Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10195

Search results for: excess pore water pressure

10195 Effects of Pore-Water Pressure on the Motion of Debris Flow

Authors: Meng-Yu Lin, Wan-Ju Lee


Pore-water pressure, which mediates effective stress and shear strength at grain contacts, has a great influence on the motion of debris flow. The factors that control the diffusion of excess pore-water pressure play very important roles in the debris-flow motion. This research investigates these effects by solving the distribution of pore-water pressure numerically in an unsteady, surging motion of debris flow. The governing equations are the depth-averaged equations for the motion of debris-flow surges coupled with the one-dimensional diffusion equation for excess pore-water pressures. The pore-pressure diffusion equation is solved using a Fourier series, which may improve the accuracy of the solution. The motion of debris-flow surge is modelled using a Lagrangian particle method. From the computational results, the effects of pore-pressure diffusivities and the initial excess pore pressure on the formations of debris-flow surges are investigated. Computational results show that the presence of pore water can increase surge velocities and then changes the profiles of depth distribution. Due to the linear distribution of the vertical component of pore-water velocity, pore pressure dissipates rapidly near the bottom and forms a parabolic distribution in the vertical direction. Increases in the diffusivity of pore-water pressure cause the pore pressures decay more rapidly and then decrease the mobility of the surge.

Keywords: debris flow, diffusion, Lagrangian particle method, pore-pressure diffusivity, pore-water pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
10194 Prediction of Excess Pore Pressure Variation of Reinforced Silty Sand by Stone Columns During Liquefaction

Authors: Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha, Mounir Bouassida


Liquefaction has been responsible for tremendous amounts of damage in historical earthquakes around the world. The installation of stone columns is widely adopted to prevent liquefaction. Stone columns provide a drainage path, and due to their high permeability, allow for the quick dissipation of earthquake generated excess pore water pressure. Several excess pore pressure generation models in silty sand have been developed and calibrated based on the results of shaking table and centrifuge tests focusing on the effect of silt content on liquefaction resistance. In this paper, the generation and dissipation of excess pore pressure variation of reinforced silty sand by stone columns during liquefaction are analyzedwith different silt content based on test results. In addition, the installation effect of stone columns is investigated. This effect is described by a decrease in horizontal permeability within a disturbed zone around the column. Obtained results show that reduced soil permeability and a larger disturbed zone around the stone column increases the generation of excess pore pressure during the cyclic loading and decreases the dissipation rate after cyclic loading. On the other hand, beneficial effects of silt content were observed in the form of a decrease in excess pore water pressure.

Keywords: stone column, liquefaction, excess pore pressure, silt content, disturbed zone, reduced permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
10193 Comparison of Accumulated Stress Based Pore Pressure Model and Plasticity Model in 1D Site Response Analysis

Authors: Saeedullah J. Mandokhail, Shamsher Sadiq, Meer H. Khan


This paper presents the comparison of excess pore water pressure ratio (ru) predicted by using accumulated stress based pore pressure model and plasticity model. One dimensional effective stress site response analyses were performed on a 30 m deep sand column (consists of a liquefiable layer in between non-liquefiable layers) using accumulated stress based pore pressure model in Deepsoil and PDMY2 (PressureDependentMultiYield02) model in Opensees. Three Input motions with different peak ground acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.357 g, 0.124 g, and 0.11 g were used in this study. The developed excess pore pressure ratio predicted by the above two models were compared and analyzed along the depth. The time history of the ru at mid of the liquefiable layer and non-liquefiable layer were also compared. The comparisons show that the two models predict mostly similar ru values. The predicted ru is also consistent with the PGA level of the input motions.

Keywords: effective stress, excess pore pressure ratio, pore pressure model, site response analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
10192 Stresses Induced in Saturated Asphalt Pavement by Moving Loads

Authors: Yang Zhong, Meijie Xue


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stresses and excess pore fluid pressure induced by the moving wheel pressure on saturated asphalt pavements, which is one of the reasons for a damage phenomenon in flexible pavement denoted stripping. The saturated asphalt pavement is modeled as multilayered poroelastic half space exerted by a wheel pressure, which is moving at a constant velocity along the surface of the pavement. The governing equations for the proposed analysis are based on the Biot’s theory of dynamics in saturated poroelastic medium. The governing partial differential equations are solved by using Laplace and Hankel integral transforms. The solutions for the stresses and excess pore pressure are expressed in the forms of numerical inversion Laplace and Hankel integral transforms. The numerical simulation results clearly demonstrate the induced deformation and water flow in the asphalt pavement.

Keywords: saturated asphalt pavements, moving loads, excess pore fluid pressure, stress of pavement, biot theory, stress and strain of pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
10191 Effect of Prefabricated Vertical Drain System Properties on Embankment Behavior

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Ali Namaei


This study presents the effect of prefabricated vertical drain system properties on embankment behavior by calculating the settlement, lateral displacement and induced excess pore pressure by numerical method. In order to investigate this behavior, three different prefabricated vertical drains have been simulated under an embankment. The finite element software PLAXIS has been carried out for analyzing the displacements and excess pore pressures. The results showed that the consolidation time and induced excess pore pressure are highly depended to the discharge capacity of the prefabricated vertical drain. The increase in the discharge capacity leads to decrease the consolidation process and the induced excess pore pressure. Moreover, it was seen that the vertical drains spacing does not have any significant effect on the consolidation time. However, the increase in the drains spacing would decrease the system stiffness.

