Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2244

Search results for: extraneous load

2244 Managing the Cognitive Load of Medical Students during Anatomy Lecture

Authors: Siti Nurma Hanim Hadie, Asma’ Hassan, Zul Izhar Ismail, Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim, Mohd. Zarawi Mat Nor, Hairul Nizam Ismail

Abstract:

Anatomy is a medical subject, which contributes to high cognitive load during learning. Despite its complexity, anatomy remains as the most important basic sciences subject with high clinical relevancy. Although anatomy knowledge is required for safe practice, many medical students graduated without having sufficient knowledge. In fact, anatomy knowledge among the medical graduates was reported to be declining and this had led to various medico-legal problems. Applying cognitive load theory (CLT) in anatomy teaching particularly lecture would be able to address this issue since anatomy information is often perceived as cognitively challenging material. CLT identifies three types of loads which are intrinsic, extraneous and germane loads, which combine to form the total cognitive load. CLT describe that learning can only occur when the total cognitive load does not exceed human working memory capacity. Hence, managing these three types of loads with the aim of optimizing the working memory capacity would be beneficial to the students in learning anatomy and retaining the knowledge for future application.

Keywords: cognitive load theory, intrinsic load, extraneous load, germane load

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2243 Occurrence of Foreign Matter in Food: Applied Identification Method - Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Authors: E. C. Mattos, V. S. M. G. Daros, R. Dal Col, A. L. Nascimento

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to present the results of a retrospective survey on the foreign matter found in foods analyzed at the Adolfo Lutz Institute, from July 2001 to July 2015. All the analyses were conducted according to the official methods described on Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) for the micro analytical procedures and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the macro analytical procedures. The results showed flours, cereals and derivatives such as baking and pasta products were the types of food where foreign matters were found more frequently followed by condiments and teas. Fragments of stored grains insects, its larvae, nets, excrement, dead mites and rodent excrement were the most foreign matter found in food. Besides, foreign matters that can cause a physical risk to the consumer’s health such as metal, stones, glass, wood were found but rarely. Miscellaneous (shell, sand, dirt and seeds) were also reported. There are a lot of extraneous materials that are considered unavoidable since are something inherent to the product itself, such as insect fragments in grains. In contrast, there are avoidable extraneous materials that are less tolerated because it is preventable with the Good Manufacturing Practice. The conclusion of this work is that although most extraneous materials found in food are considered unavoidable it is necessary to keep the Good Manufacturing Practice throughout the food processing as well as maintaining a constant surveillance of the production process in order to avoid accidents that may lead to occurrence of these extraneous materials in food.

Keywords: extraneous materials, food contamination, foreign matter, surveillance

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2242 Consumer Load Profile Determination with Entropy-Based K-Means Algorithm

Authors: Ioannis P. Panapakidis, Marios N. Moschakis

Abstract:

With the continuous increment of smart meter installations across the globe, the need for processing of the load data is evident. Clustering-based load profiling is built upon the utilization of unsupervised machine learning tools for the purpose of formulating the typical load curves or load profiles. The most commonly used algorithm in the load profiling literature is the K-means. While the algorithm has been successfully tested in a variety of applications, its drawback is the strong dependence in the initialization phase. This paper proposes a novel modified form of the K-means that addresses the aforementioned problem. Simulation results indicate the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared to the K-means.

Keywords: clustering, load profiling, load modeling, machine learning, energy efficiency and quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
2241 Load Management Using Multiple Sequential Load Shaping Techniques

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasi

Abstract:

Demand Side Management (DSM) is an essential characteristic of current and future smart grid systems. As one of DSM functions, load management aims to control customers’ total electric consumption and utility’s load factor by using various load shaping techniques. However, applying load shaping techniques such as load shifting, peak clipping, or strategic conservation individually does not provide the desired level of improvement for load factor increment and/or customer’s bill reduction. In this paper, two load shaping techniques will be simulated as constrained optimization problems. The purpose is to reflect the application of combined load shifting and strategic conservation model together at the same time, and the application of combined load shifting and peak clipping model as well. The problem will be formulated and solved by using disciplined convex programming (CVX) based MATLAB® R2013b. Simulation results will be evaluated and compared for studying the most impactful multi-techniques model in improving load curve.

