Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2322

Search results for: dual fuel diesel engine

2112 NOx Prediction by Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model of Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Engine

Authors: Anas Rao, Hao Duan, Fanhua Ma

Abstract:

The dependency on the fossil fuels can be minimized by using the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) in the transportation vehicles. However, the NOx emissions of HCNG engines are significantly higher, and this turned to be its major drawback. Therefore, the study of NOx emission of HCNG engines is a very important area of research. In this context, the experiments have been performed at the different hydrogen percentage, ignition timing, air-fuel ratio, manifold-absolute pressure, load and engine speed. Afterwards, the simulation has been accomplished by the quasi-dimensional combustion model of HCNG engine. In order to investigate the NOx emission, the NO mechanism has been coupled to the quasi-dimensional combustion model of HCNG engine. The three NOx mechanism: the thermal NOx, prompt NOx and N2O mechanism have been used to predict NOx emission. For the validation purpose, NO curve has been transformed into NO packets based on the temperature difference of 100 K for the lean-burn and 60 K for stoichiometric condition. While, the width of the packet has been taken as the ratio of crank duration of the packet to the total burnt duration. The combustion chamber of the engine has been divided into three zones, with the zone equal to the product of summation of NO packets and space. In order to check the accuracy of the model, the percentage error of NOx emission has been evaluated, and it lies in the range of ±6% and ±10% for the lean-burn and stoichiometric conditions respectively. Finally, the percentage contribution of each NO formation has been evaluated.

Keywords: quasi-dimensional combustion , thermal NO, prompt NO, NO packet

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2111 Flotation Recovery of Gold-Loaded Fine Activated Carbon Using Emulsified Diesel and Kerosene as Collectors

Authors: Emmanuel Jr. Ballad, Herman Mendoza

Abstract:

The recovery of fine activated carbon with adsorbed gold in the cyanidation tailings of a small-scale gold plant was investigated due to the high amount of gold present. In the study, collectors that were used are kerosene and diesel. Emulsification of the oils was done to improve its collecting property, thus also the recovery. It was found out that the best hydrophile lypophile balance (HLB) of emulsified diesel and kerosene oil is 13 and 12 respectively. The amount of surfactants (SPAN 20 and TWEEN 20) for the best stability of the emulsified oils was found to be 10% in both kerosene and diesel. Optical microscopy showed that the oil dispersion in the water forms spherical droplets like features. The higher the stability, the smaller the droplets and their number were increasing. The smaller droplets indicate better dispersion of oil in the water. Consequently, it will have a greater chance of oil and activated carbon particle interaction during flotation. Due to the interaction of dispersed oil phase with carbon, the hydrophobicity of the carbon will be improved and will be attached to the bubble. Thus, flotation recovery will be increased. Results showed that the recovery of the fine activated carbon using emulsified diesel or kerosene is three times more effective than using pure diesel or kerosene.

Keywords: emulsified oils, flotation, hydrophile lyophile balance, non-ionic surfactants

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2110 Dynamic Modeling of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Petro-Engine

Authors: Khaled A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda

Abstract:

In the following article, we present the dynamic simulation of an unmanned aerial vehicle with main fuel engine in the middle to carry most of the weight. This configuration will increase the flight time of the vehicle for a given payload size as opposed to the traditional quad rotor, where only DC motors are used. A parametric study to investigate the effect of the propellers ratio (main rotor propeller diameter to secondary rotor propeller diameter), the angle of incidence of the main rotor and the twist angle of the main rotor blades on selected performance criteria is presented.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), quadrotor, petrol quadcopter, flying robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
2109 Implications of Fuel Reloading in Heterogeneous Thorium-Based Fuel Designs for Improved Fuel Cycle Characteristics

Authors: Hendrik Bernard Van Der Walt, Frik Van Niekerk

Abstract:

Fuel models render a reduction in BOL when thorium is added to a reactor core. Thorium emulates the role of a fertile poison, and is beneficial for reducing beginning of cycle (BOC) excess reactivity. In spite of the build-up of 233U over the duration of a fuel cycle, the effects of fuel reloading have a significant impact on fuel viability, especially in the case of heterogeneous thorium-based fuels. The most common practice of compensating for the reduction of BOC reactivity is the addition of fissile isotopes (uranium fuel with increased enrichment or plutonium). This study introduces a heterogeneous thorium-based fuel with minimal fissile isotope additions. A pseudo reloading scheme was developed for numerical simulations of an infinite reactor based on the North-Anna 1 reactor operating in Virginia, USA. Use of this reloading pattern allows new thorium-based fuel to be loaded into the reactor model as part of a phasing in strategy at the end of any conventional reactor cycle. Results demonstrate the effects of thorium-based fuel on fuel cycle characteristics such as fuel cycle length, neutron economy and material matrix. Application of the above mentioned approach delivered promising results and presents a heterogeneous thorium-based fuel which could replace conventional fuel of typical, currently operating (or future) reactors without the need for expensive reactor redesign or fuel recycling strategies.

