Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5974

Search results for: efficiency of a team

5974 Team Workforce Diversity and Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

This study was carried out a meta-analysis on team workforce diversity and team outcomes. Using data from 3,534 teams in 13 studies conducted in team-level settings, we examined whether contextual factors at research local and team-size, influenced team outcomes of team workforce diversity. This meta-analytic examines the team workforce diversity and team outcomes. 13 studies included in the analysis are studies published from 2009 to 2014. We first examined the correlations between all types of diversity and team performance, significant result (Fisher`s Z = .112, k = 32, 95% CI = 0.039 to 0.183). After the analysis was conducted to moderating effect of research local (Republic of Korea=1, other area=0) and team-size. As a result, research local moderating effect had a significant but team-size was not supported. Based on the above findings suggest implications and future research directions.

Keywords: team workforce diversity, team outcomes, meta- analytic, cross-cultural research

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
5973 Team Members' Perception of Team Leader's Effectiveness in Biotechnology Industry in India

Authors: Keerthana Gonella, Kamesh Apparaju

Abstract:

Teams are all pervasive and team leadership is a much discussed topic in managing projects that characterize the modern work environment. Biotechnology industry in India is an area of research interest for scholars on leadership, especially, team leadership. The present paper examines the perception of team members on the effectiveness of their team leaders in the biotechnology industry in India. This is an empirical study in which the data was collected by administering the closed-ended questionnaire to the respondents from across India. The effectiveness of the team leader is dependent upon his goal orientation that creates a collaborative climate. Leaders with technical know-how inspire teamwork with trust. They build confidence, mitigate the differences and expand team capabilities through teamwork. Effective leaders also create team identity making the most of the differences with a vision.

Keywords: collaboration, perception, team, team capabilities, team leadership

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5972 Designing a Cricket Team Selection Method Using Super-Efficient DEA and Semi Variance Approach

Authors: Arnab Adhikari, Adrija Majumdar, Gaurav Gupta, Arnab Bisi

Abstract:

Team formation plays an instrumental role in the sports like cricket. Existing literature reveals that most of the works on player selection focus only on the players’ efficiency and ignore the consistency. It motivates us to design an improved player selection method based on both player’s efficiency and consistency. To measure the players’ efficiency measurement, we employ a modified data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique namely ‘super-efficient DEA model’. We design a modified consistency index based on semi variance approach. Here, we introduce a new parameter called ‘fitness index’ for consistency computation to assess a player’s fitness level. Finally, we devise a single performance score using both efficiency score and consistency score with the help of a linear programming model. To test the robustness of our method, we perform a rigorous numerical analysis to determine the all-time best One Day International (ODI) Cricket XI. Next, we conduct extensive comparative studies regarding efficiency scores, consistency scores, selected team between the existing methods and the proposed method and explain the rationale behind the improvement.

Keywords: decision support systems, sports, super-efficient data envelopment analysis, semi variance approach

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5971 Enhancing Nursing Teams' Learning: The Role of Team Accountability and Team Resources

Authors: Sarit Rashkovits, Anat Drach- Zahavy

Abstract:

The research considers the unresolved question regarding the link between nursing team accountability and team learning and the resulted team performance in nursing teams. Empirical findings reveal disappointing evidence regarding improvement in healthcare safety and quality. Therefore, there is a need in advancing managerial knowledge regarding the factors that enhance constant healthcare teams' proactive improvement efforts, meaning team learning. We first aim to identify the organizational resources that are needed for team learning in nursing teams; second, to test the moderating role of nursing teams' learning resources in the team accountability-team learning link; and third, to test the moderated mediation model suggesting that nursing teams' accountability affects team performance by enhancing team learning when relevant resources are available to the team. We point on the intervening role of three team learning resources, namely time availability, team autonomy and performance data on the relation between team accountability and team learning and test the proposed moderated mediation model on 44 nursing teams (462 nurses and 44 nursing managers). The results showed that, as was expected, there was a positive significant link between team accountability and team learning and the subsequent team performance when time availability and team autonomy were high rather than low. Nevertheless, the positive team accountability- team learning link was significant when team performance feedback was low rather than high. Accordingly, there was a positive mediated effect of team accountability on team performance via team learning when either time availability or team autonomy were high and the availability of team performance data was low. Nevertheless, this mediated effect was negative when time availability and team autonomy were low and the availability of team performance data was high. We conclude that nurturing team accountability is not enough for achieving nursing teams' learning and the subsequent improved team performance. Rather there is need to provide nursing teams with adequate time, autonomy, and be cautious with performance feedback, as the latter may motivate nursing teams to repeat routine work strategies rather than explore improved ones.

Keywords: nursing teams' accountability, nursing teams' learning, performance feedback, teams' autonomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
5970 Psychological Compatibility of Football Players According to Success Achievement and Failure Avoidance Motivation

Authors: Konstantin A. Bochaver, Alexandra O. Savinkina

Abstract:

The study analyzed the relationship between the homogeneity-heterogeneity of players in a football team and their efficiency. Compatible players were examined in terms of level of socio-psychological development of the team for which they act. It was shown that in teams of high level of socio-psychological development more compatible were athletes with different levels of failure avoidance motivation. But in low-level teams – bucking the trend. The homogeneity of success achievement motivation was not a factor in the effectiveness of the football team.