Keywords: convex programing, demand side management, load shaping, multiple, building energy optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
2240 Two Day Ahead Short Term Load Forecasting Neural Network Based

Authors: Firas M. Tuaimah

Abstract:

This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network based approach for short-term load forecasting and exactly for two days ahead. Two seasons have been discussed for Iraqi power system, namely summer and winter; the hourly load demand is the most important input variables for ANN based load forecasting. The recorded daily load profile with a lead time of 1-48 hours for July and December of the year 2012 was obtained from the operation and control center that belongs to the Ministry of Iraqi electricity. The results of the comparison show that the neural network gives a good prediction for the load forecasting and for two days ahead.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, artificial neural networks, back propagation learning, hourly load demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
2239 Electric Load Forecasting Based on Artificial Neural Network for Iraqi Power System

Authors: Afaneen Anwer, Samara M. Kamil

Abstract:

Load Forecast required prediction accuracy based on optimal operation and maintenance. A good accuracy is the basis of economic dispatch, unit commitment, and system reliability. A good load forecasting system fulfilled fast speed, automatic bad data detection, and ability to access the system automatically to get the needed data. In this paper, the formulation of the load forecasting is discussed and the solution is obtained by using artificial neural network method. A MATLAB environment has been used to solve the load forecasting schedule of Iraqi super grid network considering the daily load for three years. The obtained results showed a good accuracy in predicting the forecasted load.

Keywords: load forecasting, neural network, back-propagation algorithm, Iraqi power system

Procedia PDF Downloads 490
2238 Optimal Scheduling of Load and Operational Strategy of a Load Aggregator to Maximize Profit with PEVs

Authors: Md. Shafiullah, Ali T. Al-Awami

Abstract:

This project proposes optimal scheduling of imported power of a load aggregator with the utilization of EVs to maximize its profit. As with the increase of renewable energy resources, electricity price in competitive market becomes more uncertain and, on the other hand, with the penetration of renewable distributed generators in the distribution network the predicted load of a load aggregator also becomes uncertain in real time. Though there is uncertainties in both load and price, the use of EVs storage capacity can make the operation of load aggregator flexible. LA submits its offer to day-ahead market based on predicted loads and optimized use of its EVs to maximize its profit, as well as in real time operation it uses its energy storage capacity in such a way that it can maximize its profit. In this project, load aggregators profit maximization algorithm is formulated and the optimization problem is solved with the help of CVX. As in real time operation the forecasted loads differ from actual load, the mismatches are settled in real time balancing market. Simulation results compare the profit of a load aggregator with a hypothetical group of 1000 EVs and without EVs.

Keywords: CVX, electricity market, load aggregator, load and price uncertainties, profit maximization, real time balancing operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
2237 A Statistical Approach to Rationalise the Number of Working Load Test for Quality Control of Pile Installation in Singapore Jurong Formation

Authors: Nuo Xu, Kok Hun Goh, Jeyatharan Kumarasamy

Abstract:

Pile load testing is significant during foundation construction due to its traditional role of design validation and routine quality control of the piling works. In order to verify whether piles can take loadings at specified settlements, piles will have to undergo working load test where the test load should normally up to 150% of the working load of a pile. Selection or sampling of piles for the working load test is done subject to the number specified in Singapore National Annex to Eurocode 7 SS EN 1997-1:2010. This paper presents an innovative way to rationalize the number of pile load test by adopting statistical analysis approach and looking at the coefficient of variance of pile elastic modulus using a case study at Singapore Tuas depot. Results are very promising and have shown that it is possible to reduce the number of working load test without influencing the reliability and confidence on the pile quality. Moving forward, it is suggested that more load test data from other geological formations to be examined to compare with the findings from this paper.

