Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2141

Search results for: electron cyclotron

2141 The Plasma Additional Heating Systems by Electron Cyclotron Waves

Authors: Ghoutia Naima Sabri, Tayeb Benouaz

Abstract:

The interaction between wave and electron cyclotron movement when the electron passes through a layer of resonance at a fixed frequency results an Electron Cyclotron (EC) absorption in Tokamak plasma and dependent magnetic field. This technique is the principle of additional heating (ECRH) and the generation of non-inductive current drive (ECCD) in modern fusion devices. In this paper we are interested by the problem of EC absorption which used a microscopic description of kinetic theory treatment versus the propagation which used the cold plasma description. The power absorbed depends on the optical depth which in turn depends on coefficient of absorption and the order of the excited harmonic for O-mode or X-mode. There is another possibility of heating by dissipation of Alfven waves, based on resonance of cold plasma waves, the shear Alfven wave (SW) and the compressional Alfven wave (FW). Once the (FW) power is coupled to (SW), it stays on the magnetic surface and dissipates there, which cause the heating of bulk plasmas.

Keywords: electron cyclotron, heating, plasma, tokamak

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
2140 Study of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Acceleration by Cylindrical TE₀₁₁ Mode

Authors: Oswaldo Otero, Eduardo A. Orozco, Ana M. Herrera

Abstract:

In this work, we present results from analytical and numerical studies of the electron acceleration by a TE₀₁₁ cylindrical microwave mode in a static homogeneous magnetic field under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition. The stability of the orbits is analyzed using the particle orbit theory. In order to get a better understanding of the interaction wave-particle, we decompose the azimuthally electric field component as the superposition of right and left-hand circular polarization standing waves. The trajectory, energy and phase-shift of the electron are found through a numerical solution of the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation in a finite difference method by the Boris method. It is shown that an electron longitudinally injected with an energy of 7 keV in a radial position r=Rc/2, being Rc the cavity radius, is accelerated up to energy of 90 keV by an electric field strength of 14 kV/cm and frequency of 2.45 GHz. This energy can be used to produce X-ray for medical imaging. These results can be used as a starting point for study the acceleration of electrons in a magnetic field changing slowly in time (GYRAC), which has some important applications as the electron cyclotron resonance ion proton accelerator (ECR-IPAC) for cancer therapy and to control plasma bunches with relativistic electrons.

Keywords: Boris method, electron cyclotron resonance, finite difference method, particle orbit theory, X-ray

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
2139 Investigation of Efficient Production of ¹³⁵La for the Auger Therapy Using Medical Cyclotron in Poland

Authors: N. Zandi, M. Sitarz, J. Jastrzebski, M. Vagheian, J. Choinski, A. Stolarz, A. Trzcinska

Abstract:

¹³⁵La with the half-life of 19.5 h can be considered as a good candidate for Auger therapy. ¹³⁵La decays almost 100% by electron capture to the stable ¹³⁵Ba. In this study, all important possible reactions leading to ¹³⁵La production are investigated in details, and the corresponding theoretical yield for each reaction using the Monte-Carlo method (MCNPX code) are presented. Among them, the best reaction based on the cost-effectiveness and production yield regarding Poland facilities equipped with medical cyclotron has been selected. ¹³⁵La is produced using 16.5 MeV proton beam of general electric PET trace cyclotron through the ¹³⁵Ba(p,n)¹³⁵La reaction. Moreover, for a consistent facilitating comparison between the theoretical calculations and the experimental measurements, the beam current and also the proton beam energy is measured experimentally. Then, the obtained proton energy is considered as the entrance energy for the theoretical calculations. The production yield finally is measured and compared with the results obtained using the MCNPX code. The results show the experimental measurement and the theoretical calculations are in good agreement.

