Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9075

Search results for: empowering environment for teachers and learners

9075 Homosexuality and Inclusion: Experiences of Learners and Teachers within South African School's Contex

Authors: Tsediso Makoelle

Abstract:

South Africa like in other parts of the world has acknowledged the prevalence of the phenomenon of homosexuality in the society. Due to the number of homosexuality cases in the South African society, questions have been asked about the impact of homosexuality in schools and how teachers and learners deal with homosexuality within the context of an emerging inclusive education system. This qualitative study analysis the experiences of teachers and learners in selected secondary schools in relation to prevalence of transgender in schools. Interviews were conducted with principals, teachers and focus group of learners in schools were cases homosexuality have been reported. Data was analysed using an inductive analysis framework. Among the findings was that homosexuality is still viewed as a taboo in Black-African dominated school communities and that the need to create all-embracing and inclusive environment was evident. The study suggests a needs to open communications in communities about homosexuality in order to develop an all-inclusive environment for all learners regardless of their sexual orientation.

Keywords: homosexuality, inclusive education, sexual orientation, transgender

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9074 Teachers' Emphatic Concern for Their Learners

Authors: Prakash Singh

Abstract:

The focus of this exploratory study is on whether teachers demonstrate emphatic concern for their learners in planning, implementing and assessing learning outcomes in their regular classrooms. Empathy must be shown to all learners equally and not only for high-risk learners at the expense of other ability learners. Empathy demonstrated by teachers allows them to build a stronger bond with all their learners. This bond based on trust leads to positive outcomes for learners to be able to excel in their work. Empathic teachers must make every effort to simplify the subject matter for high risk learners so that these learners not only enjoy their learning activities but are also successful like their more able peers. A total of 87.5% of the participants agreed that empathy allows teachers to demonstrate humanistic values in their choice of learning materials for learners of different abilities. It is therefore important for teachers to select content and instructional materials that will contribute to the learners’ success in the mainstream of education. It is also imperative for teachers to demonstrate empathic skills and consequently, to be attuned to the emotions and emotional needs of their learners. Schools need to be reformed, not by simply lengthening the school day or by simply adding more content in the curriculum, but by making school more satisfying to learners. This must be consistent with their diverse learning needs and interests so that they gain a sense of power, fulfillment, and importance in their regular classrooms. Hence, teacher - pupil relationships based on empathic concern for the latter’s educational needs lays the foundation for quality education to be offered.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, empathy, learners’ emotional needs, teachers’ empathic skills

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9073 Anxiety Factors in the Saudi EFL Learners

Authors: Fariha Asif

Abstract:

The Saudi EFL learners face a number of problems in EFL learning, anxiety is the most potent one among those. It means that its resolution can lead to better language skills in Saudi students. That’s why, the study is carried out and is considered to be of interest to the Saudi language learners, educators and the policy makers because of the potentially negative impact that anxiety has on English language learning. The purpose of the study is to explore the factors that cause language anxiety in the Saudi EFL learners while learning speaking skills and the influence it casts on communication in the target language. The investigation of the anxiety-producing factors that arise while learning to communicate in the target language will hopefully broaden the insight into the issue of language anxiety and will help language teachers in making the classroom environment less stressful. The study seeks to answer the questions such as what are the psycholinguistic factors that cause language anxiety among ESL/EFL learners in learning and speaking English Language, especially in the context of the Saudi students. What are the socio-cultural factors that cause language anxiety among Saudi EFL learners in learning and speaking English Language? How is anxiety manifested in the language learning of the Saudi EFL learners? And which strategies can be used to successfully cope with language anxiety? The scope of the study is limited to the college and university English Teachers and subject specialists (males and females) in public sectors colleges and universities in Saudi Arabia. Some of the key findings of the study are:, Anxiety plays an important role in English as foreign language learning for the Saudi EFL learners. Some teachers believe that anxiety bears negatives effects for the learners, while some others think that anxiety serves a positive outcome for the learners by giving them an extra bit of motivation to do their best in English language learning. Language teachers seem to have consensus that L1 interference is one of the major factors that cause anxiety among the Saudi EFL learners. Most of the Saudi EFL learners are found to have fear of making mistakes. They don’t take initiative and opt to keep quiet and don’t respond fearing that they would make mistakes and this would ruin their image in front of their peers. Discouraging classroom environment is also counted as one of the major anxiety causing factors. The teachers, who don’t encourage learners positively, make them anxious and they start avoiding class participation. It is also found that English language teachers have their important role to minimize the negative effects of anxiety in the classes. The teachers’ positive encouragement can do wonders in this regard. A positive, motivating and encouraging class environment is essential to produce desired results in English language learning for the Saudi EFL learners.

Keywords: factors, psychology, speaking, EFL

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9072 The Roles of Teachers in Promoting Self-Regulated Learning

Authors: Mine Cekin

Abstract:

Self-regulated learning (SRL), which can be defined as learning that takes place when an individual is an active controller over his cognition, behavior, and motivation in the learning process, seems to be an essential educational goal. However, it is asserted that students need an assistance to become self-regulated learners. Therefore, teachers appear to play an important role in the introduction of SRL. Even though the importance of SRL has been shown by many researchers, the issue of how teachers can introduce it in a classroom environment needs to be investigated thoroughly. When it comes to mathematics learning particularly, it seems really difficult to associate this area with self-regulated learning because of the fact that it is mainly seen as a domain that is overwhelmingly memorizing written notations. As a result, self-regulated learning in mathematics education and what roles teachers have seem to deserve a significant attention. In this study, the significance of SRL and the roles of teachers in promoting SRL in the field of mathematics education particularly with the help of current literature have been highlighted. Some of the roles of teachers are becoming self-regulated learners themselves, facilitating motivation and collaboration with their colleagues in their schools.