Keywords: vertical drain, prefabricated, consolidation, embankment

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
10190 CPT Pore Water Pressure Correlations with PDA to Identify Pile Drivability Problem

Authors: Fauzi Jarushi, Paul Cosentino, Edward Kalajian, Hadeel Dekhn


At certain depths during large diameter displacement pile driving, rebound well over 0.25 inches was experienced, followed by a small permanent set during each hammer blow. High pile rebound (HPR) soils may stop the pile driving and results in a limited pile capacity. In some cases, rebound leads to pile damage, delaying the construction project, and the requiring foundations redesign. HPR was evaluated at seven Florida sites, during driving of square precast, prestressed concrete piles driven into saturated, fine silty to clayey sands and sandy clays. Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) deflection versus time data recorded during installation, was used to develop correlations between cone penetrometer (CPT) pore-water pressures, pile displacements and rebound. At five sites where piles experienced excessive HPR with minimal set, the pore pressure yielded very high positive values of greater than 20 tsf. However, at the site where the pile rebounded, followed by an acceptable permanent set, the measured pore pressure ranged between 5 and 20 tsf. The pore pressure exhibited values of less than 5 tsf at the site where no rebound was noticed. In summary, direct correlations between CPTu pore pressure and rebound were produced, allowing identification of soils that produce HPR.

Keywords: CPTU, pore water pressure, pile rebound

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
10189 A Critical Appraisal of CO₂ Entrance Pressure with Heat

Authors: Abrar Al-Mutairi, Talal Al-Bazali


In this study, changes in capillary entry pressure of shale, as it interacts with CO₂, under different temperatures (25 °C to 250 °C) have been investigated. The combined impact of temperature and petrophysical properties (water content, water activity, permeability and porosity) of shale was also addressed. Results showed that the capillary entry pressure of shale when it interacted with CO₂ was highly affected by temperature. In general, increasing the temperature decreased capillary entry pressure of shale. We believe that pore dilation, where pore throat size expands due to the application of heat, may have caused this decrease in capillary entry pressure of shale. However, in some cases we found that at higher temperature some shale samples showed that the temperature activated clay swelling may have caused an apparent decrease in pore throat radii of shale which translates into higher capillary entry pressure of shale. Also, our results showed that there is no distinct relationship between shale’s water content, water activity, permeability, and porosity on the capillary entry pressure of shale samples as it interacted with CO₂ at different temperatures.

Keywords: heat, threshold pressure, CO₂ sequestration, shale

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10188 Hydraulic Characteristics of Mine Tailings by Metaheuristics Approach

Authors: Akhila Vasudev, Himanshu Kaushik, Tadikonda Venkata Bharat


A large number of mine tailings are produced every year as part of the extraction process of phosphates, gold, copper, and other materials. Mine tailings are high in water content and have very slow dewatering behavior. The efficient design of tailings dam and economical disposal of these slurries requires the knowledge of tailings consolidation behavior. The large-strain consolidation theory closely predicts the self-weight consolidation of these slurries as the theory considers the conservation of mass and momentum conservation and considers the hydraulic conductivity as a function of void ratio. Classical laboratory techniques, such as settling column test, seepage consolidation test, etc., are expensive and time-consuming for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity variation with void ratio. Inverse estimation of the constitutive relationships from the measured settlement versus time curves is explored. In this work, inverse analysis based on metaheuristics techniques will be explored for predicting the hydraulic conductivity parameters for mine tailings from the base excess pore water pressure dissipation curve and the initial conditions of the mine tailings. The proposed inverse model uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which is based on the social behavior of animals searching for food sources. The finite-difference numerical solution of the forward analytical model is integrated with the PSO algorithm to solve the inverse problem. The method is tested on synthetic data of base excess pore pressure dissipation curves generated using the finite difference method. The effectiveness of the method is verified using base excess pore pressure dissipation curve obtained from a settling column experiment and further ensured through comparison with available predicted hydraulic conductivity parameters.

Keywords: base excess pore pressure, hydraulic conductivity, large strain consolidation, mine tailings

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
10187 Managing Shallow Gas for Offshore Platforms via Fit-For-Purpose Solutions: Case Study for Offshore Malaysia

Authors: Noorizal Huang, Christian Girsang, Mohamad Razi Mansoor


Shallow gas seepage was first spotted at a central processing platform offshore Malaysia in 2010, acknowledged as Platform T in this paper. Frequent monitoring of the gas seepage was performed through remotely operated vehicle (ROV) baseline survey and a comprehensive geophysical survey was conducted to understand the characteristics of the gas seepage and to ensure that the integrity of the foundation at Platform T was not compromised. The origin of the gas back then was unknown. A soil investigation campaign was performed in 2016 to study the origin of the gas seepage. Two boreholes were drilled; a composite borehole to 150m below seabed for the purpose of soil sampling and in-situ testing and a pilot hole to 155m below the seabed, which was later converted to a fit-for-purpose relief well as an alternate migration path for the gas. During the soil investigation campaign, dissipation tests were performed at several layers which were potentially the source or migration path for the gas. Five (5) soil samples were segregated for headspace test, to identify the gas type which subsequently can be used to identify the origin of the gas. Dissipation tests performed at four depth intervals indicates pore water pressure less than 20 % of the effective vertical stress and appear to continue decreasing if the test had not been stopped. It was concluded that a low to a negligible amount of excess pore pressure exist in clayey silt layers. Results from headspace test show presence of methane corresponding to the clayey silt layers as reported in the boring logs. The gas most likely comes from biogenic sources, feeding on organic matter in situ over a large depth range. It is unlikely that there are large pockets of gas in the soil due to its homogeneous clayey nature and the lack of excess pore pressure in other permeable clayey silt layers encountered. Instead, it is more likely that when pore water at certain depth encounters a more permeable path, such as a borehole, it rises up through this path due to the temperature gradient in the soil. As the water rises the pressure decreases, which could cause gases dissolved in the water to come out of solution and form bubbles. As a result, the gas will have no impact on the integrity of the foundation at Platform T. The fit-for-purpose relief well design as well as adopting headspace testing can be used to address the shallow gas issue at Platform T in a cost effective and efficient manners.

