Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7191

Search results for: energy and nutrient intakes

7191 Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Cystic Fibrosis: Do They Achieve Guidelines ?

Authors: Hatice Akbıyık, Hülya Gökmen Özel, Nagehan Emiralioğlu, Elmas Ebru Güneş Yalçın, Deniz Doğru Ersöz, Hayriye Uğur Özçelik, Nural Kiper


Background: Dietary recommendations in cystic fibrosis (CF) are based on the need to compensate for the increased energy needs of infection, the increased energy cost of breathing and the losses, incurred from malabsorption. Studies in CF indicate that dietary recommendations for CF patients can be difficult to achieve Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy and nutrient intakes and to compare in accordance with CF dietary guidelines in CF. Methods: One-hundred sixty patients with CF, aged between 2 to 20 years (mean±SD= 7.4±4.8 years) attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Pulmonary Diseases were included. Energy and nutrient intakes from foods and enteral products were calculated using a-24-hour dietary recall method with BEBIS 7.2 programme. Percentages of energy and nutrient intakes were compared in accordance with CF dietary guidelines. Patients or/and parents completed a questionnaire showing mealtime problems, usage of alternative therapies and type of nutrition. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS 16.0 programme. Results: It was obtained that 14.5% and 46.9% of the total energy intake were from proteins and carbohydrates, respectively. The actual contribution of total, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats to the total caloric intake was 37.5%, 14.3%, 14.9%, 9.9%, respectively. It was found that 87.7% of energy, 85% of protein 91.7% of carbohydrate, 81.1% of fat intakes were met, when compared CF recommended intakes of 120% RDA. Additionally 67%, 69.5%, 68.2% and 68.9% of the subjects did not achieve CF recommended intakes of 120% RDA for energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat, respectively. Patients with CF had low intakes for age for almost all vitamins and minerals, although supplementation was given. Especially most patients did not achieve the minimum recommended vitamin K intake of 120% RDA. The percentage meeting 120% RDA was 75.9% for vitamin K. It was shown that 41% of the patients had mealtime problems and they skipped the breakfast. Moreover 25.4% of the patients used alternative products outside the standard treatment (such as omega-3, ginger, turmeric, local honey). It was also showed that 60.8% of patients were using enteral products in addition to normal foods, the remaining patients were on only normal foods. Conclusion: The aims of improving nutritional status in children are to achieve normal weight gain and growth; optimize vitamin and mineral status; and slow the rate of clinical decline. In this study although enteral products were used in patients with CF, it was found that energy and nutrient requirements were unable to meet. Because dietary assessment is essential to identify the need for earlier nutritional intervention, in each visit patients need to be referred to CF specialist dietitian.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, energy and nutrient intakes, mealtime problems, malabsorbtion

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7190 Pregnancy Nutritional Status in Ethiopia: A Case Study of Pregnant Women in Shashemene District, Southern Oromia Region

Authors: Yoseph Gela Ali


Inadequate quality and quantity diet is one of the major reasons for high levels of malnutrition in pregnant women. Across-sectional survey was conducted in Shashemene District, Southern Oromia Region. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select a representative sample of 15190 pregnant women aged 20-50 years from four rural villages Energy and nutrient intakes from foods were calculated from one-day weighed food records on a sub-sample (n = 83). The result of the study showed that the intakes of most nutrients were lower than the recommended intake. The energy intake of the study participants both in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy were 2,308 kcal and 1,420.5 kcal compared to the recommended 2,340 kcal and 2,452 kcal, respectively. Except iron, almost all micronutrient intakes were lower than the recommended intake. Vitamin A intake was 3 µg compared with the recommended 800 µg, while protein intake of the study respondents in 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy was 45.9 g and 31.5 g, respectively, compared with the recommended 71 g. Risk factors for under nutrition were multiple pregnancy and no consumption of cereal-based foods. This study revealed that the energy and nutrient intake of the pregnant women in the study area was below the recommended intakes. Furthermore, the situation might be aggravated by the high phytate content food consumption reported. Nutritional status of pregnant women in the study area was not adequate to support the increased energy and nutrient requirement of the participants.

Keywords: nutrition, pregnancy, protein, vitamin, energy

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7189 Dietary Intakes and Associated Demographic, Behavioural and Other Health-Related Factors in Mexican College Students

Authors: Laura E. Hall, Joel Monárrez-Espino, Luz María Tejada Tayabas


College students are at risk of weight gain and poor dietary habits, and health behaviours established during this period have been shown to track into midlife. They may therefore be an important target group for health promotion strategies, yet there is a lack of literature regarding dietary intakes and associated factors in this group, particularly in middle-income countries such as Mexico. The aim of this exploratory research was to describe and compare reported dietary intakes among nursing and nutrition college students at two public universities in Mexico, and to explore the relationship between demographic, behavioural and other health-related factors and the risk of low diet quality. Mexican college students (n=444) majoring in nutrition or nursing at two urban universities completed questionnaires regarding dietary and health-related behaviours and risks. Dietary intake was assessed via 24-hour recall. Weight, height and abdominal circumference were measured. Descriptive statistics were reported and nutrient intakes were compared between colleges and study tracks using Student’s t tests, odds ratios and Pearson chi square tests. Two dietary quality scores were constructed to explore the relationship between demographic, behavioural and other health-related factors and the diet quality scores using binary logistic regression. Analysis was performed using SPSS statistics, with differences considered statistically significant at p<0.05. The response rate to the survey was 91%. When macronutrients were considered as a percentage of total energy, the majority of students had protein intakes within recommended ranges, however one quarter of students had carbohydrate and fat intakes exceeding recommended levels. Three quarters had fibre intakes that were below recommendations. More than half of the students reported intakes of magnesium, zinc, vitamin A, folate and vitamin E that were below estimated average requirements. Students studying nutrition reported macronutrient and micronutrient intakes that were more compliant with recommendations compared to nursing students, and students studying in central-north Mexico were more compliant than those studying in southeast Mexico. Breakfast skipping (Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.2-22.7), risk of anxiety (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.3-4.4), and university location (OR = 1.6; CI = 1.03-2.6) were associated with a greater risk of having a low macronutrient score. Caloric intakes <1800kcal (OR = 5.8; CI = 3.5-9.7), breakfast skipping (OR = 3.7; CI = 1.4-10.3), vigorous exercise ≤1h/week (OR = 2.6; CI = 1.3-5.2), soda consumption >250mls/day (OR = 2.0; CI = 1.2-3.3), unhealthy diet perception (OR = 1.9; CI = 1.2-3.0), and university location (OR = 1.8; CI = 1.1-2.8) were significantly associated with greater odds of having a low micronutrient score. College students studying nursing and nutrition did not report ideal diets, and these students should not be overlooked in public health interventions. Differences in dietary intakes between universities and study tracks were evident, with more favourable profiles evident in nutrition compared to nursing, and North-central compared to Southeast students. Further, demographic, behavioural and other health-related factors were associated with diet quality scores, warranting further research.