Keywords: nuclear fuel, nuclear characteristics, nuclear fuel cycle, thorium-based fuel, heterogeneous design, fuel reloading

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2108 Thermal and Acoustic Design of Mobile Hydraulic Vehicle Engine Room

Authors: Homin Kim, Hyungjo Byun, Jinyoung Do, Yongil Lee, Hyunho Shin, Seungbae Lee

Abstract:

Engine room of mobile hydraulic vehicle is densely packed with an engine and many hydraulic components mostly generating heat and sound. Though hydraulic oil cooler, ATF cooler, and axle oil cooler etc. are added to vehicle cooling system of mobile vehicle, the overheating may cause downgraded performance and frequent failures. In order to improve thermal and acoustic environment of engine room, the computational approaches by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) are used together with necessary modal analysis of belt-driven system. The engine room design layout and process, which satisfies the design objectives of sound power level and temperature levels of radiator water, charged air cooler, transmission and hydraulic oil coolers, is discussed.

Keywords: acoustics, CFD, engine room design, mobile hydraulics

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2107 Tip Clearance and Performance Impact Due to Casing Thermal Distortion from Active Clearance Control System

Authors: Taehong Kim, Marcia Johnson, Daniel Reisenauer

Abstract:

Gas turbine engine optimizes blades tip clearances to improve fuel efficiency and performance. In a large commercial engine, performance impact due to casing distortion predicts significant SFC impact. As one of major contributors, thermal distortion is caused by non-uniform temperature distribution due to hot stream or cooling flow over the casing through core and under cowl. The study demonstrates temperature data to identify thermal variation in different thermal conditions from outside of casing. Temperature was measured in embedded thermocouples at several locations of casing where cooling flow, directly and indirectly, hit in flight test engine. The test result observes local thermal variation for different jet impingement over the case and casing thermal distortion. As a result, the delta of temperature between center jet and last jet is 0.1-0.15 of η normalized by combustion temperatures and inlet temperature at steady state cruise point, and the thermal radial distortion is calculated in approximately 0.001-0.002 inch in large commercial engines. The study highlights the importance of uniform temperature condition to improve engine performance as blade tip clearance design includes this non-axisymmetric factor to avoid unexpected rub and tip loss during engine operation. The study discusses current mechanical and system design, and advanced technologies to minimize the stationary casing distortion and achieve performance improvement.

Keywords: active clearance control, cross-flow, distortion, impinging jet, performance, tip clearance

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2106 Modeling of Combustion Process in the Piston Aircraft Engine Using a MCFM-3Z Model

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Konrad Pietrykowski

Abstract:

Modeling of a combustion process in a 9-cylinder aircraft engine is presented. The simulations of the combustion process in the IC engine have provided the information on the spatial and time distributions of selected quantities within the combustion chamber of the engine. The numerical analysis results have been compared with the results of indication process of the engine on the test stand. Modeling of combustion process an auto-ignited IC engine in the AVL Fire was carried out within the study. For the calculations, a ECFM-3Z model was used. Verification of simulation results was carried out by comparison of the pressure in the cylinder. The courses of indicated pressure, obtained from the simulations and during the engine tests mounted on a test stand were compared. The engine was braked by the propeller, which results in an adequate external power characteristics. The test object is a modified ASz-62IR engine with the injection system. The engine was running at take-off power. To check the optimum ignition timing regarding power, calculations, tests were performed for 7 different moments of ignition. The analyses of temperature distribution in the cylinder depending on the moments of ignition were carried out. Additional the course of pressure in the cylinder at different angles of ignition delays of the second spark plug were examined. The swirling of the mixture in the combustion chamber was also analysed. It has been shown that the largest vortexes occur in the middle of the chamber, and gets smaller, closer to the combustion chamber walls. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, internal combustion engine, aircraft engine

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2105 Heat Transfer Enhancement via Using Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Car Radiator

Authors: S. Movafagh, Y. Bakhshan

Abstract:

In this study, effect of adding Al2O3 nanoparticle to base fluid (water) in car radiator is investigated numerically. Radiators are compact heat exchangers optimized and evaluated by considering different working conditions. The cooling system of a car plays an important role in vehicle's performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. In this study, the effects of fluid inlet flow rate and nanoparticle volume fraction on heat transfer and pressure drop of acar radiator are studied.