Keywords: mathematics education, motivation, self-regulated learning, teacher self-regulation

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9071 Teachers Influence on Encouraging Physical Activity and Recreation in Township Schools in the City of Tshwane

Authors: Rapuane Eric Jan Pule

Abstract:

Sport participation plays a significant role in learners’ well-being and lifestyle. Learners spend most of their time in the school environment, where they are monitored, guided and advised by teachers. Teachers have a good relationship with the learners, therefore they can play a major role in promoting and influencing learners to participate in physical activities, both competitive and recreational purposes. Their influence and involvement could assist in increasing the number learners' involvement in physical activities, sport and recreation at Township schools. The national sport and recreation plan in South Africa, recommends that promotion of sport and physical activities at primary and secondary schools should play an important role in helping learners commit to a live-long participation in sport, recreational and physical activities. Schoolteachers could play an influential role in ensuring that learners spent their leisure time productively through physical and recreational activities. However, the role and the influence of teachers in promoting physical and recreational activities have been previously overlooked in the literature. Part of this study focuses on the in-depth challenges encountered by primary and secondary school teachers at Township schools in promoting and influencing learners’ involvement in sport, recreation and physical activities. 109 primary and secondary teachers at Township schools agreed to participate in the study through the provision of informed consent. The participants consisted of 49 primary school teachers and 60 secondary school teachers. Quantitative approach was followed using validated structured questionnaire comprising 12 close-ended items were used. Findings indicated that teachers' can play a significant role in influencing and encouraging learners to participate in sport, recreation or physical activities. Teachers view physical activity as an important developmental component for learners. Primary school teachers believe that they have a significant role to play in encouraging and promoting physical activities, sport and recreation, as compared to the secondary school teachers. Both group of teachers at primary and secondary schools, believe that infrastructure development, financial support, and extra incentives could motivate them to promote physical, recreational and sporting activities at schools. Teachers also acknowledge that schools are facing challenges in implementing and coordinating physical activities and recreational programmes as required by the Department of sport and recreation South Africa. It is recommended that the Department of Basic Education and Sport and Recreation South Africa revise their policies regarding the role of teachers in promoting and administering physical and recreational activities at schools.

Keywords: township, physical activities, sport and recreation participation, learners, teachers, primary and secondary schools, physical education

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9070 Teachers’ Perceptions on Communicating with Students Who Are Deaf-Blind in Regular Classes

Authors: Phillimon Mahanya

Abstract:

Learners with deaf-blindness use touch to communicate. However, teachers are not well versed with tactile communication technicalities. Lack of technical know-how is compounded with a lack of standardisation of the tactile signs the world over. Thus, this study arose from the need to have efficient and effective tactile sign communication for learners who are deaf-blind. A qualitative approach that adopted a case study design was used. A sample of 22 participants comprising school administrators and teachers was purposively drawn from the institutions that enrolled learners who are deaf-blind. Data generated using semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations and document analysis were thematically analysed. It emerged that administrators and teachers used mammoth and solo touches that are not standardised to communicate with learners who are deaf-blind. It was recommended that there should be a standardised tactile sign manual in Zimbabwe to promote the inclusion of learners who are deaf-blind.

Keywords: communication, deaf-blind, signing, tactile

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9069 Teaching–Learning-Based Optimization: An Efficient Method for Chinese as a Second Language

Authors: Qi Wang

Abstract:

In the classroom, teachers have been trained to complete the target task within the limited lecture time, meanwhile learners need to receive a lot of new knowledge, however, most of the time the learners come without the proper pre-class preparation to efficiently take in the contents taught in class. Under this circumstance, teachers do have no time to check whether the learners fully understand the content or not, how the learners communicate in the different contexts, until teachers see the results when the learners are tested. In the past decade, the teaching of Chinese has taken a trend. Teaching focuses less on the use of proper grammatical terms/punctuation and is now placing a heavier focus on the materials from real life contexts. As a result, it has become a greater challenge to teachers, as this requires teachers to fully understand/prepare what they teach and explain the content with simple and understandable words to learners. On the other hand, the same challenge also applies to the learners, who come from different countries. As they have to use what they learnt, based on their personal understanding of the material to effectively communicate with others in the classroom, even in the contexts of a day to day communication. To reach this win-win stage, Feynman’s Technique plays a very important role. This practical report presents you how the Feynman’s Technique is applied into Chinese courses, both writing & oral, to motivate the learners to practice more on writing, reading and speaking in the past few years. Part 1, analysis of different teaching styles and different types of learners, to find the most efficient way to both teachers and learners. Part 2, based on the theory of Feynman’s Technique, how to let learners build the knowledge from knowing the name of something to knowing something, via different designed target tasks. Part 3. The outcomes show that Feynman’s Technique is the interaction of learning style and teaching style, the double-edged sword of Teaching & Learning Chinese as a Second Language.