Keywords: efficient ¹³⁵La production, proton cyclotron energy measurement, MCNPX code, theoretical and experimental production yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2138 The Potential for Cyclotron and Generator-produced Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals: An Overview

Authors: Ng Yen, Shafii Khamis, Rehir Bin Dahalan

Abstract:

Cyclotrons in the energy range 10-30 MeV are widely used for the production of clincally relevant radiosiotopes used in positron emission tomography (PET) nuclear imaging. Positron emmision tomography is a powerful nuclear imaging tool that produces high quality 3-dimentional images of functional processes of body. The advantage of PET among all other imaging devices is that it allows the study of an impressive array of discrete biochemical and physiologic processes, within a single imaging session. The number of PET scanner increases every year globally due to high clinical demand. However, not all PET centers can afford a cyclotron, due to the expense associated with operation of an in-house cyclotron. Therefore, current research has also focused on the development of parent/daughter generators that can reliably provide PET nuclides. These generators (68Ge/68Ga generator, 62Zn/62Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, etc) can provide even short-lived radionuclides at any time on demand, without the need of an ‘in-house cyclotron’. The parent isotope is produced at a cyclotron/reactor facility, and can be shipped to remote clinical sites (regionally/overseas), where the daughter isotope is eluted, a model similar to the 99Mo/99mTc generator system. The specific aim for this presentation is to talk about the potential for both of the cyclotron and generator-produced PET radiopharmaceuticals used in clinical imaging.

Keywords: positron emission tomography, radiopharmaceutical, cyclotron, generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
2137 Verifying the Performance of the Argon-41 Monitoring System from Fluorine-18 Production for Medical Applications

Authors: Nicole Virgili, Romolo Remetti

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to characterize, from radiation protection point of view, the emission into the environment of air contaminated by argon-41. In this research work, 41Ar is produced by a TR19PET cyclotron, operated at 19 MeV, installed at 'A. Gemelli' University Hospital, Rome, Italy, for fluorine-18 production. The production rate of 41Ar has been calculated on the basis of the scheduled operation cycles of the cyclotron and by utilising proper production algorithms. Then extensive Monte Carlo calculations, carried out by MCNP code, have allowed to determine the absolute detection efficiency to 41Ar gamma rays of a Geiger Muller detector placed in the terminal part of the chimney. Results showed unsatisfactory detection efficiency values and the need for integrating the detection system with more efficient detectors.

Keywords: Cyclotron, Geiger Muller detector, MCNPX, argon-41, emission of radioactive gas, detection efficiency determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2136 Nonlinear Propagation of Acoustic Soliton Waves in Dense Quantum Electron-Positron Magnetoplasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

Propagation of nonlinear acoustic wave in dense electron-positron (e-p) plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field and stationary ions (to neutralize the plasma background) is studied. By means of the quantum hydrodynamics model and applying the reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the compressive structure of electrostatic solitary wave and periodic travelling waves is found. The numerical results show how the ion density ratio, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the direction cosines of the wave vector affect the nonlinear electrostatic travelling waves. The obtained results may be useful to better understand the obliquely nonlinear electrostatic travelling wave of small amplitude localized structures in dense magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and may be applicable to study the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as the interior of massive white dwarfs etc.

Keywords: bifurcation theory, phase portrait, magnetized electron-positron plasma, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2135 Challenges in E-Government: Conceptual Views and Solutions

Authors: Rasim Alguliev, Farhad Yusifov

Abstract:

Considering the international experience, conceptual and architectural principles of forming of electron government are researched and some suggestions were made. The assessment of monitoring of forming processes of electron government, intellectual analysis of web-resources, provision of information security, electron democracy problems were researched, conceptual approaches were suggested. By taking into consideration main principles of electron government theory, important research directions were specified.

Keywords: electron government, public administration, information security, web-analytics, social networks, data mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
2134 Low Dose In-Line Electron Holography for 3D Atomic Resolution Tomography of Soft Materials

Authors: F. R. Chen, C. Kisielowski, D. Van Dyck

Abstract:

In principle, the latest generation aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) could achieve sub-Å resolution, but there is bottleneck that hinders the final step towards revealing 3D structure. Firstly, in order to achieve a resolution around 1 Å with single atom sensitivity, the electron dose rate needs to be sufficiently large (10⁴-10⁵eÅ⁻² s⁻¹). With such large dose rate, the electron beam can induce surfaces alterations or even bulk modifications, in particular, for electron beam sensitive (soft) materials such as nm size particles, organic materials, proteins or macro-molecules. We will demonstrate methodology of low dose electron holography for observing 3D structure for soft materials such as single Oleic acid molecules at atomic resolution. The main improvement of this new type of electron holography is based on two concepts. Firstly, the total electron dose is distributed over many images obtained at different defocus values from which the electron hologram is then reconstructed. Secondly, in contrast to the current tomographic methods that require projections from several directions, the 3D structural information of the nano-object is then extracted from this one hologram obtained from only one viewing direction.

