Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6243

Search results for: energy

6153 Role of Renewable Energy in Foreign Policy of China

Authors: Alina Gilmanova

Abstract:

China’s dependency on coal for energy is causing pollution in China and abroad. To supply the increasing energy demand and being under the pressure from international society to reduce the emissions, China was pushed to develop renewable energy. The increasing subsidies in Renewable energy sources (RES) led not only to the price-cutting but also affecting the international trade in green technology sector. In order to evaluate the role of RES in foreign policy of China, I am going to give an (i) overview of RES development in China and examine the cooperation between China and (ii) developed, (ii) developing and emerging countries. The conclusive remarks are intended to address the question of how the present Chinese renewable energy development is impacting its foreign policy and international society.

Keywords: renewable energy, China, foreign affairs, brics, cooperation

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
6152 Conceptual Design of Low Energy Consumption House in Khartoum, Sudan

Authors: Sawsan M. H. Domi

Abstract:

Approximately 50% of the energy used in buildings, including houses, provide environmental comfortable levels of thermal living. In Khartoum - the city under study- cooling uses the largest portion of energy and the basic idea of Low energy houses is to minimize energy consumption. Therefore, houses are designed to use natural climate strategies to provide thermal comfort. Strategies such as semi-open spaces, shading devices, small high windows and thick walls. The study aims to review these strategies and then, apply them. It aims to change house microclimate by using vegetation, green areas, and other components. A low energy house is being designed s. It will be the first low energy house in Khartoum designed to create a low-cost energy efficient building without any mechanical systems. Three different types of houses in Khartoum are examined and evaluated according to their energy loads which provides the basis for the designed house. The designed house uses passive design strategies to reduce the need for cooling. These results show that the house reduced energy cooling loads by more than 60% compared to the average of the three given types. The design house is economically viable when taking into consideration the energy prices in Sudan.

Keywords: building envelope, climate, energy loads, ventilation

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6151 The Linkage of Urban and Energy Planning for Sustainable Cities: The Case of Denmark and Germany

Authors: Jens-Phillip Petersen

Abstract:

The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies in Europe, because buildings are responsible for a major share of the final energy consumption. It is at local scale where policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures get implemented. Municipalities, as local authorities and responsible entity for land-use planning, have a direct influence on urban patterns and energy use, which makes them key actors in the transition towards sustainable cities. Hence, synchronizing urban planning with energy planning offers great potential to increase society’s energy-efficiency; this has a high significance to reach GHG-reduction targets. In this paper, the actual linkage of urban planning and energy planning in Denmark and Germany was assessed; substantive barriers preventing their integration and driving factors that lead to successful transitions towards a holistic urban energy planning procedures were identified.

Keywords: energy planning, urban planning, renewable energies, sustainable cities

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6150 Sustainable Energy Supply in Social Housing

Authors: Rolf Katzenbach, Frithjof Clauss, Jie Zheng

Abstract:

The final energy use can be divided mainly in four sectors: commercial, industrial, residential, and transportation. The trend in final energy consumption by sector plays as a most straightforward way to provide a wide indication of progress for reducing energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by different end use sectors. According to statistics the average share of end use energy for residential sector in the world was nearly 20% until 2011, in Germany a higher proportion is between 25% and 30%. However, it remains less studied than energy use in other three sectors as well its impacts on climate and environment. The reason for this involves a wide range of fields, including the diversity of residential construction like different housing building design and materials, living or energy using behavioral patterns, climatic condition and variation as well other social obstacles, market trend potential and financial support from government. This paper presents an extensive and in-depth analysis of the manner by which projects researched and operated by authors in the fields of energy efficiency primarily from the perspectives of both technical potential and initiative energy saving consciousness in the residential sectors especially in social housing buildings.

