Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 135

Search results for: entomopathogenic fungus

105 Biological Treatment of Corn Stover with Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinula edudes to Improve Digestibility

Authors: Nurcan Cetinkaya, Aydan Atalar

Abstract:

Corn stover is leftover of the leaves, stalk, husks and tassels in the field after harvesting the grain combined. Corn stover is a low-quality roughage but has mostly been used as roughage source for feeding ruminant animals in developing countries including Turkey; however, it can also be used to make biofuels as in developed countries. The objectives of the present study were to improve the digestibility of corn stover by the treatment of white rod fungus mainly Pleurotus osteritus (PO), Pleurotus eryingii (PE) and Lantinula edudes (LE) at different incubation times and also to determine the most effective fungus and incubation time to prepare fermeted corn stover for ruminant nutrition. The choped corn stover was treated with PO, PE and LE and incubated for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days in incubator at 26 0C. After each incubation time dry matter(DM), organic matter(OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent lignin (ADL), in-vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDMD) and organic matter digestibility (IVTOMD) were determined. The mean IVTDMD and IVTOMD levels were increased by PO, PE and LE treatments in increasing order of incubation times. The obtained IVTDM values were 59.45, 60.51, 60.82 and 60.18 %; 59.45, 70.55, 67.18 and 66.96 %; 59.45, 70.55, 67.18 and 66,96 %; 59.45, 74.90, 69.18 % ; 59.45, 76.50, 71.24 and 73.04 for control, PO, PE and LE treatments at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days incubation times respectively. The obtained IVTOMD values were 56.45,60.26,60.82and 60.18 %; 56.45, 68.70, 67.18 and 66.96 %; 56.45, 71.26, 69.18 and 69.28 %; 56.45, 73.23, 71.24 and 73.04 % for control, PO, PE and LE treatments at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days incubation times respectively. The most effective fungus was PO and the incubation time was 30 days. In conclusion, PO treatment of corn stover with 30 days incubation may be used to prepare fermented corn stover for ruminant nutrition.

Keywords: Biological treatment, digestibility, corn stover, Lantinula edudes, Pleurotus eryingii, Pleurotus osteritus

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104 Study on Microbial Pretreatment for Enhancing Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corncob

Authors: Kessara Seneesrisakul, Sumaeth Chavadej, Erdogan Gulari

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The complex structure of lignocellulose leads to great difficulties in converting it to fermentable sugars for the ethanol production. The major hydrolysis impediments are the crystallinity of cellulose and the lignin content. To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial pretreatment of corncob was investigated using two bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis A 002 and Cellulomonas sp. TISTR 784 (expected to break open the crystalline part of cellulose) and lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete sordida SK7 (expected to remove lignin from lignocellulose). The microbial pretreatment was carried out with each strain under its optimum conditions. The pretreated corncob samples were further hydrolyzed to produce reducing glucose with low amounts of commercial cellulase (25 U•g-1 corncob) from Aspergillus niger. The corncob samples were determined for composition change by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the results, the microbial pretreatment with fungus, P. sordida SK7 was the most effective for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately, 40% improvement.

Keywords: Glucose, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, corncob, microbial pretreatment

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103 Evaluation of Mixing and Oxygen Transfer Performances for a Stirred Bioreactor Containing P. chrysogenum Broths

Authors: A. I. Galaction, D. Caşcaval, A. C. Blaga, A. Cârlescu, M. Turnea

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The performance of an aerobic stirred bioreactor for fungal fermentation was analyzed on the basis of mixing time and oxygen mass transfer coefficient, by quantifying the influence of some specific geometrical and operational parameters of the bioreactor, as well as the rheological behavior of Penicillium chrysogenum broth (free mycelia and mycelia aggregates). The rheological properties of the fungus broth, controlled by the biomass concentration, its growth rate, and morphology strongly affect the performance of the bioreactor. Experimental data showed that for both morphological structures the accumulation of fungus biomass induces a significant increase of broths viscosity and modifies the rheological behavior. For lower P. chrysogenum concentrations (both morphological conformations), the mixing time initially increases with aeration rate, reaches a maximum value and decreases. This variation can be explained by the formation of small bubbles, due to the presence of solid phase which hinders the bubbles coalescence, the rising velocity of bubbles being reduced by the high apparent viscosity of fungus broths. By biomass accumulation, the variation of mixing time with aeration rate is gradually changed, the continuous reduction of mixing time with air input flow increase being obtained for 33.5 g/l d.w. P. chrysogenum. Owing to the superior apparent viscosity, which reduces considerably the relative contribution of mechanical agitation to the broths mixing, these phenomena are more pronounced for P. chrysogenum free mycelia. Due to the increase of broth apparent viscosity, the biomass accumulation induces two significant effects on oxygen transfer rate: the diminution of turbulence and perturbation of bubbles dispersion - coalescence equilibrium. The increase of P. chrysogenum free mycelia concentration leads to the decrease of kla values. Thus, for the considered variation domain of the main parameters taken into account, namely air superficial velocity from 8.36 10-4 to 5.02 10-3 m/s and specific power input from 100 to 500 W/m3, kla was reduced for 3.7 times for biomass concentration increase from 4 to 36.5 g/l d.w. The broth containing P. crysogenum mycelia aggregates exhibits a particular behavior from the point of view of oxygen transfer. Regardless of bioreactor operating conditions, the increase of biomass concentration leads initially to the increase of oxygen mass transfer rate, the phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of pellets with bubbles. The results are in relation with the increase of apparent viscosity of broths corresponding to the variation of biomass concentration between the mentioned limits. Thus, the apparent viscosity of the suspension of fungus mycelia aggregates increased for 44.2 times and fungus free mycelia for 63.9 times for CX increase from 4 to 36.5 g/l d.w. By means of the experimental data, some mathematical correlations describing the influences of the considered factors on mixing time and kla have been proposed. The proposed correlations can be used in bioreactor performance evaluation, optimization, and scaling-up.

Keywords: biomass concentration, mixing time, oxygen mass transfer, P. chrysogenum broth, stirred bioreactor

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102 Acute and Chronic Effect of Biopesticide on Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Cultivation

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Chuenchooklin

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Acute and chronic effects of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was investigated for infestation reduction of the major insect pest whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at a farm in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (late November to May). Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated in terms of acute and chronic effect. The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect nets and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied for the acute effect. The results showed that bacteria ISR had the highest effectiveness for controlling whitefly infestation on culantro; the whitefly numbers on insect nets were 12.5, 10.0 and 7.5 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively while the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0 and 10.0 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively. For chronic effect, the whitefly was continuously collected and recorded at weekly intervals; the result showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect nets and sticky traps respectively, followed by treatment of nematode where the average whitefly was 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect nets and sticky traps, respectively. In addition, the minor insect pests were also observed and collected. The biopesticide influenced the reduction number of minor insect pests (red spider mites, beet armyworm, short-horned grasshopper, pygmy locusts, etc.) with only a few found on the culantro cultivation.

