Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13743

Search results for: embedding model

13743 Index t-SNE: Tracking Dynamics of High-Dimensional Datasets with Coherent Embeddings

Authors: Gaelle Candel, David Naccache


t-SNE is an embedding method that the data science community has widely used. It helps two main tasks: to display results by coloring items according to the item class or feature value; and for forensic, giving a first overview of the dataset distribution. Two interesting characteristics of t-SNE are the structure preservation property and the answer to the crowding problem, where all neighbors in high dimensional space cannot be represented correctly in low dimensional space. t-SNE preserves the local neighborhood, and similar items are nicely spaced by adjusting to the local density. These two characteristics produce a meaningful representation, where the cluster area is proportional to its size in number, and relationships between clusters are materialized by closeness on the embedding. This algorithm is non-parametric. The transformation from a high to low dimensional space is described but not learned. Two initializations of the algorithm would lead to two different embeddings. In a forensic approach, analysts would like to compare two or more datasets using their embedding. A naive approach would be to embed all datasets together. However, this process is costly as the complexity of t-SNE is quadratic and would be infeasible for too many datasets. Another approach would be to learn a parametric model over an embedding built with a subset of data. While this approach is highly scalable, points could be mapped at the same exact position, making them indistinguishable. This type of model would be unable to adapt to new outliers nor concept drift. This paper presents a methodology to reuse an embedding to create a new one, where cluster positions are preserved. The optimization process minimizes two costs, one relative to the embedding shape and the second relative to the support embedding’ match. The embedding with the support process can be repeated more than once, with the newly obtained embedding. The successive embedding can be used to study the impact of one variable over the dataset distribution or monitor changes over time. This method has the same complexity as t-SNE per embedding, and memory requirements are only doubled. For a dataset of n elements sorted and split into k subsets, the total embedding complexity would be reduced from O(n²) to O(n²=k), and the memory requirement from n² to 2(n=k)², which enables computation on recent laptops. The method showed promising results on a real-world dataset, allowing to observe the birth, evolution, and death of clusters. The proposed approach facilitates identifying significant trends and changes, which empowers the monitoring high dimensional datasets’ dynamics.

Keywords: concept drift, data visualization, dimension reduction, embedding, monitoring, reusability, t-SNE, unsupervised learning

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13742 Fractional-Order Modeling of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors for Switching Applications

Authors: Anwar H. Jarndal, Ahmed S. Elwakil


In this paper, a fraction-order model for pad parasitic effect of GaN HEMT on Si substrate is developed and validated. Open de-embedding structure is used to characterize and de-embed substrate loading parasitic effects. Unbiased device measurements are implemented to extract parasitic inductances and resistances. The model shows very good simulation for S-parameter measurements under different bias conditions. It has been found that this approach can improve the simulation of intrinsic part of the transistor, which is very important for small- and large-signal modeling process.

Keywords: fractional-order modeling, GaNHEMT, si-substrate, open de-embedding structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
13741 Improved Processing Speed for Text Watermarking Algorithm in Color Images

Authors: Hamza A. Al-Sewadi, Akram N. A. Aldakari


Copyright protection and ownership proof of digital multimedia are achieved nowadays by digital watermarking techniques. A text watermarking algorithm for protecting the property rights and ownership judgment of color images is proposed in this paper. Embedding is achieved by inserting texts elements randomly into the color image as noise. The YIQ image processing model is found to be faster than other image processing methods, and hence, it is adopted for the embedding process. An optional choice of encrypting the text watermark before embedding is also suggested (in case required by some applications), where, the text can is encrypted using any enciphering technique adding more difficulty to hackers. Experiments resulted in embedding speed improvement of more than double the speed of other considered systems (such as least significant bit method, and separate color code methods), and a fairly acceptable level of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with low mean square error values for watermarking purposes.