Keywords: energy efficiency, renewable energy, retro-commissioning, social housing, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
6149 Dynamic Modeling of Energy Systems Adapted to Low Energy Buildings in Lebanon

Authors: Nadine Yehya, Chantal Maatouk

Abstract:

Low energy buildings have been developed to achieve global climate commitments in reducing energy consumption. They comprise energy efficient buildings, zero energy buildings, positive buildings and passive house buildings. The reduced energy demands in Low Energy buildings call for advanced building energy modeling that focuses on studying active building systems such as heating, cooling and ventilation, improvement of systems performances, and development of control systems. Modeling and building simulation have expanded to cover different modeling approach i.e.: detailed physical model, dynamic empirical models, and hybrid approaches, which are adopted by various simulation tools. This paper uses DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus simulation engine in order to; First, study the impact of efficiency measures on building energy behavior by comparing Low energy residential model to a conventional one in Beirut-Lebanon. Second, choose the appropriate energy systems for the studied case characterized by an important cooling demand. Third, study dynamic modeling of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) system in EnergyPlus that is chosen due to its advantages over other systems and its availability in the Lebanese market. Finally, simulation of different energy systems models with different modeling approaches is necessary to confront the different modeling approaches and to investigate the interaction between energy systems and building envelope that affects the total energy consumption of Low Energy buildings.

Keywords: physical model, variable refrigerant flow heat pump, dynamic modeling, EnergyPlus, the modeling approach

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6148 Energy Unchained: An Analysis of Affordances of the Blockchain Technology in the Energy Sector

Authors: Jonas Kahlert

Abstract:

Blockchain technology has gained importance and momentum in the energy sector. Yet, there is no structured analysis of how specific features of the blockchain technology can create value in the energy sector. We employ a qualitative analysis on insights gained from the current literature and expert interviews. Along the four most prevalent use cases of blockchain technology in the energy sector, we discuss the potential of blockchain technology to support a transition to a more affordable, sustainable and reliable energy system. We show that in its current state, blockchain and adjacent technologies are not a necessity but a sufficiency towards this transition. We also show how current limitations of the blockchain and adjacent technologies can be even counterproductive. Finally, we discuss implications for policy makers and managers.

Keywords: blockchain technology, affordance theory, energy trilemma, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
6147 Energy Budget Equation of Superfluid HVBK Model: LES Simulation

Authors: M. Bakhtaoui, L. Merahi

Abstract:

The reliability of the filtered HVBK model is now investigated via some large eddy simulations of freely decaying isotropic superfluid turbulence. For homogeneous turbulence at very high Reynolds numbers, comparison of the terms in the spectral kinetic energy budget equation indicates, in the energy-containing range, that the production and energy transfer effects become significant except for dissipation. In the inertial range, where the two fluids are perfectly locked, the mutual friction maybe neglected with respect to other terms. Also the LES results for the other terms of the energy balance are presented.

Keywords: superfluid turbulence, HVBK, energy budget, Large Eddy Simulation

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6146 Net Zero Energy Schools: The Starting Block for the Canadian Energy Neutral K-12 Schools

Authors: Hamed Hakim, Roderic Archambault, Charles J. Kibert, Maryam Mirhadi Fard

Abstract:

Changes in the patterns of life in the late 20th and early 21st century have created new challenges for educational systems. Greening the physical environment of school buildings has emerged as a response to some of those challenges and led to the design of energy efficient K-12 school buildings. With the advancement in knowledge and technology, the successful construction of Net Zero Energy Schools, such as the Lady Bird Johnson Middle School demonstrates a cutting edge generation of sustainable schools, and solves the former challenge of attaining energy self-sufficient educational facilities. There are approximately twenty net zero energy K-12 schools in the U.S. of which about six are located in Climate Zone 5 and 6 based on ASHRAE climate zone classification. This paper aims to describe and analyze the current status of energy efficient and NZE schools in Canada. An attempt is made to study existing U.S. energy neutral strategies closest to the climate zones in Canada (zones 5 and 6) and identify the best practices for Canadian schools.

Keywords: Canada K-12 schools, green school, energy efficient, net-zero energy schools

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6145 Energy Strategy and Economic Growth of Russia

Authors: Young Sik Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This article considers the problems of economic growth and Russian energy strategy. Also in this paper, the issues related to the economic growth prospects of Russian were discussed. Russian energy strategy without standing Russia`s stature in global energy markets, at the current production and extraction rates, will not be able to sustain its own production as well as fulfil its energy strategy. Indeed, Russia’s energy sector suffers from a chronic lack of investments which are necessary to modernize its energy supply system. In recent years, especially since the international financial crisis, Russia-EU energy cooperation has made substantive progress. Recently the break-through progress has been made, resulting mainly from long-term contributing factors between the countries and recent international economic and political situation changes. Analytical material presented in the article is intended for a more detailed or substantive analysis related to foreign economic relations of the countries and Russia as well.