Keywords: dissipation test, headspace test, excess pore pressure, relief well, shallow gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
10186 Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam

Authors: Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali


Many embankment dams have suffered failures during earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore water pressure and horizontal displacement.

Keywords: Earthquake, Numerical Analysis, FLAC2D, Displacement, Embankment Dam, Pore Water Pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
10185 Stability Analysis of Slopes during Pile Driving

Authors: Yeganeh Attari, Gudmund Reidar Eiksund, Hans Peter Jostad


In Geotechnical practice, there is no standard method recognized by the industry to account for the reduction of safety factor of a slope as an effect of soil displacement and pore pressure build-up during pile installation. Pile driving disturbs causes large strains and generates excess pore pressures in a zone that can extend many diameters from the installed pile, resulting in a decrease of the shear strength of the surrounding soil. This phenomenon may cause slope failure. Moreover, dissipation of excess pore pressure set-up may cause weakening of areas outside the volume of soil remoulded during installation. Because of complex interactions between changes in mean stress and shearing, it is challenging to predict installation induced pore pressure response. Furthermore, it is a complex task to follow the rate and path of pore pressure dissipation in order to analyze slope stability. In cohesive soils it is necessary to implement soil models that account for strain softening in the analysis. In the literature, several cases of slope failure due to pile driving activities have been reported, for instance, a landslide in Gothenburg that resulted in a slope failure destroying more than thirty houses and Rigaud landslide in Quebec which resulted in loss of life. Up to now, several methods have been suggested to predict the effect of pile driving on total and effective stress, pore pressure changes and their effect on soil strength. However, this is still not well understood or agreed upon. In Norway, general approaches applied by geotechnical engineers for this problem are based on old empirical methods with little accurate theoretical background. While the limitations of such methods are discussed, this paper attempts to capture the reduction in the factor of safety of a slope during pile driving, using coupled Finite Element analysis and cavity expansion method. This is demonstrated by analyzing a case of slope failure due to pile driving in Norway.

Keywords: cavity expansion method, excess pore pressure, pile driving, slope failure

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10184 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.


Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
10183 Characteristics of Pore Pressure and Effective Stress Changes in Sandstone Reservoir Due to Hydrocarbon Production

Authors: Kurniawan Adha, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff, Luluan Almanna Lubis


Preventing hazardous events during oil and gas operation is an important contribution of accurate pore pressure data. The availability of pore pressure data also contribute in reducing the operation cost. Suggested methods in pore pressure estimation were mostly complex by the many assumptions and hypothesis used. Basic properties which may have significant impact on estimation model are somehow being neglected. To date, most of pore pressure determinations are estimated by data model analysis and rarely include laboratory analysis, stratigraphy study or core check measurement. Basically, this study developed a model that might be applied to investigate the changes of pore pressure and effective stress due to hydrocarbon production. In general, this paper focused velocity model effect of pore pressure and effective stress changes due to hydrocarbon production with illustrated by changes in saturation. The core samples from Miri field from Sarawak Malaysia ware used in this study, where the formation consists of sandstone reservoir. The study area is divided into sixteen (16) layers and encompassed six facies (A-F) from the outcrop that is used for stratigraphy sequence model. The experimental work was firstly involving data collection through field study and developing stratigraphy sequence model based on outcrop study. Porosity and permeability measurements were then performed after samples were cut into 1.5 inch diameter core samples. Next, velocity was analyzed using SONIC OYO and AutoLab 500. Three (3) scenarios of saturation were also conducted to exhibit the production history of the samples used. Results from this study show the alterations of velocity for different saturation with different actions of effective stress and pore pressure. It was observed that sample with water saturation has the highest velocity while dry sample has the lowest value. In comparison with oil to samples with oil saturation, water saturated sample still leads with the highest value since water has higher fluid density than oil. Furthermore, water saturated sample exhibits velocity derived parameters, such as poisson’s ratio and P-wave velocity over S-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) The result shows that pore pressure value ware reduced due to the decreasing of fluid content. The decreasing of pore pressure result may soften the elastic mineral frame and have tendency to possess high velocity. The alteration of pore pressure by the changes in fluid content or saturation resulted in alteration of velocity value that has proportionate trend with the effective stress.

