Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2324

Search results for: dual fuel diesel engine

2084 A Performance Study of Fixed, Single-Axis and Dual-Axis Photovoltaic Systems in Kuwait

Authors: A. Al-Rashidi, A. El-Hamalawi


In this paper, a performance study was conducted to investigate single and dual-axis PV systems to generate electricity in five different sites in Kuwait. Relevant data were obtained by using two sources for validation purposes. A commercial software, PVsyst, was used to analyse the data, such as metrological data and other input parameters, and compute the performance parameters such as capacity factor (CF) and final yield (YF). The results indicated that single and dual-axis PV systems would be very beneficial to electricity generation in Kuwait as an alternative source to conventional power plants, especially with the increased demand over time. The ranges were also found to be competitive in comparison to leading countries using similar systems. A significant increase in CF and YF values around 24% and 28.8% was achieved related to the use of single and dual systems, respectively.

Keywords: single-axis and dual-axis photovoltaic systems, capacity factor, final yield, Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
2083 Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Koeberg Spent Fuel Pool

Authors: Sibongiseni Thabethe, Ian Korir


The effective management of spent fuel pool (SFP) safety has been raised as one of the emerging issues to further enhance nuclear installation safety after the Fukushima accident on March 11, 2011. Before then, SFP safety-related issues have been mainly focused on (a) controlling the configuration of the fuel assemblies in the pool with no loss of pool coolants and (b) ensuring adequate pool storage space to prevent fuel criticality owing to chain reactions of the fission products and the ability for neutron absorption to keep the fuel cool. A probabilistic safety (PSA) assessment was performed using the systems analysis program for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations (SAPHIRE) computer code. Event and fault tree analysis was done to develop a PSA model for the Koeberg SFP. We present preliminary PSA results of events that lead to boiling and cause fuel uncovering, resulting in possible fuel damage in the Koeberg SFP.

Keywords: computer code, fuel assemblies, probabilistic risk assessment, spent fuel pool

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
2082 Design and Development of an 'Optimisation Controller' and a SCADA Based Monitoring System for Renewable Energy Management in Telecom Towers

Authors: M. Sundaram, H. R. Sanath Kumar, A. Ramprakash


Energy saving is a key sustainability focus area for the Indian telecom industry today. This is especially true in rural India where energy consumption contributes to 70 % of the total network operating cost. In urban areas, the energy cost for network operation ranges between 15-30 %. This expenditure on energy as a result of the lack of grid power availability highlights a potential barrier to telecom industry growth. As a result of this, telecom tower companies switch to diesel generators, making them the second largest consumer of diesel in India, consuming over 2.5 billion litres per annum. The growing cost of energy due to increasing diesel prices and concerns over rising greenhouse emissions have caused these companies to look at other renewable energy options. Even the TRAI (Telecom Regulation Authority of India) has issued a number of guidelines to implement Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) in the telecom towers as part of its ‘Implementation of Green Technologies in Telecom Sector’ initiative. Our proposal suggests the implementation of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based ‘optimisation controller’ that can not only efficiently utilize the energy from RETs but also help to conserve the power used in the telecom towers. When there are multiple RETs available to supply energy, this controller will pick the optimum amount of energy from each RET based on the availability and feasibility at that point of time, reducing the dependence on diesel generators. For effective maintenance of the towers, we are planing to implement a SCADA based monitoring system along with the ‘optimization controller’.

Keywords: operation costs, consumption of fuel and carbon footprint, implementation of a programmable logic controller (PLC) based ‘optimisation controller’, efficient SCADA based monitoring system

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2081 Supply Chain of Energy Resources and Its Alternatives Due to the Arab Spring: The Case of Egyptian Natural Gas Flow to Jordan