Keywords: college student, diet quality, nutrient intake, young adult

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7188 Food Consumption Pattern and Other Associated Factors of Overweight/Obesity and the Prevalence of Dysglyceamia/Diabetes among Employees Attached to the Ministry of Economic Development

Authors: G. S. Sumanasekara, A. Balasuriya


Introduction: In Sri Lanka studies reveal higher trend in prevalence of diabetes. The office employees have sedentary life style and their eating patterns changed due to nutritional transition. Further overall, urban and rural pre diabetes is also increasing. Objectives - Study the general food pattern of office employees and its relation to overweight/obesity and prevalence of diabetes among them. Method: The data was collected from office employees between 30-60 years (n-400).Data analyzed using SPSS 16 version.The Study design was a descriptive cross sectional study. The study setting was Ministry of Economic Development. Anthropometric measurements and blood glucose assessed by trained nurses. Dietary pattern was studied through a food frequency questionairre thereby calculated daily nutrient intakes. Results: Mean age of office employees were 38.98 SD (7.033) CI=95%) and 245 females (61.2%) 155 males (38.8 %) ,Nationality includes Sinhala (67.5%), Tamil(20%), and Muslims (12.5%).Owerweight(7,1.8%), obese male(36,9%), obese female(66,16%)/ diabetes/obese(18,4.5%) out of 127(31.8%) who were above the normal BMI whereas 273(68.2) were within the normal. Mean BMI was 24.1593.Mean Blood sugar level was 104.646,SD(16.018).12% consume tobacco products,17.8 consumed alcohol.15.8% had nutrition training. Two main dietary patterns identified who were vegetarians and non vegetarians .Mean energy intake 1727.1, (SD 4.97), Mean protein consumption(11.33, SD 1.811), Mean fat consumption(24.07, SD 4.131),Mean CHO consumption (64.56, SD 4.54), Mean Fibre (30.05, SD 17.9), Mean cholesterol(16.85, SD 17.22), Energy intake was higher in non vegetarians and larger propotion of energy derived from proteins , and fat. Their carbohydrate and cholesterol intake was also higher. Tamils were mostly vegetarians. Mainly BMI were within normal range(18.5-23.5) whereas Muslims who had higher energy intakes showed BMI above the normal. Conclusion: Two distinct dietary patterns identified. Different ethnic groups consume different diets with different nutrient composition. Dietary pattern has a relation to overweight. Overweight related to high blood glucose levels but some overweight subjects do not show any relation.

Keywords: obesity, overweight, diabetes, dietary pattern, nutrition, BMI, non communicable disease

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7187 Nutrient Foramina in the Shaft of Long Bones of Upper Limb

Authors: Madala Venkateswara Rao


The major blood supply to the long bones occurs through the nutrient arteries, which enters through the nutrient foramina. This is the study of nutrient Foramina in the shaft of upper limb long bones taken from the department of Anatomy at Narayana medical college nellore. Nutrient foramina play an important role in nutrition and growth of the bones. Most of the nutrient arteries follow the rule, 'to the elbow I go, from the knee I flee' but they are very variable in position. Their number, location, direction & its importance in the growing end of long bones were studied in the long bones of upper limb. The present study has variations in the position & direction of long bones especially in the radius & ulna, as most of the nutrient foramina are found in anterior surface of upper 1/3rd and middle 1/3rd of these bones. The study of nutrient foramina is not only of academic interest but also in medico-legal practice in relation to their position. Careful observation has also been made on the position of nutrient foramina in relation to upper end of long bones. This study also gives importance of length long bones to know the height of an individual. With the knowledge of variations in the nutrient foramen, placement of internal fixation devices can be appropriately done.

Keywords: nutrient artery, nutrient foramina, shaft of long bones, upper limb bones

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7186 Food Intake Patterns in Omani University Students

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Saud Iqbal


Arabian Gulf region has undergone enormous development due to oil boom resulting in overwhelming changes in the lifestyle of the population over the past few decades. This study focused on food consumption patterns of Omani university students. Information, on anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes (measured by a food frequency questionnaire) of students was recorded. Anthropometric data revealed 62.5% of the subjects to be of normal weight and approximately 25% being overweight. Female students appeared to be more weight conscious than males. Dietary intakes in terms of servings (Mean ± S.D) per day among normal weight (BMI 18.5 – 24.9) males vs. females were approximately; cereals (7.5 ± 5.9 vs. 4.9 ± 2.9 servings), meat and alternatives (1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.5 ± 0.9 servings), dairy foods (0.9 ± 0.8 vs. 1.1 ± 0.9 servings) per day, respectively. Overall 55.3% of both males (average 1.9 servings) as well as females (average 1.7 servings) had severely inadequate intakes of vegetables on a daily basis as per the food guide pyramid recommendations. Only the fruit group intakes were adequate in about 70% of the population. Adequate intakes of dairy and meat and alternatives group were found in only 22% and 32% of the subjects, respectively. These results indicate a significant influence of a modern lifestyle on dietary habits and food selection of the target population.

Keywords: dietary pattern, food guide pyramid, lifestyle, Oman

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7185 Full Fat Soybean Meal as a Substitute for Soybean Meal in Broiler Rations

Authors: R. M. K. S. Chandana, A. P. D. G. Pathirana, N. Priyankarage, W. A. D. Nayananjalie, S. S. P. Silva


Full fat soybean meal (FFSBM) has been used in many parts of the world together with solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in livestock feeds. Although some local FFSBM is available, their use has not been assessed experimentally. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of local extruded FFSBM in broiler rations. Four treatment diets were formulated by incorporating locally produced FFSBM (0, 10, 20, and 30%) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in a two-phase (starter and finisher) feeding program. Two hundred Hubbard F 15 day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into four treatments with five replicates per each. Bodyweight gain (BWG), feed intakes (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated for a period of 42 days. Nutrient utilization in the form of dry matter (DM), energy, nitrogen, and fat retention were estimated by the total collection method in three weeks old broilers. At the end of the experiment, carcass weight was measured, and the dressing percentage was calculated. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SAS. There was no significant effect of FFSBM on feed intakes of chicks fed different diets (p > 0.05). Birds fed the control diet, and FF10 (10% FFSBM diet) gained significantly more than that of birds fed FF20 or FF30 diets (p > 0.05). In the finisher period, control birds gained more than all the other treatment birds. FCR was poorer in bird fed higher levels of FFSBM compared to the control or FF10 birds during their early life, but that was not evident in the latter part of the experiment. Treatments did not alter (p > 0.05) the retention of DM and nitrogen, but energy utilization was lowest (p < 0.05) in birds fed with 0% FFSBM, and the highest fat digestibility was observed in birds fed with 30% FFSBM diets. Thus, it can be concluded that FFSBM can be used as a substitute for SBM in broiler rations and could be incorporated up to 10% of the diet safely with no adverse effects on broiler performances.