Keywords: pore pressure, effective stress, production, miri formation

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
10182 Effect of Dynamic Loading by Cyclic Triaxial Tests on Sand Stabilized with Cement

Authors: Priyanka Devi, Mohammad Muzzaffar Khan, G. Kalyan Kumar


Liquefaction of saturated soils due to dynamic loading is an important and interesting area in the field of geotechnical earthquake engineering. When the soil liquefies, the structures built on it develops uneven settlements thereby producing cracks in the structure and weakening the foundation. The 1964 Alaskan Good Friday earthquake, the 1989 San Francisco earthquake and 2011 Tōhoku earthquake are some of the examples of liquefaction occurred due to an earthquake. To mitigate the effect of liquefaction, several methods such use of stone columns, increasing the vertical stress, compaction and removal of liquefiable soil are practiced. Grouting is one of those methods used to increase the strength of the foundation and develop resistance to liquefaction of soil without affecting the superstructure. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the undrained cyclic behavior of locally available soil, stabilized by cement to mitigate the seismically induced soil liquefaction. The specimens of 75mm diameter and 150mm height were reconstituted in the laboratory using water sedimentation technique. A series of strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests were performed on saturated soil samples followed by consolidation. The effects of amplitude, confining pressure and relative density on the dynamic behavior of sand was studied for soil samples with varying cement content. The results obtained from the present study on loose specimens and medium dense specimens indicate that (i) the higher the relative density, the more will be the liquefaction resistance, (ii) with increase of effective confining pressure, a decrease in developing of excess pore water pressure during cyclic loading was observed and (iii) sand specimens treated with cement showed reduced excess pore pressures and increased liquefaction resistance suggesting it as one of the mitigation methods.

Keywords: cyclic triaxial test, liquefaction, soil-cement stabilization, pore pressure ratio

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10181 Effectiveness of Lowering the Water Table as a Mitigation Measure for Foundation Settlement in Liquefiable Soils Using 1-g Scale Shake Table Test

Authors: Kausar Alam, Mohammad Yazdi, Peiman Zogh, Ramin Motamed


An earthquake is an unpredictable natural disaster. It induces liquefaction, which causes considerable damage to the structure, life support, and piping systems because of ground settlement. As a result, people are incredibly concerned about how to resolve the situation. Previous researchers adopted different ground improvement techniques to reduce the settlement of the structure during earthquakes. This study evaluates the effectiveness of lowering the water table as a technique to mitigate foundation settlement in liquefiable soil. The performance will be evaluated based on foundation settlement and the reduction of excessive pore water pressure. In this study, a scaled model was prepared based on a full-scale shale table experiment conducted at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The model ground consists of three soil layers having a relative density of 55%, 45%, and 90%, respectively. A shallow foundation is seated over an unsaturated crust layer. After preparation of the model ground, the water table was measured to be at 45, 40, and 35 cm (from the bottom). Then, the input motions were applied for 10 seconds, with a peak acceleration of 0.25g and a constant frequency of 2.73 Hz. Based on the experimental results, the effectiveness of the lowering water table in reducing the foundation settlement and excess pore water pressure was evident. The foundation settlement was reduced from 50 mm to 5 mm. In addition, lowering the water table as a mitigation measure is a cost-effective way to decrease liquefaction-induced building settlement.

Keywords: foundation settlement, ground water table, liquefaction, hake table test

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10180 Using Pump as Turbine in Drinking Water Networks to Monitor and Control Water Processes Remotely

Authors: Sara Bahariderakhshan, Morteza Ahmadifar


Leakage is one of the most important problems that water distribution networks face which first reason is high-pressure existence. There are many approaches to control this excess pressure, which using pressure reducing valves (PRVs) or reducing pipe diameter are ones. In the other hand, Pumps are using electricity or fossil fuels to supply needed pressure in distribution networks but excess pressure are made in some branches due to topology problems and water networks’ variables therefore using pressure valves will be inevitable. Although using PRVs is inevitable but it leads to waste electricity or fuels used by pumps because PRVs just waste excess hydraulic pressure to lower it. Pumps working in reverse or Pumps as Turbine (called PaT in this article) are easily available and also effective sources of reducing the equipment cost in small hydropower plants. Urban areas of developing countries are facing increasing in area and maybe water scarcity in near future. These cities need wider water networks which make it hard to predict, control and have a better operation in the urban water cycle. Using more energy and, therefore, more pollution, slower repairing services, more user dissatisfaction and more leakage are these networks’ serious problems. Therefore, more effective systems are needed to monitor and act in these complicated networks than what is used now. In this article a new approach is proposed and evaluated: Using PAT to produce enough energy for remote valves and sensors in the water network. These sensors can be used to determine the discharge, pressure, water quality and other important network characteristics. With the help of remote valves pipeline discharge can be controlled so Instead of wasting excess hydraulic pressure which may be destructive in some cases, obtaining extra pressure from pipeline and producing clean electricity used by remote instruments is this articles’ goal. Furthermore due to increasing the area of the network there is unwanted high pressure in some critical points which is not destructive but lowering the pressure results to longer lifetime for pipeline networks without users’ dissatisfaction. This strategy proposed in this article, leads to use PaT widely for pressure containment and producing energy needed for remote valves and sensors like what happens in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems which make it easy for us to monitor, receive data from urban water cycle and make any needed changes in discharge and pressure of pipelines easily and remotely. This is a clean project of energy production without significant environmental impacts and can be used in urban drinking water networks, without any problem for consumers which leads to a stable and dynamic network which lowers leakage and pollution.