Keywords: Chinese, Feynman’s technique, learners, teachers

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9068 Support Provided by Teachers to Learners With Special Education Needs in Selected Amathole West District Primary Schools South Africa

Authors: Toyin Mary Adewumi, Cina Mosito

Abstract:

Part of enabling learners with special education needs (SEN) to succeed is providing them with adequate support. Support is all activities in a school that enhance its capacity to respond to diversity by making learning contexts and lessons accessible to all learners. The paper reports findings of support provided by teachers to learners with SEN and the pockets of good practice found in the support provided by teachers to these learners in schools in the Amathole West District, Eastern Cape. A purposeful sample, comprising eight teachers, eight principals in eight schools, including one provincial and two district education officials, was selected. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing data gathered through semi-structured interviews. The results established that despite the challenges such as lack of qualifications and training in special education needs, learners with SEN received varied support from teachers which include extra exercises, extra time, special attention during break times or after school hours and homework. The study reveals pockets of good practice in some selected primary schools particularly in the poverty-stricken locations in the Amathole West District. This paper recommends adequate training for teachers for the support of learners with SEN.

Keywords: good practice, learner, special education needs, inclusion, support

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9067 Servant Leadership and Organisational Climate in South African Private Schools: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Christo Swart, Lidia Pottas, David Maree

Abstract:

Background: It is a sine qua non that the South African educational system finds itself in a profound crisis and that traditional school leadership styles are outdated and hinder quality education. New thinking is mandatory to improve the status quo and school leadership has an immense role to play to improve the current situation. It is believed that the servant leadership paradigm, when practiced by school leadership, may have a significant influence on the school environment in totality. This study investigates the private school segment in search of constructive answers to assist with the educational crises in South Africa. It is assumed that where school leadership can augment a supportive and empowering environment for teachers to constructively engage in their teaching and learning activities - then many challenges facing by school system may be subjugated in a productive manner. Aim: The aim of this study is fourfold. To outline the constructs of servant leadership which are perceived by teachers of private schools as priorities to enhance a successful school environment. To describe the constructs of organizational climate which are observed by teachers of private schools as priorities to enhance a successful school environment. To investigate whether the participants perceived a link between the constructs of servant leadership and organizational climate. To consider the process to be followed to introduce the constructs of SL and OC the school system in general as perceived by participants. Method: This study utilized a qualitative approach to explore the mediation between school leadership and the organizational climate in private schools in the search for amicable answers. The participants were purposefully selected for the study. Focus group interviews were held with participants from primary and secondary schools and a focus group discussion was conducted with principals of both primary and secondary schools. The interview data were transcribed and analyzed and identical patterns of coded data were grouped together under emerging themes. Findings: It was found that the practice of servant leadership by school leadership indeed mediates a constructive and positive school climate. It was found that the constructs of empowerment, accountability, humility and courage – interlinking with one other - are prominent of servant leadership concepts that are perceived by teachers of private schools as priorities for school leadership to enhance a successful school environment. It was confirmed that the groupings of training and development, communication, trust and work environment are perceived by teachers of private schools as prominent features of organizational climate as practiced by school leadership to augment a successful school environment. It can be concluded that the participants perceived several links between the constructs of servant leadership and organizational climate that encourage a constructive school environment and that there is a definite positive consideration and motivation that the two concepts be introduced to the school system in general. It is recommended that school leadership mentors and guides teachers to take ownership of the constructs of servant leadership as well as organizational climate and that public schools be researched and consider to implement the two paradigms. The study suggests that aspirant teachers be exposed to leadership as well as organizational paradigms during their studies at university.

Keywords: empowering environment for teachers and learners, new thinking required, organizational climate, school leadership, servant leadership

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9066 Exploring Non-Native English Language Teachers' Understandings and Attitudes towards the Integration of Intercultural Competence

Authors: Simin Sasani

Abstract:

This study will explore a group of English language teachers’ understanding of intercultural competence to find out if they are aware of the concept and how important it is for them. It will investigate how much they are concerned about the challenges that the learners might face in their intercultural communications and to what extent they can help the learners to overcome the barriers to increase students’ insight into cultural differences. In addition, it will explore how a group of non-native English language teachers define culture in relation to their English language teaching practices. More specifically, the research tries to take the how and why of inclusion of intercultural competence into consideration and how non-native teachers think they can improve their learners’ knowledge and skills in this domain. The study will be conducted in the UK and the participants are eight non-native English language teachers who are currently teaching general English language courses for foreigners. A pilot study have been conducted for this research which its results show three non-native English teachers are aware of the notion although they have not had any formal education about intercultural competence. Their challenges and limitation were also highlighted through interviews and observations.

Keywords: English, English language teachers, intercultural communications, intercultural competence, non-natives

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9065 Teachers' and Learners' ICT-Readiness Assessment for Agricultural Science Instruction in Secondary Schools in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Olusegun Egunjobi, Samson Sunday Adekunte

Abstract:

This study investigated the teachers’ and learners’ ICT-readiness assessment for agricultural science instruction in secondary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. However, the sample population of 6 and 120 agricultural science teachers and learners were randomly selected respectively from 3 public and 3 private senior secondary schools in Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design of ex post-facto type was adopted for the study. Two structured questionnaires tagged Teachers’ and Learners’ Questionnaires on ICT-Readiness for Agricultural Science Instruction TQICTRASI and LQICTRASI respectively were used for data collection. The two questionnaires were subjected to Cronbach alpha coefficient with the results 0.86 and 0.82 respectively. Five research hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that teachers in private senior secondary school (SSS) were more ready and prepared than their counterparts in public SSS with the result t-value = 4.25 greater than t-critical = 2.77, df = 4 at p<0.05. Also, learners in private SSS were more prepared and ready for the utilisation of ICT-facilities for agricultural science instruction with the result t-value = 3.51 greater than t-critical = 1.98, df = 118 at p<0.05. However, male and female learners in both private and public SSS were equally prepared and ready for the ICT-facilities utilisation for agricultural science instruction, thus, there were no significant differences in their ICT-readiness. Therefore, the study proffered that, both male and female teachers and learners should be more ICT-compliant and always ready to upgrade their skills and knowledge in ICT-facilities, utilisation for agricultural science instruction and even for other school subjects particularly in Ogun State and in generally in Nigeria.