Keywords: low dose electron microscopy, in-line electron holography, atomic resolution tomography, soft materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
2133 Modulational Instability of Ion-Acoustic Wave in Electron-Positron-Ion Plasmas with Two-Electron Temperature Distributions

Authors: Jitendra Kumar Chawla, Mukesh Kumar Mishra

Abstract:

The nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic wave is studied in the presence of two-electron temperature distribution in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolosky (KBM) perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dispersive and nonlinear coefficients are obtained which depend on the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron species as well as the positron density and temperature. The modulationally unstable regions are studied numerically for a wide range of wave number. The effects of the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron on the modulational stability are investigated in detail.

Keywords: modulational instability, ion acoustic wave, KBM method

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
2132 Nano-Sensors: Search for New Features

Authors: I. Filikhin, B. Vlahovic

Abstract:

We focus on a novel type of detection based on electron tunneling properties of double nanoscale structures in semiconductor materials. Semiconductor heterostructures as quantum wells (QWs), quantum dots (QDs), and quantum rings (QRs) may have energy level structure of several hundred of electron confinement states. The single electron spectra of the double quantum objects (DQW, DQD, and DQR) were studied in our previous works with relation to the electron localization and tunneling between the objects. The wave function of electron may be localized in one of the QDs or be delocalized when it is spread over the whole system. The localizing-delocalizing tunneling occurs when an electron transition between both states is possible. The tunneling properties of spectra differ strongly for “regular” and “chaotic” systems. We have shown that a small violation of the geometry drastically affects localization of electron. In particular, such violations lead to the elimination of the delocalized states of the system. The same symmetry violation effect happens if electrical or magnetic fields are applied. These phenomena could be used to propose a new type of detection based on the high sensitivity of charge transport between double nanostructures and small violations of the shapes. It may have significant technological implications.

Keywords: double quantum dots, single electron levels, tunneling, electron localizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
2131 Comparison Between the Radiation Resistance of n/p and p/n InP Solar Cell

Authors: Mazouz Halima, Belghachi Abdrahmane

Abstract:

Effects of electron irradiation-induced deep level defects have been studied on both n/p and p/n indium phosphide solar cells with very thin emitters. The simulation results show that n/p structure offers a somewhat better short circuit current but the p/n structure offers improved circuit voltage, not only before electron irradiation, but also after 1MeV electron irradiation with 5.1015 fluence. The simulation also shows that n/p solar cell structure is more resistant than that of p/n structure.

Keywords: InP solar cell, p/n and n/p structure, electron irradiation, output parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
2130 Probing Anomalous WW γ and WWZ Couplings with Polarized Electron Beam at the LHeC and FCC-Ep Collider

Authors: I. Turk Cakir, A. Senol, A. T. Tasci, O. Cakir

Abstract:

We study the anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings by calculating total cross sections of the ep→νqγX and ep→νqZX processes at the LHeC with electron beam energy Ee=140 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=7 TeV, and at the FCC-ep collider with the polarized electron beam energy Ee=80 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=50 TeV. At the LHeC with electron beam polarization, we obtain the results for the difference of upper and lower bounds as (0.975, 0.118) and (0.285, 0.009) for the anomalous (Δκγ,λγ) and (Δκz,λz) couplings, respectively. As for FCC-ep collider, these bounds are obtained as (1.101,0.065) and (0.320,0.002) at an integrated luminosity of Lint=100 fb-1.

Keywords: anomalous couplings, future circular collider, large hadron electron collider, W-boson and Z-boson

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
2129 Relation of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of Electron with the Proton and Neutron Masses

Authors: Sergei P. Efimov

Abstract:

The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron is calculated by introducing the effective mass of the virtual part of the electron structure. In this case, the anomalous moment is inversely proportional to the effective mass Meff, which is shown to be a linear combination of the neutron, proton, and electrostatic electron field masses. The spin of a rotating structure is assumed to be equal to 3/2, while the spin of a 'bare' electron is equal to unity, the resultant spin being 1/2. A simple analysis gives the coefficients for a linear combination of proton and electron masses, the approximation precision giving here nine significant digits after the decimal point. The summand proportional to α² adds four more digits. Thus, the conception of the effective mass Meff leads to the formula for the total magnetic moment of the electron, which is accurate to fourteen digits. Association with the virtual beta-decay reaction and possible reasons for simplicity of the derived formula are discussed.