Keywords: whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), acute and chronic effect

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101 Bioleaching of Precious Metals from an Oil-fired Ash Using Organic Acids Produced by Aspergillus niger in Shake Flasks and a Bioreactor

Authors: Payam Rasoulnia, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi

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Heavy fuel oil firing power plants produce huge amounts of ashes as solid wastes, which seriously need to be managed and processed. Recycling precious metals of V and Ni from these oil-fired ashes which are considered as secondary sources of metals recovery, not only has a great economic importance for use in industry, but also it is noteworthy from the environmental point of view. Vanadium is an important metal that is mainly used in the steel industry because of its physical properties of hardness, tensile strength, and fatigue resistance. It is also utilized in oxidation catalysts, titanium–aluminum alloys and vanadium redox batteries. In the present study bioleaching of vanadium and nickel from an oil-fired ash sample was conducted using Aspergillus niger fungus. The experiments were carried out using spent-medium bioleaching method in both Erlenmeyer flasks and also bubble column bioreactor, in order to compare them together. In spent-medium bioleaching the solid waste is not in direct contact with the fungus and consequently the fungal growth is not retarded and maximum organic acids are produced. In this method the metals are leached through biogenic produced organic acids present in the medium. In shake flask experiments the fungus was cultured for 15 days, where the maximum production of organic acids was observed, while in bubble column bioreactor experiments a 7 days fermentation period was applied. The amount of produced organic acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the results showed that depending on the fermentation period and the scale of experiments, the fungus has different major lixiviants. In flask tests, citric acid was the main produced organic acid by the fungus and the other organic acids including gluconic, oxalic, and malic were excreted in much lower concentrations, while in the bioreactor oxalic acid was the main lixiviant and it was produced considerably. In Erlenmeyer flasks during 15 days fermentation of Aspergillus niger, 8080 ppm citric acid and 1170 ppm oxalic acid was produced, while in bubble column bioreactor over 7 days of fungal growth, 17185 ppm oxalic acid and 1040 ppm citric acid was secreted. The leaching tests using the spent-media obtained from both of fermentation experiments, were performed at the same conditions of leaching duration of 7 days, leaching temperature of 60 °C and pulp density up to 3% (w/v). The results revealed that in Erlenmeyer flask experiments 97% of V and 50% of Ni were extracted while using spent medium produced in bubble column bioreactor, V and Ni recoveries were achieved to 100% and 33%, respectively. These recovery yields indicate that in both scales almost total vanadium can be recovered, while nickel recovery was lower. With help of the bioreactor spent-medium nickel recovery yield was lower than that of obtained from the flask experiments, which it could be due to precipitation of some values of Ni in presence of high levels of oxalic acid existing in its spent medium.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, bubble column bioreactor, oil-fired ash, spent-medium bioleaching

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100 Assessing Immunization across Life Stages of the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) to the Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)

Authors: Kerri L. Surbaugh, Lakmini Y. Mallikarachchi, Jason R. Rohr

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Emerging diseases are key factors in the disconcerting rate of contemporary amphibian declines. The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), ranks among the chief pathogenic challenges to vulnerable amphibian populations. Although live Bd can immunosuppress amphibian hosts, amphibian exposure to dead Bd can induce an adaptive immune response, leading to acquired resistance to the pathogen. In this experiment, dose and duration of flash-frozen Bd were manipulated over a variety of life-stages of the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and the magnitude of acquired resistance to the pathogen was quantified via qPCR analyses of spore abundance post subsequent live Bd challenges. It was found that Cuban treefrogs can develop resistance to Bd and that life stage, dose and duration thresholds exist for acquired resistance. This experiment will aid in facilitating the development of a vaccine against Bd which could be used on location and could help curb worldwide amphibian declines associated with this pathogen.

Keywords: Immunization, fungal pathogen, acquired resistance, ecoimmunology, emerging infectious disease, fungal host response

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99 Potential of Lead Tolerant and Mobilizing Fungus for Plant Growth Promotion through Plant Growth Promoting Activity; A Promising Approach for Enhance Phytoremediation

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Iram Gul, Maria Manzoor, Jean Kallerhoff

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The potential of fungal isolates to be used in phytoremediation of widespread lead contaminated soil has been evaluated in this study. Five different fungal isolates (Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Mucor spp.) were obtained and tested for their tolerance to increasing concentration of lead (Pb) i.e. 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mgL-1 on PDA and PDB culture experiment. All strains were tolerant up to 500 mgL-1 following sequence; A. flavus > A. niger > Mucor spp. > P. simplicissimum > T. harzianum. Further the isolates were then monitored for possible effect on Pb solubility/mobility through soil incubation experiments and characterized for essays including pathogenicity, germination and root elongation and plant growth promoting activities including IAA (indole acetic acid), phosphorus solubilization and gibberellic acid (GA3) production. Results revealed that fungal isolates have positive effect on Pb mobility in soil and plant biomass production. Pb solubility was significantly (P> 0.05) increased in soil upon application of Mucor spp. P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum. when compared to control. Among different strains three isolates (Mucor spp., P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum) were nonpathogenic because no inhibitory effect of fungus was observed to plant growth when exposed to these strains in root shoot elongation essay. Particularly T. harzianum and P. simplicissimum showed great ability to increase root length by 1.1 and 1.3 folds and shoot length by 1.47 and 1.5 folds respectively under Pb stress (500 mgL-1). Significantly high production of IAA was observed in A. niger (26.7 μg/ml), Phosphorus solubilization was observed in T. harzianum (9.15 μg/ml) and GA3 production was observed in P. simplicissimum (11.02 μg/ml). From results it is concluded that Mucor spp., P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum have potential to increase Pb mobility and improving plant growth under highy Pb contamination, therefore can be used in microbially assisted phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil.

Keywords: Pb tolerant fungus, Pb mobility, plant growth promoting activities, indole acetic acid (IAA)

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98 Efficacy of Pisum sativum and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metalloids from Soil

Authors: Ritu Chaturvedi, Manoj Paul

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A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) on metal(loid) uptake and accumulation efficiency of Pisum sativum along with physiological and biochemical response. Plants were grown in soil spiked with 50 and 100 mg kg-1 Pb, 25 and 50 mg kg-1 Cd, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 As and a combination of all three metal(loid)s. A parallel set was maintained and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for comparison. After 60 days, plants were harvested and analysed for metal(loid) content. A steady increase in metal(loid) accumulation was observed on increment of metal(loid) dose and also on AMF inoculation. Plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoid and carbohydrate content reduced upon metal(loid) exposure. Increase in enzymatic (CAT, SOD and APX) and nonenzymatic (Proline) defence proteins was observed on metal(loid) exposure. AMF inoculation leads to an increase in plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrate and enzymatic defence proteins (p≤0.001) under study; whereas proline content was reduced. Considering the accumulation efficiency and adaptive response of plants and alleviation of stress by AMF, this symbiosis can be applied for on-site remediation of Pb and Cd contaminated soil.