Keywords: forced convection, nanofluid, radiator, CFD simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2104 Study of Ether Species Effects on Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Ether Monoesters as Novel Biodiesels

Authors: Hejun Guo, Shenghua Liu

Abstract:

Five palm oil ether monoesters utilized as novel biodiesels were synthesized and structurally identified in the paper. Investigation was made on the effect of ether species on physicochemical properties of the palm oil ether monoesters. The results showed that density, kinematic viscosity, smoke point, and solidifying point increase linearly with their CH2 group number in certain relationships. Cetane number is enhanced whereas heat value decreases linearly with CH2 group number. In addition, the influencing regularities of volumetric content of the palm oil ether monoesters on the fuel properties were also studied when the ether monoesters are used as diesel fuel additives.

Keywords: biodiesel, palm oil ether monoester, ether species, physicochemical property

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2103 Desulphurization of Waste Tire Pyrolytic Oil (TPO) Using Photodegradation and Adsorption Techniques

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The nature of tires makes them extremely challenging to recycle due to the available chemically cross-linked polymer and, therefore, they are neither fusible nor soluble and, consequently, cannot be remolded into other shapes without serious degradation. Open dumping of tires pollutes the soil, contaminates underground water and provides ideal breeding grounds for disease carrying vermins. The thermal decomposition of tires by pyrolysis produce char, gases and oil. The composition of oils derived from waste tires has common properties to commercial diesel fuel. The problem associated with the light oil derived from pyrolysis of waste tires is that it has a high sulfur content (> 1.0 wt.%) and therefore emits harmful sulfur oxide (SOx) gases to the atmosphere when combusted in diesel engines. Desulphurization of TPO is necessary due to the increasing stringent environmental regulations worldwide. Hydrodesulphurization (HDS) is the commonly practiced technique for the removal of sulfur species in liquid hydrocarbons. However, the HDS technique fails in the presence of complex sulfur species such as Dibenzothiopene (DBT) present in TPO. This study aims to investigate the viability of photodegradation (Photocatalytic oxidative desulphurization) and adsorptive desulphurization technologies for efficient removal of complex and non-complex sulfur species in TPO. This study focuses on optimizing the cleaning (removal of impurities and asphaltenes) process by varying process parameters; temperature, stirring speed, acid/oil ratio and time. The treated TPO will then be sent for vacuum distillation to attain the desired diesel like fuel. The effect of temperature, pressure and time will be determined for vacuum distillation of both raw TPO and the acid treated oil for comparison purposes. Polycyclic sulfides present in the distilled (diesel like) light oil will be oxidized dominantly to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfone via a photo-catalyzed system using TiO2 as a catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent and finally acetonitrile will be used as an extraction solvent. Adsorptive desulphurization will be used to adsorb traces of sulfurous compounds which remained during photocatalytic desulphurization step. This desulphurization convoy is expected to give high desulphurization efficiency with reasonable oil recovery.

Keywords: adsorption, asphaltenes, photocatalytic oxidation, pyrolysis

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2102 Comparative Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Cooling Fins Using Ansys Software

Authors: Aakash Kumar R. G., Anees K. Ahamed, Raj M. Mohan

Abstract:

Effective engine cooling can improve the engine’s life and efficacy. The design of the fin of the cylinder head and block determines the cooling mechanism of air cooled engine. The heat conduction takes place through the engine parts and convection of heat from the surface of the fins takes place with air as the heat transferring medium. The air surrounding the cooling fins helps in removal of heat built up by the air cooled engine. If the heat removal rate is inadequate, it will result in lower engine efficiency and high thermal stresses in the engine. The main drawback of the air cooled engine is the low heat transfer rate of the cooling fins .This work is based on scrutiny of previous researches that involves enhancing of heat transfer rate of cooling fins. The current research is about augmentation of heat transfer rate of longitudinal rectangular fin profiles by varying the length of the fin and diameter of holes on the fins. Thermal and flow analysis is done for two different models of fins. One is simple fin without holes and the other is perforated (consist of holes). It can be inferred from the research that the fins with holes have a higher fin efficiency than the fins without holes. The geometry of the fin is done in CREO. The heat transfer analysis is done using ANSYS software.

Keywords: fins, heat transfer, perforated fins, thermal analysis, thermal flux

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2101 A Single Stage Rocket Using Solid Fuels in Conventional Propulsion Systems

Authors: John R Evans, Sook-Ying Ho, Rey Chin

Abstract:

This paper describes the research investigations orientated to the starting and propelling of a solid fuel rocket engine which operates as combined cycle propulsion system using three thrust pulses. The vehicle has been designed to minimise the cost of launching small number of Nano/Cube satellites into low earth orbits (LEO). A technology described in this paper is a ground-based launch propulsion system which starts the rocket vertical motion immediately causing air flow to enter the ramjet’s intake. Current technology has a ramjet operation predicted to be able to start high subsonic speed of 280 m/s using a liquid fuel ramjet (LFRJ). The combined cycle engine configuration is in many ways fundamentally different from the LFRJ. A much lower subsonic start speed is highly desirable since the use of a mortar to obtain the latter speed for rocket means a shorter launcher length can be utilized. This paper examines the means and has some performance calculations, including Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of air-intake at suitable operational conditions, 3-DOF point mass trajectory analysis of multi-pulse propulsion system (where pulse ignition time and thrust magnitude can be controlled), etc. of getting a combined cycle rocket engine use in a single stage vehicle.