Keywords: body weight, broiler, digestibility, full fat soybean meal, soybean meal

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7184 Dietary Intake and the Risk of Hypertriglyceridemia in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Authors: Parvin Mirmiran, Zahra Bahadoran, Sahar Mirzae, Fereidoun Azizi


Background and aim: Lifestyle factors, especially dietary intakes play an important role in metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In this study, we assessed the association between dietary factors and 3-year changes of serum triglycerides (TG), HDL-C and the atherogenic index of plasma among Iranian adults. This longitudinal study was conducted on 1938 subjects, aged 19-70 years, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measurements including serum TG were assessed at baseline (2006-2008) and after a 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). Dietary data were collected by using a 168-food item, validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. The risk of hypertriglyceridemia in the quartiles of dietary factors was evaluated using logistic regression models with adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and energy intakes. Results: Mean age of the participants at baseline was 41.0±13.0 y. Mean TG and HDL-C at baseline was 143±86 and 42.2±10.0 mg/dl, respectively. Three-year change of serum TG were inversely related energy intake from phytochemical rich foods, whole grains, and legumes (P<0.05). Higher intakes compared to lower ones of dietary fiber and phytochemical-rich foods had similar impact on decreased risk of hyper-triglyceridemia (OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.34-1.00). Higher- compared to lower-dietary sodium to potassium ratios (Na/K ratio) increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia by 63% (OR=0.1.63, 95% CI= 0.34-1.00). Conclusion: Findings showed that higher intakes of fiber and phytochemical rich foods especially whole grain and legumes could have protective effects against lipid disorders; in contrast higher sodium to potassium ratio had undesirable effect on triglycerides.

Keywords: lipid disorders, hypertriglyceridemia, diet, food science

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7183 Health and Greenhouse Gas Emission Implications of Reducing Meat Intakes in Hong Kong

Authors: Cynthia Sau Chun Yip, Richard Fielding


High meat and especially red meat intakes are significantly and positively associated with a multiple burden of diseases and also high greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated population meat intake patterns in Hong Kong. It quantified the burden of disease and GHG emission outcomes by modeling to adjust Hong Kong population meat intakes to recommended healthy levels. It compared age- and sex-specific population meat, fruit and vegetable intakes obtained from a population survey among adults aged 20 years and over in Hong Kong in 2005-2007, against intake recommendations suggested in the Modelling System to Inform the Revision of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE-2011-MS) technical document. This study found that meat and meat alternatives, especially red meat intakes among Hong Kong males aged 20+ years and over are significantly higher than recommended. Red meat intakes among females aged 50-69 years and other meat and alternatives intakes among aged 20-59 years are also higher than recommended. Taking the 2005-07 age- and sex-specific population meat intake as baselines, three counterfactual scenarios of adjusting Hong Kong adult population meat intakes to AGHE-2011-MS and Pre-2011 AGHE recommendations by the year 2030 were established. Consequent energy intake gaps were substituted with additional legume, fruit and vegetable intakes. To quantify the consequent GHG emission outcomes associated with Hong Kong meat intakes, Cradle-to-ready-to-eat lifecycle assessment emission outcome modelling was used. Comparative risk assessment of burden of disease model was used to quantify the health outcomes. This study found adjusting meat intakes to recommended levels could reduce Hong Kong GHG emission by 17%-44% when compared against baseline meat intake emissions, and prevent 2,519 to 7,012 premature deaths in males and 53 to 1,342 in females, as well as multiple burden of diseases when compared to the baseline meat intake scenario. Comparing lump sum meat intake reduction and outcome measures across the entire population, and using emission factors, and relative risks from individual studies in previous co-benefit studies, this study used age- and sex-specific input and output measures, emission factors and relative risks obtained from high quality meta-analysis and meta-review respectively, and has taken government dietary recommendations into account. Hence evaluations in this study are of better quality and more reflective of real life practices. Further to previous co-benefit studies, this study pinpointed age- and sex-specific population and meat-type-specific intervention points and leverages. When compared with similar studies in Australia, this study also showed that intervention points and leverages among populations in different geographic and cultural background could be different, and that globalization also globalizes meat consumption emission effects. More regional and cultural specific evaluations are recommended to promote more sustainable meat consumption and enhance global food security.

Keywords: burden of diseases, greenhouse gas emissions, Hong Kong diet, sustainable meat consumption

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7182 Dietary Nutrient Consumption Patterns by the Pregnant Mother in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Tasmia Tasnim


Introduction: Pregnancy is a condition of higher nutrient requirement but in developing countries like Bangladesh most of the pregnant women can not meet their nutrient requirement and sometimes they are neglected in the family. The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary nutrient intake by the pregnant women, in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Methods: The study population comprised of pregnant women from urban or semi-urban, aged between 18 to 35 and free of pregnancy related complication and other diseases. Under a cross-sectional design, 30 healthy non-pregnant as well as 130 pregnant women, at 3 different trimesters of pregnancy were assessed. A questionnaire was developed to obtain demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric, drug and medical history. Three day consecutive 24-hour food recalls were used to assess food intake and then converted to nutrient intake. Results: The average BMI of the nonpregnant women was 22.89 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and that of pregnant women was 23.52 ± 3.71 kg/m2. The mean dietary nutrient intake of dietary fiber, calorie, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, Vitamin A, folate, vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 of the pregnant mothers were 4.38 g, 1619 kcal, 60.05 g, 30.38 g, 268.79 g, 537.21 mg, 21.53 mg, 1.15 mg, 0.94 mg, 97.36 mg, 647.6 µg, 153.93 µg, 1.41 mg and 4.09 µg respectively. Most of pregnant women (more than 90%) can not meet their energy, calcium and folate requirements. Conclusion: Most of the pregnant mother in Bangladesh can not meet their dietary requirements during pregnancy.