Authors: Moh’d Anwer Al-Shboul


The year 2011 was a challenging year for Jordanian economy, which felt a variety of effects from the Arab Spring which took place in neighboring countries. Since February, 5th 2012, the Arab Gas Supply Pipeline, which carries natural gas from Egypt through the Sinai Peninsula and to Jordan and Israel, has been attacked more than 39 times. Jordan imported about 80 percent of its necessity of natural gas (about 250 million cubic feet of natural gas per day) from Egypt to generate particularly electricity, with the reminder of being produced locally. Jordan has utilized multiple alternatives to address the interruption of available natural gas supply from Egypt. The Jordanian distributed power plants now rely on the use of heavy fuel oil and diesel for electricity generation, in this case, it costs Jordan about four times than natural gas. The substitution of Egyptian natural gas supplies by fuel oil and diesel, coupled with the 32 percent rise in global fuel prices, has increased Jordan’s energy import bill by over 50 percent in 2011, reaching more than 16 percent of the 2011 GDP. The increase in the cost of electricity generation pushed the Jordanian economy to borrow from multiple internal and external resource channels, thus increasing the public debt. The Jordanian government’s short-term solution to the reduced natural gas supply from Egypt was alternatively purchasing the necessary quantities from some Gulf countries such as Qatar and/or Saudi Arabia, which can be imported with two possible methods. The first method is to rent a ship equipped with a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal, which is currently operating. The second method requires equipping the Aqaba port with an LNG terminal, which also currently is operating. In the long-term, a viable solution to depending on importing expensive and often unreliable natural gas supplies from surrounding countries is to depend more heavily on renewable supply energy, including solar, wind, and water energy.

Keywords: energy supply resources, Arab spring, liquefied natural gas, pipeline, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2080 Effect of Martensite Content and Its Morphology on Mechanical Properties of Microalloyed Dual Phase Steel

Authors: M. K. Manoj, V. Pancholi, S. K. Nath


Microalloyed dual phase steels have been prepared by intercritical austenitisation (ICA) treatment of normalized steel at different temperature and time. Water quenching wad carried to obtain different martensite volume fraction (MVF) in DP steels. DP steels and normalized steels have been characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements and tensile properties determination. The effect of MVF and martensite morphology on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of microalloyed dual phase steels have been explained in the present work.

Keywords: dual phase steel, martensite morphology, hardness, tensile strength

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2079 Wind Diesel Hybrid System without Battery Energy Storage Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: H. Rezvani, H. Monsef, A. Hekmati


Nowadays, the use of renewable energy sources has been increasingly great because of the cost increase and public demand for clean energy sources. One of the fastest growing sources is wind energy. In this paper, Wind Diesel Hybrid System (WDHS) comprising a Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), the Consumer Load, a Battery-based Energy Storage System (BESS), and a Dump Load (DL) is used. Voltage is controlled by Diesel Generator; the frequency is controlled by BESS and DL. The BESS elimination is an efficient way to reduce maintenance cost and increase the dynamic response. Simulation results with graphs for the frequency of Power System, active power, and the battery power are presented for load changes. The controlling parameters are optimized by using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA). The simulation results for the BESS/no BESS cases are compared. Results show that in no BESS case, the frequency control is more optimal than the BESS case by using ICA.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind diesel system, induction generator, energy storage, imperialist competitive algorithm

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2078 Design of Low-Emission Catalytically Stabilized Combustion Chamber Concept

Authors: Annapurna Basavaraju, Andreas Marn, Franz Heitmeir


The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) is cognizant for the overall reduction of NOx emissions by 80% in its vision 2020. Moreover small turbo engines have higher fuel specific emissions compared to large engines due to their limited combustion chamber size. In order to fulfill these requirements, novel combustion concepts are essential. This motivates to carry out the research on the current state of art, catalytic stabilized combustion chamber using hydrogen in small jet engines which are designed and investigated both numerically and experimentally during this project. Catalytic combustion concepts can also be adopted for low caloric fuels and are therefore not constrained to only hydrogen. However, hydrogen has high heating value and has the major advantage of producing only the nitrogen oxides as pollutants during the combustion, thus eliminating the interest on other emissions such as Carbon monoxides etc. In the present work, the combustion chamber is designed based on the ‘Rich catalytic Lean burn’ concept. The experiments are conducted for the characteristic operating range of an existing engine. This engine has been tested successfully at Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics (ITTM), Technical University Graz. One of the facts that the efficient combustion is a result of proper mixing of fuel-air mixture, considerable significance is given to the selection of appropriate mixer. This led to the design of three diverse configurations of mixers and is investigated experimentally and numerically. Subsequently the best mixer would be equipped in the main combustion chamber and used throughout the experimentation. Furthermore, temperatures and pressures would be recorded at various locations inside the combustion chamber and the exhaust emissions will also be analyzed. The instrumented combustion chamber would be inspected at the engine relevant inlet conditions for nine different sets of catalysts at the Hot Flow Test Facility (HFTF) of the institute.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, gas turbine, hydrogen, mixer, NOx emissions

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
2077 Food Waste Utilization: A Contemporary Prospect of Meeting Energy Crisis Using Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Bahareh Asefi, Fereidoun Farzaneh, Ghazaleh Asefi, Chang-Ping Yu


Increased production of food waste (FW) is a global issue that is receiving more attention due to its environmental and economic impacts. The generation of electricity from food waste, known as energy recovery, is one of the effective solutions in food waste management. Food waste has high energy content which seems ideal to achieve dual benefits in terms of energy recovery and waste stabilization. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising technology for treating food waste and generate electricity. In this work, we will review energy utilization from different kind of food waste using MFC and factors which affected the process. We have studied the key technology of energy generated from food waste using MFC to enhance the food waste management. The power density and electricity production by each kind of food waste and challenges were identified. This work explored the conversion of FW into energy from different type of food waste, which aim to provide a theoretical analysis for energy utilization of food waste.