Keywords: compatibility, failure avoidance motivation, football, heterogeneity, homogeneity, soccer, sport team, success achievement motivation

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5969 A Test to Express Diagnostic Cohesion of Football Team

Authors: Alexandra O. Savinkina

Abstract:

We proposed to assess the cohesion of a football team by its subject-goal and subject-value unity according to the A.V. Petrovsky theory. Goal unity was measured by the degree of compliance of the priority targets for various players in the team. Values were estimated by the coincidence of the ideas about a perfect football player. On the basis of the provisional diagnosis of the six teams, we had made the lists of goals and values. The tests were piloted on 35 football teams. The results allowed not only to compare quantitatively the cohesion of the different teams, but also to identify subgroups within the team.

Keywords: cohesion, football, psychodiagnostic, soccer, sports team, value-orientation unity

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
5968 Understanding Team Member Autonomy and Team Collaboration: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Ayşen Bakioğlu, Gökçen Seyra Çakır

Abstract:

This study aims to explore how research assistants who work in project teams experience team member autonomy and how they reconcile team member autonomy with team collaboration. The study utilizes snowball sampling. 20 research assistants who work the faculties of education in Marmara University and Yıldız Technical University have been interviewed. The analysis of data involves a content analysis MAXQDAPlus 11 which is a qualitative data analysis software is used as the data analysis tool. According to the findings of this study, emerging themes include team norm formation, team coordination management, the role of individual tasks in team collaboration, leadership distribution. According to the findings, interviewees experience team norm formation process in terms of processes, which pertain to task fulfillment, and processes, which pertain to the regulation of team dynamics. Team norm formation process instills a sense of responsibility amongst individual team members. Apart from that, the interviewees’ responses indicate that the realization of the obligation to work in a team contributes to the team norm formation process. The participants indicate that individual expectations are taken into consideration during the coordination of the team. The supervisor of the project team also has a crucial role in maintaining team collaboration. Coordination problems arise when an individual team member does not relate his/her academic field with the research topic of the project team. The findings indicate that the leadership distribution in the project teams involves two leadership processes: leadership distribution which is based on the processes that focus on individual team members and leadership distribution which is based on the processes that focus on team interaction. Apart from that, individual tasks serve as a facilitator of collaboration amongst team members. Interviewees also indicate that individual tasks also facilitate the expression of individuality.

Keywords: project teams in higher education, research assistant teams, team collaboration, team member autonomy

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5967 The Effects of Social Capital and Empowering Leadership on Team Cohesion

Authors: Y. R. Lai, J. C. Jehng, T. T. Chang

Abstract:

Team is a popular job design in the management settings. Because people on a team need to work together to complete a lot of tasks, the interaction between team members strongly influences team effectiveness. The study examines the effect of social capital and empowering leadership on team cohesion. There are three facets of social capital: structural facet, relational facet, and cognitive facet. Empowering leadership includes enhancing the meaningfulness of work, fostering participation in decision making, expressing confidence in high performance, and providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints. Data were collected from 181 team members of 47 teams in the real estate agency industry. The results show that the relational social capital, enhancing the meaningfulness of work, and providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints are positively related to two dimensions of team cohesion: sense of belonging and feelings of moral. Additionally, expressing confidence in high performance is negatively related to sense of belonging.

Keywords: social capital, empowering leadership, team cohesion, team effectiveness

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5966 Applying Sliding Autonomy for a Human-Robot Team on USARSim

Authors: Fang Tang, Jacob Longazo

Abstract:

This paper describes a sliding autonomy approach for coordinating a team of robots to assist the human operator to accomplish tasks while adapting to new or unexpected situations by requesting help from the human operator. While sliding autonomy has been well studied in the context of controlling a single robot. Much work needs to be done to apply sliding autonomy to a multi-robot team, especially human-robot team. Our approach aims at a hierarchical sliding control structure, with components that support human-robot collaboration. We validated our approach in the USARSim simulation and demonstrated that the human-robot team's overall performance can be improved under the sliding autonomy control.

Keywords: sliding autonomy, multi-robot team, human-robot collaboration, USARSim

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
5965 Using Motives of Sports Consumption to Explain Team Identity: A Comparison between Football Fans across the Pond

Authors: G. Scremin, I. Y. Suh, S. Doukas

Abstract:

Spectators follow their favorite sports teams for different reasons. While some attend a sporting event simply for its entertainment value, others do so because of the personal sense of achievement and accomplishment their connection with a sports team creates. Moreover, the level of identity spectators feel toward their favorite sports team falls in a broad continuum. Some are mere spectators. For those spectators, their association to a sports team has little impact on their self-image. Others are die-hard fans who are proud of their association with their team and whose connection with that team is an important reflection of who they are. Several motives for sports consumption can be used to explain the level of spectator support in a variety of sports. Those motives can also be used to explain the variance in the identification, attachment, and loyalty spectators feel toward their favorite sports team. Motives for sports consumption can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. In this study, motives for sports consumption was used to discriminate the level of identity spectators feel toward their sports team. It was hypothesized that spectators with a strong level of team identity would report higher rates of interest in player, interest in sports, and interest in team than spectators with a low level of team identity. And spectators with a low level of team identity would report higher rates for entertainment value, bonding with friends or family, and wholesome environment. Football spectators in the United States and England were surveyed about their motives for football consumption and their level of identification with their favorite football team. To assess if the motives of sports fans differed by level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) under the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure found in SPSS was performed. The independent variables were level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, and the dependent variables were the sport fan motives. A tripartite split (low, moderate, high) was used on a composite measure for team identity. Preliminary results show that effect of team identity is statistically significant (p < .001) for at least nine of the 17 motives for sports consumption assessed in this investigation. These results indicate that the motives of spectators with a strong level of team identity differ significantly from spectators with a low level of team identity. Those differences can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. Sports marketers can use these methods and results to develop identity profiles of spectators and create marketing strategies specifically designed to attract those spectators based on their unique motives for consumption and their level of team identification.

Keywords: fan identification, market segmentation of sports fans, motives for sports consumption, team identity

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5964 Human Capital Divergence and Team Performance: A Study of Major League Baseball Teams

Authors: Yu-Chen Wei

Abstract:

The relationship between organizational human capital and organizational effectiveness have been a common topic of interest to organization researchers. Much of this research has concluded that higher human capital can predict greater organizational outcomes. Whereas human capital research has traditionally focused on organizations, the current study turns to the team level human capital. In addition, there are no known empirical studies assessing the effect of human capital divergence on team performance. Team human capital refers to the sum of knowledge, ability, and experience embedded in team members. Team human capital divergence is defined as the variation of human capital within a team. This study is among the first to assess the role of human capital divergence as a moderator of the effect of team human capital on team performance. From the traditional perspective, team human capital represents the collective ability to solve problems and reducing operational risk of all team members. Hence, the higher team human capital, the higher the team performance. This study further employs social learning theory to explain the relationship between team human capital and team performance. According to this theory, the individuals will look for progress by way of learning from teammates in their teams. They expect to have upper human capital, in turn, to achieve high productivity, obtain great rewards and career success eventually. Therefore, the individual can have more chances to improve his or her capability by learning from peers of the team if the team members have higher average human capital. As a consequence, all team members can develop a quick and effective learning path in their work environment, and in turn enhance their knowledge, skill, and experience, leads to higher team performance. This is the first argument of this study. Furthermore, the current study argues that human capital divergence is negative to a team development. For the individuals with lower human capital in the team, they always feel the pressure from their outstanding colleagues. Under the pressure, they cannot give full play to their own jobs and lose more and more confidence. For the smart guys in the team, they are reluctant to be colleagues with the teammates who are not as intelligent as them. Besides, they may have lower motivation to move forward because they are prominent enough compared with their teammates. Therefore, human capital divergence will moderate the relationship between team human capital and team performance. These two arguments were tested in 510 team-seasons drawn from major league baseball (1998–2014). Results demonstrate that there is a positive relationship between team human capital and team performance which is consistent with previous research. In addition, the variation of human capital within a team weakens the above relationships. That is to say, an individual working with teammates who are comparable to them can produce better performance than working with people who are either too smart or too stupid to them.

Keywords: human capital divergence, team human capital, team performance, team level research

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5963 The Role of Team Efficacy and Coaching on the Relationships between Distributive and Procedural Justice and Job Engagement

Authors: Yoonhee Cho, Gye-Hoon Hong

Abstract:

This study focuses on the roles of distributive and procedural justice on job engagement. Additionally, the study focuses on whether situational factors such as team efficacy and team leaders’ coaching moderate the relationship between distributive and procedural justice and job engagement. Ordinary linear regression was used to analyze data from seven South Korean Companies (total N=346). Results confirmed the hypothesized model indicating that both distributive and procedural justices were positively related to job engagement of employees. Team efficacy and team leaders’ coaching moderated the relationship between distributive justice and job engagement whereas it brought non-significant result found for procedural justice. The facts that two types of justice and the interactive effects of two situational variables were different implied that different managerial strategies should be used when job engagement was to be enhanced.