Keywords: Mycorrhiza, heavy metal, pea, phyroremediation

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97 Unequal Contributions of Parental Isolates in Somatic Recombination of the Stripe Rust Fungus

Authors: Xianming Chen, Yu Lei, Meinan Wang

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The dikaryotic basidiomycete fungus, Puccinia striiformis, causes stripe rust, one of the most important diseases of wheat and barley worldwide. The pathogen is largely reproduced asexually, and asexual recombination has been hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms for the pathogen variations. To test the hypothesis and understand the genetic process of asexual recombination, somatic recombinant isolates were obtained under controlled conditions by inoculating susceptible host plants with a mixture of equal quantity of urediniospores of isolates with different virulence patterns and selecting through a series of inoculation on host plants with different genes for resistance to one of the parental isolates. The potential recombinant isolates were phenotypically characterized by virulence testing on the set of 18 wheat lines used to differentiate races of the wheat stripe rust pathogen, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), for the combinations of Pst isolates; or on both sets of the wheat differentials and 12 barley differentials for identifying races of the barley stripe rust pathogen, P. striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh) for combinations of a Pst isolate and a Psh isolate. The progeny and parental isolates were also genotypically characterized with 51 simple sequence repeat and 90 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. From nine combinations of parental isolates, 68 potential recombinant isolates were obtained, of which 33 (48.5%) had similar virulence patterns to one of the parental isolates, and 35 (51.5%) had virulence patterns distinct from either of the parental isolates. Of the 35 isolates of distinct virulence patterns, 11 were identified as races that had been previously detected from natural collections and 24 were identified as new races. The molecular marker data confirmed 66 of the 68 isolates as recombinants. The percentages of parental marker alleles ranged from 0.9% to 98.9% and were significantly different from equal proportions in the recombinant isolates. Except for a couple of combinations, the greater or less contribution was not specific to any particular parental isolates as the same parental isolates contributed more to some of the progeny isolates but less to the other progeny isolates in the same combination. The unequal contributions by parental isolates appear to be a general role in somatic recombination for the stripe rust fungus, which may be used to distinguish asexual recombination from sexual recombination in studying the evolutionary mechanisms of the highly variable fungal pathogen.

Keywords: Molecular markers, Puccinia striiformis, somatic recombination, stripe rust

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96 Identification and Characterization of Inhibitors of Epoxide Hydrolase from Trichoderma reesei

Authors: Gabriel S. De Oliveira, Patricia P. Adriani, Christophe Moriseau, Bruce D. Hammock, Felipe S. Chambergo

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Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that are present in all living organisms and catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. EHs have high biotechnological interest for the drug design and chemistry transformation for industries. In this study, we describe the identification of substrates and inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase enzyme from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (TrEH), and these inhibitors showed the fungal growth inhibitory activity. We have used the cloned enzyme and expressed in E. coli to develop the screening in the library of fluorescent substrates with the objective of finding the best substrate to be used in the identification of good inhibitors for the enzyme TrEH. The substrate (3-phenyloxiranyl)-acetic acid cyano-(6-methoxy-naphthalen-2-yl)-methyl ester showed the highest specific activity and was chosen for the next steps of the study. The inhibitors screening was performed in the library with more than three thousand molecules and we could identify the 6 best inhibitors. The IC50 of these molecules were determined in nM and all the best inhibitors have urea or amide in their structure, because It has been recognized that these groups fit well in the hydrolase catalytic pocket of the epoxide hydrolases. Then the growth of T. reesei in PDA medium containing these TrEH inhibitors was tested, and fungal growth inhibition activity was demonstrated with more than 60% of inhibition of fungus growth in the assay with the TrEH inhibitor with the lowest IC50. Understanding how this EH enzyme from T. reesei responds to inhibitors may contribute for the study of fungal metabolism and drug design against pathogenic fungi.

Keywords: inhibitor, epoxide hydrolases, fungal growth inhibition, Trichoderma reesei

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95 Isolation, Purification and Characterisation of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides Derived from Extracellular Polysaccharide of Antarctic Fungus Thelebolus Sp. IITKGP-BT12

Authors: Abinaya Balasubramanian, Satyabrata Ghosh, Satyahari Dey

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Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides(NDOs) are low molecular weight carbohydrates with degree of polymerization (DP) 3-20, that are delivered intact to the large intestine. NDOs are gaining attention as effective prebiotic molecules that facilitate prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases. Recently, NDOs are being obtained by cleaving complex polysaccharides as it results in high yield and also as the former tend to display greater bioactivity. Thelebolus sp. IITKGP BT-12, a recently identified psychrophilic, Ascomycetes fungus has been reported to produce a bioactive extracellular polysaccharide(EPS). The EPS has been proved to possess strong prebiotic activity and anti- proliferative effects. The current study is an attempt to identify and optimise the most suitable method for hydrolysis of the above mentioned novel EPS into NDOs, and further purify and characterise the same. Among physical, chemical and enzymatic methods, enzymatic hydrolysis was identified as the best method and the optimum hydrolysis conditions obtained using response surface methodology were: reaction time of 24h, β-(1,3) endo-glucanase concentration of 0.53U and substrate concentration of 10 mg/ml. The NDOs were purified using gel filtration chromatography and their molecular weights were determined using MALDI-TOF. The major fraction was found to have a DP of 7,8. The monomeric units of the NDOs were confirmed to be glucose using TLC and GCMS-MS analysis. The obtained oligosaccharides proved to be non-digestible when subjected to gastric acidity, salivary and pancreatic amylases and hence could serve as efficient prebiotics.