Keywords: elastic modulus of pile under soil interaction, jurong formation, kentledge test, pile load test

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
2236 A Criterion for Evaluating Plastic Loads: Plastic Work-Tangent Criterion

Authors: Ying Zhang

Abstract:

In ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the plastic load is defined by applying the twice elastic slope (TES) criterion of plastic collapse to a characteristic load-deformation curve for the vessel. Several other plastic criterion such as tangent intersection (TI) criterion, plastic work (PW) criterion have been proposed in the literature, but all exhibit a practical limitation: difficult to define the load parameter for vessels subject to several combined loads. An alternative criterion: plastic work-tangent (PWT) criterion for evaluating plastic load in pressure vessel design by analysis is presented in this paper. According to the plastic work-load curve, when the tangent variation is less than a given value in the plastic phase, the corresponding load is the plastic load. Application of the proposed criterion is illustrated by considering the elastic-plastic response of the lower head of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and nozzle intersection of (RPV). It is proposed that this is because the PWT criterion more fully represents the constraining effect of material strain hardening on the spread of plastic deformation and more efficiently ton evaluating the plastic load.

Keywords: plastic load, plastic work, strain hardening, plastic work-tangent criterion

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2235 Short Term Distribution Load Forecasting Using Wavelet Transform and Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: S. Neelima, P. S. Subramanyam

Abstract:

The major tool for distribution planning is load forecasting, which is the anticipation of the load in advance. Artificial neural networks have found wide applications in load forecasting to obtain an efficient strategy for planning and management. In this paper, the application of neural networks to study the design of short term load forecasting (STLF) Systems was explored. Our work presents a pragmatic methodology for short term load forecasting (STLF) using proposed two-stage model of wavelet transform (WT) and artificial neural network (ANN). It is a two-stage prediction system which involves wavelet decomposition of input data at the first stage and the decomposed data with another input is trained using a separate neural network to forecast the load. The forecasted load is obtained by reconstruction of the decomposed data. The hybrid model has been trained and validated using load data from Telangana State Electricity Board.

Keywords: electrical distribution systems, wavelet transform (WT), short term load forecasting (STLF), artificial neural network (ANN)

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2234 Non-Linear Control in Positioning of PMLSM by Estimates of the Load Force by MRAS Method

Authors: Maamar Yahiaoui, Abdelrrahmene Kechich, Ismail Elkhallile Bousserhene

Abstract:

This article presents a study in simulation by means of MATLAB/Simulink software of the nonlinear control in positioning of a linear synchronous machine with the esteemed force of load, to have effective control in the estimator in all tests the wished trajectory follows and the disturbance of load start. The results of simulation prove clearly that the control proposed can detect the reference of positioning the value estimates of load force equal to the actual value.

Keywords: mathematical model, Matlab, PMLSM, control, linearization, estimator, force, load, current

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
2233 Behavior of A Vertical Pile Under the Effect of an Inclined Load in Loose Sand

Authors: Fathi Mohamed Abdrabbo, Khaled Esayed Gaaver, Musab Musa Eldooma

Abstract:

This paper presents an attempt made to investigate the behavior of a single vertical steel hollow pile embedded in sand subjected to compressive inclined load at various inclination angles α through FEM package MIDAS GTS/NX 2019. The effect of the inclination angle and slenderness ratio on the performance of the pile was investigated. Inclined load caring capacity and pile stiffness, as well as lateral deformation profiles along with the pile, were presented. The global, vertical, and horizontal load displacements of pile head, as well as the deformation profiles along the pile and the pile stiffness, are significantly affected by α. It was observed that the P-Y curves of the pile-soil system are independent of α. Also, the slenderness ratios are markedly affecting the behavior of the pile. In addition, there was a noticeable effect of the horizontal load component of the applied load on the vertical behavior of the pile, whereas there was no influence of the presence of vertical load on the horizontal behavior of the pile.

Keywords: deep foundation, piles, inclined load, pile deformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2232 Compilation of Load Spectrum of Loader Drive Axle

Authors: Wei Yongxiang, Zhu Haoyue, Tang Heng, Yuan Qunwei

Abstract:

In order to study the preparation method of gear fatigue load spectrum for loaders, the load signal of four typical working conditions of loader is collected. The signal that reflects the law of load change is obtained by preprocessing the original signal. The torque of the drive axle is calculated by using the rain flow counting method. According to the operating time ratio of each working condition, the two-dimensional load spectrum based on the real working conditions of the drive axle of loader is established by the cycle extrapolation and synthesis method. The two-dimensional load spectrum is converted into one-dimensional load spectrum by means of the mean of torque equal damage method. Torque amplification includes the maximum load torque of the main reduction gear. Based on the theory of equal damage, the accelerated cycles are calculated. In this way, the load spectrum of the loading condition of the drive axle is prepared to reflect loading condition of the loader. The load spectrum can provide reference for fatigue life test and life prediction of loader drive axle.