Keywords: anomalous magnetic moment of electron, comparison with quantum electrodynamics. effective mass, fifteen significant figures, proton and neutron masses

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
2128 Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation

Authors: O. Hinrichs, H. Franz, G. Reiter

Abstract:

Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.

Keywords: beam dynamic simulation, space charge compensation, thermionic electron source, EB melting, EB thermal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2127 Computer Software for Calculating Electron Mobility of Semiconductors Compounds; Case Study for N-Gan

Authors: Emad A. Ahmed

Abstract:

Computer software to calculate electron mobility with respect to different scattering mechanism has been developed. This software is adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique and its interface has been designed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. As a case study the electron mobility of n-GaN was performed using this software. The behaviour of the mobility for n-GaN due to elastic scattering processes and its relation to temperature and doping concentration were discussed. The results agree with other available theoretical and experimental data.

Keywords: electron mobility, relaxation time, GaN, scattering, computer software, computation physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
2126 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid

Abstract:

One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2125 Researches Concerning Photons as Corpuscles with Mass and Negative Electrostatic Charge

Authors: Ioan Rusu

Abstract:

Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics, radiation and photons, respectively, should be absorbed by the electron. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of photon absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton, is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that photons have mass and negative electrostatic charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion, photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.

Keywords: electrostatic, electron, photon, proton, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
2124 Generation and Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon/Air

Authors: R. Shrestha, D. P. Subedi, R. B. Tyata, C. S. Wong,

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique for the determination of electron temperatures and electron densities in atmospheric pressure Argon/air discharge by the analysis of optical emission spectra (OES) is reported. The discharge was produced using a high voltage (0-20) kV power supply operating at a frequency of 27 kHz in parallel electrode system, with glass as dielectric. The dielectric layers covering the electrodes act as current limiters and prevent the transition to an arc discharge. Optical emission spectra in the range of (300nm-850nm) were recorded for the discharge with different inter electrode gap keeping electric field constant. Electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) are estimated from electrical and optical methods. Electron density was calculated using power balance method. The optical methods are related with line intensity ratio from the relative intensities of Ar-I and Ar-II lines in Argon plasma. The electron density calculated by using line intensity ratio method was compared with the electron density calculated by stark broadening method. The effect of dielectric thickness on plasma parameters (Te and ne) have also been studied and found that Te and ne increases as thickness of dielectric decrease for same inter electrode distance and applied voltage.

Keywords: electron density, electron temperature, optical emission spectra,

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
2123 New Kinetic Effects in Spatial Distribution of Electron Flux and Excitation Rates in Glow Discharge Plasmas in Middle and High Pressures

Authors: Kirill D. Kapustin, Mikhail B. Krasilnikov, Anatoly A. Kudryavtsev

Abstract:

Physical formation mechanisms of differential electron fluxes is high pressure positive column gas discharge are discussed. It is shown that the spatial differential fluxes of the electrons are directed both inward and outward depending on the energy relaxation law. In some cases the direction of energy differential flux at intermediate energies (5-10eV) in whole volume, except region near the wall, appeared to be down directed, so electron in this region dissipate more energy than gain from axial electric field. Paradoxical behaviour of electron flux in spatial-energy space is presented.

Keywords: plasma kinetics, electron distribution function, excitation and radiation rates, local and nonlocal EDF

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
2122 Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle

Authors: Nilay K. Doshi

Abstract:

A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.

