Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1469

Search results for: eclectic therapy

1469 Eclectic Therapy in Approach to Clients’ Problems and Application of Multiple Intelligence Theory

Authors: Mohamed Sharof Mostafa, Atefeh Ahmadi

Abstract:

Most of traditional single modality psychotherapy and counselling approaches to clients’ problems are based on the application of one therapy in all sessions. Modern developments in these sciences focus on eclectic and integrative interventions to consider all dimensions of an issue and all characteristics of the clients. This paper presents and overview eclectic therapy and its pros and cons. In addition, multiple intelligence theory and its application in eclectic therapy approaches are mentioned.

Keywords: eclectic therapy, client, multiple intelligence theory, dimensions

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1468 The Role of Eclectic Approach to Teach Communicative Function at Secondary Level

Authors: Fariha Asif

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of eclectic approach in teaching of communicative functions. The objectives of the study were to get the information about the use of communicative functions through eclectic approach and to point out the most effective way of teaching functional communication and social interaction with the help of communicative activities through eclectic approach. The next step was to select sample from the selected population. As the research was descriptive so a questionnaire was developed on the basis of hypothesis and distributed to different selected schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Then data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted through computer by finding percentages of different responses given by teachers to see the results. It was concluded that eclectic approach is effective in teaching communicative functions and communicative functions are better when taught through eclectic approach and communicative activities are more appropriate way of teaching communicative functions. It was found those teachers who were qualified in ELT gave better opinions as compare to those who did not have this degree. Techniques like presentations, dialogues and roleplay proved to be effective for teaching functional communication through communicative activities and also motivate the students not only in learning rules but also in using them to communicate with others.

Keywords: methodology, functions, teaching, ESP

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1467 Research Analysis in Eclectic Theory (Kaboudan and Sfandiar)

Authors: Farideh Alizadeh, Mohd Nasir Hashi

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Present research investigates eclecticism in Iranian theatre on the basis of eclectic theory. Eclectic theatre is a new theory in postmodernism. The theory appeared during 60th – 70th century in some theatres such as “Conference of the Birds”. Special theatrical forms have been developed in many geographical- cultural areas of the world and are indigenous to that area. These forms, as compared with original forms, are considered to be traditional while being comprehensive, the form is considered to be national. Kaboudan and Sfandiar theatre has been influenced by elements of traditional form of Iran.

Keywords: eclectic theatre, theatrical forms, tradition, play

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1466 An Extended Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning: Impact of New International Business Processes

Authors: D. De Matías Batalla

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This paper develops and extended eclectic paradigm to fit the firm internationalization process with the real international business world. The approach is based on Dunning´s, introducing new concepts like mode of entry, international joint venture o international mergers and acquisitions. At the same time is presented a model to describe the Spanish international mergers and acquisitions in order to determinate the most important factor that influence in this type of foreign direct investment.

Keywords: dunning, eclectic paradigm, foreign direct investment, IJV, international business, international management, multinational firms, firm internationalization process, M&A

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1465 A Top-down vs a Bottom-up Approach on Lower Extremity Motor Recovery and Balance Following Acute Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Vijaya Kumar, Vidayasagar Pagilla, Abraham Joshua, Rakshith Kedambadi, Prasanna Mithra

Abstract:

Background: Post stroke rehabilitation are aimed to accelerate for optimal sensorimotor recovery, functional gain and to reduce long-term dependency. Intensive physical therapy interventions can enhance this recovery as experience-dependent neural plastic changes either directly act at cortical neural networks or at distal peripheral level (muscular components). Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES), a traditional bottom-up approach, mirror therapy (MT), a relatively new top down approach have found to be an effective adjuvant treatment methods for lower extremity motor and functional recovery in stroke rehabilitation. However there is a scarcity of evidence to compare their therapeutic gain in stroke recovery.Aim: To compare the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and mirror therapy (MT) in very early phase of post stroke rehabilitation addressed to lower extremity motor recovery and balance. Design: observer blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. Setting: Neurorehabilitation Unit, Department of Physical Therapy, Tertiary Care Hospitals. Subjects: 32 acute stroke subjects with first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis, referred for rehabilitation (onset < 3 weeks), Brunnstorm lower extremity recovery stages ≥3 and MMSE score more than 24 were randomized into two group [Group A-NMES and Group B-MT]. Interventions: Both the groups received eclectic approach to remediate lower extremity recovery which includes treatment components of Roods, Bobath and Motor learning approaches for 30 minutes a day for 6 days. Following which Group A (N=16) received 30 minutes of surface NMES training for six major paretic muscle groups (gluteus maximus and medius,quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius). Group B (N=16) was administered with 30 minutes of mirror therapy sessions to facilitate lower extremity motor recovery. Outcome measures: Lower extremity motor recovery, balance and activities of daily life (ADLs) were measured by Fugyl Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Barthel Index (BI) before and after intervention. Results: Pre Post analysis of either group across the time revealed statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001) for all the outcome variables for the either group. All parameters of NMES had greater change scores compared to MT group as follows: FMA-LE (25.12±3.01 vs. 23.31±2.38), BBS (35.12±4.61 vs. 34.68±5.42) and BI (40.00±10.32 vs. 37.18±7.73). Between the groups comparison of pre post values showed no significance with FMA-LE (p=0.09), BBS (p=0.80) and BI (p=0.39) respectively. Conclusion: Though either groups had significant improvement (pre to post intervention), none of them were superior to other in lower extremity motor recovery and balance among acute stroke subjects. We conclude that eclectic approach is an effective treatment irrespective of NMES or MT as an adjunct.

Keywords: balance, motor recovery, mirror therapy, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, stroke

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1464 Efficacy of Music for Improving Language in Children with Special Needs

Authors: Louisa Han Lin Tan, Poh Sim Kang, Wei Ming Loi, Susan Jane Rickard Liow

Abstract:

The efficacy of music for improving speech and language has been shown across ages and diagnoses. Across the world, the wide range of therapy settings and increasing number of children diagnosed with special needs demand more cost and time effective service delivery. However, research exploring co-treatment models on children other than those with Autism Spectrum Disorder remains sparse. The aim of this research was to determine the efficacy of music for improving language in children with special needs, and generalizability of therapy effects. 25 children (7 to 12 years) were split into three groups – A, B and control. A cross-over design with direct therapy (storytelling) with or without music, and indirect therapy was applied with two therapy phases lasting 6 sessions each. Therapy targeted three prepositions in each phase. Baseline language abilities were assessed, with re-assessment after each phase. The introduction of music in therapy led to significantly greater improvement (p=.046, r=.53) in associated language abilities, with case studies showing greater effectiveness in developmentally appropriate target prepositions. However, improvements were not maintained once direct therapy ceased. As such, the incorporation of music could lead to greater efficiency and effectiveness of language therapy in children with special needs, but sustainability and generalizability of therapy effects both require further exploration.

Keywords: music, language therapy, children, special needs

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1463 E-Survey: Cancer Treatment with Proton Beam Therapy in USA

Authors: Auj-E Taqaddas

Abstract:

The use of proton beam therapy is increasing globally. It seems to offer dosimetric advantages, especially in paediatric central nervous system (CNS) and brain tumours. A short E-survey was conducted to assess the clinical, technical, and educational resources and strategies employed in the state of the art proton beam therapy (PBT) centres in the USA to determine the current status of proton beam therapy. The study also aimed at finding out which PBT skills are in demand as well as what improvements are needed to ensure efficient treatment planning, delivery, and dosimetry. The study resulted in identifying areas for future research and development and in identifying cancers for which PBT is most suitable compared to other modalities to facilitate the implementation and use of PBT in clinical settings for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cancer, intensity modulated proton therapy, proton beam therapy, single field uniform scanning

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1462 Psychological Nano-Therapy: A New Method in Family Therapy

Authors: Siamak Samani, Nadereh Sohrabi

Abstract:

Psychological nano-therapy is a new method based on systems theory. According to the theory, systems with severe dysfunctions are resistant to changes. Psychological nano-therapy helps the therapists to break this ice. Two key concepts in psychological nano-therapy are nano-functions and nano-behaviors. The most important step in psychological nano-therapy in family therapy is selecting the most effective nano-function and nano-behavior. The aim of this study was to check the effectiveness of psychological nano-therapy for family therapy. One group pre-test-post-test design (quasi-experimental Design) was applied for research. The sample consisted of ten families with severe marital conflict. The important character of these families was resistance for participating in family therapy. In this study, sending respectful (nano-function) text massages (nano-behavior) with cell phone were applied as a treatment. Cohesion/respect sub scale from self-report family processes scale and family readiness for therapy scale were used to assess all family members in pre-test and post-test. In this study, one of family members was asked to send a respectful text massage to other family members every day for a week. The content of the text massages were selected and checked by therapist. To compare the scores of families in pre-test and post-test paired sample t-test was used. The results of the test showed significant differences in both cohesion/respect score and family readiness for therapy between per-test and post-test. The results revealed that these families have found a better atmosphere for participation in a complete family therapy program. Indeed, this study showed that psychological nano-therapy is an effective method to make family readiness for therapy.

Keywords: family therapy, family conflicts, nano-therapy, family readiness

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1461 Comparative Study of Music-Therapy Types on Anxiety in Early Stage Cancer Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Farnaz Dehkhoda

Abstract:

This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of active and receptive music-therapy on anxiety in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. 184 young adult patients, who were diagnosed with early stage cancer and were undergoing treatment, were divided into three groups. Two groups received music therapy as a parallel treatment and the third group was control group. In active music-therapy, a music specialist helped the patients to play guitar and sing. In the receptive music-therapy, patients preferred pre-recorded music played by MP3 player. The level of anxiety was measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory as pre-test and post-test. ANCOVA revealed that both types of music-therapy reduced anxiety level of patients and the active music-therapy intervention found to be more effective. The results suggest that music-therapy can be applied as an intervention method contemporary with cancer medical treatment, for improving quality of life in cancer patients by reducing their anxiety.

Keywords: Anxiety, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Music-therapy

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1460 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil

Abstract:

Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

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1459 A Study on the Development of Self-Help Therapy for Bipolar Disorder

Authors: Bae Yu been, Choi Sung won, Lee Ju yeon, Yang Dan Bi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a self-help therapy program for bipolar disorder (BD). Psychosocial treatment is adjunct to pharmacotherapy for BD, however, it is limited and they demand high costs. Therefore, the objective of the study is to overcome these limitations by developing the self-treatment for BD. The study was examined the efficacy of the self-treatment program for BD. A randomized controlled trial compared the self-help therapy (ST) intervention with a treatment as usual (TAU) group. ST group has conducted the program for 8 weeks (16 sessions). Mood chart, Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder Questionnaire, Attitudes toward seeking professional help Scale, BIS, CERQ, YMRS, MADRS were used by pre, post, and follow up. The efficacy of the self-help therapy was analyzed by using mixed ANOVAs. There were significant differences in the rate of occurrence of mania or depression between the two groups. ST group reported stable moods on mood chart, and reductions in mood symptoms and improvements in quality of life and treatment adherence. This study was confirmed applicable to BD to the self-help therapy for patients with BD conducted first in Korea.

Keywords: self help therapy, bipolar disorder, self help, self therapy

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1458 Status of Communication and Swallowing Therapy in Patient with a Tracheostomy

Authors: Ya-Hui Wang

Abstract:

Lower speech therapy rate of tracheostomized patient was noted in comparison with previous researches. This study is aim to shed light on the referral status of speech therapy in those patients in Taiwan. This study developed an analysis for the size and key characteristics of the population of tracheostomized in-patient in the Taiwan. Method: We analyzed National Healthcare Insurance data (The Collaboration Center of Health Information Application, CCHIA) from Jan 1 2010 to Dec 31 2010. Result: over ages 3, number of tracheostomized in-patient is directly proportional to age. A high service loading was observed in North region in comparison with other regions. Only 4.87% of the tracheostomized in-patients were referred for speech therapy, and 1.9% for swallow examination, 2.5% for communication evaluation.

Keywords: refer, speech therapy, training, rehabilitation

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1457 Use of Structural Family Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy with High-Conflict Couples

Authors: Eman Tadros, Natasha Finney

Abstract:

The following case study involving a high-conflict, Children’s Services Bureau (CSB) referred couple is analyzed and reviewed through an integrated lens of structural family therapy and dialectical behavior therapy. In structural family therapy, normal family development is not characterized by a lack of problems, but instead by families’ having developed a functional structure for dealing with their problems. Whereas, in dialectical behavioral therapy normal family development can be characterized by having a supportive and validating environment, where all family members feel a sense of acceptance and validation for who they are and where they are in life. The clinical case conceptualization highlights the importance of conceptualizing how change occurs within a therapeutic setting. In the current case study, the couple did not only experience high-conflict, but there were also issues of substance use, health issues, and other complicating factors. Clinicians should view their clients holistically and tailor their treatment to fit their unique needs. In this framework, change occurs within the family unit, by accepting each member as they are, while at the same time working together to change maladaptive familial structures.