Keywords: Russia, energy strategy, economic growth, cooperation

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6144 Energy Recovery from Swell with a Height Inferior to 1.5 m

Authors: A. Errasti, F. Doffagne, O. Foucrier, S. Kao, A. Meigne, H. Pellae, T. Rouland

Abstract:

Renewable energy recovery is an important domain of research in past few years in view of protection of our ecosystem. Several industrial companies are setting up widespread recovery systems to exploit wave energy. Most of them have a large size, are implanted near the shores and exploit current flows. However, as oceans represent 70% of Earth surface, a huge space is still unexploited to produce energy. Present analysis focuses on surface small scale wave energy recovery. The principle is exactly the opposite of wheel damper for a car on a road. Instead of maintaining the car body as non-oscillatory as possible by adapted control, a system is designed so that its oscillation amplitude under wave action will be maximized with respect to a boat carrying it in view of differential potential energy recuperation. From parametric analysis of system equations, interesting domains have been selected and expected energy output has been evaluated.

Keywords: small scale wave, potential energy, optimized energy recovery, auto-adaptive system

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6143 Energy Saving and Performance Evaluation of an Air Handling Unit Integrated with a Membrane Energy Exchanger for Cold Climates

Authors: Peng Liu, Maria Justo Alonso, Hans Martin Mathisen

Abstract:

A theoretical model is developed to evaluate the performance and energy saving potential of an air handling unit integrated with a membrane energy exchanger in cold climates. The recovered sensible and latent heat, fan preheating use for frost prevention and heating energy consumed by heating coil after the ventilator is compared for the air handling unit combined heat and energy exchanger respectively. A concept of coefficient of performance of air handling unit is presented and applied to assess the energy use of air handling unit (AHU) in cold climates. The analytic results indicate downsizing of the preheating coil before exchanger and heating coils after exchanger are expected since the required power to preheat and condition the air is reduced compared to heat exchanger when the MEE is integrated with AHU. Simultaneously, a superior ratio of energy recovered (RER) is obtained from AHU build-in a counter-flow MEE. The AHU with sensible-only heat exchanger has noticeably low RER, around 1 at low outdoor air temperature where the maximum energy rate is desired to condition the severe cold and dry air.

Keywords: membrane energy exchanger, cold climate, energy efficient building, HVAC

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
6142 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of the Economical, Ecological and Self-Consumption Impact of the Energy Production of a Single Building

Authors: Ludovic Favre, Thibaut M. Schafer, Jean-Luc Robyr, Elena-Lavinia Niederhäuser

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimization method based on genetic algorithm for the energy management inside buildings developed in the frame of the project Smart Living Lab (SLL) in Fribourg (Switzerland). This algorithm optimizes the interaction between renewable energy production, storage systems and energy consumers. In comparison with standard algorithms, the innovative aspect of this project is the extension of the smart regulation over three simultaneous criteria: the energy self-consumption, the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and operating costs. The genetic algorithm approach was chosen due to the large quantity of optimization variables and the non-linearity of the optimization function. The optimization process includes also real time data of the building as well as weather forecast and users habits. This information is used by a physical model of the building energy resources to predict the future energy production and needs, to select the best energetic strategy, to combine production or storage of energy in order to guarantee the demand of electrical and thermal energy. The principle of operation of the algorithm as well as typical output example of the algorithm is presented.

Keywords: building's energy, control system, energy management, energy storage, genetic optimization algorithm, greenhouse gases, modelling, renewable energy

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6141 A Case Study on Smart Energy City of the UK: Based on Business Model Innovation

Authors: Minzheong Song

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to see a case of smart energy evolution of the UK along with government projects and smart city project like 'Smart London Plan (SLP)' in 2013 with the logic of business model innovation (BMI). For this, it discusses the theoretical logic and formulates a research framework of evolving smart energy from silo to integrated system. The starting point is the silo system with no connection and in second stage, the private investment in smart meters, smart grids implementation, energy and water nexus, adaptive smart grid systems, and building marketplaces with platform leadership. As results, the UK’s smart energy sector has evolved from smart meter device installation through smart grid to new business models such as water-energy nexus and microgrid service within the smart energy city system.

Keywords: smart city, smart energy, business model, business model innovation (BMI)

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6140 Contribution to Energy Management in Hybrid Energy Systems Based on Agents Coordination

Authors: Djamel Saba, Fatima Zohra Laallam, Brahim Berbaoui

Abstract:

This paper presents a contribution to the design of a multi-agent for the energy management system in a hybrid energy system (SEH). The multi-agent-based energy-coordination management system (MA-ECMS) is based mainly on coordination between agents. The agents share the tasks and exchange information through communications protocols to achieve the main goal. This intelligent system can fully manage the consumption and production or simply to make proposals for action he thinks is best. The initial step is to give a presentation for the system that we want to model in order to understand all the details as much as possible. In our case, it is to implement a system for simulating a process control of energy management.