Keywords: coaching, distributive justice, job engagement, procedural justice, team efficacy

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5962 The Successful in Construction Project via Effectiveness of Project Team

Authors: Zarabizan Zakaria, Hayati Zainal

Abstract:

The construction industry is one of the most important sectors that contribute to the nation’s economy and catalyze towards the growth of other industries. However, some construction projects have not been completed on its stipulated time and duration, scope and budget due to several factors. This problem arises due to the weaknesses of human factors, especially from ineffective leadership quality practiced by project managers and contractors in managing project teams. Therefore, a construction project should impose the element of Project Team. The project team is formed in the implementation of the project which includes the project brief, project scope, customer requirements and provided designs. Many organizations in the construction sector use teams to meet today's global competition and customer expectations, however, team effectiveness evaluation is required. In insuring the construction team is successful and effectiveness, the construction department must encourage, measure, set up, and evaluate or review the effectiveness of project team that was formed. In order to produce a better outcome for a high-end project, an effective and efficient project team is required which also help in increasing overall productivity. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of team effectiveness in the construction project team based on the overall construction project performance. It examines several different factors which related to team effectiveness. It also examines the relationship between team effectiveness factor and project performance aspect. Team Effect Review and Project Performance Review are developed to be used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using several statistical tests. Results obtained from data analysis are validated using semi-structured interviews. Besides that, a comprehensive survey were developed to assess the way construction project teams in order to maintain its effectiveness throughout the project phase. In order to determine a project successful it has been found that Project Team Leadership is the most important factor. In addition, the definition of team effectiveness in the construction project team is developed based on the perspective of project clients and project team members. The results of this study are expected to provide an idea on the factors that are needed to be focused on improving the team's effectiveness towards project performance aspects. At the same time, the definition of team effectiveness from team members and owner views has been developed in order to provide a better understanding of the word team's effectiveness in construction projects.

Keywords: project team, leadership, construction project, project successful

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5961 A Comparative Study of Mental Toughness among Players of Team and Individual Sports

Authors: P. B. Thumar

Abstract:

Today’s athletes face acute and unique challenges as the competition standards are higher and tougher. There are certain moments during a competition that appear to carry great psychological significance when the momentum starts to shift in one direction or another. These situations require athletes to remain completely focused and calm in facing the difficult circumstances. The purpose of the study was to compare the Mental Toughness level among the players of the team and individual sports. Purposive sampling was done in which subjects for the present study were the male students of The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara studying various courses in the academic year 2014-15. Thus, a total number of 120 boys were identified and included in the study from which 60 boys had participated in individual sports and 60 in team sports. ‘The Mental Toughness Questionnaire’ prepared by Dr. Alan Goldberg was used to determine mental toughness level of the players of the team and individual sports. The scores arrived from 60 individual players and 60 team players were compared by applying the t-test. Significant difference was found on overall Mental Toughness and in subcomponents there was significant difference in ability to handle pressure, concentration and confidence whereas there was no significant difference in reboundability and motivation among team and individual sports players. This could be largely due the nature of both sports. Team players of MSU found to be having more overall mental toughness, and team players are able to handle pressure more than individual players, can concentrate more and are also more confident while playing in the team. Team preparation and training prior to competition could have increased the level of ability to handle pressure, concentration and confidence of team players.

Keywords: mental toughness, reboundability, confidence, team sports, individual sports

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5960 Senior Leadership Team Coaching in Action: Creating High-Performance Teams

Authors: Siqi Fang, Jingxi Hou

Abstract:

Positive psychology and coaching psychology share a number of fundamental assumptions and common themes. Blending positive psychology, mindfulness, and coaching psychology, our work in team coaching with leaders enhances both leadership and team effectiveness. Although individual coaching has proven to be effective, this article advocates the benefits of leadership coaching in team settings, because durable changes in leadership behaviors are more likely to occur. Does leadership team coaching really work? Does it help improve senior leadership team effectiveness and productivity? This action research study answers these questions by tracking the progress of three typical senior leadership teams consisting of 31 executives participating in a six-month team coaching program. Assessments (pre- and post), workshops, and feedback based on ego development theories and mindfulness were applied to upgrade the senior leadership teams’ transformational stages and reframe their organizational leadership cultures. Results suggest that the team effectiveness of the three leadership teams increased up to 43 percent according to post-survey feedback from superior, direct report, and peers. Discussion is offered to show that senior leadership team coaching help teams to achieve a consensus on common purposes, establish a foundation of trust, improve collective skills, and promote efficient operation. All factors translate into better team performance. Implications of the results for future executive development programs are discussed and specific recommendations are provided.

Keywords: action research, ego development, mindfulness, senior leadership team coaching, team effectiveness, transformational stages

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5959 The Impact of Metacognitive Knowledge and Experience on Top Management Team Diversity and Small to Medium Enterprises Performance

Authors: Jo Rhodes, Peter Lok, Zahra Sadeghinejad

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to determine the impact of metacognition on top management team members and firm performance based on full team integration. A survey of 1500 small to medium enterprises (SMEs) was initiated and 140 firms were obtained in this study (with response rate of 9%). The result showed that different metacognitive abilities of managers [knowledge and experience] could enhance team decision-making and problem solving, resulting in greater firm performance. This is a significant finding for SMEs because these organisations have small teams with owner leadership and entrepreneurial orientation.