Keywords: electron density, energy, electromagnetic, DFT, TDDFT, plasmon, resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2121 Replacing MOSFETs with Single Electron Transistors (SET) to Reduce Power Consumption of an Inverter Circuit

Authors: Ahmed Shariful Alam, Abu Hena M. Mustafa Kamal, M. Abdul Rahman, M. Nasmus Sakib Khan Shabbir, Atiqul Islam

Abstract:

According to the rules of quantum mechanics there is a non-vanishing probability of for an electron to tunnel through a thin insulating barrier or a thin capacitor which is not possible according to the laws of classical physics. Tunneling of electron through a thin insulating barrier or tunnel junction is a random event and the magnitude of current flowing due to the tunneling of electron is very low. As the current flowing through a Single Electron Transistor (SET) is the result of electron tunneling through tunnel junctions of its source and drain the supply voltage requirement is also very low. As a result, the power consumption across a Single Electron Transistor is ultra-low in comparison to that of a MOSFET. In this paper simulations have been done with PSPICE for an inverter built with both SETs and MOSFETs. 35mV supply voltage was used for a SET built inverter circuit and the supply voltage used for a CMOS inverter was 3.5V.

Keywords: ITRS, enhancement type MOSFET, island, DC analysis, transient analysis, power consumption, background charge co-tunneling

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
2120 Mechanical Simulation with Electrical and Dimensional Tests for AISHa Containment Chamber

Authors: F. Noto, G. Costa, L. Celona, F. Chines, G. Ciavola, G. Cuttone, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, S. Marletta, G. Torrisi

Abstract:

At Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (INFN-LNS), a broad experience in the design, construction and commissioning of ECR and microwave ion sources is available. The AISHa ion source has been designed by taking into account the typical requirements of hospital-based facilities, where the minimization of the mean time between failures (MTBF) is a key point together with the maintenance operations, which should be fast and easy. It is intended to be a multipurpose device, operating at 18 GHz, in order to achieve higher plasma densities. It should provide enough versatility for future needs of the hadron therapy, including the ability to run at larger microwave power to produce different species and highly charged ion beams. The source is potentially interesting for any hadron therapy facility using heavy ions. In this paper, we analyzed the dimensional test and electrical test about an innovative solution for the containment chamber that allows us to solve our isolation and structural problems.

Keywords: FEM analysis, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, dielectrical measurement, hadron therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
2119 Solar Cell Degradation by Electron Irradiation Effect of Irradiation Fluence

Authors: H. Mazouz, A. Belghachi, F. Hadjaj

Abstract:

Solar cells used in orbit are exposed to radiation environment mainly protons and high energy electrons. These particles degrade the output parameters of the solar cell. The aim of this work is to characterize the effects of electron irradiation fluence on the J (V) characteristic and output parameters of gaAs solar cell by numerical simulation. The results obtained demonstrate that the electron irradiation-induced degradation of performances of the cells concerns mainly the short circuit current.

Keywords: gaAs solar cell, MeV electron irradiation, irradiation fluence, short circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
2118 Structure-Phase States of Al-Si Alloy After Electron-Beam Treatment and Multicycle Fatigue

Authors: Krestina V. Alsaraeva, Victor E. Gromov, Sergey V. Konovalov, Anna A. Atroshkina

Abstract:

Processing of Al-19.4Si alloy by high intensive electron beam has been carried out and multiple increase in fatigue life of the material has been revealed. Investigations of structure and surface modified layer destruction of Al-19.4Si alloy subjected to multicycle fatigue tests to fracture have been carried out by methods of scanning electron microscopy. The factors responsible for the increase of fatigue life of Al-19.4Si alloy have been revealed and analyzed.

Keywords: Al-19.4Si alloy, high intensive electron beam, multicycle fatigue, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
2117 Improved Ohmic Contact by Li Doping in Electron Transport Layers

Authors: G. Sivakumar, T. Pratyusha, D. Gupta, W. Shen

Abstract:

To get ohmic contact between the cathode and organic semiconductor, transport layers are introduced between the active layer and the electrodes. Generally zinc oxide or titanium dioxide are used as electron transport layer. When electron transport layer is doped with lithium, the resultant film exhibited superior electronic properties, which enables faster electron transport. Doping is accomplished by heat treatment of films with Lithium salts. Li-doped films. We fabricated organic solar cell using PTB7(poly(3-hexylthiopene-2,5- diyl):PCBM(phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) and found that the solar cells prepared using Li doped films had better performance in terms of efficiency when compared to the undoped transport layers.