Keywords: energy generation, food waste, microbial fuel cell, power density

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2076 Air Conditioning Variation of 1kW Open-Cathode Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell

Authors: Mohammad Syahirin Aisha, Khairul Imran Sainan


The PEM fuel cell is a device that generate electric by electrochemical reaction between hydrogen fuel and oxygen in the fuel cell stack. PEM fuel cell consists of an anode (hydrogen supply), a cathode (oxygen supply) and an electrolyte that allow charges move between the two positions of the fuel cell. The only product being developed after the reaction is water (H2O) and heat as the waste which does not emit greenhouse gasses. The performance of fuel cell affected by numerous parameters. This study is restricted to cathode parameters that affect fuel cell performance. At the anode side, the reactant is not going through any changes. Experiments with variation in air velocity (3m/s, 6m/s and 9m/s), temperature (10oC, 20oC, 35oC) and relative humidity (50%, 60%, and 70%) have been carried out. The experiments results are presented in the form of fuel cell stack power output over time, which demonstrate the impacts of the various air condition on the execution of the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the experimental analysis shows that with variation of air conditions, it gives different fuel cell performance behavior. The maximum power output of the experiment was measured at an ambient temperature of 25oC with relative humidity and 9m/s velocity of air.

Keywords: air-breathing PEM fuel cell, cathode side, performance, variation in air condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2075 Dynamic Analysis and Clutch Adaptive Prefill in Dual Clutch Transmission

Authors: Bin Zhou, Tongli Lu, Jianwu Zhang, Hongtao Hao


Dual clutch transmissions (DCT) offer a high comfort performance in terms of the gearshift. Hydraulic multi-disk clutches are the key components of DCT, its engagement determines the shifting comfort. The prefill of the clutches requests an initial engagement which the clutches just contact against each other but not transmit substantial torque from the engine, this initial clutch engagement point is called the touch point. Open-loop control is typically implemented for the clutch prefill, a lot of uncertainties, such as oil temperature and clutch wear, significantly affects the prefill, probably resulting in an inappropriate touch point. Underfill causes the engine flaring in gearshift while overfill arises clutch tying up, both deteriorating the shifting comfort of DCT. Therefore, it is important to enable an adaptive capacity for the clutch prefills regarding the uncertainties. In this paper, a dynamic model of the hydraulic actuator system is presented, including the variable force solenoid and clutch piston, and validated by a test. Subsequently, the open-loop clutch prefill is simulated based on the proposed model. Two control parameters of the prefill, fast fill time and stable fill pressure is analyzed with regard to the impact on the prefill. The former has great effects on the pressure transients, the latter directly influences the touch point. Finally, an adaptive method is proposed for the clutch prefill during gear shifting, in which clutch fill control parameters are adjusted adaptively and continually. The adaptive strategy is changing the stable fill pressure according to the current clutch slip during a gearshift, improving the next prefill process. The stable fill pressure is increased by means of the clutch slip while underfill and decreased with a constant value for overfill. The entire strategy is designed in the Simulink/Stateflow, and implemented in the transmission control unit with optimization. Road vehicle test results have shown the strategy realized its adaptive capability and proven it improves the shifting comfort.

Keywords: clutch prefill, clutch slip, dual clutch transmission, touch point, variable force solenoid

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2074 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar


Using of cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant affection on the reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percents of EGR and for determining of optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, reduction of dimension and expenditures, and reduction of sediment and optimum performance by using gas oil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords: cold EGR, NOX, cooler, gas oil

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2073 Linear Parameter-Varying Control for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

Authors: Jihoon Lim, Patrick Kirchen, Ryozo Nagamune


This paper proposes a linear parameter-varying (LPV) controller capable of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions with low ammonia (NH3) slip downstream of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. SCR systems are widely adopted in diesel engines due to high NOx conversion efficiency. However, the nonlinearity of the SCR system and sensor uncertainty result in a challenging control problem. In order to overcome the control challenges, an LPV controller is proposed based on gain-scheduling parameters, that is, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust gas flow rate. Based on experimentally obtained data under the non-road transient driving cycle (NRTC), the simulations firstly show that the proposed controller yields high NOx conversion efficiency with a desired low NH3 slip. The performance of the proposed LPV controller is then compared with other controllers, including a gain-scheduling PID controller and a sliding mode controller. Additionally, the robustness is also demonstrated using the uncertainties ranging from 10 to 30%. The results show that the proposed controller is robustly stable under uncertainties.