Keywords: load spectrum, axle, torque, rain-flow counting method, extrapolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2231 Investigation of Different Control Stratgies for UPFC Decoupled Model and the Impact of Location on Control Parameters

Authors: S. A. Al-Qallaf, S. A. Al-Mawsawi, A. Haider

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the performance of a unified power flow controller (UPFC), mathematical models for steady state and dynamic analysis are to be developed. The steady state model is mainly concerned with the incorporation of the UPFC in load flow studies. Several load flow models for UPFC have been introduced in literature, and one of the most reliable models is the decoupled UPFC model. In spite of UPFC decoupled load flow model simplicity, it is more robust compared to other UPFC load flow models and it contains unique capabilities. Some shortcoming such as additional set of nonlinear equations are to be solved separately after the load flow solution is obtained. The aim of this study is to investigate the different control strategies that can be realized in the decoupled load flow model (individual control and combined control), and the impact of the location of the UPFC in the network on its control parameters.

Keywords: UPFC, decoupled model, load flow, control parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
2230 A Robust PID Load Frequency Controller of Interconnected Power System Using SDO Software

Authors: Pasala Gopi, P. Linga Reddy

Abstract:

The response of the load frequency control problem in an multi-area interconnected electrical power system is much more complex with increasing size, changing structure and increasing load. This paper deals with Load Frequency Control of three area interconnected Power system incorporating Reheat, Non-reheat and Reheat turbines in all areas respectively. The response of the load frequency control problem in an multi-area interconnected power system is improved by designing PID controller using different tuning techniques and proved that the PID controller which was designed by Simulink Design Optimization (SDO) Software gives the superior performance than other controllers for step perturbations. Finally the robustness of controller was checked against system parameter variations

Keywords: load frequency control, pid controller tuning, step load perturbations, inter connected power system

Procedia PDF Downloads 566
2229 Assessment of Adequacy of Pile Load Determination Formulas

Authors: Ashraf Eid

Abstract:

Many formulas are set to estimate the pile load capacity based on the in-situ pile load tests. However, discrepancy is obvious between the results of these applications. Some formulas are more adequate than others with respect to soil formation and its characteristics. In this research, attempts were undertaken to evaluate the adequacy of the most well-known formulas based on a series of pile load tests carried out in Port Said city in the northeast of Egypt for major residential projects. Comparisons were undertaken between the different formulas supported by the results of in-situ Cone Penetration Tests (CPT). Based on this study, a guide for engineers for using the proper formula can be adopted with consideration of soil type and characteristics. The Egyptian Code which relies on the results of some formulas is involved in the study as a guiding aspect in the pile design.

Keywords: pile load formula, load test of piles, CPT, Egyptian code

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2228 Electrical Load Estimation Using Estimated Fuzzy Linear Parameters

Authors: Bader Alkandari, Jamal Y. Madouh, Ahmad M. Alkandari, Anwar A. Alnaqi

Abstract:

A new formulation of fuzzy linear estimation problem is presented. It is formulated as a linear programming problem. The objective is to minimize the spread of the data points, taking into consideration the type of the membership function of the fuzzy parameters to satisfy the constraints on each measurement point and to insure that the original membership is included in the estimated membership. Different models are developed for a fuzzy triangular membership. The proposed models are applied to different examples from the area of fuzzy linear regression and finally to different examples for estimating the electrical load on a busbar. It had been found that the proposed technique is more suited for electrical load estimation, since the nature of the load is characterized by the uncertainty and vagueness.