Keywords: Characterisation, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, response surface methodology, non-digestible oligosaccharides

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94 Deuterium Effect on the Growth of the Fungus Aspergillus Fumigatus and Candida Albicans

Authors: farzad doostishoar, Abdolreza Hasanzadeh, Seyed Amin Ayatolahi Mousavi

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Introduction and Goals: Deuterium has different action from its isotopes hydrogen in chemical reactions and biochemical processes. It is not a significant difference in heavier atoms between the behavior of heavier isotope and the lighter One but for very lighter atoms it is significant . According to that most of the weight of all creatures body is water natural rate can be significant. In this article we want to study the effect of reduced deuterium on the fungus cell. If we saw the dependence of deuterium concentration of environment on the cells growth we can test this in invivo models too. Methods: First we measured deuterium concentration of the distillated water this analyze was operated by Arak’s heavy water company. Then the deuterium was diluted to ½ ¼ 1/8 1/16 by adding water free of deuterium for making media. In tree of samples the deuterium concentration was increased by adding D2O up to 10,50,100 times more concentrated. For candida albicans growth we used sabor medium and for aspergillus fomigatis growth we used sabor medium containing chloramphenicol. After culturing the funguses species we put the mediums for each species in the shaker incubator for 10 days in 25 centigrade. In different days and times the plates were studied morphologically and some microscopic characteristics were studied too. This experiments and cultures were repeated 3 times. Results: Statistical analyzes by paired-sample T test showed that aspergilus fomigatoos growth was decreased in concentration of 72 ppm( half deuterium concentration of negative control) significantly. In deuterium concentration reduction the growth reduce into the negative control significantly. The project results showed that candida albicans was sensitive to reduce and decrease of the deuterium in all concentrations.

Keywords: Growth, Cancer Cell, Candida albicans, deuterium

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93 Growth of Albizia in vitro: Endophytic Fungi as Plant Growth Promote of Albizia

Authors: Rosa Suryantini, Reine Suci Wulandari

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Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) is a woody plant species that has a high economic value and multifunctional. Albizia is important timber, medicinal plants and can also be used as a plant to rehabilitate critical lands. The demand value of Albizia is increased so that the large quantities and high quality of seeds are required. In vitro propagation techniques are seed propagation that can produce more seeds and quality in a short time. In vitro cultures require growth regulators that can be obtained from biological agents such as endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi are micro fungi that colonize live plant tissue without producing symptoms or other negative effects on host plants and increase plant growth. The purposes of this research were to isolate and identify endophytic fungi isolated from the root of Albizia and to study the effect of endophytic fungus on the growth of Albizia in vitro. The methods were root isolation, endophytic fungal identification, and inoculation of endophytic fungi to Albizia plants in vitro. Endophytic fungus isolates were grown on PDA media before being inoculated with Albizia sprouts. Incubation is done for 4 (four) weeks. The observed growth parameters were live explant percentage, percentage of explant shoot, and percentage of explant rooted. The results of the research showed that 6 (six) endophytic fungal isolates obtained from the root of Albizia, namely Aspergillus sp., Verticillium sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., and Acremonium sp. Statistical analysis found that Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium sp. affect in vitro growth of Albizia. Endophytic fungi from the results of this research were potential as plant growth promoting. It can be applied to increase productivity either through increased plant growth and increased endurance of Albizia seedlings to pests and diseases.

Keywords: In vitro, propagation, endophytic fungi, Albizia

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92 Antimicrobial Activity of Igusa and the Application to Foam Materials for Food Industry

Authors: Mariko Era, Hiroshi Morita, I. Nanako

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Objectives: Japanese uses TATAMI rather than flooring at home. Igusa ( Juncus effuses var. decipiens ), which is commonly known in the forms of TATAMI. Juncus spp. grow at a relatively high humidity area (Japan, China and Southeast Asia ). Yatsushiro region in the southern part of Kumamoto prefecture is major produing area of Igusa. Igusa found to have honeycomb structure and was also shown to have the ability to control humidity. And Igusa has been used as a medicinal herb for diuretic and antiphlogistic agent. In previous study, we investigated antimicrobial effects of Igusa, and showed high antimicrobial activity against food poisoning bacteria. Therefore, the food trays blended Igusa can be kept clean by antimicrobial activity of Igusa. We focus on ‘Igusa foam materials’. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal activity of Igusa, and new application to foam materials for food industry. Materials and method: We used Igusa foam materials (3 × 3 × 3 cm) as a sample. We set about fifteen types of samples combined with a commercial antibacterial agent A, a commercial antibacterial agent B, potassium laurate (C12K) and a commercial antifungal agent C, a commercial antifungal agent D and a commercial antifungal agent E. We selected four bacteria strains (Escherichia coli NBRC 3972, Staphylococus aureus NBRC 12732, Salmonella typhimurium NBRC 13245, Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 ) and three fungus strains (Penicillium pinophilum NBRC 6345, Cladosporium cladosporioides NBRC 30314, Aspergillus oryzae NBRC 5238 ). The fungus was cultured at 30 °C on Igusa foam materials after inoculation of the fungus for fourteen days. The bacteria was cultured at 30 °C on Igusa foam materials after inoculation of the bacteria for three days. And the Igusa foam materials were washed with 10 mL normal saline after three days. The normal saline washed Igusa foam materials plated the NA medium. After, It was cultured at 30 °C and used colony counting method. Result and Conclusion: The fifteen types of sample of Igusa foam materials had antifungal activity against C. cladosporioides, A. oryzae and P. pinophilum for fourteen days. The four types of sample contained potassium laurate and antibacterial agent A, sample contained antibacterial agent B and antifungal agent D, sample contained A and antifungal agent E, sample contained B and E had antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. The three types of sample contained potassium laurate and A, sample contained B and D, sample contained A and E had antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium. The five types of sample contained potassium laurate and A, sample contained B and D, sample contained A and E, sample contained B and E, sample contained B and antifungal agent C had antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. These results indicate that Igusa of Igusa foam materials had high antifungal activity. In addition, Igusa foam materials combined with a commercial antibacterial agent had antibacterial activity. In the future, we consider that use of Igusa foam materials may be spread from food industry.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Antifungal, foam materials, Igusa

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91 Fungi Associated with Decline of Kikar (Acacia nilotica) and Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in Faisalabad

Authors: I. Ahmad, S. Ahmad, M. Asif, M. F. Nawaz, A. Hannan, M. A. Tanvir, M. F. Azhar

Abstract:

During this research, a comprehensive survey of tree growing areas of Faisalabad district of Pakistan was conducted to observe the symptoms, spectrum, occurrence and severity of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis decline. Objective of current research was to investigate specific fungal pathogens involved in decline of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis. For this purpose, infected roots, bark, neck portion, stem, branches, leaves and infected soils were collected to identify associated fungi. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czepak dox agar media were used for isolations. Identification of isolated fungi was done microscopically and different fungi were identified. During survey of urban locations of Faisalabad, disease incidence on Kikar and Eucalyptus was recorded as 3.9-7.9% and 2.6-7.1% respectively. Survey of Agroforest zones of Faisalabad revealed decline incidence on kikar 7.5% from Sargodha road while on Satiana and Jhang road it was not planted. In eucalyptus trees, 4%, 8% and 0% disease incidence was observed on Jhang road, Sargodha road and Satiana road respectively. The maximum fungus isolated from the kikar tree was Drechslera australiensis (5.00%) from the stem part. Aspergillus flavus also gave the maximum value of (3.05%) from the bark. Alternaria alternata gave the maximum value of (2.05%) from leaves. Rhizopus and Mucor spp. were recorded minimum as compared to the Drechslera, Alternaria and Aspergillus. The maximum fungus isolated from the Eucalyptus tree was Armillaria luteobubalina (5.00%) from the stem part. The other fungi isolated were Macrophamina phaseolina and A. niger.