Keywords: diesel engine, gain-scheduling control, linear parameter-varying, selective catalytic reduction

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2072 Performance and Voyage Analysis of Marine Gas Turbine Engine, Installed to Power and Propel an Ocean-Going Cruise Ship from Lagos to Jeddah

Authors: Mathias U. Bonet, Pericles Pilidis, Georgios Doulgeris


An aero-derivative marine Gas Turbine engine model is simulated to be installed as the main propulsion prime mover to power a cruise ship which is designed and routed to transport intending Muslim pilgrims for the annual hajj pilgrimage from Nigeria to the Islamic port city of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. A performance assessment of the Gas Turbine engine has been conducted by examining the effect of varying aerodynamic and hydrodynamic conditions encountered at various geographical locations along the scheduled transit route during the voyage. The investigation focuses on the overall behavior of the Gas Turbine engine employed to power and propel the ship as it operates under ideal and adverse conditions to be encountered during calm and rough weather according to the different seasons of the year under which the voyage may be undertaken. The variation of engine performance under varying operating conditions has been considered as a very important economic issue by determining the time the speed by which the journey is completed as well as the quantity of fuel required for undertaking the voyage. The assessment also focuses on the increased resistance caused by the fouling of the submerged portion of the ship hull surface with its resultant effect on the power output of the engine as well as the overall performance of the propulsion system. Daily ambient temperature levels were obtained by accessing data from the UK Meteorological Office while the varying degree of turbulence along the transit route and according to the Beaufort scale were also obtained as major input variables of the investigation. By assuming the ship to be navigating the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea during winter, spring and summer seasons, the performance modeling and simulation was accomplished through the use of an integrated Gas Turbine performance simulation code known as ‘Turbomach’ along with a Matlab generated code named ‘Poseidon’, all of which have been developed at the Power and Propulsion Department of Cranfield University. As a case study, the results of the various assumptions have further revealed that the marine Gas Turbine is a reliable and available alternative to the conventional marine propulsion prime movers that have dominated the maritime industry before now. The techno-economic and environmental assessment of this type of propulsion prime mover has enabled the determination of the effect of changes in weather and sea conditions on the ship speed as well as trip time and the quantity of fuel required to be burned throughout the voyage.

Keywords: ambient temperature, hull fouling, marine gas turbine, performance, propulsion, voyage

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2071 A Study of Curriculum for a Dual Bachelor’s Degree Including a Teaching Certificate

Authors: Hyeon Seok Kim, Inhoi Lee, Seong Baeg Kim, Kyunghee Ko, Kyung Eon Lee, Dong Sik Kang


In the age of globalization, higher education institutions attempt to equip students with global competence. In response, most universities have been developing and running various international programs. However, teacher education has been a neglected area in this trend. Therefore, in this study, we suggest a program that offers a dual bachelor’s degree from both universities located on different countries, focusing on teacher education institutions with different policies and regulations of teacher education programs that may become obstacles to designing a dual degree program. We discuss a possible way to get a dual degree including a teaching certificate at a specialized college, college of secondary education. To be specific, this research presents a way to attain two diplomas from Jeju National University (JNU) in Korea and Boise State University (BSU) in the U.S. It attempts to build an effective plan for students to declare simultaneous degrees at both universities. From the study, we find that it takes about 5 years to fulfill requirements for the dual degree at the undergraduate level.

Keywords: dual degree, curriculum, teaching certificate, college of secondary education, international program

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2070 The Effect of Mean Pressure on the Performance of a Low-Grade Heat-Driven Thermoacoustic Cooler

Authors: Irna Farikhah


Converting low-grade waste heat into useful energy such as sound energy which can then be used to generate acoustic power in a thermoacoustic engine has become an attracting issue for researchers. The generated power in thermoacoustic engine can be used for driving a thermoacoustic cooler when they are installed in a tube. This cooler system can be called as a heat-driven thermoacoustic cooler. In this study, low heating temperature of the engine is discussed. In addition, having high efficiency of the whole cooler is also essential. To design a thermoacoustic cooler having high efficiency with using low-grade waste heat for the engine, the effect of mean pressure is investigated. By increasing the mean pressure, the heating temperature to generate acoustic power can be decreased from 557 °C to 300 °C. Moreover, the efficiency of the engine and cooler regenerators attain 67% and 47% of the upper limit values, respectively and 49% of the acoustical work generated by the engine regenerator is utilized in the cooler regenerator. As a result, the efficiency of the whole cooler becomes 15% of the upper limit value.