Keywords: steganography, watermarking, time complexity measurements, private keys

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13740 Destination Decision Model for Cruising Taxis Based on Embedding Model

Authors: Kazuki Kamada, Haruka Yamashita


In Japan, taxi is one of the popular transportations and taxi industry is one of the big businesses. However, in recent years, there has been a difficult problem of reducing the number of taxi drivers. In the taxi business, mainly three passenger catching methods are applied. One style is "cruising" that drivers catches passengers while driving on a road. Second is "waiting" that waits passengers near by the places with many requirements for taxies such as entrances of hospitals, train stations. The third one is "dispatching" that is allocated based on the contact from the taxi company. Above all, the cruising taxi drivers need the experience and intuition for finding passengers, and it is difficult to decide "the destination for cruising". The strong recommendation system for the cruising taxies supports the new drivers to find passengers, and it can be the solution for the decreasing the number of drivers in the taxi industry. In this research, we propose a method of recommending a destination for cruising taxi drivers. On the other hand, as a machine learning technique, the embedding models that embed the high dimensional data to a low dimensional space is widely used for the data analysis, in order to represent the relationship of the meaning between the data clearly. Taxi drivers have their favorite courses based on their experiences, and the courses are different for each driver. We assume that the course of cruising taxies has meaning such as the course for finding business man passengers (go around the business area of the city of go to main stations) and course for finding traveler passengers (go around the sightseeing places or big hotels), and extract the meaning of their destinations. We analyze the cruising history data of taxis based on the embedding model and propose the recommendation system for passengers. Finally, we demonstrate the recommendation of destinations for cruising taxi drivers based on the real-world data analysis using proposing method.

Keywords: taxi industry, decision making, recommendation system, embedding model

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13739 Secured Embedding of Patient’s Confidential Data in Electrocardiogram Using Chaotic Maps

Authors: Butta Singh


This paper presents a chaotic map based approach for secured embedding of patient’s confidential data in electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The chaotic map generates predefined locations through the use of selective control parameters. The sample value difference method effectually hides the confidential data in ECG sample pairs at these predefined locations. Evaluation of proposed method on all 48 records of MIT-BIH arrhythmia ECG database demonstrates that the embedding does not alter the diagnostic features of cover ECG. The secret data imperceptibility in stego-ECG is evident through various statistical and clinical performance measures. Statistical metrics comprise of Percentage Root Mean Square Difference (PRD) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Further, a comparative analysis between proposed method and existing approaches was also performed. The results clearly demonstrated the superiority of proposed method.

Keywords: chaotic maps, ECG steganography, data embedding, electrocardiogram

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13738 Secure Watermarking not at the Cost of Low Robustness

Authors: Jian Cao


This paper describes a novel watermarking technique which we call the random direction embedding (RDE) watermarking. Unlike traditional watermarking techniques, the watermark energy after the RDE embedding does not focus on a fixed direction, leading to the security against the traditional unauthorized watermark removal attack. In addition, the experimental results show that when compared with the existing secure watermarking, namely natural watermarking (NW), the RDE watermarking gains significant improvement in terms of robustness. In fact, the security of the RDE watermarking is not at the cost of low robustness, and it can even achieve more robust than the traditional spread spectrum watermarking, which has been shown to be very insecure.

Keywords: robustness, spread spectrum watermarking, watermarking security, random direction embedding (RDE)

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13737 Genomic Sequence Representation Learning: An Analysis of K-Mer Vector Embedding Dimensionality

Authors: James Jr. Mashiyane, Risuna Nkolele, Stephanie J. Müller, Gciniwe S. Dlamini, Rebone L. Meraba, Darlington S. Mapiye


When performing language tasks in natural language processing (NLP), the dimensionality of word embeddings is chosen either ad-hoc or is calculated by optimizing the Pairwise Inner Product (PIP) loss. The PIP loss is a metric that measures the dissimilarity between word embeddings, and it is obtained through matrix perturbation theory by utilizing the unitary invariance of word embeddings. Unlike in natural language, in genomics, especially in genome sequence processing, unlike in natural language processing, there is no notion of a “word,” but rather, there are sequence substrings of length k called k-mers. K-mers sizes matter, and they vary depending on the goal of the task at hand. The dimensionality of word embeddings in NLP has been studied using the matrix perturbation theory and the PIP loss. In this paper, the sufficiency and reliability of applying word-embedding algorithms to various genomic sequence datasets are investigated to understand the relationship between the k-mer size and their embedding dimension. This is completed by studying the scaling capability of three embedding algorithms, namely Latent Semantic analysis (LSA), Word2Vec, and Global Vectors (GloVe), with respect to the k-mer size. Utilising the PIP loss as a metric to train embeddings on different datasets, we also show that Word2Vec outperforms LSA and GloVe in accurate computing embeddings as both the k-mer size and vocabulary increase. Finally, the shortcomings of natural language processing embedding algorithms in performing genomic tasks are discussed.