Keywords: couples, dialectical behavior therapy, high-conflict, structural family therapy

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1456 The Effectiveness of Scalp Cooling Therapy on Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Alopecia: A Critical Literature Review

Authors: M. Krishna

Abstract:

The study was intended to identify if scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced hair loss among cancer patients. Critical literature of non-randomized controlled trials was used to investigate whether scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia. The review identified that scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Most of the patients receiving chemotherapy experience alopecia. It is also perceived as the worst effect of chemotherapy. This may be severe and lead the patients to withdraw the chemo treatment. The image disturbance caused by alopecia will make the patient depressed and will lead to declined immunity. With the knowledge on effectiveness of scalp cooling therapy on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia, patient undergoing chemotherapy will not be hesitant to undergo the treatment. Patients are recommended to go through scalp cooling therapy every chemo cycle and the proper therapy duration is 30 minutes before, during chemo. The suggested duration of the scalp cooling therapy is 45-90 minutes for an effective and positive outcome. This finding is excluding other factors of alopecia such as menopause, therapeutic drugs, poor hair density, liver function problems, and drug regimes.

Keywords: alopecia, cancer, chemotherapy, scalp cooling therapy

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1455 The Use of Medical Biotechnology to Treat Genetic Disease

Authors: Rachel Matar, Maxime Merheb

Abstract:

Chemical drugs have been used for many centuries as the only way to cure diseases until the novel gene therapy has been created in 1960. Gene therapy is based on the insertion, correction, or inactivation of genes to treat people with genetic illness (1). Gene therapy has made wonders in Parkison’s, Alzheimer and multiple sclerosis. In addition to great promises in the healing of deadly diseases like many types of cancer and autoimmune diseases (2). This method implies the use of recombinant DNA technology with the help of different viral and non-viral vectors (3). It is nowadays used in somatic cells as well as embryos and gametes. Beside all the benefits of gene therapy, this technique is deemed by some opponents as an ethically unacceptable treatment as it implies playing with the genes of living organisms.

Keywords: gene therapy, genetic disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis

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1454 Reminiscence Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease Restrained on Logistic Regression Based Linear Bootstrap Aggregating

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Mingmin Pan, Xianpei Li, Yanmin Yuan, Tracy Lin Huan

Abstract:

Researchers are doing enchanting research into the inherited features of Alzheimer’s disease and probable consistent therapies. In Alzheimer’s, memories are extinct in reverse order; memories formed lately are more transitory than those from formerly. Reminiscence therapy includes the conversation of past actions, trials and knowledges with another individual or set of people, frequently with the help of perceptible reminders such as photos, household and other acquainted matters from the past, music and collection of tapes. In this manuscript, the competence of reminiscence therapy for Alzheimer’s disease is measured using logistic regression based linear bootstrap aggregating. Logistic regression is used to envisage the experiential features of the patient’s memory through various therapies. Linear bootstrap aggregating shows better stability and accuracy of reminiscence therapy used in statistical classification and regression of memories related to validation therapy, supportive psychotherapy, sensory integration and simulated presence therapy.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, linear bootstrap aggregating, logistic regression, reminiscence therapy

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1453 Heritage Landmark of Penang: Segara Ninda, a Mix of Culture

Authors: Normah Sulaiman, Yong Zhi Kang, Nor Hayati Hussain, Abdul Rehman Khalid

Abstract:

Segara Ninda owned by Din Ku Meh, the governor of the province Satul, a Malay man with a big role liaising with Thailand. This mansion is part of the legacy he left behind among other properties in George Town, Penang, besides his family. The island’s geographical location is strategic which has benefitted it through important trade routes for Europe, Middle, East, India, and China in the past. Due to this reasoning, various architectural styles were introduced in Penang; Late Straits Eclectic style is one of the forms of the Colonial Architectural style widely spread as vernacular shophouses in George Town. Segara Ninda is located among the mixture of nouveau-riche, historical and heritage sites at the most important street; Penang Road, which dated back to the late 18th century. This paper examines the strait eclectic style that Segara Ninda encompasses. Acknowledging the mixture of colonial architecture in Georgetown, we argue that the mansion faces challenging issues in conservation processes to be vindicated. This is reflected by analysing the spatial layout, visual elements quality, and its activity through interviews with the occupants of the mansion. The focus will be on the understanding of building form, features, and functions; respecting the architectural spaces and their activity. The methodology applied is to promote our understanding of the mix of culture that the mansion holds through documentation, observation and measuring exercises. This offers a positional interpretation of the mix of culture that the mansion holds. This conservation effort will further contribute exposure to the public and recognize it in the society as its essence is a deficiency character to the existing built environment.

Keywords: eclectic, heritage, spatial organization, culture

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1452 Rewriting, Reframing, and Restructuring the Story: A Narrative and Solution Focused Therapy Approach to Family Therapy

Authors: Eman Tadros

Abstract:

Solution Focused Therapy sheds a positive light on a client’s problem(s) by instilling hope, focusing on the connection with the client, and describing the problem in a way to display change being possible. Solution focused therapists highlight clients’ positive strengths, reframe what clients say, do, or believe in a positive statement, action, or belief. Narrative Therapy focuses on the stories individuals tell about their past in which shape their current and future lives. Changing the language used aids clients in reevaluating their values and views of themselves, this then constructs a more positive way of thinking about their story. Both therapies are based on treating each client as an individual with a problem rather than that the individual is a problem and being able to give power back to the client. The purpose of these ideologies is to open a client to alternative understandings. This paper displays how clinicians can empower and identify their clients’ positive strengths and resiliency factors. Narrative and Solution-Focused Techniques will be integrated to instill positivity and empowerment in clients. Techniques such as deconstruction, collaboration, complimenting, miracle/exception/scaling questioning will be analyzed and modeled. Furthermore, bridging Solution Focused Therapy and Narrative Therapy gives a voice to unheard client(s).

Keywords: solution focused therapy, narrative therapy, empowerment, resilience

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1451 New Approach for Melanoma Skin Cancer Controled Releasing Drugs for Neutron Capture Therapy: A Review

Authors: Lucas Bernardes Naves, Luis Almeida

Abstract:

The paper includes a review concerning the use of some composites including poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PGLA), zeolite and Gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA) loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) in order to establish a new alternative for the treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer. The main goal of this paper it to make a review of what scientist have done in the last few years, as well as to propose a less invasive therapy for skin cancer, by using Hydrocolloid, based on PLGA coated with Gd-nanoCPs for Neutron Capture Therapy.

Keywords: cancer therapy, dressing polymers, melanoma, wound healing

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1450 Does Mirror Therapy Improve Motor Recovery After Stroke? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Hassan Abo Salem, Guo Feng, Xiaolin Huang

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The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy on motor recovery and functional abilities after stroke. The following databases were searched from inception to May 2014: Cochrane Stroke, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently screened and selected all randomized controlled trials that evaluate the effect of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation.12 randomized controlled trials studies met the inclusion criteria; 10 studies utilized the effect of mirror therapy for the upper limb and 2 studies for the lower limb. Mirror therapy had a positive effect on motor recover and function; however, we found no consistent influence on activity of daily living, Spasticity and balance. This meta-analysis suggests that, Mirror therapy has additional effect on motor recovery but has a small positive effect on functional abilities after stroke. Further high-quality studies with greater statistical power are required in order to accurately determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy following stroke.

Keywords: mirror therapy, motor recovery, stroke, balance

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1449 The Effectiveness of Metaphor Therapy on Depression among Female Students

Authors: Marzieh Talebzadeh Shoushtari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metaphor therapy on depression among female students. The sample included 60 female students with depression symptoms selected by simple sampling and randomly divided into two equal groups (experimental and control groups). Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the variables. This was an experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design with control group. Eight metaphor therapy sessions were held for the experimental group. A post-test was administered to both groups. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results showed that the Metaphor therapy decreased depression in the experimental group compared to the control group.