Keywords: Decline, frequency of mycoflora, A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis, Drechslera australiensis, Armillaria luteobubalina

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90 Production of Vermiwash from Medicinal Plants and Its Potential Use as Fungicide against the Alternaria Alternata (fr.) Keissl. Affecting Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Guyana

Authors: Abdullah Ansari, Sinika Rambaran, Sirpaul Jaikishun

Abstract:

Vermiwash could be used to enhance plant productivity and resistance to some harmful plant pathogens, as well as provide benefit through the disposal of waste matter. Alternaria rot caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., is a common soil-borne pathogen that results in postharvest fruit rot of cucumbers, peppers and other cash crops. The production and distribution of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) could be severely affected by Alternaria rot. Fungicides are the traditional treatment however; they are not only expensive but can also cause environmental and health problems. Vermiwash was prepared from various medicinal plants (Ocimum tenuiflorum L. {Tulsi}, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. {neem}, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf. {lemon grass} and Oryza sativa L. {paddy straw} and applied, in vitro, to A. alternata to investigate their effectiveness as organic alternatives to traditional fungicides. All of the samples of vermiwash inhibited the growth of A. alternata. The inhibitive effects on the fungus appeared most effective when A. indica and O. tenuiflorum were used in the production of the vermiwash. Using the serial dilution method, vermiwash from O. tenuiflorum showed the highest percent of inhibition (93.2%), followed by C. citratus (74.7%), A. indica (68.7%), O. sativa, combination, and combination without worms. Using the sterile disc diffusion method, all of the samples produced zones of inhibition against A. alternata. Vermiwash from A. indica produced a zone of inhibition, averaging 15.3mm, followed by O. tenuiflorum (14.0mm), combination without worms, combination, C. citratus and O. sativa. Nystatin produced a zone of inhibition of 10mm. The results indicate that vermiwash is not simply an organic alternative to more traditional chemical fungicides, but it may in fact be a better and more effective product in treating certain fungal plant infections, particularly A. alternata.

Keywords: Soil, Antibacterial, Bacteria, Antifungal, alternaria alternata, vermiwash, earthworms

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
89 Assessment of Bioaerosol and Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds in Different Sections of Library

Authors: Himanshu Lal, Bipasha Ghosh, Arun Srivastava

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A pilot study of indoor air quality in terms of bioaerosol (fungus and bacteria) and few selective microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was carried out in different indoor sections of a library for two seasons, namely monsoon and post monsoon. Bioaerosol sampling was carried out using Anderson six stage viable sampler at a flow rate of 28.3 L/min while MVOCs were collected on activated charcoal tubes ORBOTM 90 Carboxen 564.Collected MVOCs were desorbed using carbon disulphide (CS2) and analysed by GC-FID. Microscopic identification for fungus was only carried out. Surface dust was collected by sterilised buds and cultured to identify fungal contaminants. Unlike bacterial size distribution, fungal bioaerosol concentration was found to be highest in the fourth stage in different sections of the library. In post monsoon season both fungal bioaerosol (710 to 3292cfu/m3) and bacterial bioaerosol (298 to 1475cfu/m3) were fund at much greater concentration than in monsoon. In monsoon season unlike post monsoon, I/O ratio for both the bioaerosol fractions was more than one. Rain washout could be the reason of lower outdoor concentration in monsoon season. On the contrary most of the MVOCs namely 1-hexene, 1-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol were found in the monsoon season instead of post monsoon season with the highest being 1-hexene with 7.09µg/m3 concentration. Among the six identified fungal bioaerosol Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium were found in maximum concentration while Aspergillus niger, Curvuleria lunata, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium sp., was indentified in surface dust samples. According to regression analysis apart from environmental factors other factors also played an important role. Thus apart from outdoor infiltration and human sources, accumulated surface dust mostly on organic materials like books, wooden furniture and racks can be attributed to being one of the major sources of both fungal bioaerosols as well as MVOCs found in the library.

Keywords: Indoor Air, Bacteria, Fungi, MVOCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
88 Interaction of Cucurbitacin-Containing Phytonematicides and Biocontrol Agents on Cultivated Tomato Plants and Nematode Numbers

Authors: Phatu W. Mashela, Jacqueline T. Madaure

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Interactive effects of cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides and biocontrol agents on growth and nematode suppression on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) had not been documented. The objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide, Trichoderma harzianum and Steinernema feltiae on growth of tomato plants and suppression of root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes. A 2x2x2 trial was conducted using tomato cv. ‘HTX’ on a field infested with Meloidogyne species. The treatments were applied at commercial rates. At 56 days after treatments, interactions were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for selected plant variables, without significant interactions on nematode variables. In conclusion, results of the current study did not support the combination of the test products for nematode suppression, except that some combinations improved plant growth.

Keywords: natural enemies, Plant Extracts, entomopathogenic nematodes, Cucurbitacin B, cucumis africanus, ethnobotanicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
87 Effect of Entomopathogenic Fungi on the Food Consumption of Acrididae Species

Authors: S. Kumar, R. Sultana

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Aspergillus species on acridid populations which are major agricultural pests of rice, sugarcane, wheat, maize and fodder crops in Pakistan. Three and replicates i.e. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger, excluding the control, were held under laboratory conditions. It was observed that consumption faecal production of acridids was significantly reduced after the pathogenic application of Aspergillus. In the control replicate, the mortality ratio for stage (N4-N6) was maximum on day 2nd i.e. [F10.7 = 18.33, P < 0.05] followed by [F4.20 = 07.85, P < 0.05] and [F3.77 = 06.11, P < 0.05] on 4th and 3rd day, respectively. Similarly, it was a minimum i.e. [F0.48 = 84.65, P < 0.05] on the 1st day. It was also noted that faecal production of Acridid nymphs was not significantly affected when treated with conidial concentration in H2O formulation; however, it was significantly reduced after the contamination with conidial concentration in oil. The high morality of acridids after contamination of Aspergillus supports their use as bio-control agent for reducing pest population. The present study recommends that exploration and screening must be conducted to provide additional pathogens for evaluation as potential biological control against grasshoppers and locusts.