Keywords: combine cycle propulsion system, low earth orbit launch vehicle, computational fluid dynamics analysis, 3dof trajectory analysis

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2100 Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil for Biodiesel Production Using Modified Clinoptilolite Zeolite as a Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: D. Mowla, N. Rasti, P. Keshavarz

Abstract:

Reduction of fossil fuels sources, increasing of pollution gases emission, and global warming effects increase the demand of renewable fuels. One of the main candidates of alternative fuels is biodiesel. Biodiesel limits greenhouse gas effects due to the closed CO2 cycle. Biodiesel has more biodegradability, lower combustion emissions such as CO, SOx, HC, PM and lower toxicity than petro diesel. However, biodiesel has high production cost due to high price of plant oils as raw material. So, the utilization of waste cooking oils (WCOs) as feedstock, due to their low price and disposal problems reduce biodiesel production cost. In this study, production of biodiesel by transesterification of methanol and WCO using modified sodic potassic (SP) clinoptilolite zeolite and sodic potassic calcic (SPC) clinoptilolite zeolite as heterogeneous catalysts have been investigated. These natural clinoptilolite zeolites were modified by KOH solution to increase the site activity. The optimum biodiesel yields for SP clinoptilolite and SPC clinoptilolite were 95.8% and 94.8%, respectively. Produced biodiesel were analyzed and compared with petro diesel and ASTM limits. The properties of produced biodiesel confirm well with ASTM limits. The density, kinematic viscosity, cetane index, flash point, cloud point, and pour point of produced biodiesel were all higher than petro diesel but its acid value was lower than petro diesel. Finally, the reusability and regeneration of catalysts were investigated. The results indicated that the spent zeolites cannot be reused directly for the transesterification, but they can be regenerated easily and can obtain high activity.

Keywords: biodiesel, renewable fuel, transesterification, waste cooking oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
2099 Aerodynamic Analysis of a Frontal Deflector for Vehicles

Authors: C. Malça, N. Alves, A. Mateus

Abstract:

This work was one of the tasks of the Manufacturing2Client project, whose objective was to develop a frontal deflector to be commercialized in the automotive industry, using new project and manufacturing methods. In this task, in particular, it was proposed to develop the ability to predict computationally the aerodynamic influence of flow in vehicles, in an effort to reduce fuel consumption in vehicles from class 3 to 8. With this aim, two deflector models were developed and their aerodynamic performance analyzed. The aerodynamic study was done using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software Ansys CFX and allowed the calculation of the drag coefficient caused by the vehicle motion for the different configurations considered. Moreover, the reduction of diesel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with the optimized deflector geometry could be assessed.

Keywords: erodynamic analysis, CFD, CO2 emissions, drag coefficient, frontal deflector, fuel consumption

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2098 Effect of Injection Strategy on the Performance and Emission of E85 in a Heavy-Duty Engine under Partially Premixed Combustion

Authors: Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner, Sebastian Verhelst, Oivind Andersson

Abstract:

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Extending the ignition delay to promote the premixing, has been recognized as one of the key factor to achieve PPC. Fuels with high octane number have been proven to be a good candidates to extend the ignition delay. In this work, E85 (85% ethanol) has been used as a PPC fuel. The aim of this work was to investigate a suitable injection strategy for PPC combustion fueled with E85 in a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine. Single and double injection strategy were applied with different injection timing and the ratio between different injection pulses was varied. The performance and emission were investigated at low load. The results show that the double injection strategy should be preferred for PPC fueled with E85 due to low emissions and high efficiency, while keeping the pressure raise rate at very low levels.

Keywords: E85, partially premixed combustion, injection strategy, performance and emission

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2097 Design of an Energy Efficient Electric Auto Rickshaw

Authors: Muhammad Asghar, Aamer Iqbal Bhatti, Qadeer Ahmed, Tahir Izhar

Abstract:

Three wheeler auto Rickshaw, often termed as ‘auto rickshaw’ is very common in Pakistan and is considered as the most affordable means of transportation to the local people. Problems caused by the gasoline engine on the environment and people, the researchers and the automotive industry have turned to the hybrid electric vehicles and electrical powered vehicle. The research in this paper explains the design of energy efficient Electric auto Rickshaw. An electric auto rickshaw is being developed at Center for Energy Research and Development, (Lahore), which is running on the roads of Lahore city. Energy storage capacity of batteries is at least 25 times heavier than fossil fuel and having volume 10 times in comparison to fuel, resulting an increase of the Rickshaw weight. A set of specifications is derived according to the mobility requirements of the electric auto rickshaw. The design choices considering the power-train and component selection are explained in detail. It was concluded that electric auto rickshaw has many advantages and benefits over the conventional auto rickshaw. It is cleaner and much more energy efficient but limited to the distance it can travel before recharging of battery. In addition, a brief future view of the battery technology is given.