Keywords: pregnancy, dietary nutrient, nutritional status, BMI

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7181 Development and Validation of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Use in Urban and Rural Communities of Rwanda

Authors: Phenias Nsabimana, Jérôme W. Some, Hilda Vasanthakaalam, Stefaan De Henauw, Souheila Abbeddou


Tools for the dietary assessment in adults are limited in low- and middle-income settings. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against the multiple pass-24 h recall tool for use in urban and rural Rwanda. A total of 212 adults (154 females and 58 males), 18-49 aged, including 105 urban and 107 rural residents, from the four regions of Rwanda, were recruited in the present study. A multiple-pass 24- H recall technique was used to collect dietary data in both urban and rural areas in four different rounds, on different days (one weekday and one weekend day), separated by a period of three months, from November 2020 to October 2021. The details of all the foods and beverages consumed over the 24h period of the day prior to the interview day were collected during face-to-face interviews. A list of foods, beverages, and commonly consumed recipes was developed by the study researchers and ten research assistants from the different regions of Rwanda. Non-standard recipes were collected when the information was available. A single semi-quantitative FFQ was also developed in the same group discussion prior to the beginning of the data collection. The FFQ was collected at the beginning and the end of the data collection period. Data were collected digitally. The amount of energy and macro-nutrients contributed by each food, recipe, and beverage will be computed based on nutrient composition reported in food composition tables and weight consumed. Median energy and nutrient contents of different food intakes from FFQ and 24-hour recalls and median differences (24-hour recall –FFQ) will be calculated. Kappa, Spearman, Wilcoxon, and Bland-Altman plot statistics will be conducted to evaluate the correlation between estimated nutrient and energy intake found by the two methods. Differences will be tested for their significance and all analyses will be done with STATA 11. Data collection was completed in November 2021. Data cleaning is ongoing and the data analysis is expected to be completed by July 2022. A developed and validated semi-quantitative FFQ will be available for use in dietary assessment. The developed FFQ will help researchers to collect reliable data that will support policy makers to plan for proper dietary change intervention in Rwanda.

Keywords: food frequency questionnaire, reproducibility, 24-H recall questionnaire, validation

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7180 Egg Production Performance of Old Laying Hen Fed Dietary Turmeric Powder

Authors: D. P. Rahardja, M. Rahman Hakim, V. Sri Lestari


An experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of turmeric powder supplementation on egg production performance of old laying hens (104 weeks of age). There were 40 hens of Hysex Brown strain used in the study. They were caged individually, and randomly divided into 4 treatment groups of diet containing 0 (control), 1, 2 and 4 % oven dried turmeric powder for 3 periods of 4 weeks; Egg production (% hen day) and feed intake of the 4 treatment groups at the commencement of the experiment were not significantly different. In addition to egg production performance (%HD and egg weight), feed and water intakes were measured daily. The results indicated that feed intakes of the hen were significantly lowered when 4% turmeric powder supplemented, while there were no significant changes in water intakes. Egg production (%HD) were significantly increased and maintained at a higher level by turmeric powder supplementation up to 4% compared with the control, while the weight of eggs were not significantly affected. The research markedly demonstrated that supplementation of turmeric powder up to 4% could improve and maintain egg production performance of the old laying hen.

Keywords: curcumin, feed and water intake, old laying hen, egg production

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7179 Nutritional Status of Food Insecure Students, UWC

Authors: E. C. Swart, E. Kunneke


Background: Disparities in food security exist between communities and households across the country, reflecting continuing social and economic inequalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of food insecurity amongst UWC students. Method: Cross-sectional study recruited 200 students via email and cellphone from an ICS generated list of randomly selected students aged 18-25. Data collection took place during the first two weeks of term 3. Individual appointments were made with consenting participants and conducted in English by trained BSc Dietetics students. Data was analysed using SPSS. The hunger scale used by Stats SA (October 2010) was used. Dietary intake was assessed using a single 24hr recall. Results: Sixty-three percent of the students reported that they do experience some food insecurity whilst 14.5% reported to go hungry due to inadequate access to food. Coping mechanisms during periods of food insecurity include: Asking a friend, neighbour, family member (40%); Borrow (15%); Steal (none); Casual jobs (12%). Anthropometric status of students did not differ statistically significantly by food security status. A statistically significantly greater proportion of Xhosa speaking students reported inadequate money for food. Students residing in residences off campus appear to be least food secure in terms of money available and limiting food intake, whilst those residing at home are less food insecure. Similar proportions of students who receive bursaries or whose parents are paying reported going hungry whilst those who supports themselves never goes hungry. Mean nutrient intake during the previous 24 hours of students who reported inadequate resources to buy food, who eat less due to inadequate resources and who goes hungry only differed statistically significantly for Vitamin B (go hungry) and for fibre (money shortage). In general the nutrient intake is lower for those who reported to eat less and go hungry except for added sugar, vitamin A and folate (go hungry), and energy, fibre, iron, riboflavin and folate (eat less). For students who reported to have inadequate money to buy food, the mean nutrient intake was higher except for calcium and thiamin. The mean body mass index of this group of students was also higher even though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Hunger is present on campus however a single 24hr recall did not confirm statistically significant lower nutrient intakes for students who reported different levels of food insecurity.

Keywords: anthropometry, dietary intake, nutritional status, students

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7178 Simulation of 'Net' Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas

Authors: Chayarat Tantanasarit, Sandhya Babel


Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study aims to estimate 'net' nutrient removal rate by green mussel through calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus released as mussel feces. By subtracting nutrient release from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate and amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can strongly affect marine ecosystem.

Keywords: carbon, ecretion, filtration, nitrogen, phosphorus

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7177 Nutrient Removal and Microalgal Biomass Growth of Chlorella Vulgaris in Response to Centrate Wastewater Loadings

Authors: Lingfeng Wang, Zhipeng Chen, Shuang Qiu, Shijian Ge


The effects of wastewater, with four different nutrient loadings, from synthetic centrate on biomass production of Chlorella vulgaris, nutrient removal, microalgal settling, and lipid production were investigated in photobioreactors under both batches and, subsequently, semi-continuous operations. At higher centrate concentration factors (17.2% and 36.2%), hydraulic retention time and pH adjustments could be employed to sustain acceptable microalgal growth rates and wastewater treatment. Similar nutrient removals efficiencies (>95%) and biomass production (0.42-0.51 g/L) were observed for the four centrate concentrations. Both the lipid productivity and lipid content decreased with increasing nutrient loading in the wastewater. The results also demonstrated that the mass ratio of carbohydrate to protein could provide a good indication of microalgal settling performance, rather than sole component composition or total extracellular polymeric substances.