Keywords: communications protocols, control process, energy management, hybrid energy system, modelization, multi-agents system, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
6139 The Relationship between Value-Added and Energy Consumption in Iran’s Industry Sector

Authors: Morteza Raei Dehaghi, Mojtaba Molaahmadi, Seyed Mohammad Mirhashemi

Abstract:

This study aimed to explore the relationship between energy consumption and value-added in Iran’s industry sector during the time period 1973-2011. Annual data related to energy consumption and value added in the industry sector were used. The results of the study revealed a positive relationship between energy consumption and value-added of the industry sector. Similarly, the results showed that there is one-way causality between energy consumption and value-added in the industry sector.

Keywords: economic growth, energy consumption, granger causality test, industry sector

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6138 Potentiality of the Wind Energy in Algeria

Authors: C. Benoudjafer, M. N. Tandjaoui, C. Benachaiba

Abstract:

The use of kinetic energy of the wind is in full rise in the world and it starts to be known in our country but timidly. One or more aero generators can be installed to produce for example electricity on isolated places or not connected to the electrical supply network. To use the wind as energy source, it is necessary to know first the energy needs for the population and study the wind intensity, speed, frequency and direction.

Keywords: Algeria, renewable energies, wind, wind power, aero-generators, wind energetic potential

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6137 Development of a Suitable Model for Energy Storage in Residential Buildings in Ahvaz Using Energy Plus Software

Authors: Farideh Azimi, Sam Vahedi Tafreshi

Abstract:

This research tries to study the residential buildings in Ahvaz, the common materials used, and the impact of passive methods of energy storage (as one of the most effective ways to reduce energy consumption in residential complexes) in order to achieve patterns for construction of residential buildings in Ahvaz conditions to reduce energy consumption. In this research, after studying Ahvaz conditions, the components of an existing building were simulated in Energy Plus software, and the climatic data of Ahvaz station was introduced to software. Then to achieve the most optimal conditions of energy consumption in Ahvaz conditions, each of the residential building elements was optimized. The results of simulation showed that using inactive materials and design including double glass, outside wall insulation, inverted roof, etc. in the buildings can reduce energy consumption in the hot and dry climate of Ahvaz. Among the parameters investigated, the inverted roof was the most effective energy saving pattern. According to the results of simulation of the entire building with the most optimal parameters, energy consumption can be saved by a mean of 12.51% in buildings of Ahvaz, and the obtained pattern can also be used in similar climates.

Keywords: residential buildings, thermal comfort, energy storage, Energy Plus software, Ahvaz

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6136 A Comparative Study of Global Power Grids and Global Fossil Energy Pipelines Using GIS Technology

Authors: Wenhao Wang, Xinzhi Xu, Limin Feng, Wei Cong

Abstract:

This paper comprehensively investigates current development status of global power grids and fossil energy pipelines (oil and natural gas), proposes a standard visual platform of global power and fossil energy based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. In this visual platform, a series of systematic visual models is proposed with global spatial data, systematic energy and power parameters. Under this visual platform, the current Global Power Grids Map and Global Fossil Energy Pipelines Map are plotted within more than 140 countries and regions across the world. Using the multi-scale fusion data processing and modeling methods, the world’s global fossil energy pipelines and power grids information system basic database is established, which provides important data supporting global fossil energy and electricity research. Finally, through the systematic and comparative study of global fossil energy pipelines and global power grids, the general status of global fossil energy and electricity development are reviewed, and energy transition in key areas are evaluated and analyzed. Through the comparison analysis of fossil energy and clean energy, the direction of relevant research is pointed out for clean development and energy transition.