Keywords: Agriculture, Formulation, acridid, grasshoppers

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
86 Phi Thickening Induction as a Response to Abiotic Stress in the Orchid Miltoniopsis

Authors: Nurul Aliaa Idris, David A. Collings

Abstract:

Phi thickenings are specialized secondary cell wall thickenings that are found in the cortex of the roots in a wide range of plant species, including orchids. The role of phi thickenings in the root is still under debate through research have linked environmental conditions, particularly abiotic stresses such as water stress, heavy metal stress and salinity to their induction in the roots. It has also been suggested that phi thickenings may act as a barrier to regulate solute uptake, act as a physical barrier against fungal hyphal penetration due to its resemblance to the Casparian strip and play a mechanical role to support cortical cells. We have investigated phi thickening function in epiphytic orchids of the genus Miltoniopsis through induction experiment against factors such as soil compaction and water stress. The permeability of the phi thickenings in Miltoniopsis was tested through uptake experiments using the fluorescent tracer dyes Calcofluor white, Lucifer yellow and Propidium iodide then viewed with wide-field or confocal microscopy. To test whether phi thickening may prevent fungal colonization in the root cell, fungal re-infection experiment was conducted by inoculating isolated symbiotic fungus to sterile in vitro Miltoniopsis explants. As the movement of fluorescent tracers through the apoplast was not blocked by phi thickenings, and as phi thickenings developed in the roots of sterile cultures in the absence of fungus and did not prevent fungal colonization of cortical cells, the phi thickenings in Miltoniopsis do not function as a barrier. Phi thickenings were found to be absent in roots grown on agar and remained absent when plants were transplanted to moist soil. However, phi thickenings were induced when plants were transplanted to well-drained media, and by the application of water stress in all soils tested. It is likely that phi thickenings stabilize the root cortex during dehydration. Nevertheless, the varied induction responses present in different plant species suggest that the phi thickenings may play several adaptive roles, instead of just one, depending on species.

Keywords: Abiotic Stress, orchid, Miltoniopsis, phi thickening

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85 Biological Control of Fusarium Crown and Root and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Growth Promotion Using Endophytic Fungi from Withania somnifera L.

Authors: Mejda Daami-Remadi, Nefzi Ahlem, Aydi Ben Abdallah Rania, Jabnoun-Khiareddine Hayfa, Ammar Nawaim

Abstract:

Fusarium Crown and Root Rot (FCRR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is a serious tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) disease in Tunisia. Its management is very difficult due to the long survival of its resting structures and to the luck of genetic resistance. In this work, we explored the wild Solanaceae species Withania somnifera, growing in the Tunisian Centre-East, as a potential source of biocontrol agents effective in FCRR suppression and tomato growth promotion. Seven fungal isolates were shown able to colonize tomato roots, crowns, and stems. Used as conidial suspensions or cell-free culture filtrates, all tested fungal treatments significantly enhanced tomato growth parameters by 21.5-90.3% over FORL-free control and by 27.6-93.5% over pathogen-inoculated control. All treatments significantly decreased the leaf and root damage index by 28.5-92.8 and the vascular browning extent 9.7-86.4% over FORL-inoculated and untreated control. The highest disease suppression ability (decrease by 86.4-92.8% in FCRR severity) over pathogen-inoculated control and by 81.3-88.8 over hymexazol-treated control) was expressed by I6 based treatments. This endophytic fungus was morphologically characterized and identified using rDNA sequencing gene as Fusarium sp. I6 (MG835371). This fungus was shown able to reduce FORL radial growth by 58.5–83.2% using its conidial suspension or cell-free culture filtrate. Fusarium sp. I6 showed chitinolytic, proteolytic and amylase activities. The current study clearly demonstrated that Fusarium sp. (I6) is a promising biocontrol candidate for suppressing FCRR severity and promoting tomato growth. Further investigations are required for elucidating its mechanism of action involved in disease suppression and plant growth promotion.

Keywords: antifungal activity, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Withania somnifera, tomato growth, associated fungi

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84 A Review on Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Asim Abbasi, Iqra, Hafiza Javaria Ashraf

Abstract:

The share of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in the global burden of infectious diseases is almost 17%. The advent of new drugs and latest research in medical science helped mankind to compete with these lethal diseases but still diseases transmitted by different mosquito species, including filariasis, malaria, viral encephalitis and dengue are serious threats for people living in disease endemic areas. Injudicious and repeated use of pesticides posed selection pressure on mosquitoes leading to development of resistance. Hence biological control agents are under serious consideration of scientific community to be used in vector control programmes. Fish have a history of predating immature stages of different aquatic insects including mosquitoes. The noteworthy examples in Africa and Asia includes, Aphanius discolour and a fish in the Panchax group. Moreover, common mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis predates mostly on temporary water mosquitoes like anopheline as compared to permanent water breeders like culicines. Mosquitoes belonging to genus Toxorhynchites have a worldwide distribution and are mostly associated with the predation of other mosquito larvae habituating with them in natural and artificial water containers. These species are harmless to humans as their adults do not suck human blood but feeds on floral nectar. However, their activity is mostly temperature dependent as Toxorhynchites brevipalpis consume 359 Aedes aegypti larvae at 30-32 ºC in contrast to 154 larvae at 20-26 ºC. Although many bacterial species were isolated from mosquito cadavers but those belonging to genus Bacillus are found highly pathogenic against them. The successful species of this genus include Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus. The prime targets of B. thuringiensis are mostly the immatures of genus Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Psorophora while B. sphaericus is specifically toxic against species of Culex, Psorophora and Culiseta. The entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to family, mermithidae are also pathogenic to different mosquito species. Eighty different species of mosquitoes including Anopheles, Aedes and Culex proved to be highly vulnerable to the attack of two mermithid species, Romanomermis culicivorax and R. iyengari. Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus was the first described pathogenic virus, isolated from the cadavers of mosquito specie, Culex tarsalis. Other viruses which are pathogenic to culicine includes, iridoviruses, cytopolyhedrosis viruses, entomopoxviruses and parvoviruses. Protozoa species belonging to division microsporidia are the common pathogenic protozoans in mosquito populations which kill their host by the chronic effects of parasitism. Moreover, due to their wide prevalence in anopheline mosquitoes and transversal and horizontal transmission from infected to healthy host, microsporidia of the genera Nosema and Amblyospora have received much attention in various mosquito control programmes. Fungal based mycopesticides are used in biological control of insect pests with 47 species reported virulent against different stages of mosquitoes. These include both aquatic fungi i.e. species of Coelomomyces, Lagenidium giganteum and Culicinomyces clavosporus, and the terrestrial fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Hence, it was concluded that the integrated use of all these biological control agents can be a healthy contribution in mosquito control programmes and become a dire need of the time to avoid repeated use of pesticides.