Keywords: metaphor therapy, depression, female, students

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1448 Using Sandplay Therapy to Assess Psychological Resilience

Authors: Dan Wang

Abstract:

Sandplay therapy is a Jungian psychological therapy developed by Dora Kalff in 1956. In sandplay therapy, the client first makes a sandtray with various miniatures and then has a communication with the therapist based on the sandtray. The special method makes sandplay therapy has great assessment potential. With regarding that the core treatment hypothesis of sandplay therapy - the self-healing power, is very similar to resilience. This study tries to use sandplay to evaluate psychological resilience. Participants are 107 undergraduates recruited from three public universities in China who were required to make an initial sandtray and to complete the Ego-Resiliency Scale (ER89) respectively. First, a 28- category General Sandtray Coding Manual (GSCM) was developed based on literature on sandplay therapy. Next, using GSCM to code the 107 initial sandtrays and conducted correlation analysis and regression analysis between all GSCM categories and ER89. Results show three categories (i.e., vitality, water types, and relationships) of sandplay account for 36.6% of the variance of ego-resilience and form the four-point Likert-type Sandtray Projective Test of Resilience (SPTR). Finally, it is found that SPTR dimensions and total score all have good inter-rater reliability, ranging from 0.89 to 0.93. This study provides an alternative approach to measure psychological resilience and can help to guide clinical social work.

Keywords: sandplay therapy, psychological resilience, measurement, college students

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1447 Improvement of Visual Acuity in Patient Undergoing Occlusion Therapy

Authors: Rajib Husain, Mezbah Uddin, Mohammad Shamsal Islam, Rabeya Siddiquee

Abstract:

Purpose: To determine the improvement of visual acuity in patients undergoing occlusion therapy. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of newly diagnosed of amblyopia seen at the pediatric clinic of Chittagong Eye Infirmary & Training Complex. There were 32 refractive amblyopia subjects were examined & questionnaire was piloted. Included were all patients diagnosed with refractive amblyopia between 5 to 8 years, without previous amblyopia treatment, and whose parents were interested to participate in the study. Patients diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia were excluded. Patients were first corrected with the best correction for a month. When the VA in the amblyopic eye did not improve over a month, then occlusion treatment was started. Occlusion was done daily for 6-8 h together with vision therapy. The occlusion was carried out for three months. Results: Out of study 32 children, 31 of them have a good compliance of amblyopic treatment whereas one child has poor compliance. About 6% Children have amblyopia from Myopia, 7% Hyperopia, 32% from myopic astigmatism, 42% from hyperopic astigmatism and 13% have mixed astigmatism. The mean and Standard deviation of present average VA was 0.452±0.275 Log MAR and after an intervention of amblyopia therapy with vision therapy mean and Standard deviation VA was 0.155±0.157 Log MAR. Out of total respondent 21.85% have BCVA in range from (0-.2) log MAR, 37.5% have BCVA in range from (0.22-0.5) log MAR, 35.95% have in range from (0.52-0.8) log MAR, 4.7% have in range from (0.82-1) log MAR and after intervention of occlusion therapy with vision therapy 76.6% have VA in range from (0-.2) log MAR, 21.85% have VA in range from (0.22-0.5) log MAR, 1.5% have in range from (0.52-0.8) log MAR. Conclusion: Amblyopia is a most important factor in pediatric age group because it can lead to visual impairment. Thus, this study concludes that occlusion therapy with vision therapy is probably one of the best treatment methods for amblyopic patients (age 5-8 years), and compliance and age were the most critical factor predicting a successful outcome.

Keywords: amblyopia, occlusion therapy, vision therapy, eccentric fixation, visuoscopy

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1446 The Effect of Incorporating Animal Assisted Interventions with Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Authors: Kayla Renteria

Abstract:

This study explored the role animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) can play in treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) when incorporated into Trauma-informed cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). A review of the literature was performed to show how incorporating AAP could benefit TF-CBT since this treatment model often presents difficulties, such as client motivation and avoidance of the exposure element of the intervention. In addition, the fluidity of treatment goals during complex trauma cases was explored, as this issue arose in the case study. This study follows the course of treatment of a 12-year-old female presenting with symptoms of PTSD. Treatment consisted of traditional components of the TF-CBT model, with the added elements of AAP to address typical treatment obstacles in TF-CBT. A registered therapy dog worked with the subject in all sessions throughout her treatment. The therapy dog was incorporated into components such as relaxation and coping techniques, narrative therapy techniques, and psychoeducation on the cognitive triangle. Throughout the study, the client’s situation and clinical needs required the therapist to switch goals to focus on current safety and stability. The therapy dog provided support and neurophysiological benefits to the client through AAP during this shift in treatment. The client was assessed quantitatively using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale Self Report for DSM-5 (CPSS-SR-5) before and after therapy and qualitatively through a feedback form given after treatment. The participant showed improvement in CPSS-SR-V scores, and she reported that the incorporation of the therapy animal improved her therapy. The results of this study show how the use of AAP provided the client a solid, consistent relationship with the therapy dog that supported her through processing various types of traumas. Implications of the results of treatment and for future research are discussed.