Keywords: lipid production, microalgae, nutrient removal, wastewater

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7176 Healthy, Breast Fed Bangladeshi Children Can Regulate Their Food Consumption in Each Meal and Feeding Duration When Offered with Varied Energy Density and Feeding Frequency of Complementary Foods

Authors: M. Munirul Islam, Makhduma Khatun M., Janet M. Peerson, Tahmeed Ahmed, M. Abid Hossain Mollah, Kathryn G. Dewey, Kenneth H. Brown


Information is required on the effects of dietary energy density (ED) and feeding frequency (FF) of complementary foods (CF) on food consumption during individual meals and time expended in child feeding. We evaluated the effects of varied ED and FF of CFs on food intake and time required for child feeding during individual meals. During 9 separate, randomly ordered dietary periods lasting 3-6 days each, we measured self-determined intakes of porridges by 18 healthy, breastfed children 8-11 mo old who were fed coded porridges with energy densities of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 kcal/g, during 3, 4, or 5 meals/d. CF intake was measured by weighing the feeding bowl before and after every meal. Children consumed greater amounts of CFs per meal when they received diets with lower ED (p = 0.044) and fewer meals per day (p < 0.001). Food intake was less during the first meal of the day than the other meals. Greater time was expended per meal when fewer meals were offered. Time expended per meal did not vary by ED, but the children ate the lower ED diets faster (p = 0.019). Food intake velocity was also greater when more meals were offered per day (p = 0.005). These results provide further evidence of young children’s ability to regulate their energy intakes, even during infancy; and they convey information on factors that affect the amount of time that caregivers must devote to child feeding.

Keywords: complementary foods, energy density, feeding frequency, young children

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7175 Prevalence of Nutrient Deficiencies in Older Adults: Results from the Japan National Health and Nutrition Survey 2014

Authors: Ye Sun, Han-Youl Lee, Kathy Musa-Veloso, Nabil Bosco


Japan has been experiencing global ageing of population with the World’s leading life expectancy (80.8 y for men and 86.9 y for women) and among the lowest birth rate. Preventive nutrition-based approaches have been identified by the health authorities as one of the strategies to increase the healthy life expectancy and reduce the healthcare costs. However, the nutritional needs and status of the senior population have not been well characterized to provide targeted solutions. This study aims to describe the age- and gender-specific prevalence of inadequacy of macro- and micronutrients intake based on the latest Japan National Health and Nutrition Survey (JNHNS) 2014. JNHNS collected data on the consumption of foods and beverages using 1-day semi-weight household dietary record. Nutrient intake levels were then calculated using the Japanese standard tables of food composition. Where applicable, Japanese population-specific estimated average requirements (EAR) were used as a benchmark to determine the prevalence of potential nutrient intake inadequacy, and adequate intake (AI) were used for nutrients with no available EARs. In all, 3403 senior adults aged 60 y and above and 3324 young adults aged 19 to 59 y were included in the 2014 JNHNS. Age- and gender-specific differences were observed in the mean nutrient intakes as well as the prevalence of inadequacy. Among the 22 nutrients examined, the prevalence of inadequacy for iron, vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, and folic acid in the senior adults was significantly lower than young adults, suggesting potentially healthier dietary choices by the seniors. However, there was still a considerable proportion of seniors who did not meet the requirement for key nutrients like vitamin B1 (67%), calcium (57%), vitamin A (48%), magnesium (47%), vitamin E (44%), and vitamin B6 (41%). Inadequate nutrient intake is generally more prevalent among elderly males than females for many nutrients, with the exception of iron (prevalence of inadequacy: 21% versus 42%) which could partly be explained by the higher intake recommendations for the females. In conclusion, high prevalence of nutrient inadequacy exists in older adults, with a potentially worsened picture for men. Such inadequacies could have multiple health implications including physical frailty and mental health. Further study is warranted to investigate the food consumption patterns that could explain the observed nutrient inadequacies, and to eventually develop nutrition-based solutions tailored to the needs of specific subgroups of the population.

Keywords: ageing, national health and nutrition survey, nutrients, nutrition

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7174 Theoretical Analysis of Self-Starting Busemann Intake Family

Authors: N. Moradian, E. Timofeev, R. Tahir


In this work, startability of the Busemann intake family with weak/strong conical shock, as most efficient intakes, via overboard mass spillage method is theoretically analyzed. Masterix and Candifix codes are used to numerically simulate few models of this type of intake and verify the theoretical results. Portions of the intake corresponding to various flow capture angles are considered to have mass spillage in the starting process of this intake. This approach allows for overboard mass spillage via a V-shaped slot with the tip of V coinciding with the focal point of the Busemann flow. The theoretical results, achieved using two different theories, of self-started Busemann takes with weak/strong conical shock show that significant improve in intake startability using overboard spillage technique. The starting phenomena of Busemann intakes with weak conical shock and seven different capture angles are numerically simulated at freestream Mach number of 3 to find the minimum area ratios of self-started intakes. The numerical results confirm the theoretical ones achieved by authors.

Keywords: Busemann intake, conical shock, overboard spillage, startability

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7173 Quantitative Analysis of Nutrient Inflow from River and Groundwater to Imazu Bay in Fukuoka, Japan

Authors: Keisuke Konishi, Yoshinari Hiroshiro, Kento Terashima, Atsushi Tsutsumi


Imazu Bay plays an important role for endangered species such as horseshoe crabs and black-faced spoonbills that stay in the bay for spawning or the passing of winter. However, this bay is semi-enclosed with slow water exchange, which could lead to eutrophication under the condition of excess nutrient inflow to the bay. Therefore, quantification of nutrient inflow is of great importance. Generally, analysis of nutrient inflow to the bays takes into consideration nutrient inflow from only the river, but that from groundwater should not be ignored for more accurate results. The main objective of this study is to estimate the amounts of nutrient inflow from river and groundwater to Imazu Bay by analyzing water budget in Zuibaiji River Basin and loads of T-N, T-P, NO3-N and NH4-N. The water budget computation in the basin is performed using groundwater recharge model and quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, and the multiplication of the measured amount of nutrient inflow with the computed discharge gives the total amount of nutrient inflow to the bay. In addition, in order to evaluate nutrient inflow to the bay, the result is compared with nutrient inflow from geologically similar river basins. The result shows that the discharge is 3.50×107 m3/year from the river and 1.04×107 m3/year from groundwater. The submarine groundwater discharge accounts for approximately 23 % of the total discharge, which is large compared to the other river basins. It is also revealed that the total nutrient inflow is not particularly large. The sum of NO3-N and NH4-N loadings from groundwater is less than 10 % of that from the river because of denitrification in groundwater. The Shin Seibu Sewage Treatment Plant located below the observation points discharges treated water of 15,400 m3/day and plans to increase it. However, the loads of T-N and T-P from the treatment plant are 3.9 mg/L and 0.19 mg/L, so that it does not contribute a lot to eutrophication.