Keywords: ICT-readiness, teachers’ and learners’ assessment, private and public senior secondary schools, agricultural science instruction

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9064 Teachers and Learners Perceptions on the Impact of Different Test Procedures on Reading: A Case Study

Authors: Bahloul Amel

Abstract:

The main aim of this research was to investigate the perspectives of English language teachers and learners on the effect of test techniques on reading comprehension, test performance and assessment. The research has also aimed at finding the differences between teacher and learner perspectives, specifying the test techniques which have the highest effect, investigating the other factors affecting reading comprehension, and comparing the results with the similar studies. In order to achieve these objectives, perspectives and findings of different researchers were reviewed, two different questionnaires were prepared to collect data for the perspectives of teachers and learners, the questionnaires were applied to 26 learners and 8 teachers from the University of Batna (Algeria), and quantitative and qualitative data analysis of the results were done. The results and analysis of the results show that different test techniques affect reading comprehension, test performance and assessment at different percentages rates.

Keywords: reading comprehension, reading assessment, test performance, test techniques

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9063 Learning Mathematics Online: Characterizing the Contribution of Online Learning Environment’s Components to the Development of Mathematical Knowledge and Learning Skills

Authors: Atara Shriki, Ilana Lavy

Abstract:

Teaching for the first time an online course dealing with the history of mathematics, we were struggling with questions related to the design of a proper learning environment (LE). Thirteen high school mathematics teachers, M.Ed. students, attended the course. The teachers were engaged in independent reading of mathematical texts, a task that is recognized as complex due to the unique characteristics of such texts. In order to support the learning processes and develop skills that are essential for succeeding in learning online (e.g. self-regulated learning skills, meta-cognitive skills, reflective ability, and self-assessment skills), the LE comprised of three components aimed at “scaffolding” the learning: (1) An online "self-feedback" questionnaires that included drill-and-practice questions. Subsequent to responding the questions the online system provided a grade and the teachers were entitled to correct their answers; (2) Open-ended questions aimed at stimulating critical thinking about the mathematical contents; (3) Reflective questionnaires designed to assist the teachers in steering their learning. Using a mixed-method methodology, an inquiry study examined the learning processes, the learners' difficulties in reading the mathematical texts and on the unique contribution of each component of the LE to the ability of teachers to comprehend the mathematical contents, and support the development of their learning skills. The results indicate that the teachers found the online feedback as most helpful in developing self-regulated learning skills and ability to reflect on deficiencies in knowledge. Lacking previous experience in expressing opinion on mathematical ideas, the teachers had troubles in responding open-ended questions; however, they perceived this assignment as nurturing cognitive and meta-cognitive skills. The teachers also attested that the reflective questionnaires were useful for steering the learning. Although in general the teachers found the LE as supportive, most of them indicated the need to strengthen instructor-learners and learners-learners interactions. They suggested to generate an online forum to enable them receive direct feedback from the instructor, share ideas with other learners, and consult with them about solutions. Apparently, within online LE, supporting learning merely with respect to cognitive aspects is not sufficient. Leaners also need an emotional support and sense a social presence.

Keywords: cognitive and meta-cognitive skills, independent reading of mathematical texts, online learning environment, self-regulated learning skills

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9062 Using the Textbook to Promote Thinking Skills in Intermediate School EFL Classrooms in Saudi Arabia: An Analysis of the Tasks and an Exploration of Teachers' and Perceptions

Authors: Nurah Saleh Alfares

Abstract:

An aim of TS in EFL is to help learners to understand how they learn, which could help them in using the target language with other learners in language classrooms, and in their social life. The early researchers have criticised the system of teaching methods in EFL applied in Saudi schools, as they claim that it does not produce students who are highly proficient in English. Some of them suggested that enhancing learners’ TS would help to improve the learners’ proficiency of using the EFL. The textbook in Saudi schools is the central material for teachers to follow in the EFL classroom. Thus, this study is investigating the main issues that could promote TS in Saudi EFL: the textbook and the teachers. The purposes of the study are: to find out the extent to which the tasks in the textbook have the potential to support teachers in promoting TS; to discover insights into the nature of classroom activities that teachers use to encourage TS from the textbook and to explore the teachers’ views on the role of the textbook in promoting TS in the English language. These aims will improve understanding of the connection between the potential of the textbook content and the participants’ theoretical knowledge and their teaching practice. The investigation employed research techniques including the following: (1) analysis of the textbook; (2) questionnaire for EFL teachers; (3) observation for EFL classroom; (4) interviews with EFL teachers. Analysis of the third intermediate grade textbook has been undertaken, and six EFL teachers from five intermediate schools were involved in the study. Data analysis revealed that 36.71 % of the tasks in the textbook could have the potential to promote TS, and 63.29 % of the tasks in the textbook could not have the potential to promote TS. Therefore, the result of the textbook analysis showed that the majority of the tasks do not have the potential to help teachers to promote TS. Although not all teachers of the observed lessons displayed behaviour helpful to promote TS, teachers, who presented potential TS tasks in their lesson encouraged learners’ interaction and students’ engagement more than teachers who presented tasks that did not have the potential to promote TS. Therefore, the result of the teachers’ data showed that having a textbook that has the potential to promote TS is not enough to develop teaching TS in Saudi EFL since teachers’ behaviour could make the task more or less productive.

