Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2325

Search results for: dual fuel diesel engine

2235 Research of Actuators of Common Rail Injection Systems with the Use of LabVIEW on a Specially Designed Test Bench

Authors: G. Baranski, A. Majczak, M. Wendeker


Currently, the most commonly used solution to provide fuel to the diesel engines is the Common Rail system. Compared to previous designs, as a due to relatively simple construction and electronic control systems, these systems allow achieving favourable engine operation parameters with particular emphasis on low emission of toxic compounds into the atmosphere. In this system, the amount of injected fuel dose is strictly dependent on the course of parameters of the electrical impulse sent by the power amplifier power supply system injector from the engine controller. The article presents the construction of a laboratory test bench to examine the course of the injection process and the expense in storage injection systems. The test bench enables testing of injection systems with electromagnetically controlled injectors with the use of scientific engineering tools. The developed system is based on LabView software and CompactRIO family controller using FPGA systems and a real time microcontroller. The results of experimental research on electromagnetic injectors of common rail system, controlled by a dedicated National Instruments card, confirm the effectiveness of the presented approach. The results of the research described in the article present the influence of basic parameters of the electric impulse opening the electromagnetic injector on the value of the injected fuel dose. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A.’ and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: fuel injector, combustion engine, fuel pressure, compression ignition engine, power supply system, controller, LabVIEW

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2234 Effect of Different Diesel Fuels on Formation of the Cavitation Phenomena

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi


Cavitation inside the diesel injector nozzle is investigated numerically in this study. Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes set of equations (RANS) are utilized to investigate flow behavior inside the nozzle numerically. Moreover, K-ε turbulent model is found to be a better approach comparing to K-ω turbulent model. Winklhofer rectangular shape nozzle is also simulated in order to verify the current numerical scheme, and with, mass flow rate approach, the current solution is verified. Afterward, a six-hole real-size nozzle was simulated, and it was found that among different fuels used in this study with the same condition, diesel fuel provides the largest length of cavitation. Also, it was found that at the same boundary condition, RME fuel leads to the highest value of discharge coefficient and mass flow rate.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, discharge coefficient

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2233 Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Using an Oscillatory Baffled Reactor

Authors: Malee Santikunaporn, Tattep Techopittayakul, Channarong Asavatesanupap


Biofuel production especially that of biodiesel has gained tremendous attention during the last decade due to environmental concerns and shortage in petroleum oil reservoir. This research aims to investigate the influences of operating parameters, such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, and 9:1) and the amount of catalyst (1, 1.5, and 2 wt.%) on the trans esterification of refined palm oil (RPO) in a medium-scale oscillatory baffle reactor.  It has been shown that an increase in the methanol-to-oil ratio resulted in an increase in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content. The amount of catalyst has an insignificant effect on the FAMEs content. Engine testing was performed on B0 (100 v/v% diesel) and blended fuel or B50 (50 v/v% diesel). Combustion of B50 was found to give lower torque compared to pure diesel. Exhaust gas from B50 was found to contain lower concentration of CO and CO2.

Keywords: biodiesel, palm oil, transesterification, oscillatory baffled reactor

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2232 An Analysis of Conditions for Efficiency Gains in Large ICEs Using Cycling

Authors: Bauer Peter, Murillo Jenny


This paper investigates the bounds of achievable fuel efficiency improvements in engines due to cycling between two operating points assuming a series hybrid configuration . It is shown that for linear bsfc dependencies (as a function of power), cycling is only beneficial if the average power needs are smaller than the power at the optimal bsfc value. Exact expressions for the fuel efficiency gains relative to the constant output power case are derived. This asymptotic analysis is then extended to the case where transient losses due to a change in the operating point are also considered. The case of the boundary bsfc trajectory where constant power application and cycling yield the same fuel investigated. It is shown that the boundary bsfc locations of the second non-optimal operating points is hyperbolic. The analysis of the boundary case allows to evaluate whether for a particular engine, cycling can be beneficial. The introduced concepts are illustrated through a number of real world examples, i.e. large production Diesel engines in series hybrid configurations.