Keywords: cooler, mean pressure, performance, thermoacoustic

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2069 Simulation and Optimization of Hybrid Energy System Autonomous PV-Diesel-Wind Power with Battery Storage for Relay Antenna Telecommunication

Authors: Tahri Toufik, Bouchachia Mohamed, Braikia Oussama


The objective of this work is the design and optimization of a hybrid PV-Diesel-Wind power system with storage in order to power a relay antenna telecommunication isolated in Chlef region. The aim of the simulation of this hybrid system by the HOMER software is to determine the size and the number of each element of the system and to determine the optimal technical and economic configuration using monthly average values per year for a fixed charge antenna relay telecommunication of 22kWh/d.

Keywords: HOMER, hybrid, PV-diesel-wind system, relay antenna telecommunication

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2068 Development of a Drive Cycle Based Control Strategy for the KIIRA-EV SMACK Hybrid

Authors: Richard Madanda, Paul Isaac Musasizi, Sandy Stevens Tickodri-Togboa, Doreen Orishaba, Victor Tumwine


New vehicle concepts targeting specific geographical markets are designed to satisfy a unique set of road and load requirements. The KIIRA-EV SMACK (KES) hybrid vehicle is designed in Uganda for the East African market. The engine and generator added to the KES electric power train serve both as the range extender and the power assist. In this paper, the design consideration taken to achieve the proper management of the on-board power from the batteries and engine-generator based on the specific drive cycle are presented. To harness the fuel- efficiency benefits of the power train, a specific control philosophy operating the engine and generator at the most efficient speed- torque and speed-power regions is presented. By using a suitable model developed in MATLAB using Simulink and Stateflow, preliminary results show that the steady-state response of the vehicle for a particular hypothetical drive cycle mimicking the expected drive conditions in the city and highway traffic is sufficient.

Keywords: control strategy, drive cycle, hybrid vehicle, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2067 Process of Dimensioning Small Type Annular Combustors

Authors: Saleh B. Mohamed, Mohamed H. Elhsnawi, Mesbah M. Salem


Current and future applications of small gas turbine engines annular type combustors have requirements presenting difficult disputes to the combustor designer. Reduced cost and fuel consumption and improved durability and reliability as well as higher temperatures and pressures for such application are forecast. Coupled with these performance requirements, irrespective of the engine size, is the demand to control the pollutant emissions, namely the oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons. These technical and environmental challenges have made the design of small size combustion system a very hard task. Thus, the main target of this work is to generalize a calculation method of annular type combustors for small gas turbine engines that enables to understand the fundamental concepts of the coupled processes and to identify the proper procedure that formulates and solves the problems in combustion fields in as much simplified and accurate manner as possible. The combustion chamber in task is designed with central vaporizing unit and to deliver 516.3 KW of power. The geometrical constraints are 142 mm & 140 mm overall length and casing diameter, respectively, while the airflow rate is 0.8 kg/sec and the fuel flow rate is 0.012 kg/sec. The relevant design equations are programmed by using MathCAD language for ease and speed up of the calculation process.

Keywords: design of gas turbine, small engine design, annular type combustors, mechanical engineering

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2066 Optimization of Waste Plastic to Fuel Oil Plants' Deployment Using Mixed Integer Programming

Authors: David Muyise


Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) is an approach that involves the optimization of a range of decision variables in order to minimize or maximize a particular objective function. The main objective of this study was to apply the MIP approach to optimize the deployment of waste plastic to fuel oil processing plants in Uganda. The processing plants are meant to reduce plastic pollution by pyrolyzing the waste plastic into a cleaner fuel that can be used to power diesel/paraffin engines, so as (1) to reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with plastic pollution and also (2) to curb down the energy gap by utilizing the fuel oil. A programming model was established and tested in two case study applications that are, small-scale applications in rural towns and large-scale deployment across major cities in the country. In order to design the supply chain, optimal decisions on the types of waste plastic to be processed, size, location and number of plants, and downstream fuel applications were concurrently made based on the payback period, investor requirements for capital cost and production cost of fuel and electricity. The model comprises qualitative data gathered from waste plastic pickers at landfills and potential investors, and quantitative data obtained from primary research. It was found out from the study that a distributed system is suitable for small rural towns, whereas a decentralized system is only suitable for big cities. Small towns of Kalagi, Mukono, Ishaka, and Jinja were found to be the ideal locations for the deployment of distributed processing systems, whereas Kampala, Mbarara, and Gulu cities were found to be the ideal locations initially utilize the decentralized pyrolysis technology system. We conclude that the model findings will be most important to investors, engineers, plant developers, and municipalities interested in waste plastic to fuel processing in Uganda and elsewhere in developing economy.