Keywords: English as a Foreign Language, metacognitive skills, textbook, thinking skills

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9061 Experiences of Trainee Teachers: A Survey on Expectations and Realities in Special Secondary Schools in Kenya

Authors: Mary Cheptanui Sambu

Abstract:

Teaching practice is an integral component of students who are training to be teachers, as it provides them with an opportunity to gain experience in an actual teaching and learning environment. This study explored the experiences of trainee teachers from a local university in Kenya, undergoing a three-month teaching practice in Special Secondary schools in the country. The main aim of the study was to understand the trainees’ experiences, their expectations, and the realities encountered during the teaching practice period. The study focused on special secondary schools for learners with hearing impairment. A descriptive survey design was employed and a sample size of forty-four respondents from special secondary schools for learners with hearing impairment was purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered to the respondents and the data obtained analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Preliminary analysis shows that challenges facing special secondary schools include inadequate teaching and learning facilities and resources, low academic performance among learners with hearing impairment, an overloaded curriculum and inadequate number of teachers for the learners. The study findings suggest that the Kenyan government should invest more in the education of special needs children, particularly focusing on increasing the number of trained teachers. In addition, the education curriculum offered in special secondary schools should be tailored towards the needs and interest of learners. These research findings will be useful to policymakers and curriculum developers, and will provide information that can be used to enhance the education of learners with hearing impairment; this will lead to improved academic performance, consequently resulting in better transitions and the realization of Vision 2030.

Keywords: hearing impairment, special secondary schools, trainee, teaching practice

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9060 Inclusive Education in South African Universities: Pre-Service Teachers’ Experiences

Authors: Cina Mosito, Toyin Mary Adewumi, Charlene Nissen

Abstract:

One of the goals of inclusive education is to provide learners with suitable learning environments and prospects to best attain their potential. This study sought to determine the experiences of studying inclusive education on pre-service teachers’ teaching within the South African education context. A purposeful sample comprising 6 pre-service teachers was selected from a university of technology located in the Western Cape South Africa. Data were collected using open-ended questionnaires, which were exploratory in nature and analyzed thematically. The findings supported significant proportions of experiences as self-reported by pre-service teachers. The pre-service teachers’ experiences of studying inclusive education included inclusive education as an “eye-opener” to the fact that learners experiencing various barriers to learning can be accommodated in the regular classrooms, exposure to some aspects of inclusive education, such as diversity, learners’ rights, and curriculum differentiation. It was also revealed that studying inclusive education made pre-service teachers love and enjoy teaching more. The study shows that awareness of inclusive education has influenced pre-service teachers in South African schools.

Keywords: experience, inclusive education, pre-service teacher, South Africa

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9059 The Influence of Teachers Anxiety-Reducing Strategies on Learners Foreign Language Anxiety

Authors: Fakieh Alrabai

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects on learner anxiety of anxiety-reducing strategies utilized by English as foreign language teachers in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, sources of foreign language anxiety for Saudi learners of English (N = 596) were identified using The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). In the second stage, 465 learners who were divided almost equally into two groups (experimental vs. control) and 12 teachers were recruited. Anxiety-reducing strategies were implemented exclusively in the treatment group for approximately eight weeks. FLCAS was used to assess learners’ FL anxiety levels before and after treatment. Statistical analyses (e.g. ANOVA and ANCOVA) were used to evaluate the study findings. These findings revealed that the intervention led to significantly decreased levels of FL anxiety for learners in the experimental group compared with increased levels of anxiety for those in the control group.

Keywords: communication apprehension, EFL teaching/learning, fear of negative evaluation, foreign language anxiety

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9058 Teacher Education: Teacher Development and Support

Authors: Khadem Hichem

Abstract:

With the new technology challenges, dynamics and challenges of the contemporary world, most teachers are struggling to maintain effective and successful teaching /learning environment for learners. Teachers as a key to the success of reforms in the educational setting, they must improve their competencies to teach effectively. Many researchers emphasis on the ongoing professional development of the teacher by enhancing their experiences and encouraging their responsibility for learning, and thus promoting self-reliance, collaboration, and reflection. In short, teachers are considered as learners and they need to learn together. The educational system must support, both conceptually and financially, the teachers’ development as lifelong learners Teachers need opportunities to grow in language proficiency and in knowledge. Changing nature of language and culture in the world, all teachers must have opportunities to update their knowledge and practices. Many researchers in the field of foreign or additional languages indicate that teachers keep side by side of effective instructional practices and they need special support with the challenging task of developing and administering proficiency tests to their students. For significant change to occur, each individual teacher’s needs must be addressed. The teacher must be involved experientially in the process of development, since, by itself, knowledge of how to change does not mean change will be initiated. For improvement to occur, new skills have to be guided, practiced, and reflected upon in collaboration with colleagues. Clearly, teachers are at different places developmentally; therefore, allowances for various entry levels and individual differences need to be built into the professional development structure. Objectives must be meaningful to the participant and teacher improvement must be stated terms of student knowledge, student performance, and motivation. The most successful professional development process acknowledges the student-centered nature of good teaching. This paper highlights the importance of teacher professional development process and institutional supports as way to enhance good teaching and learning environment.