Keywords: word embeddings, k-mer embedding, dimensionality reduction

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13736 Reversible Information Hitting in Encrypted JPEG Bitstream by LSB Based on Inherent Algorithm

Authors: Vaibhav Barve


Reversible information hiding has drawn a lot of interest as of late. Being reversible, we can restore unique computerized data totally. It is a plan where mystery data is put away in digital media like image, video, audio to maintain a strategic distance from unapproved access and security reason. By and large JPEG bit stream is utilized to store this key data, first JPEG bit stream is encrypted into all around sorted out structure and then this secret information or key data is implanted into this encrypted region by marginally changing the JPEG bit stream. Valuable pixels suitable for information implanting are computed and as indicated by this key subtle elements are implanted. In our proposed framework we are utilizing RC4 algorithm for encrypting JPEG bit stream. Encryption key is acknowledged by framework user which, likewise, will be used at the time of decryption. We are executing enhanced least significant bit supplanting steganography by utilizing genetic algorithm. At first, the quantity of bits that must be installed in a guaranteed coefficient is versatile. By utilizing proper parameters, we can get high capacity while ensuring high security. We are utilizing logistic map for shuffling of bits and utilization GA (Genetic Algorithm) to find right parameters for the logistic map. Information embedding key is utilized at the time of information embedding. By utilizing precise picture encryption and information embedding key, the beneficiary can, without much of a stretch, concentrate the incorporated secure data and totally recoup the first picture and also the original secret information. At the point when the embedding key is truant, the first picture can be recouped pretty nearly with sufficient quality without getting the embedding key of interest.

Keywords: data embedding, decryption, encryption, reversible data hiding, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
13735 Challenges of Embedding Entrepreneurship in Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ubale Cyril


Challenges of embedding entrepreneurship in tertiary institutions in Nigeria requires a consistent policy for equipping schools with necessary facilities like establishing incubating technology centre, the right calibres of human resources, appropriate pedagogical tools for teaching entrepreneurship education and exhibition grounds where products and services will be delivered and patronised by the customers. With the death of facilities in public schools in Nigeria, educators are clamouring for a way out. This study investigated the challenges of embedding entrepreneurship education in Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria. The population for the study was 201 comprising 34 industrial entrepreneurs, 76 technical teachers and 91 final year undergraduates. The data was analysed using means of 3 groups, standard deviation, and analysis of variance. The study found out, that technical teachers have not been trained to teach entrepreneurship education, approaches to teaching methodology, were not varied and lack of infrastructural facilities like building was not a factor. It was recommended that technical teachers be retrained to teach entrepreneurship education, textbooks in entrepreneurship should be published with Nigerian outlook.

Keywords: challenges, embedding, entrepreneurship pedagogical, technology incubating centres

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13734 The Effects of Acupoint Catgut Embedding for Weight Control in Mice Model

Authors: Chanya Inprasit, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin


Obesity (OB) is a hazardous global health problem that has been increasing in prevalence, more severely in last decade. It is the mainly resultant from the imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure, which is concordant with a modern lifestyle, implying an increase in calories with poorer quality of food intake accompanied by a decrease in physical activities. Obesity does not concern the appearance only but is also a major factor contributing to poor physiology, psychology, society and economic issues. Moreover, OB induces low-grade inflammation in the body through the regulatory effect it enacts on the adipocyte function. Various alternative treatments were investigated for body weight control, including Acupoint Catgut Embedding (ACE). ACE is the implantation of absorbable catgut sutures at specific acupoints, displaying durable and potent stimulation and thereby reducing the treatment frequency. Our study utilized a mouse model to exclude any psychological factors of OB and ACE treatment. High-fat diet and body weight were measured once a week before subjects in ACE and Sham group received the ACE treatment or placebo treatment. We hypothesized that ACE can control body weight through the interaction of the TRPV1 pathways, as TRPV1 accordingly responds to inflammatory factors. The results of body weight variation show a significant decrease in body weight in ACE group compared with the baseline of control and Sham group. Meanwhile, converse results were explored in TRPV1 knockout mice, where a significant maintenance of normal body weight throughout the experiment period was observed. There was no significant difference in food consumption of each group. These finding indicated that TRPV1 pathways and its associated pathways may be involved in the maintenance of body weight, which can be controlled by ACE treatment of genetic manipulation.