Keywords: electron transport layer, higher efficiency, lithium doping, ohmic contact

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
2116 Electron Beam Effects on Kinetic Alfven Waves in the Cold Homogenous Plasma

Authors: Jaya Shrivastava

Abstract:

The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, growth/damping rate and associated currents in the presence of electron beam in homogenous plasma. Kinetic effects of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. The plasma parameters appropriate to plasma sheet boundary layer are used. It is found that downward electron beam affects the dispersion relation, growth/damping-rate and associated currents in cold electron limit.

Keywords: magnetospheric physics, plasma waves and instabilities, electron beam, space plasma physics, wave-particle interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2115 Comparison of Dose Rate and Energy Dependence of Soft Tissue Equivalence Dosimeter with Electron and Photon Beams Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Karim Adinehvand, Amin Sahebnasagh

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter 1/T2 on different electron and photon energies as well as on different mean dose rates for a standard clinically used Co-60 therapy unit and an ELECTA linear accelerator. A multi echo sequence with 32 equidistant echoes was used for the evaluation of irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be one day. The sensitivity of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter with irradiation of photon and electron beams was represented by the slope of calibration curve in the linear region measured for each modality. The response of PAGAT gel with photon and electron beams is very similar in the lower dose region. The R2-dose response was linear up to 30Gy. In electron beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 3Gy is not exact, but in photon beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 2Gy is not exact. Dosimeter energy dependence was studied for electron energies of 4, 12 and 18MeV and photon energies of 1.25, 4, 6 and 18MV. Dose rate dependence was studied in 6MeV electron beam and 6MV photon beam with the use of dose rates 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480cGy/min. Evaluation of dosimeters were performed on Siemens Symphony, Germany 1.5T Scanner in the head coil. In this study no trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T2 dependence was found on mean dose rate and energy for electron and photon beams.

Keywords: polymer gels, PAGAT gel, electron and photon beams, MRI

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
2114 Influence of an External Magnetic Field on the Acoustomagnetoelectric Field in a Rectangular Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential by Using a Quantum Kinetic Equation

Authors: N. Q. Bau, N. V. Nghia

Abstract:

The acoustomagnetoelectric (AME) field in a rectangular quantum wire with an infinite potential (RQWIP) is calculated in the presence of an external magnetic field (EMF) by using the quantum kinetic equation for the distribution function of electrons system interacting with external phonons and electrons scattering with internal acoustic phonon in a RQWIP. We obtained ananalytic expression for the AME field in the RQWIP in the presence of the EMF. The dependence of AME field on the frequency of external acoustic wave, the temperature T of system, the cyclotron frequency of the EMF and the intensity of the EMF is obtained. Theoretical results for the AME field are numerically evaluated, plotted and discussed for a specific RQWIP GaAs/GaAsAl. This result has shown that the dependence of the AME field on intensity of the EMF is nonlinearly and it is many distinct maxima in the quantized magnetic region. We also compared received fields with those for normal bulk semiconductors, quantum well and quantum wire to show the difference. The influence of an EMF on AME field in a RQWIP is newly developed.

Keywords: rectangular quantum wire, acoustomagnetoelectric field, electron-phonon interaction, kinetic equation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
2113 The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂ Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin

Authors: Mingmei Zhang, Xinyong Li

Abstract:

AgInS₂/SnS₂ (AIS) nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AIS nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AIS photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, the interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed by DFT calculations.

Keywords: AIS nanocomposites, electron-hole pairs, charges transfer, DFTcaculations

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
2112 Signal On-Off Ratio and Output Frequency Analysis of Semiconductor Electron-Interference Device

Authors: Tomotaka Aoki, Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We examined the on-off ratio and frequency components of output signals from an electron-interference device made of GaAs/AlₓGa₁₋ₓAs by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger's equation on conducting electrons in the channel waveguide of the device. For electron-wave modulation, a periodic voltage of frequency f was applied to the channel. Furthermore, we examined the voltage-amplitude dependence of the signals in time and frequency domains and found that large applied voltage deformed the output-signal waveform and created additional side modes (frequencies) near the modulation frequency f and that there was a trade-off between on-off ratio and side-mode creation.

Keywords: electrical conduction, electron interference, frequency spectrum, on-off ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 23