Keywords: teacher professional development, teacher competencies, institutional support, teacher education

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9057 Innovations in Teaching

Authors: Dilek Turan Eroğlu

Abstract:

Educators have been searching the more effective and appalling methods of teaching for ages. It has always been an issue among the teachers and scientists to improve the quality of education and to ensure that all students have equal opportunities to learn. However, when it comes to the effective ways of learning,the learners are exposed to the ways which are chosen and approved to be effective by their teachers not by the learners themselves. This is the main problem of this study as the learners are not always happy to be in their classes being treated with their teachers’ favourite styles. This paper is telling the results of a study which has been conducted with the university students in Turkey. The students have been interviewed and asked to respond some questions related to best practices to find out their favourite styles, medium, techniques and strategies. The study has been conducted using qualitative research methods i.e one to one interviews and group discussions. The results show that the learners have significantly different views than the educators when it comes to modern teaching styles. Their definition of the term “modern teaching styles” is different than the general understanding. The university students expect their teachers to be “early adopter”. of ICT tools and or the other electronic devices, but a modern teacher must have many other characteristics for them.

Keywords: effective, innovation, teaching, modern teaching styles

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9056 Investigating the Role of Algerian Middle School Teachers in Enhancing Academic Self-Regulation: A Key towards Teaching How to Learn

Authors: Houda Zouar, Hanane Sarnou

Abstract:

In the 21st, century the concept of learners' autonomy is crucial. The concept of self-regulated learning has come forward as a result of enabling learners to direct their learning with autonomy towards academic goals achievement. Academic self-regulation is defined as the process by which learners systematically plan, monitor and asses their learning to achieve their academic established goals. In the field of English as a foreign language, teachers emphasise the role of learners’ autonomy to foster the process of English language learning. Consequently, academic self-regulation is considered as a vehicle to enhance autonomy among English language learners. However, not all learners can be equally self-regulators if not well assisted, mainly those novice pupils of basic education. For this matter, understanding the role of teachers in fostering academic self- regulation must be among the preliminary objectives in searching and developing this area. The present research work targets the role of the Algerian middle school teachers in enhancing academic self-regulation and teaching pupils how to learn, besides their role as models in the trajectory of teaching their pupils to become self-regulators. Despite the considerable endeavours in the field of educational setting on Self-Regulated Learning, the literature of the Algerian context indicates confined endeavours to undertake and divulge this notion. To go deeper into this study, a mixed method approach was employed to confirm our hypothesis. For data collection, teachers were observed and addressed by a questionnaire on their role in enhancing academic self- regulation among their pupils. The result of the research indicates that the attempts of middle school Algerian teachers are implicit and limited. This study emphasises the need to prepare English language teachers with the necessary skills to promote autonomous and self-regulator English learners.

Keywords: Algeria, English as a foreign language, middle school, self-regulation, Teachers' role

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9055 SSRUIC Students’ Attitude and Preference toward Error Corrections

Authors: Papitchaya Papangkorn

Abstract:

Matching the expectations of teachers and learners is significant for successful language learning. Moreover, teachers should discover what their learners think and feel about what and how they want to learn. Therefore, this study investigates International College, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University students’ preferences toward error corrections in order to help SSRUIC teachers match their expectations and their learners because it is important for successful language learning. This study examined the learners’ attitude and preference toward error correction through 50 first year SSRUIC students both male (25) and female (25) in Bangkok, Thailand. The data were collected from a questionnaire and interviews to investigate the necessity and frequency, timing, type of errors, method of corrective feedback, and person who gives error correction in order to answer the overall research question and sub-questions. The findings indicate five suggestions regarding the overall research question. Firstly, errors should be treated, and always be treated. Secondly, treating errors after finish speaking is the most appropriate time. Thirdly, “errors that may cause problems in an understanding of listener” and “frequent spoken errors” should be treated. Fourthly, repetition and explicit feedback were the most popular types of feedback among males, whereas metalinguistic feedback was the most favoured types amongst females. Finally, teachers were the most preferred person to deliver corrective feedback for the learners. Although the results of the study are difficult to generalize to a larger population, which are Thai EFL learners because of the small sample, the findings provide useful information that may contribute to understanding of SSRUIC learners’ preferences toward error corrections and it might reduce the gap between what teachers employ and what students expect when receiving corrective feedback. The reduction of this gap may be useful for the learning process and could enhance the efforts of both teachers and learners in a Thai context.

Keywords: attitude, corrective feedback, error, preference

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9054 The Reflections of the K-12 English Language Teachers on the Implementation of the K-12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines

Authors: Dennis Infante

Abstract:

This paper examined the reflections of teachers on curriculum reforms, the implementation of the K-12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines. The results revealed that problems and concerns raised by teachers could be classified into curriculum materials and design; competence, readiness and motivation of the teachers; the learning environment, and support systems; readiness, competence and motivation of students; and other relevant factors. The best features of the K-12 curriculum reforms included (1) the components, curriculum materials; (2) the design, structure and delivery of the lessons; (3) the framework and theoretical approach; (3) the qualities of the teaching-learning activities; (4) and other relevant features. With the demanding task of implementing the new curriculum, the teachers expressed their needs which included (1) making the curriculum materials available to achieve the goals of the curriculum reforms; (2) enrichment of the learning environments; (3) motivating and encouraging the teachers to embrace change; (4) providing appropriate support systems; (5) re-tooling, and empowering teachers to implement the curriculum reforms; and (6) other relevant factors. The research concluded with a synthesis that provided a paradigm for implementing curriculum reforms which recognizes the needs of the teachers and the features of the new curriculum.