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, PTSD in children, trauma treatment

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1445 The Effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual's Self-Esteem (PRIDE) Therapy on the Level of Self-Esteem of Physically Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Khiara Claudine C. Carbonel, Patricia Joy A. Canapi, Tracy Gabriella M. Canlas, Teresa Zaine C. Canseco, Reena Marie A. Capistrano, Vernon A. Carandang, Carlo G. Ranoco

Abstract:

Research problem: The main problem of the study was to determine the effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual’s Self-esteem (PRIDE) therapy on the level of self-esteem of physically challenged adolescents. Objectives of the Study: The study determined the effect of PRIDE (Projecting the Reflection of the Individuals Self-esteem) therapy on the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescents. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study was used which involved 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. The Projecting the reflection of the Individuals’ Self-Esteem (PRDIE) therapy was administered to the experimental group. The researchers utilized the Sorensen Self-Esteem test tool as a pretest and posttest questionnaire and yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of .912. Paired T-test was used to analyze the gathered data. Results: The results showed that after the administration of PRIDE therapy, there was an increase on the level of self-esteem. The experimental group had a value of 3.590, which was significant and meant that the level of self-esteem is significantly increased. On the other hand, the control group, had a value of -2.207 which was also significant, therefore, the level of self esteem significantly decreased. Conclusion: the PRIDE Therapy is effective in increasing the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescent. Recommendations: The researchers recommend the use of PRIDE Therapy as an intervention in handling physically challenged patients, especially adolescents, in order to enhance their self-esteem. Also, the researchers recommend that nursing students be informed on the efficacy of PRIDE Therapy in enhancing the self-esteem of physically challenged patients. Furthermore, the inclusion of a psychologist during the implementation of PRIDE Therapy, specifically art therapy, to be able to have a more focused interpretation of the drawings and really be able to see the projection of their self-esteem is also recommended.

Keywords: PRIDE therapy, physically challenged adolescents, self-esteem, art therapy

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1444 Voice in Music Therapy and Adult Trauma Research: Presenting a Meta-Synthesis of Lived Experience Perspectives

Authors: Kirsten B. Hillman

Abstract:

There is a growing body of qualitative research in adult mental health and music therapy contexts which highlights user perspectives; however, only a very small sub-section of this literature pertains to people with lived experiences of psychological trauma. This paper will provide a meta-synthesis of this existing body of research, with the intention to present a cohesive overview of salient themes in this research and a platform for the under-represented voices of those with lived experience. This synthesis will be contextualised within a broader discussion of ‘Voice’ in trauma and music therapy research, considering its layered meanings: including literal expressive vocalising and musical expression, voicing after experiences of silencing, and the possibilities of experiencing self-determination and agency in therapy after trauma.

Keywords: lived experience, music therapy, trauma, user perspectives

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1443 Social Support in Adherence to Therapy in Bioenterics Intragastric Balloon

Authors: Mariela González, Zoraide Lugli

Abstract:

Objective: to determine the relationship between perceived social support and adherence to therapy in patients who have been placed BioEnteric intragastric balloon (BIB). Material and method: 75 obese (56 women and 19 men) between 18 and 65 years (M = 39.29, SD = 11.82), who attended five centers in the city of Caracas, where he carried out this procedure. We used Social Support Scale and treatment adherence behavior respectively. The procedure was contacted the centers and the sample was selected. Subsequently, the inventories were applied before and the month after the before and three months after the balloon set. Results: Show that participants were characterized by moderate levels in the variables. On the other hand, those who perceive that they perceived support from friends are those who report adherence to therapy. Conclusions: From the results, it is suggested promote social support networks, which could be essential to achieve and maintain adherence to therapy in patients with BioEnterics intragastric balloon.