Keywords: cycling, efficiency, bsfc, series hybrid, diesel, operating point

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2231 A Comparative Study of Black Carbon Emission Characteristics from Marine Diesel Engines Using Light Absorption Method

Authors: Dongguk Im, Gunfeel Moon, Younwoo Nam, Kangwoo Chun


Recognition of the needs about protecting environment throughout worldwide is widespread. In the shipping industry, International Maritime Organization (IMO) has been regulating pollutants emitted from ships by MARPOL 73/78. Recently, the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of IMO, at its 68th session, approved the definition of Black Carbon (BC) specified by the following physical properties (light absorption, refractory, insolubility and morphology). The committee also agreed to the need for a protocol for any voluntary measurement studies to identify the most appropriate measurement methods. Filter Smoke Number (FSN) based on light absorption is categorized as one of the IMO relevant BC measurement methods. EUROMOT provided a FSN measurement data (measured by smoke meter) of 31 different engines (low, medium and high speed marine engines) of member companies at the 3rd International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) workshop on marine BC. From the comparison of FSN, the results indicated that BC emission from low speed marine diesel engines was ranged from 0.009 to 0.179 FSN and it from medium and high speed marine diesel engine was ranged 0.012 to 3.2 FSN. In consideration of measured the low FSN from low speed engine, an experimental study was conducted using both a low speed marine diesel engine (2 stroke, power of 7,400 kW at 129 rpm) and a high speed marine diesel engine (4 stroke, power of 403 kW at 1,800 rpm) under E3 test cycle. The results revealed that FSN was ranged from 0.01 to 0.16 and 1.09 to 1.35 for low and high speed engines, respectively. The measurement equipment (smoke meter) ranges from 0 to 10 FSN. Considering measurement range of it, FSN values from low speed engines are near the detection limit (0.002 FSN or ~0.02 mg/m3). From these results, it seems to be modulated the measurement range of the measurement equipment (smoke meter) for enhancing measurement accuracy of marine BC and evaluation on performance of BC abatement technologies.

Keywords: black carbon, filter smoke number, international maritime organization, marine diesel engine (two and four stroke), particulate matter

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2230 Water-in-Diesel Fuel Nanoemulsions Prepared by Modified Low Energy: Emulsion Drop Size and Stability, Physical Properties, and Emission Characteristics

Authors: M. R. Noor El-Din, Marwa R. Mishrif, R. E. Morsi, E. A. El-Sharaky, M. E. Haseeb, Rania T. M. Ghanem


This paper studies the physical and rheological behaviours of water/in/diesel fuel nanoemulsions prepared by modified low energy method. Twenty of water/in/diesel fuel nanoemulsions were prepared using mixed nonionic surfactants of sorbitan monooleate and polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (MTS) at Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value of 10 and a working temperature of 20°C. The influence of the prepared nanoemulsions on the physical properties such as kinematic viscosity, density, and calorific value was studied. Also, nanoemulsion systems were subjected to rheological evaluation. The effect of water loading percentage (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 wt.%) on rheology was assessed at temperatures range from 20 to 60°C with temperature interval of 10 for time lapse 0, 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. Results show that all of the sets nanoemulsions exhibited a Newtonian flow character of low-shear viscosity in the range of 132 up to 191 1/s, and followed by a shear-thinning region with yield value (Non-Newtonian behaviour) at high shear rate for all water ratios (5 to 10 wt.%) and at all test temperatures (20 to 60°C) for time ageing up to 3 months. Also, the viscosity/temperature relationship of all nanoemulsions fitted well Arrhenius equation with high correlation coefficients that ascertain their Newtonian behavior.

Keywords: alternative fuel, nanoemulsion, surfactant, diesel fuel

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2229 Solar-Assisted City Bus Electrical Installation: Opportunities and Impact on the Environment in Sydney

Authors: M. J. Geca, T. Tulwin, A. Majczak


On-board electricity consumption in the diesel city bus during operation is an important energy source. Electricity is generated by a combustion engine-driven alternator. Increased fuel consumption to generate on-board electricity in the bus has a negative impact on the emission of toxic components and carbon dioxide. At the same time, the bus roof surface allows placing a set of lightweight photovoltaic panels with power from 1 to 1.5 kW. The article presents an experimental study of electricity consumption of a city bus with diesel engine equipped with photovoltaic installation. The stream of electricity consumed by the bus and generated by a standard alternator and PV system was recorded. Base on the experimental research carried out in central Europe; the article analyses the impact of an additional source of electricity in the form of a photovoltaic installation on fuel consumption and emissions of toxic components of vehicles located in the latitude of Sydney. In Poland, the maximum global value of horizontal irradiation GHI is 1150 kWh/m², while for Sydney 1652 kWh/m². In addition, the profile of temperature and sunshine per year is different for these two different latitudes as presented in the article. Electricity generated directly from the sun powers the bus's electrical receivers. The photovoltaic system is able to replace 23% of annual electricity consumption, which at the same time will reduce 4% of fuel consumption and CO₂ reduction. Approximately 25% of the light is lost during vehicle traffic in Sydney latitude. The temperature losses of photovoltaic panels are comparable due to the cooling during vehicle motion. Acknowledgement: The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology - Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: electric energy, photovoltaic system, fuel consumption, CO₂