Keywords: new energies, pump as turbine, drinking water, distribution network, remote control equipments

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
10179 Using Pump as Turbine in Urban Water Networks to Control, Monitor, and Simulate Water Processes Remotely

Authors: Morteza Ahmadifar, Sarah Bahari Derakhshan


Leakage is one of the most important problems that water distribution networks face which first reason is high-pressure existence. There are many approaches to control this excess pressure, which using pressure reducing valves (PRVs) or reducing pipe diameter are ones. On the other hand, Pumps are using electricity or fossil fuels to supply needed pressure in distribution networks but excess pressure are made in some branches due to topology problems and water networks’ variables, therefore using pressure valves will be inevitable. Although using PRVs is inevitable but it leads to waste electricity or fuels used by pumps because PRVs just waste excess hydraulic pressure to lower it. Pumps working in reverse or Pumps as Turbine (called PAT in this article) are easily available and also effective sources of reducing the equipment cost in small hydropower plants. Urban areas of developing countries are facing increasing in area and maybe water scarcity in near future. These cities need wider water networks which make it hard to predict, control and have a better operation in the urban water cycle. Using more energy and therefore more pollution, slower repairing services, more user dissatisfaction and more leakage are these networks’ serious problems. Therefore, more effective systems are needed to monitor and act in these complicated networks than what is used now. In this article a new approach is proposed and evaluated: Using PAT to produce enough energy for remote valves and sensors in the water network. These sensors can be used to determine the discharge, pressure, water quality and other important network characteristics. With the help of remote valves pipeline discharge can be controlled so Instead of wasting excess hydraulic pressure which may be destructive in some cases, obtaining extra pressure from pipeline and producing clean electricity used by remote instruments is this articles’ goal. Furthermore, due to increasing the area of network there is unwanted high pressure in some critical points which is not destructive but lowering the pressure results to longer lifetime for pipeline networks without users’ dissatisfaction. This strategy proposed in this article, leads to use PAT widely for pressure containment and producing energy needed for remote valves and sensors like what happens in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems which make it easy for us to monitor, receive data from urban water cycle and make any needed changes in discharge and pressure of pipelines easily and remotely. This is a clean project of energy production without significant environmental impacts and can be used in urban drinking water networks, without any problem for consumers which leads to a stable and dynamic network which lowers leakage and pollution.

Keywords: clean energies, pump as turbine, remote control, urban water distribution network

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
10178 Ecosystem Services and Excess Water Management: Analysis of Ecosystem Services in Areas Exposed to Excess Water Inundation

Authors: Dalma Varga, Nora Hubayne H.


Nowadays, among the measures taken to offset the consequences of climate change, water resources management is one of the key tools, which can include excess water management. As a result of climate change’s effects and as a result of the frequent inappropriate landuse, more and more areas are affected by the excess water inundation. Hungary is located in the deepest part of the Pannonian Basin, which is exposed to water damage – especially lowland areas that are endangered by floods or excess waters. The periodical presence of excess water creates specific habitats in a given area, which have ecological, functional, and aesthetic values. Excess water inundation affects approximately 74% of Hungary’s lowland areas, of which about 46% is also under nature protection (such as national parks, protected landscape areas, nature conservation areas, Natura 2000 sites, etc.). These data prove that areas exposed to excess water inundation – which are predominantly characterized by agricultural land uses – have an important ecological role. Other research works have confirmed the presence of numerous rare and endangered plant species in drainage canals, on grasslands exposed to excess water, and on special agricultural fields with mud vegetation. The goal of this research is to define and analyze ecosystem services of areas exposed to excess water inundation. In addition to this, it is also important to determine the quantified indicators of these areas’ natural and landscape values besides the presence of protected species and the naturalness of habitats, so all in all, to analyze the various nature protections related to excess water. As a result, a practice-orientated assessment method has been developed that provides the ecological water demand, assimilates to ecological and habitat aspects, contributes to adaptive excess water management, and last but not least, increases or maintains the share of the green infrastructure network. In this way, it also contributes to reduce and mitigate the negative effects of climate change.

Keywords: ecosystem services, landscape architecture, excess water management, green infrastructure planning

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10177 Influence of Rainfall Intensity on Infiltration and Deformation of Unsaturated Soil Slopes

Authors: Bouziane Mohamed Tewfik


In order to improve the understanding of the influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation behaviour of unsaturated soil slopes, numerical 2D analyses are carried out by a three phase elasto-viscoplastic seepage-deformation coupled method. From the numerical results, it is shown that regardless of the saturated permeability of the soil slope, the increase in the pore water pressure (reduction in suction) during rainfall infiltration is localized close to the slope surface. In addition, the generation of the pore water pressure and the lateral displacement are mainly controlled by the ratio of the rainfall intensity to the saturated permeability of the soil.

Keywords: unsaturated soil, slope stability, rainfall infiltration, numerical analysis

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10176 Numerical Study of Partial Penetration of PVDs In Soft Clay Soils Treatment Along With Surcharge Preloading (Bangkok Airport Case Study)

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Pardsouie, Mehdi Mokhberi, Seyed Mohammad Ali Zomorodian, Seyed Alireza Nasehi


One of the challenging parts of every project, including prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs), is the determination of the depth of installation and its configuration. In this paper, Geostudio 2018 was used for modeling and verification of the full-scale test embankments (TS1, TS2, and TS3), which were constructed to study the effectiveness of PVDs for accelerating the consolidation and dissipation of the excess pore-pressures resulting from fill placement at Bangkok airport. Different depths and scenarios were modeled and the results were compared and analyzed. Since the ultimate goal is attaining pre-determined settlement, the settlement curve under soil embankment was used for the investigation of the results. It was shown that nearly in all cases, the same results and efficiency might be obtained by partial depth installation of PVDs instead of complete full constant length installation. However, it should be mentioned that because of distinct soil characteristics of clay soils and layers properties of any project, further investigation of full-scale test embankments and modeling is needed prior to finalizing the ultimate design by competent geotechnical consultants.