Keywords: energy transition, geographic information system, fossil energy, power systems

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6135 Biomass Energy: "The Boon for the Would"

Authors: Shubham Giri Goswami, Yogesh Tiwari

Abstract:

In today’s developing world, India and other countries are developing different instruments and accessories for the better standard and life to be happy and prosper. But rather than this we human-beings have been using different energy sources accordingly, many persons such as scientist, researchers etc have developed many Energy sources like renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Like fossil fuel, coal, gas, petroleum products as non-renewable sources, and solar, wind energy as renewable energy source. Thus all non-renewable energy sources, these all Created pollution as in form of air, water etc. due to ultimate use of these sources by human the future became uncertain. Thus to minimize all this environmental affects and destroy the healthy environment we discovered a solution as renewable energy source. Renewable energy source in form of biomass energy, solar, wind etc. We found different techniques in biomass energy, that good energy source for people. The domestic waste, and is a good source of energy as daily extract from cow in form of dung and many other domestic products naturally can be used eco-friendly fertilizers. Moreover, as from my point of view the cow is able to extract 08-12 kg of dung which can be used to make wormy compost fertilizers. Furthermore, the calf urine as insecticides and use of such a compounds will lead to destroy insects and thus decrease communicable diseases. Therefore, can be used by every person and biomass energy can be in those areas such as rural areas where non-renewable energy sources cannot reach easily. Biomass can be used to develop fertilizers, cow-dung plants and other power generation techniques, and this energy is clean and pollution free and is available everywhere thus saves our beautiful planet or blue or life giving planet called as “EARTH”. We can use the biomass energy, which may be boon for the world in future.

Keywords: biomass, energy, environment, human, pollution, renewable, solar energy, sources, wind

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
6134 Effects of Age and Energy Expenditure on Obesity Among Adults in Abeokuta, Nigeria

Authors: Adeniyi Samuel Adekoya

Abstract:

The study assessed the independent effects of age and energy expenditure on the risks of obesity among adults (20-64 years). A cross-sectional study with changes in age, changes in work and leisure-time, and physical activities information played roles, with cut-off for energy expenditure and BMI in rural and urban localities. Physical activity information determined the energy expenditure, while the BMI determined the risk of obesity among the subjects. Statistically, age has a strong and direct association with obesity in both rural and urban settings, while energy expenditure was inverse in its association. Findings from the this study showed that in developing societies, age tends to be a risk factor for obesity, whereas energy expenditure is to be protective. Level of education and economic development are also relevant modifiers of the influences exerted by these variables.

Keywords: age, energy expenditure, BMI, rural/urban

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
6133 Evaluation of Energy Upgrade Measures and Connection of Renewable Energy Sources Using Software Tools: Case Study of an Academic Library Building in Larissa, Greece

Authors: Giwrgos S. Gkarmpounis, Aikaterini G. Rokkou, Marios N. Moschakis

Abstract:

Increased energy consumption in the academic buildings, creates the need to implement energy saving measures and to take advantage of the renewable energy sources to cover the electrical needs of those buildings. An Academic Library will be used as a case study. With the aid of RETScreen software that takes into account the energy consumptions and characteristics of the Library Building, it is proved that measures such as the replacement of fluorescent lights with led lights, the installation of outdoor shading, the replacement of the openings and Building Management System installation, provide a high level of energy savings. Moreover, given the available space of the building and the climatic data, the installation of a photovoltaic system of 100 kW can also cover a serious amount of the building energy consumption, unlike a wind system that seems uncompromising. Lastly, HOMER software is used to compare the use of a photovoltaic system against a wind system in order to verify the results that came up from the RETScreen software concerning the renewable energy sources.

Keywords: building sector, energy saving measures, energy upgrading, homer software, renewable energy sources, RETScreen software

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6132 Summary of Technical Approaches to Improve Energy Efficiency in Electric Motor Drive Systems

Authors: Manuel Valencia Alejaandro Paz, Luz Nidia Quintero Jairo Palacios

Abstract:

In present paper a set of technical approaches to improve the energy efficiency in processes controlled by electric motor drive systems EMDS are listed and analyzed. Energy saving becomes fundamental to improve the sustainability and competitiveness of organizations all around the world; increasing costs of electricity had impulse the use of different strategies to reduce the electric power condition. A summary of these techniques is presented and evaluated in the potential for energy saving policies.