Keywords: conventional auto rickshaw, energy efficiency, electric auto rickshaw, internal combustion engine, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
2096 Online Measurement of Fuel Stack Elongation

Authors: Sung Ho Ahn, Jintae Hong, Chang Young Joung, Tae Ho Yang, Sung Ho Heo, Seo Yun Jang

Abstract:

The performances of nuclear fuels and materials are qualified at an irradiation system in research reactors operating under the commercial nuclear power plant conditions. Fuel centerline temperature, coolant temperature, neutron flux, deformations of fuel stack and swelling are important parameters needed to analyze the nuclear fuel performances. The dimensional stability of nuclear fuels is a key parameter measuring the fuel densification and swelling. In this study, the fuel stack elongation is measured using a LVDT. A mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is developed. The performances of mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is evaluated by experiments.

Keywords: axial deformation, elongation measurement, in-pile instrumentation, LVDT

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2095 Dual-Network Memory Model for Temporal Sequences

Authors: Motonobu Hattori

Abstract:

In neural networks, when new patters are learned by a network, they radically interfere with previously stored patterns. This drawback is called catastrophic forgetting. We have already proposed a biologically inspired dual-network memory model which can much reduce this forgetting for static patterns. In this model, information is first stored in the hippocampal network, and thereafter, it is transferred to the neocortical network using pseudo patterns. Because, temporal sequence learning is more important than static pattern learning in the real world, in this study, we improve our conventional dual-network memory model so that it can deal with temporal sequences without catastrophic forgetting. The computer simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed dual-network memory model.

Keywords: catastrophic forgetting, dual-network, temporal sequences, hippocampal

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2094 Production Process for Diesel Fuel Components Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers from Methanol and Formaldehyde Solution

Authors: Xiangjun Li, Huaiyuan Tian, Wujie Zhang, Dianhua Liu

Abstract:

Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) as clean diesel additive can improve the combustion efficiency and quality of diesel fuel and alleviate the problem of atmospheric pollution. Considering synthetic routes, PODE production from methanol and formaldehyde is regarded as the most economical and promising synthetic route. However, methanol used for synthesizing PODE can produce water, which causes the loss of active center of catalyst and hydrolysis of PODEn in the production process. Macroporous strong acidic cation exchange resin catalyst was prepared, which has comparative advantages over other common solid acid catalysts in terms of stability and catalytic efficiency for synthesizing PODE. Catalytic reactions were carried out under 353 K, 1 MPa and 3mL·gcat-1·h-1 in a fixed bed reactor. Methanol conversion and PODE3-6 selectivity reached 49.91% and 23.43%, respectively. Catalyst lifetime evaluation showed that resin catalyst retained its catalytic activity for 20 days without significant changes and catalytic activity of completely deactivated resin catalyst can basically return to previous level by simple acid regeneration. The acid exchange capacities of original and deactivated catalyst were 2.5191 and 0.0979 mmol·g-1, respectively, while regenerated catalyst reached 2.0430 mmol·g-1, indicating that the main reason for resin catalyst deactivation is that Brønsted acid sites of original resin catalyst were temporarily replaced by non-hydrogen ion cations. A separation process consisting of extraction and distillation for PODE3-6 product was designed for separation of water and unreacted formaldehyde from reactive mixture and purification of PODE3-6, respectively. The concentration of PODE3-6 in final product can reach up to 97%. These results indicate that the scale-up production of PODE3-6 from methanol and formaldehyde solution is feasible.

Keywords: inactivation, polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers, separation process, sulfonic cation exchange resin

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2093 Evolution of Nettlespurge Oil Mud for Drilling Mud System: A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Nettlespurge Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

Authors: Harsh Agarwal, Pratikkumar Patel, Maharshi Pathak

Abstract:

Recently the low prices of Crude oil and increase in strict environmental regulations limit limits the use of diesel based muds as these muds are relatively costlier and toxic, as a result disposal of cuttings into the eco-system is a major issue faced by the drilling industries. To overcome these issues faced by the Oil Industry, an attempt has been made to develop oil-in-water emulsion mud system using nettlespurge oil. Nettlespurge oil could be easily available and its cost is around ₹30/litre which is about half the price of diesel in India. Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with Nettlespurge oil extracted from Nettlespurge seeds using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated nettlespurge oil mud properties were analysed with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The mud density measurement showed that nettlespurge OBM was slightly higher than diesel OBM with mud density values of 9.175 lb/gal and 8.5 lb/gal, respectively, at barite content of 70 g. Thus it has a higher lubricating property. Additionally, the filtration loss test results showed that nettlespurge mud fluid loss volumes, oil was 11 ml, compared to diesel oil mud volume of 15 ml. The filtration loss test indicated that the nettlespurge oil mud with filter cake thickness of 2.2 mm had a cake characteristic of thin and squashy while the diesel oil mud resulted in filter cake thickness of 2.7 mm with cake characteristic of tenacious, rubbery and resilient. The filtration loss test results showed that nettlespurge oil mud fluid loss volumes was much less than the diesel based oil mud. The filtration loss test indicated that the nettlespurge oil mud filter cake thickness less than the diesel oil mud filter cake thickness. So Low formation damage and the emulsion stability effect was analysed with this experiment. The nettlespurge oil-in-water mud system had lower coefficient of friction than the diesel oil based mud system. All the rheological properties have shown better results relative to the diesel based oil mud. Therefore, with all the above mentioned factors and with the data of the conducted experiment we could conclude that the Nettlespurge oil based mud is economically and well as eco-logically much more feasible than the worn out and shabby diesel-based oil mud in the Drilling Industry.

Keywords: economical feasible, ecological feasible, emulsion stability, nettle spurge oil, rheological properties, soxhlet extraction method

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2092 Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Testing of a Scaled down Hybrid Rocket Engine

Authors: Pawthawala Nancy Manish, Syed Alay Hashim

Abstract:

A hybrid rocket is a rocket engine which uses propellants in two different states of matter- one is in solid and the other either gas or liquid. A hybrid rocket exhibit advantages over both liquid rockets and solid rockets especially in terms of simplicity, stop-start-restart capabilities, safety and cost. This paper deals the design and development of a hybrid rocket having paraffin wax as solid fuel and liquid oxygen as oxidizer. Due to variation of pressure in combustion chamber there is significantly change in mass flow rate, burning rate and uneven regression along the length of the grain. This project describes the working model of a hybrid propellant rocket motor. We have designed a hybrid rocket thrust chamber based on the predetermined combustion chamber pressure and the properties of hybrid propellant. This project is all ready in working condition with normal oxygen injector. Now we have planned to modify the injector design to improve the combustion property. We will use spray type injector for injecting the oxidizer. This idea will increase the performance followed by the regression rate of the solid fuel. By employing mass conservation law, oxygen mass flux, oxidizer/fuel ratio and regression rate the thrust coefficient can be obtained for our current design. CATIA V5 R20 is our design software for the complete setup. This project is fully based on experimental evaluation and the collection of combustion and flow parameters. The thrust chamber is made of stainless steel and the duration of test is around 15-20 seconds (Maximum). These experiments indicates that paraffin based fuel provides the opportunity to satisfy a broad range of mission requirements for the next generation of the hybrid rocket system.

Keywords: burning rate, liquid oxygen, mass flow rate, paraffin wax and sugar

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2091 Catalytic Hydrothermal Decarboxylation of Lipid from Activated Sludge for Renewable Diesel Production

Authors: Ifeanyichukwu Edeh, Tim Overton, Steve Bowra

Abstract:

Currently biodiesel is produced from plant oils or animal’s fats by a liquid-phase catalysed transesterification process at low temperature. Although biodiesel is renewable and to a large extent sustainable, inherent properties such as poor cold flow, low oxidation stability, low cetane value restrict application to blends with fossil fuels. An alternative to biodiesel is renewable diesel produced by catalytic hydrotreating of oils and fats and is considered a drop in fuel because its properties are similar to petroleum diesel. In addition to developing alternative productions routes there is continued interest in reducing the cost of the feed stock, waste cooking oils and fats are increasingly used as the feedstocks due to low cost. However, use of oils and fat are highly adulterated resulting in high free fatty acid content which turn impacts on the efficiency of FAME production. Therefore, in light of the need to develop, alternative lipid feed stocks and related efficient catalysis the present study investigates the potential of producing renewable diesel from the lipids-extracted from activated sludge, a waste water treatment by-product, through catalytic hydrothermal decarboxylation. The microbial lipids were first extracted from the activated sludge using the Folch et al method before hydrothermal decarboxylation reactions were carried out using palladium (Pd/C) and platinum (Pt/C) on activated carbon as the catalysts in a batch reactor. The impact of three temperatures 290, 300, 330 °C and residence time between 30 min and 4hrs was assessed. At the end of the reaction, the products were recovered using organic solvents and characterized using gas chromatography (GC). The principle products of the reaction were pentadecane and heptadecane. The highest yields of pentadecane and heptadecane from lipid-extract were 23.23% and 15.21%, respectively. These yields were obtained at 290 °C and residence time 1h using Pt/C. To the best of our knowledge, the current work is the first investigation on the hydrothermal decarboxylation of lipid-extract from activated sludge.