Keywords: acupoint catgut embedding, obesity, hypothalamus, TRPV1

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13733 Single-Cell Visualization with Minimum Volume Embedding

Authors: Zhenqiu Liu


Visualizing the heterogeneity within cell-populations for single-cell RNA-seq data is crucial for studying the functional diversity of a cell. However, because of the high level of noises, outlier, and dropouts, it is very challenging to measure the cell-to-cell similarity (distance), visualize and cluster the data in a low-dimension. Minimum volume embedding (MVE) projects the data into a lower-dimensional space and is a promising tool for data visualization. However, it is computationally inefficient to solve a semi-definite programming (SDP) when the sample size is large. Therefore, it is not applicable to single-cell RNA-seq data with thousands of samples. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm with an accelerated proximal gradient method and visualize the single-cell RNA-seq data efficiently. We demonstrate that the proposed approach separates known subpopulations more accurately in single-cell data sets than other existing dimension reduction methods.

Keywords: single-cell RNA-seq, minimum volume embedding, visualization, accelerated proximal gradient method

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13732 Text Similarity in Vector Space Models: A Comparative Study

Authors: Omid Shahmirzadi, Adam Lugowski, Kenneth Younge


Automatic measurement of semantic text similarity is an important task in natural language processing. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different vector space models to perform this task. We address the real-world problem of modeling patent-to-patent similarity and compare TFIDF (and related extensions), topic models (e.g., latent semantic indexing), and neural models (e.g., paragraph vectors). Contrary to expectations, the added computational cost of text embedding methods is justified only when: 1) the target text is condensed; and 2) the similarity comparison is trivial. Otherwise, TFIDF performs surprisingly well in other cases: in particular for longer and more technical texts or for making finer-grained distinctions between nearest neighbors. Unexpectedly, extensions to the TFIDF method, such as adding noun phrases or calculating term weights incrementally, were not helpful in our context.

Keywords: big data, patent, text embedding, text similarity, vector space model

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13731 Automatic Aggregation and Embedding of Microservices for Optimized Deployments

Authors: Pablo Chico De Guzman, Cesar Sanchez


Microservices are a software development methodology in which applications are built by composing a set of independently deploy-able, small, modular services. Each service runs a unique process and it gets instantiated and deployed in one or more machines (we assume that different microservices are deployed into different machines). Microservices are becoming the de facto standard for developing distributed cloud applications due to their reduced release cycles. In principle, the responsibility of a microservice can be as simple as implementing a single function, which can lead to the following issues: - Resource fragmentation due to the virtual machine boundary. - Poor communication performance between microservices. Two composition techniques can be used to optimize resource fragmentation and communication performance: aggregation and embedding of microservices. Aggregation allows the deployment of a set of microservices on the same machine using a proxy server. Aggregation helps to reduce resource fragmentation, and is particularly useful when the aggregated services have a similar scalability behavior. Embedding deals with communication performance by deploying on the same virtual machine those microservices that require a communication channel (localhost bandwidth is reported to be about 40 times faster than cloud vendor local networks and it offers better reliability). Embedding can also reduce dependencies on load balancer services since the communication takes place on a single virtual machine. For example, assume that microservice A has two instances, a1 and a2, and it communicates with microservice B, which also has two instances, b1 and b2. One embedding can deploy a1 and b1 on machine m1, and a2 and b2 are deployed on a different machine m2. This deployment configuration allows each pair (a1-b1), (a2-b2) to communicate using the localhost interface without the need of a load balancer between microservices A and B. Aggregation and embedding techniques are complex since different microservices might have incompatible runtime dependencies which forbid them from being installed on the same machine. There is also a security concern since the attack surface between microservices can be larger. Luckily, container technology allows to run several processes on the same machine in an isolated manner, solving the incompatibility of running dependencies and the previous security concern, thus greatly simplifying aggregation/embedding implementations by just deploying a microservice container on the same machine as the aggregated/embedded microservice container. Therefore, a wide variety of deployment configurations can be described by combining aggregation and embedding to create an efficient and robust microservice architecture. This paper presents a formal method that receives a declarative definition of a microservice architecture and proposes different optimized deployment configurations by aggregating/embedding microservices. The first prototype is based on i2kit, a deployment tool also submitted to ICWS 2018. The proposed prototype optimizes the following parameters: network/system performance, resource usage, resource costs and failure tolerance.