Keywords: partial penetration, surcharge preloading, excess pore water pressure, Bangkok test embankments

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
10175 Prediction of Formation Pressure Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Abdulmalek Ahmed


Formation pressure is the main function that affects drilling operation economically and efficiently. Knowing the pore pressure and the parameters that affect it will help to reduce the cost of drilling process. Many empirical models reported in the literature were used to calculate the formation pressure based on different parameters. Some of these models used only drilling parameters to estimate pore pressure. Other models predicted the formation pressure based on log data. All of these models required different trends such as normal or abnormal to predict the pore pressure. Few researchers applied artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict the formation pressure by only one method or a maximum of two methods of AI. The objective of this research is to predict the pore pressure based on both drilling parameters and log data namely; weight on bit, rotary speed, rate of penetration, mud weight, bulk density, porosity and delta sonic time. A real field data is used to predict the formation pressure using five different artificial intelligence (AI) methods such as; artificial neural networks (ANN), radial basis function (RBF), fuzzy logic (FL), support vector machine (SVM) and functional networks (FN). All AI tools were compared with different empirical models. AI methods estimated the formation pressure by a high accuracy (high correlation coefficient and low average absolute percentage error) and outperformed all previous. The advantage of the new technique is its simplicity, which represented from its estimation of pore pressure without the need of different trends as compared to other models which require a two different trend (normal or abnormal pressure). Moreover, by comparing the AI tools with each other, the results indicate that SVM has the advantage of pore pressure prediction by its fast processing speed and high performance (a high correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a low average absolute percentage error of 0.14%). In the end, a new empirical correlation for formation pressure was developed using ANN method that can estimate pore pressure with a high precision (correlation coefficient of 0.998 and average absolute percentage error of 0.17%).

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence (AI), Formation pressure, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Fuzzy Logic (FL), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Functional Networks (FN), Radial Basis Function (RBF)

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10174 Critical Heights of Sloped Unsupported Trenches in Unsaturated Sand

Authors: Won Taek Oh, Adin Richard


Workers are often required to enter unsupported trenches during the construction process, which may present serious risks. Trench failures can result in death or damage to adjacent properties, therefore trenches should be excavated with extreme precaution. Excavation work is often done in unsaturated soils, where the critical height (i.e. maximum depth that can be excavated without failure) of unsupported trenches can be more reliably estimated by considering the influence of matric suction. In this study, coupled stress/pore-water pressure analyses are conducted to investigate the critical height of sloped unsupported trenches considering the influence of pore-water pressure redistribution caused by excavating. Four different wall slopes (1.5V:1H, 2V:1H, 3V:1H, and 90°) and a vertical trench with the top 0.3 m sloped 1:1 were considered in the analyses with multiple depths of the ground water table in a sand. For comparison, the critical heights were also estimated using the limit equilibrium method for the same excavation scenarios used in the coupled analyses.

Keywords: critical height, matric suction, unsaturated soil, unsupported trench

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10173 Seepage Analysis through Earth Dam Embankment: Case Study of Batu Dam

Authors: Larifah Mohd Sidik, Anuar Kasa


In recent years, the demands for raw water are increasing along with the growth of the economy and population. Hence, the need for the construction and operation of dams is one of the solutions for the management of water resources problems. The stability of the embankment should be taken into consideration to evaluate the safety of retaining water. The safety of the dam is mostly based on numerous measurable components, for instance, seepage flowrate, pore water pressure and deformation of the embankment. Seepage and slope stability is the primary and most important reason to ascertain the overall safety behavior of the dams. This research study was conducted to evaluate static condition seepage and slope stability performances of Batu dam which is located in Kuala Lumpur capital city. The numerical solution Geostudio-2012 software was employed to analyse the seepage using finite element method, SEEP/W and slope stability using limit equilibrium method, SLOPE/W for three different cases of reservoir level operations; normal and flooded condition. Results of seepage analysis using SEEP/W were utilized as parental input for the analysis of SLOPE/W. Sensitivity analysis on hydraulic conductivity of material was done and calibrated to minimize the relative error of simulation SEEP/W, where the comparison observed field data and predicted value were also carried out. In seepage analysis, such as leakage flow rate, pore water distribution and location of a phreatic line are determined using the SEEP/W. The result of seepage analysis shows the clay core effectively lowered the phreatic surface and no piping failure is shown in the result. Hence, the total seepage flux was acceptable and within the permissible limit.