Keywords: activated sludge, lipid, hydrothermal decarboxylation, renewable diesel

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2090 Research on the Torsional Vibration of a Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain Equipped with a Dual Mass Flywheel

Authors: Xiaolin Tang, Wei Yang, Xiaoan Chen

Abstract:

The research described in this paper was aimed at exploring the torsional vibration characteristics of a power-split hybrid powertrain equipped with a dual mass flywheel. The dynamic equations of governing torsional vibration for this hybrid driveline are presented, and the multi-body dynamic model for the powertrain is established with the software of ADAMS. Accordingly, different parameters of dual mass flywheel are investigated by forced vibration to reduce the torsional vibration of hybrid drive train. The analysis shows that the implementation of a dual mass flywheel is an effective way to decrease the torsional vibration of the hybrid powertrain. At last, the optimal combination of parameters yielding the lowest vibration is provided.

Keywords: dual mass flywheel, hybrid electric vehicle, torsional vibration, powertrain, dynamics

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2089 A Comparative Study between Different Techniques of Off-Page and On-Page Search Engine Optimization

Authors: Ahmed Ishtiaq, Maeeda Khalid, Umair Sajjad

Abstract:

In the fast-moving world, information is the key to success. If information is easily available, then it makes work easy. The Internet is the biggest collection and source of information nowadays, and with every single day, the data on internet increases, and it becomes difficult to find required data. Everyone wants to make his/her website at the top of search results. This can be possible when you have applied some techniques of SEO inside your application or outside your application, which are two types of SEO, onsite and offsite SEO. SEO is an abbreviation of Search Engine Optimization, and it is a set of techniques, methods to increase users of a website on World Wide Web or to rank up your website in search engine indexing. In this paper, we have compared different techniques of Onpage and Offpage SEO, and we have suggested many things that should be changed inside webpage, outside web page and mentioned some most powerful and search engine considerable elements and techniques in both types of SEO in order to gain high ranking on Search Engine.

Keywords: auto-suggestion, search engine optimization, SEO, query, web mining, web crawler

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2088 Mediating Role of Burnout in Personality and Marital Satisfaction of Single and Dual Career Couples

Authors: Sara Subhan

Abstract:

Married couples tend to experience various bio-psycho-social issues that may eventually impact the quality of their marital relationship and mental wellbeing. This study aimed to find out the comparison between the single and dual-career couples’ personality, burnout and marital satisfaction. For that purpose Big Five Inventory, Couple Satisfaction Inventory, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to measure the relationship between variables. The main study was carried out on 200 samples of single and dual-earner couples with the age range of 23-52 (mean= 34.58; standard deviation= 6.51) by using a purposive sampling strategy. The results showed that burnout tendencies like exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy are playing a mediation role between the personality and marital satisfaction of both single and dual career couples. Also, the results revealed that dual-career couples are more likely to have marital satisfaction as compared to single career couples. The results were further discussed in the light of its implications in its cultural context and counseling areas.

Keywords: dual career couples, marital satisfaction, burnout tendencies, personality

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
2087 Effect of Fuel Lean Reburning Process on NOx Reduction and CO Emission

Authors: Changyeop Lee, Sewon Kim

Abstract:

Reburning is a useful technology in reducing nitric oxide through injection of a secondary hydrocarbon fuel. In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of fuel lean reburning on NOx/CO reduction in LNG flame. Experiments were performed in flames stabilized by a co-flow swirl burner, which was mounted at the bottom of the furnace. Tests were conducted using LNG gas as the reburn fuel as well as the main fuel. The effects of reburn fuel fraction and injection manner of the reburn fuel were studied when the fuel lean reburning system was applied. The paper reports data on flue gas emissions and temperature distribution in the furnace for a wide range of experimental conditions. At steady state, temperature distribution and emission formation in the furnace have been measured and compared. This paper makes clear that in order to decrease both NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust when the pulsated fuel lean reburning system was adapted, it is important that the control of some factors such as frequency and duty ratio. Also it shows the fuel lean reburning is also effective method to reduce NOx as much as reburning.

Keywords: fuel lean reburn, NOx, CO, LNG flame

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2086 Artificial Intelligent Methodology for Liquid Propellant Engine Design Optimization

Authors: Hassan Naseh, Javad Roozgard

Abstract:

This paper represents the methodology based on Artificial Intelligent (AI) applied to Liquid Propellant Engine (LPE) optimization. The AI methodology utilized from Adaptive neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). In this methodology, the optimum objective function means to achieve maximum performance (specific impulse). The independent design variables in ANFIS modeling are combustion chamber pressure and temperature and oxidizer to fuel ratio and output of this modeling are specific impulse that can be applied with other objective functions in LPE design optimization. To this end, the LPE’s parameter has been modeled in ANFIS methodology based on generating fuzzy inference system structure by using grid partitioning, subtractive clustering and Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering for both inferences (Mamdani and Sugeno) and various types of membership functions. The final comparing optimization results shown accuracy and processing run time of the Gaussian ANFIS Methodology between all methods.