Keywords: metacognition, behavioural integration, top management team (TMT), performance

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5958 Acoustic and Thermal Compliance from the Execution Theory

Authors: Saou Mohamed Amine

Abstract:

The construction industry has been identified as a user of substantial amount of materials and energy resources that has an enormous impact on environment. The energy efficient in refurbishment project is being considered as one of the approaches to achieve sustainability in construction industry. The increasing concern for environment has made building owners and designers to incorporate the energy efficiency features into their building projects. However, an overwhelming issue of existing non-energy efficient buildings which exceeds the number of new building could be ineffective if the buildings are not refurbished through the energy efficient measures. Thus, energy efficient in refurbishment project is being considered as one of the approaches to achieve sustainability that offers significant opportunities for reducing global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the quality of design team attributes and the characteristics of the refurbishment building projects have been argued to be the main factors that determine the energy efficiency performance of the building.

Keywords: construction industry, design team attributes, energy efficient performance, refurbishment projects characteristics

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5957 The Role of Satisfaction on Performance among Afe Babalola University Team Sports

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu

Abstract:

Viability and competency during competition is the dream of every team sports so as to have a good result. But it seems factors abound which deter the performance of even a good sports team. Different individuals with different state of mind all come together to perform in team sports with different degree of satisfaction. This study investigated the role of satisfaction on performance among Afe Babalola University team sports. Descriptive survey research design was used and the population consists of all male and female athletes in the team sports that participated in the last 2019 Ekiti State Higher Institution games (ESHIGA). Total enumeration technique was used for the three team sports; football (44), basketball (24) and volleyball (24). A total of 92 participants were involved in the research. The instrument used for the study was a modified Athlete Satisfaction Scale (ASS). The questionnaire was divided into two sections. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.71 was obtained. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significant levels. The completed questionnaire was collated, coded, and analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage and inferential statistics of chi-square (X2). Findings of this study revealed that satisfaction significantly influences team sports performance among Athletes of Afe Babalola University. The responsibility of satisfying athlete lies on the coaches, fans, sports administrators as well as organizers of such event, as it is not only financial reward that gives satisfaction. The performance of a team sports is quiet important and its being determined by the degree of satisfaction of each individual that make up the team. All effort must be made to satisfy athlete in order to guarantee optimum performance.

Keywords: athlete satisfaction, optimum achievement, optimum performance, sports performance and team sports

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5956 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke

Abstract:

The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 579
5955 TALENT GAMING©: The Innovative Methodology to Explore Talents and Empower Teams by Using Board Games

Authors: Susana F. Casla

Abstract:

Talent Gaming is an innovative methodology based on a large research done for years about how table board games can be used to empower teams. This methodology was developed thinking about the efficiency of facilitating team coaching sessions and the importance of bringing out the best of individuals when working as a team. The fact that more senses are involved in playing a board game, linked with the psychological element of space and “permission to play”, help us travel to earlier stages of our life when our authenticity was at its heights. By being focused on playing the board game, the individual does not direct their consciousness in a particular way and is rather focused in winning the board game. By doing this, his or her inner talents and authenticity surfaces and the fact that all the senses are involved impacts enormously his behaviors and attitudes. All of this combined results in an arena where our talents show up and our decision making process is not impacted by other elements, such as appearances, status or hierarchy.

Keywords: talent, team, board game, business psychology, coaching teams at work

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5954 Stimulating Team Creativity: A Study on Creative-Oriented Integrated Design Companies in Taiwan

Authors: Yueh Hsiu Giffen Cheng, Teng Jung Wang

Abstract:

According to the study of British national advisory council on creative and cultural education(NACCCE, what the present and the future need awesome innovative and creative people from the perspective of commercial human resources. Therefore, we can know from above, creativity plays an important role in today’s enterprise indeed. Besides, many companies are aimed at developing team work as their main goal, so “creativity” and “teamwork” become more and more important factors to succeed and team creativity also turn into an important issue gradually. Then, the study takes in-depth interviews of design companies’ leaders and uses self-designed questionnaire regarding affecting team creativity to conduct cross-analysis. The results show that for those creative-oriented integrated design companies, their design strategies don’t begin until data collection and their scripts are usually the best way to inspire creativity. Besides, passing down a legacy of experiences are their common educational training. Most important of all, their organizational resources and leaders can assist all the team to learn and grow effectively and the good interaction between the leader and the member can also bring work flexibility and efficiency. In short, the leader’s expectation of members’ performance can cause them to encourage each other to progress. Moreover, the analysis of questionnaire indicates that members who are open-minded and leaders who have transformational leadership style can both help to establish a good team interaction. Furthermore, abundant resources and training system are also good approaches to establish a harmonious relationship. Finally, through integrating the outcomes of interviews and questionnaires, we can infer that those integrated design companies’ circumstances of design progress are mainly from their leaders’ guidance. In addition, the analysis of design problems are focused on their creative strategies and their scripts and sketches can also inspire their creativity. In sum, the feature of all team is influenced by 4 factors: leaders who have transformational leadership style, open-minded members, flexible working environment, resources and interactive relationship. Ultimately, the study hopes that the result above can apply to the design-related industries or help general companies elevate the team creativity.