Keywords: mixed integer programming, fuel oil plants, optimisation of waste plastics, plastic pollution, pyrolyzing

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2065 Comparing Machine Learning Estimation of Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Authors: Victor Bodell, Lukas Ekstrom, Somayeh Aghanavesi


Fuel consumption (FC) is one of the key factors in determining expenses of operating a heavy-duty vehicle. A customer may therefore request an estimate of the FC of a desired vehicle. The modular design of heavy-duty vehicles allows their construction by specifying the building blocks, such as gear box, engine and chassis type. If the combination of building blocks is unprecedented, it is unfeasible to measure the FC, since this would first r equire the construction of the vehicle. This paper proposes a machine learning approach to predict FC. This study uses around 40,000 vehicles specific and o perational e nvironmental c onditions i nformation, such as road slopes and driver profiles. A ll v ehicles h ave d iesel engines and a mileage of more than 20,000 km. The data is used to investigate the accuracy of machine learning algorithms Linear regression (LR), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and Artificial n eural n etworks (ANN) in predicting fuel consumption for heavy-duty vehicles. Performance of the algorithms is evaluated by reporting the prediction error on both simulated data and operational measurements. The performance of the algorithms is compared using nested cross-validation and statistical hypothesis testing. The statistical evaluation procedure finds that ANNs have the lowest prediction error compared to LR and KNN in estimating fuel consumption on both simulated and operational data. The models have a mean relative prediction error of 0.3% on simulated data, and 4.2% on operational data.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fuel consumption, friedman test, machine learning, statistical hypothesis testing

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2064 Optimization of Dual Band Antenna on Silicon Substrate

Authors: Syrine lahmadi, Jamel Bel Hadj Tahar


In this paper, a rectangular antenna with slots integrated on silicon substrate operating in 60GHz, is studied and optimized. The effect of different parameter of the antenna (width, length, the position of the microstrip-feed line...) and the parameter of the substrate (the thickness, the dielectric constant) on gain, frequency is presented. Also, the paper presents a solution to ameliorate the bandwidth. The maximum simulated radiation gain of this rectangular dual band antenna is 5, 38 dB around 60GHz. The simulation studied id developed based on advanced design system tools. It is found that the designed antenna is 19 % smaller than a rectangular antenna with the same dimensions. This antenna with dual band can function for many communication systems as automobile or radar.

Keywords: dual band, enlargement of bandwidth, miniaturized antennas, printed antenna

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2063 Macroalgae as a Gaseous Fuel Option: Potential and Advanced Conversion Technologies

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Tabassum, Ao Xia, Jerry D. Murphy


The aim of this work is to provide an overview of macroalgae as an alternative feedstock for gaseous fuel production and key innovative technologies. Climate change and continuously depleting resources are the key driving forces to think for alternative sources of energy. Macroalgae can be favored over land based energy crops because they are not in direct competition with food crops. However, some drawbacks, such as high moisture content, seasonal variation in chemical composition and process inhibition limit the economic practicability. Macroalgae, like brown seaweed can be converted into gaseous and liquid fuel by different conversion technologies. Biomethane via anaerobic digestion is the appealing technology due to its dual advantage of a commercially applicable and environment friendly technology. Other technologies like biodiesel and bioethanol conversion technologies from seaweed are still under progress. Screening of high yielding macroalgae species, peak harvesting season and process optimization make the technology economically feasible for alternative source of feedstock for biofuel production in future.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biofuels, bio-methane, advanced conversion technologies, macroalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2062 Application of Robotics to Assemble a Used Fuel Container in the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu


The newest Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC)- (called also “Mark II”) modifies the design approach for its Assembly Robotic Cell (ARC) in the Canadian Used (Nuclear) Fuel Packing Plant (UFPP). Some of the robotic design solutions are presented in this paper. The design indicates that robots and manipulators are expected to be used in the Canadian UFPP. As normally, the UFPP design will incorporate redundancy of all equipment to allow expedient recovery from any postulated upset conditions. Overall, this paper suggests that robot usage will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: used fuel packing plant, robotic assembly cell, used fuel container, deep geological repository