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2228 The Investigation of LPG Injector Control Circuit on a Motorcycle

Authors: Bin-Wen Lan, Ying-Xin Chen, Hsueh-Cheng Yang


Liquefied petroleum gas is a fuel that has high octane number and low carbon number. This paper uses MSC-51 controller to investigate the effect of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on exhaust emissions for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke and spark ignition engine. The results indicate that CO, CO2 and NOX exhaust emissions are lower with the use of LPG compared to the use of unleaded gasoline by using the developed controller. The open-loop in the LPG injection system was controlled by MCS-51 single chip. The results show that if a SI engine is operated with LPG fuel rather than gasoline fuel under the same conditions, significant reduction in exhaust emissions can be achieved. In summary, LPG has positive effects on main exhaust emissions such as CO, CO2 and NOX.

Keywords: LPG, control circuit, emission, MCS-51

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2227 Synthesis of Green Fuel Additive from Waste Bio-Glycerol

Authors: Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Farrukh Jamil, Lamya Al-Haj, Mohab Al-Hinai


Bio-glycerol is considered as high boiling polar triol and immiscible with fossil fuel fractions due to which it is transformed into its respective ketals and acetals which help to improve the quality of diesel emitting less amount of aldehydes and carbon monoxide. Solketal visual appearance is transparent and it is odorless organic liquid used as fuel additive for diesel to improve its cold flow properties. Condensation of bio-glycerol with bio-acetone in presence of beta zeolite has been done for synthesizing solketal. It was observed that glycerol conversion and selectivity of solketal was largely effected by temperature, as it increases from 40 ºC to 60 ºC the conversion of glycerol rises from 80.04 % to 94.26 % and selectivity of solketal from 80.0 % to 94.21 % but further increase in temperature to 100 ºC glycerol conversion reduced to 93.06 % and solketal selectivity to 92.08 %. At the optimum conditions, the bio-glycerol conversion and solketal yield were about 94.26% and 94.21wt% respectively. This process offers an attractive route for converting bio-glycerol, the main by-product of biodiesel to solketal with bio-acetone; a value-added green product with potential industrial applications as a valuable green fuel additive or combustion promoter for gasoline/diesel engines.

Keywords: bio-acetone, bio-glycerol, acetylation, solketal

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2226 Synthesis of Oxygenated Fuel Additive from Bio-Glycerol

Authors: Farrukh Jamil, Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Lamya Al-Haj, Mohab A. Al-Hinai


Glycerol is considered as high boiling polar triol and immiscible with fossil fuel fractions due to which it is transformed into its respective ketals and acetals which help to improve the quality of diesel emitting less amount of aldehydes and carbon monoxide. Solketal visual appearance is transparent, and it is odorless organic liquid used as a fuel additive for diesel to improve its cold flow properties. Condensation of bio-glycerol with bio-acetone in presence of beta zeolite has been done for synthesizing solketal. It was observed that glycerol conversion and selectivity of solketal was largely effected by temperature, as it increases from 40 ºC to 60 ºC the conversion of glycerol rises from 80.04 % to 94.26 % and selectivity of solketal from 80.0 % to 94.21 % but further increase in temperature to 100 ºC glycerol conversion reduced to 93.06 % and solketal selectivity to 92.08 %. At the optimum conditions, the bio-glycerol conversion and solketal yield were about 94.26% and 94.21wt% respectively. This process offers an attractive route for converting bio-glycerol, the main by-product of biodiesel to solketal with bio-acetone; a value-added green product with potential industrial applications as a valuable green fuel additive or combustion promoter for gasoline/diesel engines.