Keywords: creativity, team creativity, integrated design companies, design process

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
5953 The Impact of Team Heterogeneity and Team Reflexivity on Entrepreneurial Decision -Making - Empirical Study in China

Authors: Chang Liu, Rui Xing, Liyan Tang, Guohong Wang

Abstract:

Entrepreneurial actions are based on entrepreneurial decisions. The quality of decisions influences entrepreneurial activities and subsequent new venture performance. Uncertainty of surroundings put heightened demands on the team as a whole, and each team member. Diverse team composition provides rich information, which a team can draw when making complex decisions. However, team heterogeneity may cause emotional conflicts, which is adverse to team outcomes. Thus, the effects of team heterogeneity on team outcomes are complex. Although team heterogeneity is an essential factor influencing entrepreneurial decision-making, there is a lack of empirical analysis on under what conditions team heterogeneity plays a positive role in promoting decision-making quality. Entrepreneurial teams always struggle with complex tasks. How a team shapes its teamwork is key in resolving constant issues. As a collective regulatory process, team reflexivity is characterized by continuous joint evaluation and discussion of team goals, strategies, and processes, and adapt them to current or anticipated circumstances. It enables diversified information to be shared and overtly discussed. Instead of hostile interpretation of opposite opinions team members take them as useful insights from different perspectives. Team reflexivity leads to better integration of expertise to avoid the interference of negative emotions and conflict. Therefore, we propose that team reflexivity is a conditional factor that influences the impact of team heterogeneity on high-quality entrepreneurial decisions. In this study, we identify team heterogeneity as a crucial determinant of entrepreneurial decision quality. Integrating the literature on decision-making and team heterogeneity, we investigate the relationship between team heterogeneity and entrepreneurial decision-making quality, treating team reflexivity as a moderator. We tested our hypotheses using the hierarchical regression method and the data gathered from 63 teams and 205 individual members from 45 new firms in China's first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. This research found that both teams' education heterogeneity and teams' functional background heterogeneity were significantly positively related to entrepreneurial decision-making quality, and the positive relation was stronger in teams with a high level of team reflexivity. While teams' specialization of education heterogeneity was negatively related to decision-making quality, and the negative relationship was weaker in teams with a high level of team reflexivity. We offer two contributions to decision-making and entrepreneurial team literatures. Firstly, our study enriches the understanding of the role of entrepreneurial team heterogeneity in entrepreneurial decision-making quality. Different from previous entrepreneurial decision-making literatures, which focus more on decision-making modes of entrepreneurs and the top management team, this study is a significant attempt to highlight that entrepreneurial team heterogeneity makes a unique contribution to generating high-quality entrepreneurial decisions. Secondly, this study introduced team reflexivity as the moderating variable, to explore the boundary conditions under which the entrepreneurial team heterogeneity play their roles.

Keywords: decision-making quality, entrepreneurial teams, education heterogeneity, functional background heterogeneity, specialization of education heterogeneity

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5952 Ranking Theory-The Paradigm Shift in Statistical Approach to the Issue of Ranking in a Sports League

Authors: E. Gouya Bozorg

Abstract:

The issue of ranking of sports teams, in particular soccer teams is of primary importance in the professional sports. However, it is still based on classical statistics and models outside of area of mathematics. Rigorous mathematics and then statistics despite the expectation held of them have not been able to effectively engage in the issue of ranking. It is something that requires serious pathology. The purpose of this study is to change the approach to get closer to mathematics proper for using in the ranking. We recommend using theoretical mathematics as a good option because it can hermeneutically obtain the theoretical concepts and criteria needful for the ranking from everyday language of a League. We have proposed a framework that puts the issue of ranking into a new space that we have applied in soccer as a case study. This is an experimental and theoretical study on the issue of ranking in a professional soccer league based on theoretical mathematics, followed by theoretical statistics. First, we showed the theoretical definition of constant number Є = 1.33 or ‘golden number’ of a soccer league. Then, we have defined the ‘efficiency of a team’ by this number and formula of μ = (Pts / (k.Є)) – 1, in which Pts is a point obtained by a team in k number of games played. Moreover, K.Є index has been used to show the theoretical median line in the league table and to compare top teams and bottom teams. Theoretical coefficient of σ= 1 / (1+ (Ptx / Ptxn)) has also been defined that in every match between the teams x, xn, with respect to the ability of a team and the points of both of them Ptx, Ptxn, and it gives a performance point resulting in a special ranking for the League. And it has been useful particularly in evaluating the performance of weaker teams. The current theory has been examined for the statistical data of 4 major European Leagues during the period of 1998-2014. Results of this study showed that the issue of ranking is dependent on appropriate theoretical indicators of a League. These indicators allowed us to find different forms of ranking of teams in a league including the ‘special table’ of a league. Furthermore, on this basis the issue of a record of team has been revised and amended. In addition, the theory of ranking can be used to compare and classify the different leagues and tournaments. Experimental results obtained from archival statistics of major professional leagues in the world in the past two decades have confirmed the theory. This topic introduces a new theory for ranking of a soccer league. Moreover, this theory can be used to compare different leagues and tournaments.