Keywords: curriculum reforms, K-12, teachers' reflections, implementing curriculum change

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9053 Iranian Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Mehrnoush Tajnia, Simin Sadeghi-Saeb

Abstract:

Students and teachers have different perceptions of effectiveness of instruction. Comparing students’ and teachers’ beliefs and finding the mismatches between them can increase L2 students’ satisfaction. Few studies have taken into account the beliefs of both students and teachers on different aspects of pedagogy and the effect of learners’ level of education and contexts on effective foreign language teacher practices. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare students’ and teachers’ perceptions on effective foreign language teaching. A sample of 303 learners and 54 instructors from different private language institutes and universities participated in the study. A questionnaire was developed to elicit participants’ beliefs on effective foreign language teaching and learning. The analysis of the results revealed that: a) there is significant difference between the students’ beliefs about effective teacher practices and teachers’ belief, b) Class level influences students’ perception of effective foreign language teacher, d) There is a significant difference of opinion between those learners who study foreign languages at university and those who study foreign language in private institutes with respect to effective teacher practices. The present paper concludes that finding the gap between students’ and teachers’ beliefs would help both of the groups to enhance their learning and teaching.

Keywords: effective teacher, effective teaching, students’ beliefs, teachers’ beliefs

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9052 Special Education Teachers’ Knowledge and Application of the Concept of Curriculum Adaptation for Learners with Special Education Needs in Zambia

Authors: Kenneth Kapalu Muzata, Dikeledi Mahlo, Pinkie Mabunda Mabunda

Abstract:

This paper presents results of a study conducted to establish special education teachers’ knowledge and application of curriculum adaptation of the 2013 revised curriculum in Zambia. From a sample of 134 respondents (120 special education teachers, 12 education officers, and 2 curriculum specialists), the study collected both quantitative and qualitative data to establish whether teachers understood and applied the concept of curriculum adaptation in teaching learners with special education needs. To obtain data validity and reliability, the researchers collected data by use of mixed methods. Semi-structured questionnaires and interviews were administered. Lesson Observations and post-lesson discussions were conducted on 12 selected teachers from the 120 sample that answered the questionnaires. Frequencies, percentages, and significant differences were derived through the statistical package for social sciences. Qualitative data were analyzed with the help of NVIVO qualitative software to create themes and obtain coding density to help with conclusions. Both quantitative and qualitative data were concurrently compared and related. The results revealed that special education teachers lacked a thorough understanding of the concept of curriculum adaptation, thus denying learners with special education needs the opportunity to benefit from the revised curriculum. The teachers were not oriented on the revised curriculum and hence facing numerous challenges trying to adapt the curriculum. The study recommended training of special education teachers in curriculum adaptation.

Keywords: curriculum adaptation, special education, learners with special education needs, special education teachers

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9051 A Conversation about Inclusive Education: Revelations from Namibian Primary School Teachers

Authors: M. D. Nghiteke, A. Mji, G. T. Molepo

Abstract:

Inclusive education stems from a philosophy and vision, which argues that all children should learn together at school. It is not only about treating all pupils in the same way. It is also about allowing all children to attend school without any restrictions. Ten primary school teachers in a circuit in Namibia volunteered to participate in face-to-face interviews about inclusive education. The teachers responded to three questions about their (i) understanding of inclusive education; (ii) whether inclusive education was implemented in primary schools; and (iii) whether they were able to work with learners with special needs. Findings indicated that teachers understood what inclusive education entailed; felt that inclusive education was not implemented in their primary schools, and they were unable to work with learners with special needs in their classrooms. Further, the teachers identified training and resources as important components of inclusive education. It is recommended that education authorities should perhaps verify the findings reported here as well as ensure that the concerns raised by the teachers are addressed.

Keywords: classrooms and schools, inclusive education, resources, training

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9050 What Constitutes Pre-School Mathematics and How It Look Like in the Classroom?

Authors: Chako G. Chako

Abstract:

This study reports on an ongoing research that explores pre-school mathematics. Participants in the study includes three pre-school teachers and their pre-school learners from one school in Gaborone. The school was purposefully selected based on its performance in Botswana’s 2019 national examinations. Specifically, the study is interested on teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts embedded in pre-school mathematics tasks. The interest on explanations was informed by the view that suggests that, the mathematics learners get to learn, resides in teachers’ explanations. Recently, Botswana’s basic education has integrated pre-school education into the mainstream public primary school education. This move is part of the government’s drive to elevate Botswana to a knowledge-based-economy. It is believed that provision of pre-school education to all Batswana children will contribute immensely towards a knowledge-based-economy. Since pre-school is now a new phenomenon in our education, there is limited research at this level of education in Botswana. In particular, there is limited knowledge about what and how the teaching is conducted in Pre-Schools in Botswana. Hence, the study seeks to gain insight into what constitutes mathematics in tasks that learners are given, and how concepts are made accessible to Pre-school learners. The research question of interest for this study is stated as: What is the nature Pre-school teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts embedded in tasks given to learners. Casting some light into what and how pre-school mathematics tasks are enacted is critical for policy and Pre-school teacher professional development. The sociocultural perspective framed the research. Adler and Rhonda’s (2014) notion of exemplification and explanatory communication are used to analyze tasks given to learners and teachers’ explanations respectively.