Keywords: earth dam, dam safety, seepage, slope stability, pore water pressure

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10172 Wetting Induced Collapse Behavior of Loosely Compacted Kaolin Soil: A Microstructural Study

Authors: Dhanesh Sing Das, Bharat Tadikonda Venkata


Collapsible soils undergo significant volume reduction upon wetting under the pre-existing mechanically applied normal stress (inundation pressure). These soils exhibit a very high strength in air-dried conditions and can carry up to a considerable magnitude of normal stress without undergoing significant volume change. The soil strength is, however, lost upon saturation and results in a sudden collapse of the soil structure under the existing mechanical stress condition. The intrusion of water into the dry deposits of such soil causes ground subsidence leading to damages in the overlying buildings/structures. A study on the wetting-induced volume change behavior of collapsible soils is essential in dealing with the ground subsidence problems in various geotechnical engineering practices. The collapse of loosely compacted Kaolin soil upon wetting under various inundation pressures has been reported in recent studies. The collapse in the Kaolin soil is attributed to the alteration in the soil particle-particle association (fabric) resulting due to the changes in the various inter-particle (microscale) forces induced by the water saturation. The inundation pressure plays a significant role in the fabric evolution during the wetting process, thus controls the collapse potential of the compacted soil. A microstructural study is useful to understand the collapse mechanisms at various pore-fabric levels under different inundation pressure. Kaolin soil compacted to a dry density of 1.25 g/cc was used in this work to study the wetting-induced volume change behavior under different inundation pressures in the range of 10-1600 kPa. The compacted specimen of Kaolin soil exhibited a consistent collapse under all the studied inundation pressure. The collapse potential was observed to be increasing with an increase in the inundation pressure up to a maximum value of 13.85% under 800 kPa and then decreased to 11.7% under 1600 kPa. Microstructural analysis was carried out based on the fabric images and the pore size distributions (PSDs) obtained from FESEM analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. The PSDs and the soil fabric images of ‘as-compacted’ specimen and post-collapse specimen under 400 kPa were analyzed to understand the changes in the soil fabric and pores due to wetting. The pore size density curve for the post-collapse specimen was found to be on the finer side with respect to the ‘as-compacted’ specimen, indicating the reduction of the larger pores during the collapse. The inter-aggregate pores in the range of 0.1-0.5μm were identified as the major contributing pore size classes to the macroscopic volume change. Wetting under an inundation pressure results in the reduction of these pore sizes and lead to an increase in the finer pore sizes. The magnitude of inundation pressure influences the amount of reduction of these pores during the wetting process. The collapse potential was directly related to the degree of reduction in the pore volume contributed by these pore sizes.

Keywords: collapse behavior, inundation pressure, kaolin, microstructure

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10171 Agriculture Water Quality Evaluation in Minig Basin

Authors: Ben Salah Nahla


The problem of water in Tunisia affects the quality and quantity. Tunisia is in a situation of water shortage. It was estimated that 4.6 Mm3/an. Moreover, the quality of water in Tunisia is also mediocre. In fact, 50% of the water has a high salinity (> 1.5g/l). There are several parameters which affect water quality such as sodium, fluoride. An excess of this parameter may induce some human health. Furthermore, the mining basin area has a problem of industrial waste. This problem may affect the water quality of the groundwater. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to assess the water quality in Basin Mining and the impact of fluorine. For this research, some water samples were done in the field and specific water analysis was implemented in the laboratory. Sampling is carried out on eight drilling in the area of the mining region. In the following, we will look at water view composition, physical and chemical quality. A physical-chemical analysis of water from a survey of the Mining area of Tunisia was performed and showed an excess for the following items: fluorine, sodium, sulfate. So many chemicals may be present in water. However, only a small number of them immediately concern in terms of health in all circumstances. Fluorine (F) is one particular chemical that is considered both necessary for the human body, but an excess of the rate of this chemical causes serious diseases. Sodium fluoride and sodium silicofluoride are more soluble and may spread in animals and plants where their toxicity largest organizations. The more complex particles such as cryolite and fluorite, almost insoluble, are more stable and less toxic. Thereafter, we will study the problem of excess fluorine in the water. The latter intended for human consumption must always comply with the limits for microbiological quality parameters and physical-chemical parameters defined by European standards (1.5 mg/l) and Tunisian (2 mg/l).

Keywords: water, minier basin, fluorine, silicofluoride

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10170 Water Distribution Uniformity of Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation under Low Operating Pressure

Authors: Manal Osman


Sprinkler irrigation system became more popular to reduce water consumption and increase irrigation efficiency. The water distribution uniformity plays an important role in the performance of the sprinkler irrigation system. The use of low operating pressure instead of high operating pressure can be achieved many benefits including energy and water saving. An experimental study was performed to investigate the water distribution uniformity of the solid-set sprinkler irrigation system under low operating pressure. Different low operating pressures (62, 82, 102 and 122 kPa) were selected. The range of operating pressure was lower than the recommended in the previous studies to investigate the effect of low pressure on the water distribution uniformity. Different nozzle diameters (4, 5, 6 and 7 mm) were used. The outdoor single sprinkler test was performed. The water distribution of single sprinkler, the coefficients of uniformity such as coefficient of uniformity (CU), distribution uniformity of low quarter (DUlq), distribution uniformity of low half (DUlh), coefficient of variation (CV) and the distribution characteristics like rotation speed, throw radius and overlapping distance are presented in this paper.

Keywords: low operating pressure, sprinkler irrigation system, water distribution uniformity

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10169 Water Injection in order to Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Hooman Fallah, Fatemeh Karampour


Low salinity water (LSW) has been proved to be efficacious because of low cost and ability to change properties of reservoir rock and fluids and their interactions toward desired condition. These include change in capillary pressure, interfacial tension, wettability tendency, permeability and pore sizing. This enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method has been studied so far for evaluating capability of inducing recent mentioned parameters and the mechanisms of its operation and applicabi-lity in different fields. This study investigates the effect of three types of salts (including Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42-) on wettability and final oil recovery in labratory.