Keywords: Eutrophication, groundwater recharge model, nutrient inflow, quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, submarine groundwater discharge

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7172 Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala Fingerlings Fed on Sunflower Meal Based Diet Supplemented with Phytase

Authors: Syed Makhdoom Hussain, Muhammad Afzal, Farhat Jabeen, Arshad Javid, Tasneem Hameed


A feeding trial was conducted with Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings to study the effects of microbial phytase with graded levels (0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 FTUkg-1) by sunflower meal based diet on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. The chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker in the diets. Three replicate groups of 15 fish (Average wt 5.98 g fish-1) were fed once a day and feces were collected twice daily. The results of present study showed improved growth and feed performance of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings in response to phytase supplementation. Maximum growth performance was obtained by the fish fed on test diet-III having 1000 FTU kg-1 phytase level. Similarly, nutrient digestibility was also significantly increased (p<0.05) by phytase supplementation. Digestibility coefficients for sunflower meal based diet increased 15.76%, 17.70%, and 12.70% for crude protein, crude fat and apparent gross energy as compared to the reference diet, respectively at 1000 FTU kg-1 level. Again, maximum response of nutrient digestibility was recorded at the phytase level of 1000 FTU kg-1 diet. It was concluded that the phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet at 1000 FTU kg-1 level is optimum to release adequate chelated nutrients for maximum growth performance of C. mrigala fingerlings. Our results also suggested that phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet can help in the development of sustainable aquaculture by reducing the feed cost and nutrient discharge through feces in the aquatic ecosystem.

Keywords: sunflower meal, Cirrhinus mrigala, growth, nutrient digestibility, phytase

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7171 Climate-Smart Agriculture for Sustainable Maize-Wheat Production: Effects on Crop Productivity, Profitability and Irrigation Water Use

Authors: S. K. Kakraliya, R. D. Jat, H. S. Jat, P. C. Sharma, M. L. Jat


The traditional rice-wheat (RW) system in the IGP of South Asia is tillage, water, energy, and capital intensive. Coupled with more pumping of groundwater over the years to meet the high irrigation water requirement of the RW system has resulted in over-exploitation of groundwater. Replacement of traditional rice with less water crops such as maize under climate-smart agriculture (CSA) based management (tillage, crop establishment and residue management) practices are required to promote sustainable intensification. Furthermore, inefficient nutrient management practices are responsible for low crop yields and nutrient use efficiencies in maize-wheat (MW) system. A 7-year field experiment was conducted in farmer’s participatory strategic research mode at Taraori, Karnal, India to evaluate the effects of tillage and crop establishment (TCE) methods, residue management, mungbean integration, and nutrient management practices on crop yields, water productivity and profitability of MW system. The main plot treatments included four combinations of TCE, residue and mungbean integration [conventional tillage (CT), conventional tillage with mungbean (CT + MB), permanent bed (PB) and permanent bed with MB (PB + MB] with three nutrient management practices [farmer’s fertilizer practice (FFP), recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and site-specific nutrient management (SSNM)] using Nutrient Expert® as subplot treatments. System productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and net returns under PB + MB were significantly increased by 25–30%, 28–31% and 35–40% compared to CT respectively, during seven years of experimentation. The integration of MB in MW system contributed ~25and ~ 28% increases in system productivity and net returns compared with no MB, respectively. SSNM based nutrient management increased the mean (averaged across 7 yrs) system productivity by 12- 15% compared with FFP. The study revealed that CSA based sustainable intensification (PB + MB) and SSNM approach provided opportunities for enhancing crop productivity, WUE and profitability of the MW system in India.

Keywords: Conservation Agriculture, Precision water and nutrient management, Permanent beds, Crop yields

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7170 A Dynamic Model for Circularity Assessment of Nutrient Recovery from Domestic Sewage

Authors: Anurag Bhambhani, Jan Peter Van Der Hoek, Zoran Kapelan


The food system depends on the availability of Phosphorus (P) and Nitrogen (N). Growing population, depleting Phosphorus reserves and energy-intensive industrial nitrogen fixation are threats to their future availability. Recovering P and N from domestic sewage water offers a solution. Recovered P and N can be applied to agricultural land, replacing virgin P and N. Thus, recovery from sewage water offers a solution befitting a circular economy. To ensure minimum waste and maximum resource efficiency a circularity assessment method is crucial to optimize nutrient flows and minimize losses. Material Circularity Indicator (MCI) is a useful method to quantify the circularity of materials. It was developed for materials that remain within the market and recently extended to include biotic materials that may be composted or used for energy recovery after end-of-use. However, MCI has not been used in the context of nutrient recovery. Besides, MCI is time-static, i.e., it cannot account for dynamic systems such as the terrestrial nutrient cycles. Nutrient application to agricultural land is a highly dynamic process wherein flows and stocks change with time. The rate of recycling of nutrients in nature can depend on numerous factors such as prevailing soil conditions, local hydrology, the presence of animals, etc. Therefore, a dynamic model of nutrient flows with indicators is needed for the circularity assessment. A simple substance flow model of P and N will be developed with the help of flow equations and transfer coefficients that incorporate the nutrient recovery step along with the agricultural application, the volatilization and leaching processes, plant uptake and subsequent animal and human uptake. The model is then used for calculating the proportions of linear and restorative flows (coming from reused/recycled sources). The model will simulate the adsorption process based on the quantity of adsorbent and nutrient concentration in the water. Thereafter, the application of the adsorbed nutrients to agricultural land will be simulated based on adsorbate release kinetics, local soil conditions, hydrology, vegetation, etc. Based on the model, the restorative nutrient flow (returning to the sewage plant following human consumption) will be calculated. The developed methodology will be applied to a case study of resource recovery from wastewater. In the aforementioned case study located in Italy, biochar or zeolite is to be used for recovery of P and N from domestic sewage through adsorption and thereafter, used as a slow-release fertilizer in agriculture. Using this model, information regarding the efficiency of nutrient recovery and application can be generated. This can help to optimize the recovery process and application of the nutrients. Consequently, this will help to optimize nutrient recovery and application and reduce the dependence of the food system on the virgin extraction of P and N.