Keywords: protozoa, entomopathogenic nematodes, Toxorhynchites, vector-borne

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83 Characterization of Volatiles Botrytis cinerea in Blueberry Using Solid Phase Micro Extraction, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Ahmed Auda, Manjree Agarwala, Giles Hardya, Yonglin Rena

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Botrytis cinerea is a major pest for many plants. It can attack a wide range of plant parts. It can attack buds, flowers, and leaves, stems, and fruit. However, B. cinerea can be mixed with other diseases that cause the same damage. There are many species of botrytis and more than one different strains of each. Botrytis might infect the foliage of nursery stock stored through winter in damp conditions. There are no known resistant plants. Botrytis must have nutrients or food source before it infests the plant. Nutrients leaking from wounded plant parts or dying tissue like old flower petals give the required nutrients. From this food, the fungus becomes more attackers and invades healthy tissue. Dark to light brown rot forms in the ill tissue. High humidity conditions support the growth of this fungus. However, we suppose that selection pressure can act on the morphological and neurophysiologic filter properties of the receiver and on both the biochemical and the physiological regulation of the signal. Communication is implied when signal and receiver evolves toward more and more specific matching, culminating. In other hand, receivers respond to portions of a body odor bouquet which is released to the environment not as an (intentional) signal but as an unavoidable consequence of metabolic activity or tissue damage. Each year Botrytis species can cause considerable economic losses to plant crops. Even with the application of strict quarantine and control measures, these fungi can still find their way into crops and cause the imposition of onerous restrictions on exports. Blueberry fruit mould caused by a fungal infection usually results in major losses during post-harvest storage. Therefore, the management of infection in early stages of disease development is necessary to minimize losses. The overall purpose of this study will develop sensitive, cheap, quick and robust diagnostic techniques for the detection of B. cinerea in blueberry. The specific aim was designed to investigate the performance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the detection and discrimination of blueberry fruits infected by fungal pathogens with an emphasis on Botrytis in the early storage stage of post-harvest.

Keywords: GC/MS, VOCs, blueberry, botrytis cinerea

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
82 Essential Oils of Polygonum L. Plants Growing in Kazakhstan and Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitry Yu. Korulkin

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Bioactive substances of plant origin can be one of the advanced means of solution to the issue of combined therapy to inflammation. The main advantages of medical plants are softness and width of their therapeutic effect on an organism, the absence of side effects and complications even if the used continuously, high tolerability by patients. Moreover, medial plants are often the only and (or) cost-effective sources of natural biologically active substances and medicines. Along with other biologically active groups of chemical compounds, essential oils with wide range of pharmacological effects became very ingrained in medical practice. Essential oil was obtained by the method hydrodistillation air-dry aerial part of Polygonum L. plants using Clevenger apparatus. Qualitative composition of essential oils was analyzed by chromatography-mass-spectrometry method using Agilent 6890N apparatus. The qualitative analysis is based on the comparison of retention time and full mass-spectra with respective data on components of reference oils and pure compounds, if there were any, and with the data of libraries of mass-spectra Wiley 7th edition and NIST 02. The main components of essential oil are for: Polygonum amphibium L. - γ-terpinene, borneol, piperitol, 1,8-cyneole, α-pinene, linalool, terpinolene and sabinene; Polygonum minus Huds. Fl. Angl. – linalool, terpinolene, camphene, borneol, 1,8-cyneole, α-pinene, 4-terpineol and 1-octen-3-ol; Polygonum alpinum All. – camphene, sabinene, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-carene, p- and o-cymol, γ-terpinene, borneol, -terpineol; Polygonum persicaria L. - α-pinene, sabinene, -terpinene, 4-carene, 1,8-cyneole, borneol, 4-terpineol. Antibacterial activity was researched relating to strains of gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus agalacticae, relating to gram-negative strain Escherichia coli and to yeast fungus Сandida albicans using agar diffusion method. The medicines of comparison were gentamicin for bacteria and nystatin for yeast fungus Сandida albicans. It has been shown that Polygonum L. essential oils has moderate antibacterial effect to gram-positive microorganisms and weak antifungal activity to Candida albicans yeast fungus. At the second stage of our researches wound healing properties of ointment form of 3% essential oil was researched on the model of flat dermal wounds. To assess the influence of essential oil on healing processes the model of flat dermal wound. The speed of wound healing on rats of different groups was judged based on assessment the area of a wound from time to time. During research of wound healing properties disturbance of integral in neither group: general condition and behavior of animals, food intake, and excretion. Wound healing action of 3% ointment on base of Polygonum L. essential oil and polyethyleneglycol is comparable with the action of reference substances. As more favorable healing dynamics was observed in the experimental group than in control group, the tested ointment can be deemed more promising for further detailed study as wound healing means.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Isolation, essential oils, Antifungal, Bioactive Substances, Polygonum L

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81 Chemical Control Management Strategies for Corm Rot in Gladiolus communis L. under Field Conditions

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Shahbaz Ahmad, Sahar Naz

Abstract:

Corm rot is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli and it causes remarkable losses to the growers. Experiment was conducted in order to find some viable recommendations for this agronomically as well as economically important problem. Four fungicides, namely Carbendazim, Mancozeb, Thiophanate methyl and Chlorothalonil were used to control corm rot in gladiolus field. Fungicides were applied singly as foliar, in irrigation as well as with sulphuric acid in variable doses. The results revealed that application of all fungicides was variably effective to control corm rot in acid mixed irrigation followed by fungicide in irrigation. The application of all fungicides in various combinations was observed to be ineffective at all three doses.

Keywords: Fungicides, gladiolus, corm rot, Fusarium oxysporum

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
80 Isolation and Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria against Wheat Pathogenic Fungus Tilletia indica

Authors: Shanthy Sundaram, Sugandha Asthana, Geetika Vajpayee, Pratibha Kumari

Abstract:

An economically important disease of wheat in North Western region of India is Karnal Bunt caused by smut fungus Tilletia indica. This fungal pathogen spreads by air, soil and seed borne sporodia at the time of flowering, which ultimately leads to partial bunting of wheat kernels with fishy odor and taste to wheat flour. It has very serious effects due to quarantine measures which have to be applied for grain exports. Chemical fungicides such as mercurial compounds and Propiconazole applied to the control of Karnal bunt have been only partially successful. Considering the harmful effects of chemical fungicides on man as well as environment, many countries are developing biological control as the superior substitute to chemical control. Repeated use of fungicides can be responsible for the development of resistance in fungal pathogens against certain chemical compounds. The present investigation is based on the isolation and evaluation of antifungal properties of some isolated (from natural manure) and commercial bacterial strains against Tilletia indica. Total 23 bacterial isolates were obtained and antagonistic activity of all isolates and commercial bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis MTCC8601, Bacillus pumilus MTCC 8743, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were tested against T. indica by dual culture plate assay (pour plate and streak plate). Test for the production of antifungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by antagonistic bacteria was done by sealed plate method. Amongst all s1, s3, s5, and B. subtilis showed more than 80% inhibition. Production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such as protease, beta 1, 4 glucanase, HCN and ammonia was studied for confirmation of antifungal activity. s1, s3, s5 and B. subtilis were found to be the best for protease activity and s5 and B. subtilis for beta 1, 4 glucanase activity. Bacillus subtilis was significantly effective for HCN whereas s3, s5 and Bacillus subtilis for ammonia production. Isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (s1) and B. licheniformis (s3, s5) by various biochemical assays and confirmed by16s rRNA sequencing. Use of microorganisms or their secretions as biocontrol agents to avoid plant diseases is ecologically safe and may offer long term of protection to crop. The above study reports the promising effects of these strains in better pathogen free crop production and quality maintenance as well as prevention of the excessive use of synthetic fungicides.