Keywords: bio-glycerol, catalyst, green additive, biomass

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2225 Quantification of GHGs Emissions from Electricity and Diesel Fuel Consumption in Basalt Mining Industry in Thailand

Authors: S. Kittipongvises, A. Dubsok


The mineral and mining industry is necessary for countries to have an adequate and reliable supply of materials to meet their socio-economic development. Despite its importance, the environmental impacts from mineral exploration are hugely significant. This study aimed to investigate and quantify the amount of GHGs emissions emitted from both electricity and diesel vehicle fuel consumption in basalt mining in Thailand. Plant A, located in the northeastern region of Thailand, was selected as a case study. Results indicated that total GHGs emissions from basalt mining and operation (Plant A) were approximately 2,501,086 kgCO2e and 1,997,412 kgCO2e in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The estimated carbon intensity ranged between 1.824 kgCO2e to 2.284 kgCO2e per ton of rock product. Scope 1 (direct emissions) was the dominant driver of its total GHGs compared to scope 2 (indirect emissions). As such, transport related combustion of diesel fuels generated the highest GHGs emission (65%) compared to emissions from purchased electricity (35%). Some of the potential implications for mining entities were also presented.

Keywords: basalt mining, diesel fuel, electricity, GHGs emissions, Thailand

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2224 Enhancement of Tribological Behavior for Diesel Engine Piston of Solid Skirt by an Optimal Choice of Interface Material

Authors: M. Amara, M. Tahar Abbes, A. Dokkiche, M. Benbrike


Shear stresses generate frictional forces thus lead to the reduction of engine performance due to the power losses. This friction can also cause damage to the piston material. Thus, the choice of an optimal material for the piston is necessary to improve the elastohydrodynamical contacts of the piston. In this study, to achieve this objective, an elastohydrodynamical lubrication model that satisfies the best tribological behavior of the piston with the optimum choice of material is developed. Several aluminum alloys composed of different components are studied in this simulation. An application is made on the piston 60 x 120 mm Diesel engine type F8L413 currently mounted on Deutz trucks TB230 by using different aluminum alloys where alloys based on aluminum-silicon have better tribological performance.

Keywords: EHD lubricated contacts, friction, properties of materials, tribological performance

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2223 A Novel Combustion Engine, Design and Modeling

Authors: M. A. Effati, M. R. Hojjati, M. Razmdideh


Nowadays, engine developments have focused on internal combustion engine design call for increased engine power, reduced engine size and improved fuel economy, simultaneously. In this paper, a novel design for combustion engine is proposed. Two combustion chambers were designed in two sides of cylinder. Piston was designed in a way that two sides of piston would transfer heat energy due to combustion to linear motion. This motion would convert to rotary motion through the designed mechanism connected to connecting rod. Connecting rod operation was analyzed to evaluate applied stress in 3000, 4500 and 6000 rpm. Boundary conditions including generated pressure in each side of cylinder in these 3 situations was calculated.

Keywords: combustion engine, design, finite element method, modeling

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2222 Fuel Properties of Distilled Tire Pyrolytic Oil and Its Blends with Biodiesel and Commercial Diesel Fuel

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


Tires are extremely challenging to recycle due to the available chemically cross-linked polymer which constitutes their nature and therefore, they are neither fusible nor soluble and consequently, cannot be remoulded into other shapes without serious degradation. Pyrolysis of tires produces four valuable products namely; char, steel, tire pyrolytic oil (TPO) and non-condensable gases. TPO has been reported to have similar properties to commercial diesel fuel (CDF). In this study, distillation of TPO was carried out in a batch distillation column and biodiesel was produced from waste cooking oil. FTIR analysis proved that TPO can be used as a fuel due to the available compounds detected and GC analysis displayed 94% biodiesel concentration from waste cooking oil. Different blends of TPO/biodiesel, TPO/CDF and biodiesel/CDF were prepared at different ratios. Fuel properties such as viscosity, density, flash point, and calorific value were studied. Viscosity and density models were also studied to measure the quality of different blends.

Keywords: biodiesel, distillation, pyrolysis, tire

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2221 Wear Diagnosis of Diesel Engine Helical Gear

Authors: Surjit Angra, Gajanan Rane, Vinod Kumar, Sushma Rani


This paper presents metallurgical investigation of failed helical gear of diesel engine gear box used in a car. The failure had occurred near the bottomland of the tooth spacing. The failed surface was studied under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and also visually investigated. The images produced through SEM at various magnifications were studied. Detailed metallurgical study indicates that failure was due to foreign material inclusion which is a casting defect. Further study also revealed pitting, spalling and inter-granular fracture as the causes of gear failure.