Keywords: fuzzy regression, load estimation, fuzzy linear parameters, electrical load estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
2227 Load Characteristics of Improved Howland Current Pump for Bio-Impedance Measurement

Authors: Zhao Weijie, Lin Xinjian, Liu Xiaojuan, Li Lihua

Abstract:

The Howland current pump is widely used in bio-impedance measurement. Much attention has been focused on the output impedance of the Howland circuit. Here we focus on the maximum load of the Howland source and discuss the relationship between the circuit parameters at maximum load. We conclude that the signal input terminal of the feedback resistor should be as large as possible, but that the current-limiting resistor should be smaller. The op-amp saturation voltage should also be high. The bandwidth of the circuit is proportional to the bandwidth of the op-amp. The Howland current pump was simulated using multisim12. When the AD8066AR was selected as the op-amp, the maximum load was 11.5 kΩ, and the Howland current pump had a stable output ipp to 2mAp up to 200 kHz. However, with an OPA847 op-amp and a load of 6.3 kΩ, the output current was also stable, and the frequency was as high as 3 MHz.

Keywords: bio-impedance, improved Howland current pump, load characteristics, bioengineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
2226 A Study on the Influence of Pin-Hole Position Error of Carrier on Mesh Load and Planet Load Sharing of Planetary Gear

Authors: Kyung Min Kang, Peng Mou, Dong Xiang, Gang Shen

Abstract:

For planetary gear system, Planet pin-hole position accuracy is one of most influential factor to efficiency and reliability of planetary gear system. This study considers planet pin-hole position error as a main input error for model and build multi body dynamic simulation model of planetary gear including planet pin-hole position error using MSC. ADAMS. From this model, the mesh load results between meshing gears in each pin-hole position error cases are obtained and based on these results, planet load sharing factor which reflect equilibrium state of mesh load sharing between whole meshing gear pair is calculated. Analysis result indicates that the pin-hole position error of tangential direction cause profound influence to mesh load and load sharing factor between meshing gear pair.

Keywords: planetary gear, load sharing factor, multibody dynamics, pin-hole position error

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
2225 Shopping Cart System: Load Balancing and Fault Tolerance in the OSGi Service Platform

Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Thole Schneider, Johannes Westhuis, Jürgen Westerkamp

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper was to find a simple solution for load balancing and fault tolerance in OSGi. The challenge was to implement a highly available web application such as a shopping cart system with load balancing and fault tolerance, without having to change the core of OSGi.

Keywords: fault tolerance, load balancing, OSGi, shopping cart system

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
2224 Adjusted LOLE and EENS Indices for the Consideration of Load Excess Transfer in Power Systems Adequacy Studies

Authors: François Vallée, Jean-François Toubeau, Zacharie De Grève, Jacques Lobry

Abstract:

When evaluating the capacity of a generation park to cover the load in transmission systems, traditional Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) and Expected Energy not Served (EENS) indices can be used. If those indices allow computing the annual duration and severity of load non-covering situations, they do not take into account the fact that the load excess is generally shifted from one penury state (hour or quarter of an hour) to the following one. In this paper, a sequential Monte Carlo framework is introduced in order to compute adjusted LOLE and EENS indices. Practically, those adapted indices permit to consider the effect of load excess transfer on the global adequacy of a generation park, providing thus a more accurate evaluation of this quantity.

Keywords: expected energy not served, loss of load expectation, Monte Carlo simulation, reliability, wind generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
2223 Artificial Neural Network-Based Short-Term Load Forecasting for Mymensingh Area of Bangladesh

Authors: S. M. Anowarul Haque, Md. Asiful Islam

Abstract:

Electrical load forecasting is considered to be one of the most indispensable parts of a modern-day electrical power system. To ensure a reliable and efficient supply of electric energy, special emphasis should have been put on the predictive feature of electricity supply. Artificial Neural Network-based approaches have emerged to be a significant area of interest for electric load forecasting research. This paper proposed an Artificial Neural Network model based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm for improved electric load forecasting for Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The forecasting model is developed and simulated on the MATLAB environment with a large number of training datasets. The model is trained based on eight input parameters including historical load and weather data. The predicted load data are then compared with an available dataset for validation. The proposed neural network model is proved to be more reliable in terms of day-wise load forecasting for Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Keywords: load forecasting, artificial neural network, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
2222 Behavior of a Vertical Pile under the Effect of an Inclined Load

Authors: Fathi Mohamed Abdrabbo, Khaled Elsayed Gaaver, Musab Musa Eldooma

Abstract:

This paper presents an attempt made to investigate the behavior of a single vertical steel hollow pile embedded in sand subjected to compressive inclined load at various inclination angles α through FEM package MIDAS GTS/NX 2019. The effect of the inclination angle and slenderness ratio on the performance of the pile was investigated. Inclined load caring capacity and pile stiffness, as well as lateral deformation profiles along with the pile, were presented. The global, vertical, and horizontal load displacements, as well as the deformation profiles along with the pile and the pile stiffness, are significantly affected by α. Whereas P-Y curves of the pile are independent of α., also the slenderness ratios are markedly affecting the behavior of the pile. In addition, there was a noticeable effect of the horizontal component on the vertical behavior of the pile, whereas there was no influence of the presence of vertical load on the horizontal behavior of the pile.

Keywords: deep foundations, piles, inclined load, pile deformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2221 Load Balancing Algorithms for SIP Server Clusters in Cloud Computing

Authors: Tanmay Raj, Vedika Gupta

Abstract:

For its groundbreaking and substantial power, cloud computing is today’s most popular breakthrough. It is a sort of Internet-based computing that allows users to request and receive numerous services in a cost-effective manner. Virtualization, grid computing, and utility computing are the most widely employed emerging technologies in cloud computing, making it the most powerful. However, cloud computing still has a number of key challenges, such as security, load balancing, and non-critical failure adaption, to name a few. The massive growth of cloud computing will put an undue strain on servers. As a result, network performance will deteriorate. A good load balancing adjustment can make cloud computing more productive and in- crease client fulfillment execution. Load balancing is an important part of cloud computing because it prevents certain nodes from being overwhelmed while others are idle or have little work to perform. Response time, cost, throughput, performance, and resource usage are all parameters that may be improved using load balancing.

Keywords: cloud computing, load balancing, computing, SIP server clusters

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
2220 A Study on Unidirectional Analog Output Voltage Inverter for Capacitive Load

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Nam-HeeByeon, Jung-Seop Lee, Tae-Sam Kang

Abstract:

For Common R or R-L load to apply arbitrary voltage, the bridge traditional inverters don’t have any difficulties by PWM method. However for driving some piezoelectric actuator, arbitrary voltage not a pulse but a steady voltage should be applied. Piezoelectric load is considered as R-C load and its voltage does not decrease even though the applied voltage decreases. Therefore it needs some special inverter with circuit that can discharge the capacitive energy. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, it becomes more difficult problem. In this paper, a charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator is proposed. The circuit has charging and discharging switches for increasing and decreasing output voltage. With the proposed simple circuit, the load voltage can have any unidirectional level with tens of bandwidth because the load voltage can be adjusted by switching the charging and discharging switch appropriately. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, analog output voltage, sinusoidal drive, piezoelectric load, discharging circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
2219 Influence of Shock Absorber Condition on the Vertical Dynamic Load Applied on the Pavement by a Truck’s Front Suspension

Authors: Pablo Kubo, Cassio Paiva, Adelino Ferreira

Abstract:

The main objective of this research study is to present the results of the influence of shock absorber condition, from a truck front suspension, on the vertical dynamic load applied on the pavement. For the measurements, it has been used a durability test track located in Brazil. The shock absorber conditions were new, used and failed with a constant load of 6 tons on the front suspension, the maximum allowed load for front axle according to Brazilian legislation. By applying relative damage concept, it is possible to conclude that the variation on the shock absorber conditions will significantly affect the load applied on the pavement. Although, it is recommended to repeat the same methodology in order to analyze the influence on the variation of the quarter car model variants.

Keywords: damage, shock absorber, vertical dynamic load, absorber

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
2218 A Two Level Load Balancing Approach for Cloud Environment

Authors: Anurag Jain, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract:

Cloud computing is the outcome of rapid growth of internet. Due to elastic nature of cloud computing and unpredictable behavior of user, load balancing is the major issue in cloud computing paradigm. An efficient load balancing technique can improve the performance in terms of efficient resource utilization and higher customer satisfaction. Load balancing can be implemented through task scheduling, resource allocation and task migration. Various parameters to analyze the performance of load balancing approach are response time, cost, data processing time and throughput. This paper demonstrates a two level load balancer approach by combining join idle queue and join shortest queue approach. Authors have used cloud analyst simulator to test proposed two level load balancer approach. The results are analyzed and compared with the existing algorithms and as observed, proposed work is one step ahead of existing techniques.