Keywords: ANFIS methodology, artificial intelligent, liquid propellant engine, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
2085 Impact of Soot on NH3-SCR, NH3 Oxidation and NH3 TPD over Cu/SSZ-13 Zeolite

Authors: Lidija Trandafilovic, Kirsten Leistner, Marie Stenfeldt, Louise Olsson

Abstract:

Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (NH3 SCR), is one of the most efficient post combustion abatement technologies for removing NOx from diesel engines. In order to remove soot, diesel particulate filters (DPF) are used. Recently, SCR coated filters have been introduced, which captures soot and simultaneously is active for ammonia SCR. There are large advantages with using SCR coated filters, such as decreased volume and also better light off characteristics, since both the SCR function as well as filter function is close to the engine. The objective of this work was to examine the effect of soot, produced using an engine bench, on Cu/SSZ-13 catalysts. The impact of soot on Cu/SSZ-13 in standard SCR, NH3 oxidation, NH3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD), as well as soot oxidation (with and without water) was examined using flow reactor measurements. In all experiments, prior to the soot loading, the fresh activity of Cu/SSZ-13 was recorded with stepwise increasing the temperature from 100°C till 600°C. Thereafter, the sample was loaded with soot and the experiment was repeated in the temperature range from 100°C till 700°C. The amount of CO and CO2 produced in each experiment is used to calculate the soot oxidized at each steady state temperature. The soot oxidized during the heating to next temperature step is included, e.g. the CO+CO2 produced when increasing the temperature to 600°C is added to the 600°C step. The influence of the two factors seem to be of the most importance to soot oxidation: ammonia and water. The influence of water on soot oxidation shift the maximum of CO2 and CO production towards lower temperatures, thus water increases the soot oxidation. Moreover, when adding ammonia to the system it is clear that the soot oxidation is lowered in the presence of ammonia, resulting in larger integrated COx at 500°C for O2+H2O, while opposite results at 600 °C was received where more was oxidised for O2+H2O+NH3 case. To conclude the presence of ammonia reduces the soot oxidation, which is in line with the ammonia TPD results where we found ammonia storage on the soot. Interestingly, during ammonia SCR conditions the activity for soot oxidation is regained at 500°C. At this high temperature the SCR zone is very short, thus the majority of the catalyst is not exposed to ammonia and therefore the inhibition effect of ammonia is not observed.

Keywords: NH3-SCR, Cu/SSZ-13, soot, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
2084 Testing of Gas Turbine KingTech with Biodiesel

Authors: Nicolas Lipchak, Franco Aiducic, Santiago Baieli

Abstract:

The present work is a part of the research project called ‘Testing of gas turbine KingTech with biodiesel’, carried out by the Department of Industrial Engineering of the National Technological University at Buenos Aires. The research group aims to experiment with biodiesel in a gas turbine Kingtech K-100 to verify the correct operation of it. In this sense, tests have been developed to obtain real data of parameters inherent to the work cycle, to be used later as parameters of comparison and performance analysis. In the first instance, the study consisted in testing the gas turbine with a mixture composition of 50% Biodiesel and 50% Diesel. The parameters arising from the measurements made were compared with the parameters of the gas turbine with a composition of 100% Diesel. In the second instance, the measured parameters were used to calculate the power generated and the thermal efficiency of the Kingtech K-100 turbine. The turbine was also inspected to verify the status of the internals due to the use of biofuels. The conclusions obtained allow empirically demonstrate that it is feasible to use biodiesel in this type of gas turbines, without the use of this fuel generates a loss of power or degradation of internals.

Keywords: biodiesel, efficiency, KingTech, turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
2083 Environmental Evaluation of Alternative/Renewable Fuels Technology

Authors: Muhammad Hadi Ibrahim

Abstract:

The benefits of alternative/renewable fuels in general and a study of the environmental impacts of biofuels in particular have been reviewed in this paper. It is a known fact that, energy generation using fossil fuel produces many important pollutants including; nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, soot, dust, smoke and other particulate harmful matter. It’s believed that if carbon dioxide levels continue to increase drastically, the planet will become warmer and will most likely result in a variety of negative impacts including; sea-level rise, extreme and unpredictable weather events and an increased frequency of draughts in inland agricultural zones. Biofuels such as alcohols, biogas, etc. appear to be more viable alternatives, especially for use as fuels in diesel engines. The substitution of fossil fuel through increased utilization of biofuels produced in a sustainable manner, can contribute immensely towards a cleaner environment, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation of climate change. Stakeholders in the energy sector can be sensitized by the findings of the research study and to consider the possible adverse effects in developing technologies for the production and combustion of biofuels.

Keywords: emission, energy, renewable/alternative fuel, environment, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 99