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2061 Study of Temperature Distribution in Coolant Channel of Nuclear Power with Fuel Cylinder Element Using Fluent Software

Authors: Elham Zamiri


In this research, we have focused on numeral simulation of a fuel rod in order to examine distribution of heat temperature in components of fuel rod by Fluent software by providing steady state, single phase fluid flow, frequency heat flux in a fuel rod in nuclear reactor to numeral simulation. Results of examining different layers of a fuel rod consist of fuel layer, gap, pod, and fluid cooling flow, also examining thermal properties and fluids such as heat transition rate and pressure drop. The obtained results through analytical method and results of other sources have been compared and have appropriate correspondence. Results show that using heavy water as cooling fluid along with few layers of gas and pod have the ability of reducing the temperature from above 300 C to 70 C. This investigation is developable for any geometry and material used in the nuclear reactor.

Keywords: nuclear fuel fission, numberal simulation, fuel rod, reactor, Fluent software

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2060 Environmental and Economic Analysis of Absorption Air Conditioning Unit Onboard Marine Vehicles: Case Study of Passenger Vessel

Authors: Ibrahim S. Seddiek, Nader R. Ammar


One of the most important equipment that affects the performance of passenger ships is the air conditioning system, which in turn consumes considerable electric loads. In this paper, the waste heat energies of exhaust gases and jacket cooling water of marine diesel engines for these ships are analyzed to be used as heat sources for absorption refrigeration unit (ARU). Economic and environmental analysis of the absorption refrigeration cycle operated with the two heat sources that use lithium bromide as absorbent is carried out. In addition, environmental and economic analysis for the absorption cycle is performed. As a case study, high-speed passenger vessel operating in the Red Sea area has been investigated. The results show that a considerable specific economic benefit could be achieved in case of applying absorption air condition that operates by water cooling system over that operates by main engine exhaust gases. Environmentally, applying ARU machine during cruise will reduce total ship’s fuel consumption by about 104 ton per year. This will result in reducing NOₓ, SOₓ, and CO₂ emissions with cost-effectiveness of 6.99 $/kg, 18.44 $/kg, and 0.117 $/kg, respectively.

Keywords: ship emissions, IMO, lithium bromide-water ARU, analysis, thermodynamic, economic and environmental analysis

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2059 Developing a Modified Version of KIVA-3V, Enabling Gaseous Injections

Authors: Hossein Keshtkar, Ali Nasiri Toosi


With the growing concerns about gasoline environmental pollution and also the need for a more widely available fuel source, natural gas is finding its way to the automotive engines. But before this could happen industrially, simulations of natural gas direct injection need to take place to maximize and optimize power output. KIVA is one of the most powerful tools when it comes to engine simulation. Widely accepted by both researchers and the industry, KIVA an open-source code, offers great in-depth simulation and analyzation. KIVA can compute complex phenomena’s which can occur inside the chamber before, whilst and after ignition. One downside to KIVA, is its in-capability of simulating gaseous injections, making it useful for only liquidized fuel. In this study, we developed a numerical code, to enable the simulation of gaseous injection within the KIVA code. By introducing our code as a subroutine, we modified the original KIVA program. To ensure the correct application of gaseous fuel injection using our modified KIVA code, we simulated two different cases and compared them with their experimental data. We concluded our modified version of KIVA’s simulation results came in very close to those measured experimentally.

Keywords: gaseous injections, KIVA, natural gas direct injection, numerical code, simulation

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2058 Operation Cycle Model of ASz62IR Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: M. Duk, L. Grabowski, P. Magryta