Keywords: cloud analyst, cloud computing, join idle queue, join shortest queue, load balancing, task scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
2217 Nilsson Model Performance in Estimating Bed Load Sediment, Case Study: Tale Zang Station

Authors: Nader Parsazadeh

Abstract:

The variety of bed sediment load relationships, insufficient information and data, and the influence of river conditions make the selection of an optimum relationship for a given river extremely difficult. Hence, in order to select the best formulae, the bed load equations should be evaluated. The affecting factors need to be scrutinized, and equations should be verified. Also, re-evaluation may be needed. In this research, sediment bed load of Dez Dam at Tal-e Zang Station has been studied. After reviewing the available references, the most common formulae were selected that included Meir-Peter and Muller, using MS Excel to compute and evaluate data. Then, 52 series of already measured data at the station were re-measured, and the sediment bed load was determined. 1. The calculated bed load obtained by different equations showed a great difference with that of measured data. 2. r difference ratio from 0.5 to 2.00 was 0% for all equations except for Nilsson and Shields equations while it was 61.5 and 59.6% for Nilsson and Shields equations, respectively. 3. By reviewing results and discarding probably erroneous measured data measurements (by human or machine), one may use Nilsson Equation due to its r value higher than 1 as an effective equation for estimating bed load at Tal-e Zang Station in order to predict activities that depend upon bed sediment load estimate to be determined. Also, since only few studies have been conducted so far, these results may be of assistance to the operators and consulting companies.

Keywords: bed load, empirical relation ship, sediment, Tale Zang Station

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
2216 Finite Element Analysis of Connecting Rod

Authors: Mohammed Mohsin Ali H., Mohamed Haneef

Abstract:

The connecting rod transmits the piston load to the crank causing the latter to turn, thus converting the reciprocating motion of the piston into a rotary motion of the crankshaft. Connecting rods are subjected to forces generated by mass and fuel combustion. This study investigates and compares the fatigue behavior of forged steel, powder forged and ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched connecting rods. The objective is to suggest for a new material with reduced weight and cost with the increased fatigue life. This has entailed performing a detailed load analysis. Therefore, this study has dealt with two subjects: first, dynamic load and stress analysis of the connecting rod, and second, optimization for material, weight and cost. In the first part of the study, the loads acting on the connecting rod as a function of time were obtained. Based on the observations of the dynamic FEA, static FEA, and the load analysis results, the load for the optimization study was selected. It is the conclusion of this study that the connecting rod can be designed and optimized under a load range comprising tensile load and compressive load. Tensile load corresponds to 360o crank angle at the maximum engine speed. The compressive load is corresponding to the peak gas pressure. Furthermore, the existing connecting rod can be replaced with a new connecting rod made of ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched that is 12% lighter and 28% cheaper.

Keywords: connecting rod, ASTM a514 cold quenched material, static analysis, fatigue analysis, stress life approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2215 Parameters Affecting Load Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Ring Deep Beams

Authors: Atef Ahmad Bleibel

Abstract:

Most codes of practice, like ACI 318-14, require the use of strut-and-tie modeling to analyze and design reinforced concrete deep beams. Though, investigations that conducted on deep beams do not include ring deep beams of influential parameters. This work presents an analytical parametric study using strut-and-tie modeling stated by ACI 318-14 to predict load capacity of 20 reinforced concrete ring deep beam specimens with different parameters. The parameters that were under consideration in the current work are ring diameter (Dc), number of supports (NS), width of ring beam (bw), concrete compressive strength (f'c) and width of bearing plate (Bp). It is found that the load capacity decreases by about 14-36% when ring diameter increases by about 25-75%. It is also found that load capacity increases by about 62-189% when number of supports increases by about 33-100%, while the load capacity increases by about 25-75% when the beam ring width increases by about 25-75%. Finally, it is found that load capacity increases by about 24-76% when compressive strength increases by about 24-76%, while the load capacity increases by about 5-16% when Bp increases by about 25-75%.

Keywords: load parameters, reinforced concrete, ring deep beam, strut and tie

Procedia PDF Downloads 39