Keywords: aggregation, deployment, embedding, resource allocation

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13730 Resume Ranking Using Custom Word2vec and Rule-Based Natural Language Processing Techniques

Authors: Subodh Chandra Shakya, Rajendra Sapkota, Aakash Tamang, Shushant Pudasaini, Sujan Adhikari, Sajjan Adhikari


Lots of efforts have been made in order to measure the semantic similarity between the text corpora in the documents. Techniques have been evolved to measure the similarity of two documents. One such state-of-art technique in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is word to vector models, which converts the words into their word-embedding and measures the similarity between the vectors. We found this to be quite useful for the task of resume ranking. So, this research paper is the implementation of the word2vec model along with other Natural Language Processing techniques in order to rank the resumes for the particular job description so as to automate the process of hiring. The research paper proposes the system and the findings that were made during the process of building the system.

Keywords: chunking, document similarity, information extraction, natural language processing, word2vec, word embedding

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13729 Difference Expansion Based Reversible Data Hiding Scheme Using Edge Directions

Authors: Toshanlal Meenpal, Ankita Meenpal


A very important technique in reversible data hiding field is Difference expansion. Secret message as well as the cover image may be completely recovered without any distortion after data extraction process due to reversibility feature. In general, in any difference expansion scheme embedding is performed by integer transform in the difference image acquired by grouping two neighboring pixel values. This paper proposes an improved reversible difference expansion embedding scheme. We mainly consider edge direction for embedding by modifying the difference of two neighboring pixels values. In general, the larger difference tends to bring a degraded stego image quality than the smaller difference. Image quality in the range of 0.5 to 3.7 dB in average is achieved by the proposed scheme, which is shown through the experimental results. However payload wise it achieves almost similar capacity in comparisons with previous method.

Keywords: information hiding, wedge direction, difference expansion, integer transform

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13728 Embedding Employability Skills in Computer and Information Science Program Curriculum

Authors: Nadezda Pizika


The paper discusses possible approaches of embedding the development of employability skills in the program curriculum. This paper contains analysis of the problem areas raised by employers regarding new graduates’ readiness to join workforce, the ways of possible improvements, and the actions required from different stakeholders. The case discussed in the paper is related to Computer and Information Science (CIS) Program offered at Higher Colleges of Technology (UAE).

Keywords: curriculum design, employability skills, employers, graduates, education, entrepreneurship

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
13727 Masked Candlestick Model: A Pre-Trained Model for Trading Prediction

Authors: Ling Qi, Matloob Khushi, Josiah Poon


This paper introduces a pre-trained Masked Candlestick Model (MCM) for trading time-series data. The pre-trained model is based on three core designs. First, we convert trading price data at each data point as a set of normalized elements and produce embeddings of each element. Second, we generate a masked sequence of such embedded elements as inputs for self-supervised learning. Third, we use the encoder mechanism from the transformer to train the inputs. The masked model learns the contextual relations among the sequence of embedded elements, which can aid downstream classification tasks. To evaluate the performance of the pre-trained model, we fine-tune MCM for three different downstream classification tasks to predict future price trends. The fine-tuned models achieved better accuracy rates for all three tasks than the baseline models. To better analyze the effectiveness of MCM, we test the same architecture for three currency pairs, namely EUR/GBP, AUD/USD, and EUR/JPY. The experimentation results demonstrate MCM’s effectiveness on all three currency pairs and indicate the MCM’s capability for signal extraction from trading data.

Keywords: masked language model, transformer, time series prediction, trading prediction, embedding, transfer learning, self-supervised learning

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13726 A Word-to-Vector Formulation for Word Representation

Authors: Sandra Rizkallah, Amir F. Atiya


This work presents a novel word to vector representation that is based on embedding the words into a sphere, whereby the dot product of the corresponding vectors represents the similarity between any two words. Embedding the vectors into a sphere enabled us to take into consideration the antonymity between words, not only the synonymity, because of the suitability to handle the polarity nature of words. For example, a word and its antonym can be represented as a vector and its negative. Moreover, we have managed to extract an adequate vocabulary. The obtained results show that the proposed approach can capture the essence of the language, and can be generalized to estimate a correct similarity of any new pair of words.

