae, whisker tracking, head tracking, facial nerve recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
2310 Highly Realistic Facial Expressions of Anthropomorphic Social Agent as a Factor in Solving the 'Uncanny Valley' Problem

Authors: Daniia Nigmatullina, Vlada Kugurakova, Maxim Talanov


We present a methodology and our plans of anthropomorphic social agent visualization. That includes creation of three-dimensional model of the virtual companion's head and its facial expressions. Talking Head is a cross-disciplinary project of developing of the human-machine interface with cognitive functions. During the creation of a realistic humanoid robot or a character, there might be the ‘uncanny valley’ problem. We think about this phenomenon and its possible causes. We are going to overcome the ‘uncanny valley’ by increasing of realism. This article discusses issues that should be considered when creating highly realistic characters (particularly the head), their facial expressions and speech visualization.

Keywords: anthropomorphic social agent, facial animation, uncanny valley, visualization, 3D modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
2309 Anthropometric Measurements of Facial Proportions in Azerbaijan Population

Authors: Nigar Sultanova


Facial morphology is a constant topic of concern for clinicians. When anthropometric methods were introduced into clinical practice to quantify changes in the craniofacial framework, features distinguishing various ethnic group were discovered. Normative data of facial measurements are indispensable to precise determination of the degree of deviations from normal. Establish the reference range of facial proportions in Azerbaijan population by anthropometric measurements of craniofacial complex. The study group consisted of 350 healthy young subjects, 175 males and 175 females, 18 to 25 years of age, from 7 different regions of Azerbaijan. The anthropometric examination was performed according to L.Farkas's method with our modification. In order to determine the morphologic characteristics of seven regions of the craniofacial complex 42 anthropometric measurements were selected. The anthropometric examination. Included the usage of 33 anthropometric landmarks. The 80 indices of the facial proportions, suggested by Farkas and Munro, were calculated: head -10, face - 23, nose - 23, lips - 9, orbits - 11, ears - 4. The date base of the North American white population was used as a reference group. Anthropometric measurements of facial proportions in Azerbaijan population revealed a significant difference between mеn and womеn, according to sexual dimorphism. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences of facial proportions were observed in the head, face, orbits, labio-oral, nose and ear region. However, in women of the Azerbaijani population, 29 out of 80 proportion indices were similar to the proportions of NAW women. In the men of the Azerbaijani population, 27 out of 80 proportion indices did not reveal a statistically significant difference from the proportions of NAW men. Estimation of the reference range of facial proportions in Azerbaijan population migth be helpful to formulate surgical plan in treatment of congenital or post-traumatic facial deformities successfully.

Keywords: facial morphology, anthropometry, indices of proportion, measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
2308 Curvelet Features with Mouth and Face Edge Ratios for Facial Expression Identification

Authors: S. Kherchaoui, A. Houacine


This paper presents a facial expression recognition system. It performs identification and classification of the seven basic expressions; happy, surprise, fear, disgust, sadness, anger, and neutral states. It consists of three main parts. The first one is the detection of a face and the corresponding facial features to extract the most expressive portion of the face, followed by a normalization of the region of interest. Then calculus of curvelet coefficients is performed with dimensionality reduction through principal component analysis. The resulting coefficients are combined with two ratios; mouth ratio and face edge ratio to constitute the whole feature vector. The third step is the classification of the emotional state using the SVM method in the feature space.

Keywords: facial expression identification, curvelet coefficient, support vector machine (SVM), recognition system

Procedia PDF Downloads 161