Today's very important element relating to air transport is the environment impact issues. Nowadays there are no emissions standards for turbine and piston engines used in air transport. However, it should be noticed that the environmental effect in the form of exhaust gases from aircraft engines should be as small as possible. For this purpose, R&D centers often use special software to simulate and to estimate the negative effect of engine working process. For cooperation between the Lublin University of Technology and the Polish aviation company WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A., to achieve more effective operation of the ASz62IR engine, one of such tools have been used. The AVL Boost software allows to perform 1D simulations of combustion process of piston engines. ASz62IR is a nine-cylinder aircraft engine in a radial configuration. In order to analyze the impact of its working process on the environment, the mathematical model in the AVL Boost software have been made. This model contains, among others, model of the operation cycle of the cylinders. This model was based on a volume change in combustion chamber according to the reciprocating movement of a piston. The simplifications that all of the pistons move identically was assumed. The changes in cylinder volume during an operating cycle were specified. Those changes were important to determine the energy balance of a cylinder in an internal combustion engine which is fundamental for a model of the operating cycle. The calculations for cylinder thermodynamic state were based on the first law of thermodynamics. The change in the mass in the cylinder was calculated from the sum of inflowing and outflowing masses including: cylinder internal energy, heat from the fuel, heat losses, mass in cylinder, cylinder pressure and volume, blowdown enthalpy, evaporation heat etc. The model assumed that the amount of heat released in combustion process was calculated from the pace of combustion, using Vibe model. For gas exchange, it was also important to consider heat transfer in inlet and outlet channels because of much higher values there than for flow in a straight pipe. This results from high values of heat exchange coefficients and temperature coefficients near valves and valve seats. A Zapf modified model of heat exchange was used. To use the model with the flight scenarios, the impact of flight altitude on engine performance has been analyze. It was assumed that the pressure and temperature at the inlet and outlet correspond to the values resulting from the model for International Standard Atmosphere (ISA). Comparing this model of operation cycle with the others submodels of the ASz62IR engine, it could be noticed, that a full analysis of the performance of the engine, according to the ISA conditions, can be made. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under

Keywords: aviation propulsion, AVL Boost, engine model, operation cycle, aircraft engine

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2057 An Implementation of a Dual-Spin Spacecraft Attitude Reorientation Using Properties of Its Chaotic Motion

Authors: Anton V. Doroshin


This article contains a description of main ideas for the attitude reorientation of spacecraft (small dual-spin spacecraft, nanosatellites) using properties of its chaotic attitude motion under the action of internal perturbations. The considering method based on intentional initiations of chaotic modes of attitude motion with big amplitudes of the nutation oscillations, and also on the redistributions of the angular momentum between coaxial bodies of the dual-spin spacecraft (DSSC), which perform in the purpose of system’s phase space changing.

Keywords: spacecraft, attitude dynamics, control, chaos

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2056 The Effects of Displacer-Cylinder-Wall Conditions on the Performance of a Medium-Temperature-Differential γ-Type Stirling Engine

Authors: Wen-Lih Chen, Chao-Kuang Chen, Mao-Ju Fang, Hsiang-Cheng Hsu


In this study, we conducted CFD simulation to study the gas cycle of a medium-temperature-differential (MTD) γ-type Stirling engine. Mesh compression and expansion as well as overset mesh techniques are employed to simulate the moving parts of the engine. Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model has been adopted because the model is not prone to generate excessive turbulence upon impingement regions. Hence, wall heat transfer rates at the hot and cold ends will not be overestimated. The effects of several different displacer-cylinder-wall temperature setups, including smooth and finned walls, on engine performance are investigated. The results include temperature contours, pressure versus volume diagrams, and variations of heat transfer rates, indicated power, and efficiency. It is found that displacer-wall heat transfer is one of the most important factors on engine performance, and some wall-temperature setups produce better results than others.

Keywords: CFD, finned wall, MTD Stirling engine, heat transfer

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2055 Development of Restricted Formula SAE Intake Manifold Using 1D and Flow Simulations Based on Track Analysis

Authors: Sahil Kapahi


A Formula SAE competition is characterized by typical track layouts having slaloms, tight corners and short straights, which favor a particular range of engine speed for a given set of gear ratios. Therefore, it is imperative that the power-train is optimized for the corresponding engine rpm band. This paper describes the process of designing, simulating and validating an air intake manifold for an inline four cylinder four-stroke internal combustion gasoline engine based on analysis of required vehicle performance. The requirements for the design of subject intake were set considering the rules of FSAE competitions and analysis of engine performance patterns for typical competition scenarios, carried out using OPTIMUMLAP software. Manifold geometry was optimized using results of air flow simulations performed on ANSYS CFX, and subsequent effect of this geometry on the engine was modeled using 1D simulation on Ricardo WAVE. A design was developed to meet the targeted performance standards in terms of engine torque output and volumetric efficiency. Finally, the intake manifold was manufactured and assembled onto the vehicle, and the engine output of the vehicle with the designed intake was studied using a dynamometer. The results of the dynamometer testing were then validated against predicted values derived from the Ricardo WAVE modeling and benefits to performance of the vehicle were established.

Keywords: 1 D Simulation, air flow simulation, ANSYS CFX, four-stroke engine, OPTIMUM LAP, Ricardo WAVE

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