Keywords: natural language processing, word to vector, text similarity, text mining

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13725 A Comprehensive Metamodel of an Urbanized Information System: Experimental Case

Authors: Leila Trabelsi


The urbanization of Information Systems (IS) is an effective approach to master the complexity of the organization. It strengthens the coherence of IS and aligns it with the business strategy. Moreover, this approach has significant advantages such as reducing Information Technologies (IT) costs, enhancing the IS position in a competitive environment and ensuring the scalability of the IS through the integration of technological innovations. Therefore, the urbanization is considered as a business strategic decision. Thus, its embedding becomes a necessity in order to improve the IS practice. However, there is a lack of experimental cases studying meta-modelling of Urbanized Information System (UIS). The aim of this paper addresses new urbanization content meta-model which permits modelling, testing and taking into consideration organizational aspects. This methodological framework is structured according to two main abstraction levels, a conceptual level and an operational level. For each of these levels, different models are proposed and presented. The proposed model for has been empirically tested on company. The findings of this paper present an experimental study of urbanization meta-model. The paper points out the significant relationships between dimensions and their evolution.

Keywords: urbanization, information systems, enterprise architecture, meta-model

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13724 A Framework for Embedding Industry 4.0 in the UAE Defence Manufacturing Industry

Authors: Khalifa Al Baloushi, Hongwei Zhang, Terrence Perera


Over the last few decades, the government of the UAE has been taking actions to consolidate defense manufacturing entities with the view to build a coherent and modern defense manufacturing base. Whilst these actions have significantly improved the overall capabilities of defense manufacturing; further opportunities exist to radically transform the sector. A comprehensive literature review and data collected from a survey identified three potential areas of improvements, (a) integration of Industry 4.0 technologies and other smart technologies, (b) stronger engagement of small and Medium-sized defense manufacturing companies and (c) Enhancing the national defense policies by embedding best practices from other nations. This research paper presents the design and development of a conceptual framework for the UAE defense industrial ecosystem.

Keywords: industry 4.0, defense manufacturing, eco-systems, integration

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13723 Statistical Inferences for GQARCH-It\^{o} - Jumps Model Based on The Realized Range Volatility

Authors: Fu Jinyu, Lin Jinguan


This paper introduces a novel approach that unifies two types of models: one is the continuous-time jump-diffusion used to model high-frequency data, and the other is discrete-time GQARCH employed to model low-frequency financial data by embedding the discrete GQARCH structure with jumps in the instantaneous volatility process. This model is named “GQARCH-It\^{o} -Jumps mode.” We adopt the realized range-based threshold estimation for high-frequency financial data rather than the realized return-based volatility estimators, which entail the loss of intra-day information of the price movement. Meanwhile, a quasi-likelihood function for the low-frequency GQARCH structure with jumps is developed for the parametric estimate. The asymptotic theories are mainly established for the proposed estimators in the case of finite activity jumps. Moreover, simulation studies are implemented to check the finite sample performance of the proposed methodology. Specifically, it is demonstrated that how our proposed approaches can be practically used on some financial data.

Keywords: It\^{o} process, GQARCH, leverage effects, threshold, realized range-based volatility estimator, quasi-maximum likelihood estimate

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13722 Effects of Reversible Watermarking on Iris Recognition Performance

Authors: Andrew Lock, Alastair Allen


Fragile watermarking has been proposed as a means of adding additional security or functionality to biometric systems, particularly for authentication and tamper detection. In this paper we describe an experimental study on the effect of watermarking iris images with a particular class of fragile algorithm, reversible algorithms, and the ability to correctly perform iris recognition. We investigate two scenarios, matching watermarked images to unmodified images, and matching watermarked images to watermarked images. We show that different watermarking schemes give very different results for a given capacity, highlighting the importance of investigation. At high embedding rates most algorithms cause significant reduction in recognition performance. However, in many cases, for low embedding rates, recognition accuracy is improved by the watermarking process.

Keywords: biometrics, iris recognition, reversible watermarking, vision engineering

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13721 A New Nonlinear State-Space Model and Its Application

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei


In this work, a new nonlinear model will be introduced. The model is in the state-space form. The nonlinearity of this model is in the state equation where the state vector is multiplied by its self. This technique makes our model generalizes many famous models as Lotka-Volterra model and Lorenz model which have many applications in the real life. We will apply our new model to estimate the wind speed by using a new nonlinear estimator which suitable to work with our model.