Keywords: efficiency of a team, ranking, special table, theoretical mathematic

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5951 Understanding Innovation, Mentorship, and Motivation in Teams, a Design-Centric Approach for Undergraduates

Authors: K. Z. Tang, K. Ameek, K. Kuang

Abstract:

Rapid product development cycles and changing economic conditions compel businesses to find new ways to stay relevant and effective. One of the ways which many companies have adopted is to spur innovations within the various team-based units in the organization. It would be relevant and important to ensure our graduates are ready to excel in such evolving conditions within their professional eco-systems. However, it is not easy to understand the interplays of nurturing team innovation and improving students’ learning, in the context of engineering education. In this study, we seek to understand team innovation and explore ways to improve students’ performance and learning, via motivation and mentorship. Learning goals from a group of students are collected during a carefully designed two-week long summer programme to provide insights on the main themes, within the context of learning and working in a team.

Keywords: team innovation, mentorship, motivation, learning

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5950 Evaluation of Teaching Team Stress Factors in Two Engineering Education Programs

Authors: Kari Bjorn

Abstract:

Team learning has been studied and modeled as double loop model and its variations. Also, metacognition has been suggested as a concept to describe the nature of team learning to be more than a simple sum of individual learning of the team members. Team learning has a positive correlation with both individual motivation of its members, as well as the collective factors within the team. Team learning of previously very independent members of two teaching teams is analyzed. Applied Science Universities are training future professionals with ever more diversified and multidisciplinary skills. The size of the units of teaching and learning are increasingly larger for several reasons. First, multi-disciplinary skill development requires more active learning and richer learning environments and learning experiences. This occurs on students teams. Secondly, teaching of multidisciplinary skills requires a multidisciplinary and team-based teaching from the teachers as well. Team formation phases have been identifies and widely accepted. Team role stress has been analyzed in project teams. Projects typically have a well-defined goal and organization. This paper explores team stress of two teacher teams in a parallel running two course units in engineering education. The first is an Industrial Automation Technology and the second is Development of Medical Devices. The courses have a separate student group, and they are in different campuses. Both are run in parallel within 8 week time. Both of them are taught by a group of four teachers with several years of teaching experience, but individually. The team role stress scale items - the survey is done to both teaching groups at the beginning of the course and at the end of the course. The inventory of questions covers the factors of ambiguity, conflict, quantitative role overload and qualitative role overload. Some comparison to the study on project teams can be drawn. Team development stage of the two teaching groups is different. Relating the team role stress factors to the development stage of the group can reveal the potential of management actions to promote team building and to understand the maturity of functional and well-established teams. Mature teams indicate higher job satisfaction and deliver higher performance. Especially, teaching teams who deliver highly intangible results of learning outcome are sensitive to issues in the job satisfaction and team conflicts. Because team teaching is increasing, the paper provides a review of the relevant theories and initial comparative and longitudinal results of the team role stress factors applied to teaching teams.

Keywords: engineering education, stress, team role, team teaching

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5949 Comparative Analysis of Competitive State Anxiety among Team Sport and Individual Sport Athletes in Iran

Authors: Hossein Soltani, Zahra Hojati, Seyed Reza Attarzadeh Hossini

Abstract:

Anxiety levels before and during competition are not clear due to conflicting findings; various athletes have reported different levels of anxiety from much too low. With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, and the lack of a comprehensive theory in this field made the author to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. The sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (taekwondo, karate, and wrestling) and 60 athletes in team sports (volleyball, basketball, futsal). All participants in this study were regularly competing at the super leagues and regional level. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally, using one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. The results indicated that the mean score of cognitive and somatic anxiety among individual sport athletes was higher than that of team sport athletes (P<0.05). Self-confidence levels of individual sports athletes was higher than that of team sports athletes but the difference was not significant (P >0.05). It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. Conclusion: Individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.

Keywords: competitive state anxiety, cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, team sports, individual sports

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5948 An Empirical Analysis of the Relation between Entrepreneur's Leadership and Team Creativity: The Role of Psychological Empowerment, Cognitive Diversity, and Environmental Uncertainty

Authors: Rui Xing, Xiaowen Zhao, Hao Huang, Chang Liu

Abstract:

Creativity is regarded as vital for new ventures' development since the whole process of entrepreneurship is rooted in the creation and exploration of new ideas. The entrepreneurial leader is central to the entrepreneurial team, who plays an especially important role in this process. However, few scholars have studied the impact entrepreneurs' leadership styles on the creativity of entrepreneurial teams. In this study, we integrate the historically disjointed literatures of leadership style and team creativity under entrepreneurship circumstance to understand why and when entrepreneurs' different leadership style relates to team creativity. Focus on answering the following questions: Is humility leadership necessarily better than narcissism leadership at increasing the creativity of entrepreneurial teams? Moreover, in which situations humility leadership or narcissism leadership is more conducive to the entrepreneurial team's creativity? Based on the componential theory of creativity and entrepreneurial cognition theory, we explore the relationship between entrepreneurs' leadership style and team creativity, treating team cognitive diversity and environmental uncertainty as moderators and psychological empowerment as mediators. We tested our hypotheses using data gathered from 64 teams and 256 individual members from 53 new firms in China's first-tier cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. We found that there was a significant positive relation between entrepreneurs' humble leadership and psychological empowerment, and the more significant the positive correlation was when the environmental uncertainty was high. In addition, there was a significant negative relation between entrepreneurs' narcissistic leadership and psychological empowerment, and the negative relation was weaker in teams with a high team cognitive diversity value. Furthermore, both entrepreneurs' humble leadership and team psychological empowerment were significantly positively related to team creativity. While entrepreneurs' narcissistic leadership was negatively related to team creativity, and the negative relationship was weaker in teams with a high team cognitive diversity or a high environmental uncertainty value. This study has some implications for both scholars and entrepreneurs. Firstly, our study enriches the understanding of the role of leadership in entrepreneurial team creativity. Different from previous team creativity literatures, focusing on TMT and R&D team, this study is a significant attempt to demonstrate that entrepreneurial leadership style is particularly relevant to the core requirements of team creativity. Secondly, this study introduces two moderating variables, cognitive diversity and environmental uncertainty, to explore the different boundary conditions under which the two leadership styles play their roles, which is helpful for entrepreneurs to understand how to leverage leadership to improve entrepreneurial team creativity, how to recruit cognitively diverse employees to moderate the effects of inappropriate leadership to the team. Finally, our findings showed that entrepreneurs' humble leadership makes a unique contribution to explaining team creativity through team psychological empowerment.

Keywords: entrepreneurs’ leadership style, entrepreneurial team creativity, team psychological empowerment, team cognitive diversity, environmental uncertainty

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5947 Research Design for Developing and Validating Ice-Hockey Team Diagnostics Scale

Authors: Gergely Geczi

Abstract:

In the modern world, ice hockey (and, in a broader sense, team sports) is becoming an increasingly popular field of entertainment. Although the main element is most likely perceived as the show itself, winning is an inevitable part of the successful operation of any sports team. In this paper, the author creates a research design allowing him to develop and validate an ice-hockey team-focused diagnostics scale, which enables researchers and practitioners to identify the problems associated with underperforming teams. The construction of the scale starts with personal interviews with experts of the field, carefully chosen from the sector of Hungarian ice hockey. Based on the interviews, the author is shown to be in the position to create the categories and the relevant items for the scale. When constructed, the next step is the validation process on a Hungarian sample. Data for validation are acquired through reaching the licensed database of the Hungarian Ice-Hockey Federation involving Hungarian ice-hockey coaches and players. The Ice-Hockey Team Diagnostics Scale is to be created to orient practitioners in understanding both effective and underperforming teamwork.

Keywords: diagnostics scale, effective versus underperforming team work, ice-hockey, research design

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5946 The Beneficial Effects of Hydrotherapy for Recovery from Team Sport – A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Trevor R. Higgins

Abstract:

To speed/enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within the high-level team sport. Initially, research into CWI and CWT protocols and recovery was sparse; athletes relied solely upon an anecdotal support. However, an increase into recovery research has occurred. A number of reviews have subsequently been conducted to clarify scientific evidence. However, as the nature of physiological stress and training status of participants will impact on results, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus to a more exacting review evaluating hydrotherapy for recovery in a team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data was extracted and the standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% CI. The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with Heterogeneity assessed using I2. 23 peer reviewed papers (n=606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was likely beneficial for recovery at 24h (Countermovement Jump (CMJ): p= 0.05, CI -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p=0.02, -0.056 to 0.801; DOMS: p=0.08, CI -0.092 to 1.936) and at 72h (accumulated sprinting: p=0.07, CI -0.062 to 1.209; DOMS: p=0.09, CI -0.121 to 1.555) following team sport. Whereas CWT was likely beneficial for recovery at 1h (CMJ: p= 0.07, CI -0.004 to 0.863) and at 48h (fatigue: p=0.04, CI 0.013 to 0.942) following team sport. Athlete’s perceptions of muscle soreness and fatigue are enhanced with CWI and/or CWT, however even though CWI and CWT were beneficial in attenuating decrements in neuromuscular performance 24 hours following team sport, indications are those benefits were no longer Sydney evident 48 hours following team sport.

Keywords: cold water immersion, contrast water therapy, recovery, team sport

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5945 Virtual Marketing Team Leadership and Burnout: Literature Review, Implications for Managers, and Recommendations for Future Research

Authors: Chad A. Roberts

Abstract:

In the digitally connected world, global virtual teams are increasingly becoming the norm at large, multinational companies. Marketing managers see the positives of virtual teams. They also see the negatives. Employees who work from home may feel isolated, unorganized, and distracted by homelife. These complexities create a phenomenon that leaves virtual team members feeling burnout, a significant issue for marketing leaders and their team members. This paper examines remote worker burnout in global virtual marketing team settings. It provides an overview of the benefits and downsides to remote working marketing teams. The paper presents the literature on remote work stress and burnout, discusses ways marketing leaders can help prevent virtual employee burnout and suggests future research studies.

Keywords: burnout, COVID-19 pandemic, leadership, marketing, remote work, virtual team

Procedia PDF Downloads 25