Keywords: circular economy, dynamic substance flow, nutrient cycles, resource recovery from water

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
7169 Effects of Length of Time of Fasting upon Subjective and Objective Variables When Controlling Sleep, Food and Fluid Intakes

Authors: H. Alabed, K. Abuzayan. L. Fgie, K. Zarug


Ramadan requires individuals to abstain from food and fluid intake between sunrise and sunset; physiological considerations predict that poorer mood, physical performance and mental performance will result. In addition, any difficulties will be worsened because preparations for fasting and recovery from it often mean that nocturnal sleep is decreased in length, and this independently affects mood and performance. A difficulty of interpretation in many studies is that the observed changes could be due to fasting but also to the decreased length of sleep and altered food and fluid intakes before and after the daytime fasting. These factors were separated in this study, which took place over three separate days and compared the effects of different durations of fasting (4, 8 or 16h) upon a wide variety of measures (including subjective and objective assessments of performance, body composition, dehydration and responses to a short bout of exercise) - but with an unchanged amount of nocturnal sleep, controlled supper the previous evening, controlled intakes at breakfast and daytime naps not being allowed. Many of the negative effects of fasting observed in previous studies were present in this experiment also. These findings indicate that fasting was responsible for many of the changes previously observed, though some effect of sleep loss, particularly if occurring on successive days (as would occur in Ramadan) cannot be excluded.

Keywords: drinking, eating, mental performance, physical performance, social activity, blood, sleepiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
7168 Molecular Profiling of an Oleaginous Trebouxiophycean Alga Parachlorella kessleri Subjected to Nutrient Deprivation

Authors: Pannaga Pavan Jutur


Parachlorella kessleri, a marine unicellular green alga belonging to class Trebouxiophyceae, accumulates large amounts of oil, i.e., lipids under nutrient-deprived (-N, -P, and -S) conditions. Understanding their metabolic imprints is important for elucidating the physiological mechanisms of lipid accumulations in this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Metabolic and lipidomic profiles were obtained respectively using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of P. kessleri under nutrient starvation (-N, -P and -S) conditions. Relative quantities of more than 100 metabolites were systematically compared in all these three starvation conditions. Our results demonstrate that in lipid metabolism, the quantities of neutral lipids increased significantly followed by the decrease in other metabolites involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, etc. In conclusion, the metabolomics and lipidomic profiles have identified a few common metabolites such as citric acid, valine, and trehalose to play a significant role in the overproduction of oil by this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Understanding the entire system through untargeted metabolome profiling will lead to identifying relevant metabolites involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of precursor molecules that may have the potential for biofuel production, aiming towards the vision of tomorrow’s bioenergy needs.

Keywords: algae, biofuels, nutrient stress, omics

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
7167 Effects of Length of Time of Fasting Upon Subjective and Objective Variables When Prior Sleep and Food and Fluid Intakes Have Been Controlled

Authors: H. Alabed, K. Abuzayan, J. Ezarrugh, S. Ali, M. Touba


Ramadan requires individuals to abstain from food and fluid intake between sunrise and sunset, Physiological considerations predict that poorer mood, Physical performance and mental performance will result. In addition, Any difficulties will be worsened because preparations for fasting and recovery from it often mean that nocturnal sleep is decreased in length and this independently affects mood and performance. A difficulty of interpretation in many studies is that the observed changes could be due to fasting but also to the decreased length of sleep and altered food and fluid intakes before and after the daytime fasting. These factors were separated in this study, Which took place over three separate days and compared the effects of different durations of fasting (4, 8 or 16 h) upon a wide variety of measures (including subjective and objective assessments of performance, body composition, Dehydration and responses to a short bout of exercise) but with an unchanged amount of nocturnal sleep, Controlled supper the previous evening, Controlled intakes at breakfast and daytime naps not being allowed. Many of the negative effects of fasting observed in previous studies were present in this experiment also. These findings indicate that fasting was responsible for many of the changes previously observed, Though some effect of sleep loss, Particularly if occurring on successive days (as would occur in Ramadan) cannot be excluded.

Keywords: Drinking, eating, mental performance, physical performance, social activity, blood, sleepiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
7166 Macroscopic Anatomy of the Nutrient Foramina of Human Scaphoid Bone

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju


Background: Scaphoid bone is commonly fractured among all the bones of the wrist. The fracture can damage the arteries and would cause avascular necrosis of the scaphoid. In this present study, the goal was to study the topography and number of nutrient foramina in the scaphoid bones of South Indian population. Methods: We studied 46 human scaphoid bones, among them 20 were left sided and 26 belonged to the right side. The scaphoid bones were available at the department of anatomy of our institution. The scaphoid bones were macroscopically observed for the topography and number of nutrient foramina. The data was collected, tabulated and analyzed. Results: The nutrient foramina were observed in all the scaphoid bones (100%). The locations of the foramina were over the non-articular surfaces in all these scaphoids. They were distributed over the palmar and dorsal surfaces. The foramina were found proximal as well as distal to the mid waist of the scaphoid bone. Their number ranged between 9 and 54 in each scaphoid bone. The number ranged between 2-24 over the palmar surface and 7-36 over the dorsal surface. They ranged between 2-24 proximal to the waist and 3-39 distal to the waist. Conclusion: The knowledge of arterial supply, topography of nutrient foramen and their number is essential to understand the concepts of avascular necrosis of scaphoid bone. It will be enlightening to understand the non-union of the fracture of waist of the scaphoid. The morphological data is required to the operating hand surgeon. We do believe that the present study has provided additional information about the topography and number of nutrient foramina of the human scaphoid bones.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, nutrient foramen, scaphoid, vascular

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7165 Algae Biofertilizers Promote Sustainable Food Production and Nutrient Efficiency: An Integrated Empirical-Modeling Study

Authors: Zeenat Rupawalla, Nicole Robinson, Susanne Schmidt, Sijie Li, Selina Carruthers, Elodie Buisset, John Roles, Ben Hankamer, Juliane Wolf