Keywords: Biocontrol, Antifungal, antagonistic, Karnal bunt

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
79 Bioprophylaxis of Saprolegniasis in Incubated Clarias Gariepinus Eggs Using Pyocyanin Extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: G. A. Oladosu1, P. O. Ogbodogbo, C. I. Makinde1, M. O. Tijani, O. A. Adegboyega

Abstract:

Saprolegniasis is a major pathogenic infection that contributes significantly to poor hatching rates in incubated fish eggs in the Africa catfish hatchery in Nigeria. Malachite green known to be very effective against this condition has been banned because it is carcinogenic. There is, therefore, the need for other effective yet safer methods of controlling saprolegniasis in incubated fish eggs. A total of 50 ml crude, chloroform extract of pyocyanin from which solvent was removed to attain 30 ml, having a concentration of 12.16 ug/ml was produced from 700 ml broth culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a previous study. In-vitro susceptibility of the fungus was investigated by exposing fungal infected eggs to two different time-concentration ratios of pyocyanin; 0.275 ug/ml and 2.75 ug/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and 5 mg/L malachite green as positive control while normal saline was the control. The efficacy of pyocyanin was evaluated using the degree of mycelial growth inhibition in different treatments. Fertilized Clarias gariepinus eggs (between 45 to 64 eggs) were then incubated in 20 ml of medium containing similar concentrations of pyocyanin and malachite green, with freshwater as a control for 24 hours. Hatching rates of the incubated eggs were observed. Three samples of un-hatched eggs were taken from each medium and observed for the presence of fungal pathogens using microscopy. Another batch of three samples of un-hatched eggs from each treatment was also inoculated on Sabourand dextrose agar (SDA) using Egg-Agar Transfer Technique to observe for fungal growth. Mycelial growth was inhibited in fungal infected eggs treated with 2.75 ug/ml for 24 hrs and the 5 mg/L malachite green for both 1 hr and 24 hrs. The mortality rate was 100% in fertilized C. gariepinus eggs exposed for 24 hrs to 0.275 and 2.75 ug/ml of pyocyanin. The mortality rate was least in malachite green followed by the control treatment. Embryonic development was observed to be arrested in the eggs treated with the two pyocyanin concentrations as they maintain their colour but showed no development beyond the gastrula stage, whereas viable eggs in the control and malachite green treatments developed fully into healthy hatchlings. Furthermore, microscopy of the un-hatched eggs revealed the presence of a protozoan ciliate; Colpidium sp, (Tetrahymenidae), as well as a pathogenic fungus; Saprolegnia sp. in the control but not in the malachite green and pyocyanin treatments. Growth of Saprolegnia sp was also observed in SDA culture of un-hatched eggs from the control, but not from pyocyanin and malachite green treated eggs. Pyocyanin treatment of incubated eggs of Clarias gariepinus effectively prevented fungal infection in the eggs, but also arrested the development of the embryo. Therefore, crude chloroform extract of pyocyanin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used in the control of Saprolegniasis in incubated Clarias gariepinus eggs at the concentration and duration tested in this study.

Keywords: african catfish, Saprolegniasis, bioprophylaxis, catfish embryo

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78 Interactions between Water-Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Leaf-Water Potential in Tomato

Authors: Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie, Shahram Baghban Ciruse

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The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus(Glomus mossea) on plant growth and leaf-water potential of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum L.cv.super star) were studied in potted culture water stress stress period of 3 months in greenhouse conditions with the soil matric potential maintained at Fc1, Fc2, Fc3, and Fc4 respectively (0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5 Fc). Seven-day-old seedlings of tomato were transferred to pots containing Glomus mossea or non-AMF. AM colonization significantly stimulated shoot dry matter and leaf-water potential but water stress significantly decreased leaf area, shoot dry matter colonization and leaf-water potential.

Keywords: Plant Growth, tomato, leaf-water potential, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
77 Antifungal Activity of Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles against Phytopathogenic Fungus (Phomopsis sp.) in Soybean Seeds

Authors: J. E. Mendes, J. A. Teixeira, E. R. de Camargo, C. P. de Souza, J. D. C. Pessoa, L. Abrunhosa

Abstract:

Among the many promising nanomaterials with antifungal properties, metal nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles) stand out due to their high chemical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Phomopsis sp. AgNPs were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. The synthesized AgNPs have further been characterized by UV/Visible spectroscopy, Biophysical techniques like Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the prepared silver colloidal nanoparticles was about 52 nm. Absolute inhibitions (100%) were observed on treated with a 270 and 540 µg ml-1 concentration of AgNPs. The results from the study of the AgNPs antifungal effect are significant and suggest that the synthesized silver nanoparticles may have an advantage compared with conventional fungicides.

Keywords: Seeds, soybean, Silver Nanoparticles, antifungal activity, Phomopsis sp

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76 Medium Composition for the Laboratory Production of Enzyme Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Authors: O. R. Raimi, A. Lateef

Abstract:

Inoculum developments of A. niger were used for inoculation of medium for submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation. The filtrate obtained were used as sources of the extra-cellular enzymes. The FTase activities and the course of pH in submerged fermentation ranged from 7.53-24.42µ/ml and 4.4-4.8 respectively. The maximum FTase activity was obtained at 48 hours fermentation. In solid state fermentation, FTase activities ranged from 2.41-27.77µ/ml. Using ripe plantain peel and kola nut pod respectively. Both substrates supported the growth of the fungus, producing profuse growth during fermentation. In the control experiment (using kolanut pod) that lack supplementation, appreciable FTase activity of 16.92µ/ml was obtained. The optimum temperature range was 600C. it was also active at broad pH range of 1-9 with optimum obtain at pH of 5.0. FTase was stable within the range of investigated pH showing more than 60% activities. FTase can be used in the production of fructooligosaccharide, a functional food.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, solid state fermentation, kola nut pods, Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Procedia PDF Downloads 294