Keywords: nonlinear systems, state-space model, Kronecker product, nonlinear estimator

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13720 Hardware in the Loop Platform for Virtual Commissioning: Case Study of a Hydraulic-Press Model Simulated in Real-Time

Authors: Jorge Rodriguez-Guerra, Carlos Calleja, Aron Pujana, Ana Maria Macarulla


Hydraulic-press commissioning consumes a great amount of man-hours, due to the fact that it takes place several miles away from where it has been designed. This factor became exacerbated due to control designers’ lack of knowledge about which will be the final controller gains before they start working with it. Virtual commissioning has been postulated as an optimal solution to deal with this lack of knowledge. Here, a case study is presented in which a controller is set up against a real-time model based on a hydraulic-press. The press model is designed following manufacturer specifications and it is embedded in a real-time simulator. This methodology ensures that the model achieves similar responses as the real machine that would be placed on the industry. A deterministic communication protocol is in charge of the bidirectional information transmission between the real-time model and the controller. This platform allows the engineer to test and verify the final control responses with exactly the same hardware that is going to be installed in the hydraulic-press, in other words, realize a virtual commissioning of the electro-hydraulic actuator. The Hardware in the Loop (HiL) platform validates in laboratory conditions and harmless for the machine the control algorithms designed, which allows embedding them afterwards in the industrial environment without further modifications.

Keywords: deterministic communication protocol, electro-hydraulic actuator, hardware in the loop, real-time, virtual commissioning

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13719 Image Steganography Using Least Significant Bit Technique

Authors: Preeti Kumari, Ridhi Kapoor


 In any communication, security is the most important issue in today’s world. In this paper, steganography is the process of hiding the important data into other data, such as text, audio, video, and image. The interest in this topic is to provide availability, confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data. The steganographic technique that embeds hides content with unremarkable cover media so as not to provoke eavesdropper’s suspicion or third party and hackers. In which many applications of compression, encryption, decryption, and embedding methods are used for digital image steganography. Due to compression, the nose produces in the image. To sustain noise in the image, the LSB insertion technique is used. The performance of the proposed embedding system with respect to providing security to secret message and robustness is discussed. We also demonstrate the maximum steganography capacity and visual distortion.

Keywords: steganography, LSB, encoding, information hiding, color image

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13718 Lanthanum Fluoride with Embedded Silicon Nanocrystals: A Novel Material for Future Electronic Devices

Authors: Golam Saklayen, Sheikh Rashel al Ahmed, Ferdous Rahman, Ismail Abu Bakar


Investigation on Lanthanum Fluoride LaF3 layer embedding Silicon Nanocrystals (Si-NCs) fabricated using a novel one-step chemical method has been reported in this presentation. Application of this material has been tested for low-voltage operating non-volatile memory and Schottkey-junction solar cell. Colloidal solution of Si-NCs in hydrofluoric acid (HF) was prepared from meso-porous silicon by ultrasonic vibration (sonication). This solution prevents the Si-NCs to be oxidized. On a silicon (Si) substrate, LaCl3 solution in HCl is allowed to react with the colloidal solution of prepared Si-NCs. Since this solution contains HF, LaCl3 reacts with HF and produces LaF3 crystals that deposits on the silicon substrate as a layer embedding Si-NCs. This a novel single step chemical way of depositing LaF3 insulating layer embedding Si-NCs. The X-Ray diffraction of the deposited layer shows a polycrystalline LaF3 deposition on silicon. A non-stoichiometric LaF3 layer embedding Si-NCs was found by EDX analysis. The presence of Si-NCs was confirmed by SEM. FTIR spectroscopy of the deposited LaF3 powder also confirmed the presence of Si-NCs. The size of Si-NCs was found to be inversely proportional to the ultrasonic power. After depositing proper contacts on the back of Si and LaF3, the devices have been tested as a non-volatile memory and solar cell. A memory window of 525 mV was obtained at a programming and erasing bias of 2V. The LaF3 films with Si NCs showed strong absorption and was also found to decrease optical transmittance than pure LaF3 film of same thickness. The I-V characteristics of the films showed a dependency on the incident light intensity where current changed under various light illumination. Experimental results show a lot of promise for Si-NCs-embedded LaF3 layer to be used as an insulating layer in MIS devices as well as an photoactive material in Schottkey junction solar cells.