Agriculture has radically changed the global biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen (N). Fossil fuel-enabled synthetic N-fertiliser is a foundation of modern agriculture but applied to soil crops only use about half of it. To address N-pollution from cropping and the large carbon and energy footprint of N-fertiliser synthesis, new technologies delivering enhanced energy efficiency, decarbonisation, and a circular nutrient economy are needed. We characterised algae fertiliser (AF) as an alternative to synthetic N-fertiliser (SF) using empirical and modelling approaches. We cultivated microalgae in nutrient solution and modelled up-scaled production in nutrient-rich wastewater. Over four weeks, AF released 63.5% of N as ammonium and nitrate, and 25% of phosphorous (P) as phosphate to the growth substrate, while SF released 100% N and 20% P. To maximise crop N-use and minimise N-leaching, we explored AF and SF dose-response-curves with spinach in glasshouse conditions. AF-grown spinach produced 36% less biomass than SF-grown plants due to AF’s slower and linear N-release, while SF resulted in 5-times higher N-leaching loss than AF. Optimised blends of AF and SF boosted crop yield and minimised N-loss due to greater synchrony of N-release and crop uptake. Additional benefits of AF included greener leaves, lower leaf nitrate concentration, and higher microbial diversity and water holding capacity in the growth substrate. Life-cycle-analysis showed that replacing the most effective SF dosage with AF lowered the carbon footprint of fertiliser production from 2.02 g CO₂ (C-producing) to -4.62 g CO₂ (C-sequestering), with a further 12% reduction when AF is produced on wastewater. Embodied energy was lowest for AF-SF blends and could be reduced by 32% when cultivating algae on wastewater. We conclude that (i) microalgae offer a sustainable alternative to synthetic N-fertiliser in spinach production and potentially other crop systems, and (ii) microalgae biofertilisers support the circular nutrient economy and several sustainable development goals.

Keywords: bioeconomy, decarbonisation, energy footprint, microalgae

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7164 Nutrient Foramina of the Lunate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: P.J. Jiji, B.V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai


Background: The lunate bone dislocation can lead to the compression of the median nerve and subsequent carpal tunnel syndrome. The dislocation can interrupt the vasculature and would cause avascular necrosis. The objective of the present study was to study the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried lunate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 28 lunate bones (13 right sided and 15 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular surfaces. The foramina were observed only over the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the lunate bones. The foramen ranged between 2 and 10. The foramina were more in number over the dorsal surface (average number 3.3) in comparison to the palmar surface (average number 2.4). Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided important data about the nutrient foramina of the lunate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and their number is required to understand the concepts in the lunatomalacia and Kienbock’s disease.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, foramen, lunate, nutrient

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7163 Sludge Densification: Emerging and Efficient Way to Look at Biological Nutrient Removal Treatment

Authors: Raj Chavan


Currently, there are over 14,500 Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) in the United States, with ~35% of them having some type of nutrient limits in place. These WRRFs account for about 1% of overall power demand and 2% of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the United States and contribute for 10 to 15% of the overall nutrient load to surface rivers in the United States. The evolution of densification technologies toward more compact and energy-efficient nutrient removal processes has been impacted by a number of factors. Existing facilities that require capacity expansion or biomass densification for higher treatability within the same footprint are being subjected to more stringent requirements relating to nutrient removal prior to surface water discharge. Densification of activated sludge has received recent widespread interest as a means for achieving process intensification and nutrient removal at WRRFs. At the core of the technology are the aerobic sludge granules where the biological processes occur. There is considerable interest in the prospect of producing granular sludge in continuous (or traditional) activated sludge processes (CAS) or densification of biomass by moving activated sludge flocs to a denser aggregate of biomass as a highly effective technique of intensification. This presentation will provide a fundamental understanding of densification by presenting insights and practical issues. The topics that will be discussed include methods used to generate and retain densified granules; the mechanisms that allow biological flocs to densify; the role that physical selectors play in the densification of biological flocs; some viable ways for managing biological flocs that have become densified; effects of physical selection design parameters on the retention of densified biological flocs and finally some operational solutions for customizing the flocs and granules required to meet performance and capacity targets. In addition, it will present some case studies where biological and physical parameters were used to generate aerobic granular sludge in the continuous flow system.

Keywords: densification, aerobic granular sludge, nutrient removal, intensification

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7162 Health Risk Assessment from Potable Water Containing Tritium and Heavy Metals

Authors: Olga A. Momot, Boris I. Synzynys, Alla A. Oudalova


Obninsk is situated in the Kaluga region 100 km southwest of Moscow on the left bank of the Protva River. Several enterprises utilizing nuclear energy are operating in the town. A special attention in the region where radiation-hazardous facilities are located has traditionally been paid to radioactive gas and aerosol releases into the atmosphere; liquid waste discharges into the Protva river and groundwater pollution. Municipal intakes involve 34 wells arranged 15 km apart in a sequence north-south along the foot of the left slope of the Protva river valley. Northern and southern water intakes are upstream and downstream of the town, respectively. They belong to river valley intakes with mixed feeding, i.e. precipitation infiltration is responsible for a smaller part of groundwater, and a greater amount is being formed by overflowing from Protva. Water intakes are maintained by the Protva river runoff, the volume of which depends on the precipitation fallen out and watershed area. Groundwater contamination with tritium was first detected in a sanitary-protective zone of the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SRC-IPPE) by Roshydromet researchers when realizing the “Program of radiological monitoring in the territory of nuclear industry enterprises”. A comprehensive survey of the SRC-IPPE’s industrial site and adjacent territories has revealed that research nuclear reactors and accelerators where tritium targets are applied as well as radioactive waste storages could be considered as potential sources of technogenic tritium. All the above sources are located within the sanitary controlled area of intakes. Tritium activity in water of springs and wells near the SRC-IPPE is about 17.4 – 3200 Bq/l. The observed values of tritium activity are below the intervention levels (7600 Bq/l for inorganic compounds and 3300 Bq/l for organically bound tritium). The risk has being assessed to estimate possible effect of considered tritium concentrations on human health. Data on tritium concentrations in pipe-line drinking water were used for calculations. The activity of 3H amounted to 10.6 Bq/l and corresponded to the risk of such water consumption of ~ 3·10-7 year-1. The risk value given in magnitude is close to the individual annual death risk for population living near a NPP – 1.6·10-8 year-1 and at the same time corresponds to the level of tolerable risk (10-6) and falls within “risk optimization”, i.e. in the sphere for planning the economically sound measures on exposure risk reduction. To estimate the chemical risk, physical and chemical analysis was made of waters from all springs and wells near the SRC-IPPE. Chemical risk from groundwater contamination was estimated according to the EPA US guidance. The risk of carcinogenic diseases at a drinking water consumption amounts to 5·10-5. According to the classification accepted the health risk in case of spring water consumption is inadmissible. The compared assessments of risk associated with tritium exposure, on the one hand, and the dangerous chemical (e.g. heavy metals) contamination of Obninsk drinking water, on the other hand, have confirmed that just these chemical pollutants are responsible for health risk.

Keywords: radiation-hazardous facilities, water intakes, tritium, heavy metal, health risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 179