Keywords: classroom, explanation, mathematics, pre-school, tasks

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9049 EFL Teacher Cognition and Learner Autonomy: An Exploratory Study into Algerian Teachers’ Understanding of Learner Autonomy

Authors: Linda Ghout

Abstract:

The main aim of the present case study was to explore EFL teachers’ understanding of learner autonomy. Thus, it sought to uncover how teachers at the de Department of English, University of Béjaia, Algeria view the process of language learning, their learners’ roles, their own roles and their practices to promote learner autonomy. For data collection, firstly, a questionnaire was designed and administered to all the teachers in the department. Secondly, interviews were conducted with some volunteers for the sake of clarifying emerging issues and digging deeper into some of the teachers’ answers to the questionnaire. The analysis revealed interesting data pertaining to the teachers’ cognition and its effects on their teaching practices. With regard to their views of language learning, it seems that the participants hold discrete views which are in opposition with the principles of learner autonomy. The teachers seemed to have a limited knowledge of the characteristics of autonomous learners and autonomy- based methodology. When it comes to teachers’ practices to promote autonomy in their classes, the majority reported that the most effective way is to ask students to search for information on their own. However, in defining their roles in the EFL learning process, most of the respondents claimed that teachers should play the role of facilitators.

Keywords: English, learner autonomy, learning process, teacher cognition

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9048 Voices of Fear: A Case Study Of Tobephobia Experienced by Female Teachers

Authors: Prakash Singh

Abstract:

In this exploratory qualitative case study, the voices of female teachers are captured that describe their fear of failure in coping with their daily anxieties, stresses, and tensions in their classrooms. When teachers are usually appointed, the curriculum forms the heart of all their professional obligations. The policy of quality and equality of education for all learners is a must as part of these deliberations, otherwise it would spell the inevitable failure for teachers. Yet, how often have teachers been asked whether they are happy during their professional tenure. Research affirms that this question is not a priority, seeing that the happiness of learners and the educational administrators enjoy precedence. Teachers are often subject to undue pressures and tensions because of environmental factors that extends beyond the curriculum. School violence, bullying, drug abuse, and gangsters are not uncommon to the school milieu, no matter where such schools can be located. In this case study, the voices of female teachers find space concerning their experiences of tobephobia (TBP). The questions that inevitably arise are: Are the educational authorities aware of the effects of TBP in education? What can be done to arrest and eliminate the debilitating effects of TBP? This exploratory study contributes to the growing concerns of TBP in education. It is therefore imperative that the effects of TBP on human resources in education must be accentuated so that meaningful solutions can be found to address challenging educational issues such as school violence, bullying, and drug abuse amongst learners.

Keywords: curriculum, female teachers, school violence, tobephobia

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9047 Teaching Young Learners How to Work Together: Pedagogical Ideas for Language Teachers

Authors: Tomas Kos

Abstract:

An increasing body of research has explored patterns of interaction and peer support among young learners. Although some studies suggest that young learners can collaborate and support each other, other studies indicate that young learners may lack the ability to work together and support one another when interacting on classroom tasks. Moreover, despite the claims that peer collaboration is conducive to learning, studies have not paid enough attention to the “how” to enhance peer collaboration on classroom tasks. To fill this gap, this “how-to” article proposes that teaching young learners how to work together is a powerful pedagogical tool that can greatly improve collaborative behavior and a sense of mutuality among young learners. This article will pay particular attention to primary schools and the context of English as a foreign language. It will first review literature related to patterns of interaction and peer support conducted in the cognitive and sociocultural framework. It will then address what it actually means to collaborate. At the heart of the article, it will discuss some practical pedagogical ideas for language teachers, which entail teaching collaborative principles and strategies that will help their students to support each other and engage in communication with each other.

Keywords: young learners, peer collaboration, peer interaction, peer support, patterns of interaction

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9046 A Conundrum of Teachability and Learnability of Deaf Adult English as Second Language Learners in Pakistani Mainstream Classrooms: Integration or Elimination

Authors: Amnah Moghees, Saima Abbas Dar, Muniba Saeed

Abstract:

Teaching a second language to deaf learners has always been a challenge in Pakistan. Different approaches and strategies have been followed, but they have been resulted into partial or complete failure. The study aims to investigate the language problems faced by adult deaf learners of English as second language in mainstream classrooms. Moreover, the study also determines the factors which are very much involved in language teaching and learning in mainstream classes. To investigate the language problems, data will be collected through writing samples of ten deaf adult learners and ten normal ESL learners of the same class; whereas, observation in inclusive language teaching classrooms and interviews from five ESL teachers in inclusive classes will be conducted to know the factors which are directly or indirectly involved in inclusive language education. Keeping in view this study, qualitative research paradigm will be applied to analyse the corpus. The study figures out that deaf ESL learners face severe language issues such as; odd sentence structures, subject and verb agreement violation, misappropriation of verb forms and tenses as compared to normal ESL learners. The study also predicts that in mainstream classrooms there are multiple factors which are affecting the smoothness of teaching and learning procedure; role of mediator, level of deaf learners, empathy of normal learners towards deaf learners and language teacher’s training.

Keywords: deaf English language learner, empathy, mainstream classrooms, previous language knowledge of learners, role of mediator, language teachers' training

Procedia PDF Downloads 90