Keywords: energy saving, EMDS, induction motor, energy efficiency, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
6131 Evaluation of an Air Energy Recovery System in Greenhouse Fed by an Axial Air Extractor

Authors: Eugueni Romantchik, Gilbero Lopez, Diego Terrazas

Abstract:

The residual wind energy recovery from axial air extractors in greenhouses represents a constant source of clean energy production, which reduces production costs by reducing energy consumption costs. The objective of this work is to design, build and evaluate a residual wind energy recovery system. This system consists of a wind turbine placed at an optimal distance, a cone in the air discharge and a mechanism to vary the blades angle of the wind turbine. The system energy balance was analyzed, measuring the main energy parameters such as voltage, amperage, air velocities and angular speeds of the rotors. Tests were carried in a greenhouse with extractor Multifan 130 (1.2 kW, 550 rpm and 1.3 m of diameter) without cone and with cone, with the wind turbine (3 blades with 1.2 m in diameter). The implementation of the system allowed recovering up to 55% of the motor's energy. With the cone installed, the electric energy recovered was increased by 10%. Experimentally, it was shown that changing in 3 degrees the original angle of the wind turbine blades, the angular velocity increases 17.7%.

Keywords: air energy, exhaust fan, greenhouse, wind turbine

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6130 Disaggregating and Forecasting the Total Energy Consumption of a Building: A Case Study of a High Cooling Demand Facility

Authors: Juliana Barcelos Cordeiro, Khashayar Mahani, Farbod Farzan, Mohsen A. Jafari

Abstract:

Energy disaggregation has been focused by many energy companies since energy efficiency can be achieved when the breakdown of energy consumption is known. Companies have been investing in technologies to come up with software and/or hardware solutions that can provide this type of information to the consumer. On the other hand, not all people can afford to have these technologies. Therefore, in this paper, we present a methodology for breaking down the aggregate consumption and identifying the highdemanding end-uses profiles. These energy profiles will be used to build the forecast model for optimal control purpose. A facility with high cooling load is used as an illustrative case study to demonstrate the results of proposed methodology. We apply a high level energy disaggregation through a pattern recognition approach in order to extract the consumption profile of its rooftop packaged units (RTUs) and present a forecast model for the energy consumption.  

Keywords: energy consumption forecasting, energy efficiency, load disaggregation, pattern recognition approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
6129 The Effect of Window Position and Ceiling Height on Cooling Load in Architectural Studio

Authors: Seyedehzahra Mirrahimi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of variations in window and ceiling heights on cooling inside an architectural training studio with a full-width window. For architectural training, students use the studio more often than they use ordinary classrooms. Therefore, studio dimensions and size, and the window position, directly influence the cooling load. Energy for cooling is one of the most expensive costs in the studio because of the high activity levels of students during the warm season. The methodology of analysis involves measuring energy changes in the Energy Plus software in Kish Island. It was proved that the cooling energy in an architecture studio can be increased by changing window levels and ceiling heights to add a range of cooling energy.

Keywords: cooling energy, Energy Plus, studio classroom, window position

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6128 Survey on Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Swapnil Singh, Sanjoy Das

Abstract:

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is infrastructure less networks dynamically formed by autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Mobile nodes communicate with each other on the fly. In this network each node also acts as a router. The battery power and the bandwidth are very scarce resources in this network. The network lifetime and connectivity of nodes depends on battery power. Therefore, energy is a valuable constraint which should be efficiently used. In this paper, we survey various energy efficient routing protocol. The energy efficient routing protocols are classified on the basis of approaches they use to minimize the energy consumption. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research work and combine the existing solution and to develop a more energy efficient routing mechanism.

Keywords: delaunay triangulation, deployment, energy efficiency, MANET

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6127 A Review of Energy in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Authors: Kanzumba Kusakana

Abstract:

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is currently experiencing a general energy crisis due to lack of proper investment and management in the energy sector. 93, 6% of the country is highly dependent on wood fuels as main source of energy having severe impacts such as deforestation and general degradation of the environment. On the other hand, the major share of the electricity produced mainly from ill-conditioned hydro and thermal power stations is principally used to supply the industrial sector as well as very few urban areas. Nevertheless, DRC possesses huge potential in renewable resources such as hydropower, biomass, methane gas, solar geothermal and moderate wind potential that can be used for energy generation. Recently the country has initiated projects to build decentralized micro hydropower station to supply remotes and isolated areas; to rehabilitate its existent main hydropower plants and transmission lines as well as to extend its current generation capacity by building new hydropower stations able to respond to a major part of the African continent energy needs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of current energy resources as well as of the electricity situation in DRC. Recent energy projects, the energy policy as well as the energy challenges in the DRC are also presented.