Keywords: low salinity water, smart water, wettability alteration, carbonated reservoir

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10168 Portable Water Treatment for Flood Resilience

Authors: Alireza Abbassi Monjezi, Mohammad Hasan Shaheed


Flood, caused by excessive rainfall, monsoon, cyclone and tsunami is a common disaster in many countries of the world especially sea connected low-lying countries. A stand-alone self-powered water filtration module for decontamination of floodwater has been designed and modeled. A combination forward osmosis – low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system powered by solar photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) energy is investigated which could overcome the main barriers to water supply for remote areas and ensure off-grid filtration. The proposed system is designed to be small scale and portable to provide on-site potable water to communities that are no longer themselves mobile nor can be reached quickly by the aid agencies. FO is an osmotically driven process that uses osmotic pressure gradients to drive water across a controlled pore membrane from a feed solution (low osmotic pressure) to a draw solution (high osmotic pressure). This drops the demand for high hydraulic pressures and therefore the energy demand. There is also a tendency for lower fouling, easier fouling layer removal and higher water recovery. In addition, the efficiency of the PVT unit will be maximized through freshwater cooling which is integrated into the system. A filtration module with the capacity of 5 m3/day is modeled to treat floodwater and provide drinking water. The module can be used as a tool for disaster relief, particularly in the aftermath of flood and tsunami events.

Keywords: flood resilience, membrane desalination, portable water treatment, solar energy

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10167 Factors Affecting Special Core Analysis Resistivity Parameters

Authors: Hassan Sbiga


Laboratory measurements methods were undertaken on core samples selected from three different fields (A, B, and C) from the Nubian Sandstone Formation of the central graben reservoirs in Libya. These measurements were conducted in order to determine the factors which affect resistivity parameters, and to investigate the effect of rock heterogeneity and wettability on these parameters. This included determining the saturation exponent (n) in the laboratory at two stages. The first stage was before wettability measurements were conducted on the samples, and the second stage was after the wettability measurements in order to find any effect on the saturation exponent. Another objective of this work was to quantify experimentally pores and porosity types (macro- and micro-porosity), which have an affect on the electrical properties, by integrating capillary pressure curves with other routine and special core analysis. These experiments were made for the first time to obtain a relation between pore size distribution and saturation exponent n. Changes were observed in the formation resistivity factor and cementation exponent due to ambient conditions and changes of overburden pressure. The cementation exponent also decreased from GHE-5 to GHE-8. Changes were also observed in the saturation exponent (n) and water saturation (Sw) before and after wettability measurement. Samples with an oil-wet tendency have higher irreducible brine saturation and higher Archie saturation exponent values than samples with an uniform water-wet surface. The experimental results indicate that there is a good relation between resistivity and pore type depending on the pore size. When oil begins to penetrate micro-pore systems in measurements of resistivity index versus brine saturation (after wettability measurement), a significant change in slope of the resistivity index relationship occurs.

Keywords: part of thesis, cementation, wettability, resistivity

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10166 Investigation of Ground Disturbance Caused by Pile Driving: Case Study

Authors: Thayalan Nall, Harry Poulos


Piling is the most widely used foundation method for heavy structures in poor soil conditions. The geotechnical engineer can choose among a variety of piling methods, but in most cases, driving piles by impact hammer is the most cost-effective alternative. Under unfavourable conditions, driving piles can cause environmental problems, such as noise, ground movements and vibrations, with the risk of ground disturbance leading to potential damage to proposed structures. In one of the project sites in which the authors were involved, three offshore container terminals, namely CT1, CT2 and CT3, were constructed over thick compressible marine mud. The seabed was around 6m deep and the soft clay thickness within the project site varied between 9m and 20m. CT2 and CT3 were connected together and rectangular in shape and were 2600mx800m in size. CT1 was 400m x 800m in size and was located on south opposite of CT2 towards its eastern end. CT1 was constructed first and due to time and environmental limitations, it was supported on a “forest” of large diameter driven piles. CT2 and CT3 are now under construction and are being carried out using a traditional dredging and reclamation approach with ground improvement by surcharging with vertical drains. A few months after the installation of the CT1 piles, a 2600m long sand bund to 2m above mean sea level was constructed along the southern perimeter of CT2 and CT3 to contain the dredged mud that was expected to be pumped. The sand bund was constructed by sand spraying and pumping using a dredging vessel. About 2000m length of the sand bund in the west section was constructed without any major stability issues or any noticeable distress. However, as the sand bund approached the section parallel to CT1, it underwent a series of deep seated failures leading the displaced soft clay materials to heave above the standing water level. The crest of the sand bund was about 100m away from the last row of piles. There were no plausible geological reasons to conclude that the marine mud only across the CT1 region was weaker than over the rest of the site. Hence it was suspected that the pile driving by impact hammer may have caused ground movements and vibrations, leading to generation of excess pore pressures and cyclic softening of the marine mud. This paper investigates the probable cause of failure by reviewing: (1) All ground investigation data within the region; (2) Soil displacement caused by pile driving, using theories similar to spherical cavity expansion; (3) Transfer of stresses and vibrations through the entire system, including vibrations transmitted from the hammer to the pile, and the dynamic properties of the soil; and (4) Generation of excess pore pressure due to ground vibration and resulting cyclic softening. The evidence suggests that the problems encountered at the site were primarily caused by the “side effects” of the pile driving operations.

Keywords: pile driving, ground vibration, excess pore pressure, cyclic softening

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