Keywords: BioEnteric intragastric balloon, perceived social support, adherence to therapy, patients

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1442 The Effects of Music Therapy on Positive Negative Syndrome Scale, Cognitive Function, and Quality of Life in Female Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: Elmeida Effendy, Mustafa M. Amin, Nauli Aulia Lubis, P. J. Sirait

Abstract:

Music therapy may have an effect on mental illnesses. This is a comparative, quasi-experimental study to examine the effect of music therapy added to standard care on Positive Negative Syndrome Scale, Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in female schizophrenic patients. 50 schizophrenic participants who were diagnosed with semistructured MINI ICD-X, were assigned into two groups received pharmacotherapy. Participants were assigned into each group of therapy by using matched allocation method. Music therapy added on to the first group. They received music therapy, using Mozart Sonata four times a week, over a period of six week. Positive and negative symptoms were measured by using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Cognitive function were measured by using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). All rating scale were administrated by certified skill residents every week after music therapy session. The participants who were received pharmaco-and-music therapy significantly showed greater response than who received pharmacotherapy only. The mean difference of response were -6,6164 (p=0,001) for PANNS, 2,911 (p=0,004) for MMSE, 3,618 (p=0,001) for MOCA, 4,599 (p=0,001) for SF-36. Music therapy have beneficial effects on PANSS, Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in schizophrenic patients.

Keywords: music therapy, rating scale, schizophrenia, symptoms

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1441 The Effects of Pride Therapy on the Level of Self-Esteem among Physically Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Canapi Patricia Joy, Canlas Tracy Gabriella, Canseco Teresa, Capistrano Reena Marie, Carandang Vernon, Carbonel Khiara Claudine

Abstract:

Research problem: The main problem of the study was to determine the effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual’s Self-esteem (PRIDE) therapy on the level of self-esteem of physically challenged adolescents. Objectives of the Study: The study determined the effect of PRIDE (Projecting the Reflection of the Individuals Self-esteem) therapy on the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescents. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study was used which involved 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. The Projecting the reflection of the Individuals’ Self-Esteem (PRDIE) therapy was administered to the experimental group. The researchers utilized the Sorensen Self-Esteem test tool as a pretest and posttest questionnaire and yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of .912. Paired T-test was used to analyze the gathered data. Results: The results showed that after the administration of PRIDE therapy, there was an increase on the level of self-esteem. The experimental group had a value of 3.590, which was significant and meant that the level of self-esteem is significantly increased. On the other hand, the control group, had a value of -2.207 which was also significant, therefore, the level of self esteem significantly decreased. Conclusion: the PRIDE Therapy is effective in increasing the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescent. Recommendations: The researchers recommend the use of PRIDE Therapy as an intervention in handling physically challenged patients, especially adolescents, in order to enhance their self-esteem. Also, the researchers recommend that nursing students be informed on the efficacy of PRIDE Therapy in enhancing the self-esteem of physically challenged patients. Furthermore, the inclusion of a psychologist during the implementation of PRIDE Therapy, specifically art therapy, to be able to have a more focused interpretation of the drawings and really be able to see the projection of their self-esteem is also recommended.

Keywords: adolescents, PRIDE therapy, physically challenged, self-esteem

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1440 A Review of Challenges of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Depressed People

Authors: Prosper Kudzanai Mushauri

Abstract:

Shock therapy has been used in persons living with depression and deeply depressed persons. It has been used in children also. Shock therapy has been also among its pros believed to improve the quality of life and an effective treatment of depression. The review of the literature on ECT papers have highlighted that benefits to users of ECT are elusive, and iatrogenic harm often occurs showing that the approach will always fall far in comporting to psychological ethics. On the contrary, ECT is known as shock therapy which is the administration of electric shock within the brain; it has been challenged on ethical grounds if it’s proper ethically. From this ethical aperture, it has emerged that relapse rates are approximately higher than 50%, it results in diencephalon disturbances and has also side effects related to cognitive function among other negative effects. It is from these reviewed studies that that ECT should not be viewed as an effective treatment of depression as it does not comport to the mores of psychological ethics.

Keywords: anterograde amnesia, depression, electroconvulsive therapy, ethics, retrograde amnesia

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