Keywords: energy, biomass, hydro power, renewable energy, energy policy, Democratic Republic of Congo

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6126 Sectoral Energy Consumption in South Africa and Its Implication for Economic Growth

Authors: Kehinde Damilola Ilesanmi, Dev Datt Tewari

Abstract:

South Africa is in its post-industrial era moving from the primary and secondary sector to the tertiary sector. The study investigated the impact of the disaggregated energy consumption (coal, oil, and electricity) on the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy between 1980 and 2012 in South Africa. Using vector error correction model, it was established that South Africa is an energy dependent economy, and that energy (especially electricity and oil) is a limiting factor of growth. This implies that implementation of energy conservation policies may hamper economic growth. Output growth is significantly outpacing energy supply, which has necessitated load shedding. To meet up the excess energy demand, there is a need to increase the generating capacity which will necessitate increased investment in the electricity sector as well as strategic steps to increase oil production. There is also need to explore more renewable energy sources, in order to meet the growing energy demand without compromising growth and environmental sustainability. Policy makers should also pursue energy efficiency policies especially at sectoral level of the economy.

Keywords: causality, economic growth, energy consumption, hypothesis, sectoral output

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
6125 Developing a Simulation-Based Optimization Framework to Perform Energy Simulation for Indian Buildings

Authors: Sujoy Anirudha Das, Albert Thomas

Abstract:

Building sector is a major consumer of energy globally, and it has corresponding effects to the environment with respect to the carbon emissions. Given the fact that India is expected to add 40-billion square meter of new buildings till 2050, we need frameworks that help in reducing the overall energy consumption in the building sector. Even though several simulation-based frameworks that help in analyzing the building energy consumption are developed globally, in the Indian context, to the best of our knowledge, there is a lack of a comprehensive, yet user-friendly framework to simulate and optimize the effects of various energy influencing factors, specifically for Indian buildings. Therefore, this study is aimed at developing a simulation-based optimization framework to model the energy interactions in different types of Indian buildings by considering the dynamic nature of various energy influencing factors. This comprehensive framework can be used by various building stakeholders to test the energy effects of different factors such as, but not limited to, the various building materials, the orientation, the weather fluctuations, occupancy changes and the type of the building (e.g., office, residential). The results from the case study involving several building types would help us in gaining insights to build new energy-efficient buildings as well as retrofit the existing structures in a more convenient way to consume less energy, exclusively for an Indian scenario.

Keywords: building energy consumption, building energy simulations, energy efficient buildings, optimization framework

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6124 The Introduction of the Revolution Einstein’s Relative Energy Equations in Even 2n and Odd 3n Light Dimension Energy States Systems

Authors: Jiradeach Kalayaruan, Tosawat Seetawan

Abstract:

This paper studied the energy of the nature systems by looking at the overall image throughout the universe. The energy of the nature systems was developed from the Einstein’s energy equation. The researcher used the new ideas called even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, which were developed from Einstein’s relativity energy theory equation. In this study, the major methodology the researchers used was the basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, or Tao in order to get new discoveries. The basic beliefs of each religion - Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao respectively, were great influential ideas on the researchers to use them greatly in the study to form new ideas from philosophy. Since the philosophy of each religion was alive with deep insight of the physical nature relative energy, it connected the basic beliefs to light dimension energy states systems. Unfortunately, Einstein’s original relative energy equation showed only even 2n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). But in advance ideas, the researchers multiplied light dimension energy by Einstein’s original relative energy equation and get new idea of theoritical physics in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). Because from basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions philosophy of each religion, you had to add the media light dimension energy into Einstein’s original relative energy equation. Consequently, the simple meaning picture in deep insight showed that you could touch light dimension energy of Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao by light dimension energy. Since light dimension energy was transferred by Nivara, God, Ether, Atman and Tao, the researchers got the new equation of odd 3n light dimension energy states systems. Moreover, the researchers expected to be able to solve overview problems of all light dimension energy in all nature relative energy, which are developed from Eistein’s relative energy equation.The finding of the study was called 'super nature relative energy' ( in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞)). From the new ideas above you could do the summation of even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems in all of nature light dimension energy states systems. In the future time, the researchers will expect the new idea to be used in insight theoretical physics, which is very useful to the development of quantum mechanics, all engineering, medical profession, transportation, communication, scientific inventions, and technology, etc.

Keywords: 2n light dimension energy states systems effect, Ether, even 2n light dimension energy states systems, nature relativity, Nivara, odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, perturbation points energy, relax point energy states systems, stress perturbation energy states systems effect, super relative energy

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