Keywords: silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs), LaF3, colloidal solution, Schottky junction solar cell

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13717 Adaptive Few-Shot Deep Metric Learning

Authors: Wentian Shi, Daming Shi, Maysam Orouskhani, Feng Tian


Whereas currently the most prevalent deep learning methods require a large amount of data for training, few-shot learning tries to learn a model from limited data without extensive retraining. In this paper, we present a loss function based on triplet loss for solving few-shot problem using metric based learning. Instead of setting the margin distance in triplet loss as a constant number empirically, we propose an adaptive margin distance strategy to obtain the appropriate margin distance automatically. We implement the strategy in the deep siamese network for deep metric embedding, by utilizing an optimization approach by penalizing the worst case and rewarding the best. Our experiments on image recognition and co-segmentation model demonstrate that using our proposed triplet loss with adaptive margin distance can significantly improve the performance.

Keywords: few-shot learning, triplet network, adaptive margin, deep learning

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13716 An Optimal Steganalysis Based Approach for Embedding Information in Image Cover Media with Security

Authors: Ahlem Fatnassi, Hamza Gharsellaoui, Sadok Bouamama


This paper deals with the study of interest in the fields of Steganography and Steganalysis. Steganography involves hiding information in a cover media to obtain the stego media in such a way that the cover media is perceived not to have any embedded message for its unintended recipients. Steganalysis is the mechanism of detecting the presence of hidden information in the stego media and it can lead to the prevention of disastrous security incidents. In this paper, we provide a critical review of the steganalysis algorithms available to analyze the characteristics of an image stego media against the corresponding cover media and understand the process of embedding the information and its detection. We anticipate that this paper can also give a clear picture of the current trends in steganography so that we can develop and improvise appropriate steganalysis algorithms.

Keywords: optimization, heuristics and metaheuristics algorithms, embedded systems, low-power consumption, steganalysis heuristic approach

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13715 Embedding Employability in the Curriculum: Experiences from New Zealand

Authors: Narissa Lewis, Susan Geertshuis


The global and national employability agenda is changing the higher education landscape as academic staff are faced with the responsibility of developing employability capabilities and attributes in addition to delivering discipline specific content and skills. They realise that the shift towards teaching sustainable capabilities means a shift in the way they teach. But what that shift should be or how they should bring it about is unclear. As part of a national funded project, representatives from several New Zealand (NZ) higher education institutions and the NZ Association of Graduate Employers partnered to discover, trial and disseminate means of embedding employability in the curriculum. Findings from four focus groups (n=~75) and individual interviews (n=20) with staff from several NZ higher education institutions identified factors that enable or hinder embedded employability development within their respective institutions. Participants believed that higher education institutions have a key role in developing graduates for successful lives and careers however this requires a significant shift in culture within their respective institutions. Participants cited three main barriers: lack of strategic direction, support and guidance; lack of understanding and awareness of employability; and lack of resourcing and staff capability. Without adequate understanding and awareness of employability, participants believed it is difficult to understand what employability is let alone how it can be embedded in the curriculum. This presentation will describe some of the impacts that the employability agenda has on staff as they try to move from traditional to contemporary forms of teaching to develop employability attributes of students. Changes at the institutional level are required to support contemporary forms of teaching, however this is often beyond the sphere of influence at the teaching staff level. The study identified that small changes to teaching practices were necessary and a simple model to facilitate change from traditional to contemporary forms of teaching was developed. The model provides a framework to identify small but impactful teaching practices and exemplar teaching practices were identified. These practices were evaluated for transferability into other contexts to encourage small but impactful changes to embed employability in the curriculum.

Keywords: curriculum design, change management, employability, teaching exemplars

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13714 Wh-Movement in Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from Magnitude Estimation

Authors: Dong-Bo Hsu


Universal Grammar (UG) claims that the constraints that are derived from this should operate in language users’ L2 grammars. This study investigated this hypothesis on knowledge of Subjacency and resumptive pronoun usage among Chinese learners of English. Chinese fulfills two requirements to examine the existence of UG, i.e., Subjacency does not operate in Chinese and resumptive pronouns in English are very different from those in Chinese and second L2 input undermines the knowledge of Subjacency. The results indicated that Chinese learners of English demonstrated a nearly identical pattern as English native speakers do but the resumptive pronoun in the embedding clauses. This may be explained in terms of the case that Chinese speakers’ usage of pronouns is not influenced by the number of embedding clauses. Chinese learners of English have full access to knowledge endowed by UG but their processing of English sentences may be different from native speakers as a general slow rate for processing in their L2 English.

Keywords: universal grammar, Chinese, English, wh-questions, resumption

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