Keywords: helical gear, scanning electron microscope, casting defect, pitting

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2220 Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Three Power Generation and Refrigeration Energy Recovery Systems from Thermal Loss of a Diesel Engine in Different Driving Conditions

Authors: H. Golchoobian, M. H. Taheri, S. Saedodin, A. Sarafraz


This paper investigates the possibility of using three systems of organic Rankine auxiliary power generation, ejector refrigeration and absorption to recover energy from a diesel car. The analysis is done for both urban and suburban driving modes that vary from 60 to 120 km/h. Various refrigerants have also been used for organic Rankine and Ejector refrigeration cycles. The capacity was evaluated by Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system in both urban and suburban conditions for cyclopentane and ammonia as refrigerants. Also, for these two driving plans, produced cooling by absorption refrigeration system under variable ambient temperature conditions and in ejector refrigeration system for R123, R134a and R141b refrigerants were investigated.

Keywords: absorption system, diesel engine, ejector refrigeration, energy recovery, organic Rankine cycle

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2219 Mathematical Simulation of Performance Parameters of Pulse Detonation Engine

Authors: Subhash Chander, Tejinder Kumar Jindal


Due to its simplicity, Pulse detonation engine technology has recently emerged as a future aerospace propulsion technology. In this paper, we studied various parameters affecting the performance of Pulse detonation engine (PDE) like tube length for proper deflagration to detonation transition (DDT), tube diameter (combustion tube), tube length, Shelkin spiral, Cell size, Equivalence ratio of fuel used etc. We have discussed various techniques for reducing the length of pulse tube by using various DDT enhancing devices. The effect of length of the tube from 40 mm to 3000 mm and diameter from 10 mm to 100 mm has been analyzed. The fuel used is C2H2 and oxidizer is O2. The results are processed in MATLAB for drawing valid conclusions.

Keywords: pulse detonation engine (PDE), deflagration to detonation (DDT), Schelkin spiral, cell size (λ)

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2218 Diesel Fault Prediction Based on Optimized Gray Neural Network

Authors: Han Bing, Yin Zhenjie


In order to analyze the status of a diesel engine, as well as conduct fault prediction, a new prediction model based on a gray system is proposed in this paper, which takes advantage of the neural network and the genetic algorithm. The proposed GBPGA prediction model builds on the GM (1.5) model and uses a neural network, which is optimized by a genetic algorithm to construct the error compensator. We verify our proposed model on the diesel faulty simulation data and the experimental results show that GBPGA has the potential to employ fault prediction on diesel.

Keywords: fault prediction, neural network, GM(1, 5) genetic algorithm, GBPGA

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2217 Predictive Semi-Empirical NOx Model for Diesel Engine

Authors: Saurabh Sharma, Yong Sun, Bruce Vernham


Accurate prediction of NOx emission is a continuous challenge in the field of diesel engine-out emission modeling. Performing experiments for each conditions and scenario cost significant amount of money and man hours, therefore model-based development strategy has been implemented in order to solve that issue. NOx formation is highly dependent on the burn gas temperature and the O2 concentration inside the cylinder. The current empirical models are developed by calibrating the parameters representing the engine operating conditions with respect to the measured NOx. This makes the prediction of purely empirical models limited to the region where it has been calibrated. An alternative solution to that is presented in this paper, which focus on the utilization of in-cylinder combustion parameters to form a predictive semi-empirical NOx model. The result of this work is shown by developing a fast and predictive NOx model by using the physical parameters and empirical correlation. The model is developed based on the steady state data collected at entire operating region of the engine and the predictive combustion model, which is developed in Gamma Technology (GT)-Power by using Direct Injected (DI)-Pulse combustion object. In this approach, temperature in both burned and unburnt zone is considered during the combustion period i.e. from Intake Valve Closing (IVC) to Exhaust Valve Opening (EVO). Also, the oxygen concentration consumed in burnt zone and trapped fuel mass is also considered while developing the reported model.  Several statistical methods are used to construct the model, including individual machine learning methods and ensemble machine learning methods. A detailed validation of the model on multiple diesel engines is reported in this work. Substantial numbers of cases are tested for different engine configurations over a large span of speed and load points. Different sweeps of operating conditions such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), injection timing and Variable Valve Timing (VVT) are also considered for the validation. Model shows a very good predictability and robustness at both sea level and altitude condition with different ambient conditions. The various advantages such as high accuracy and robustness at different operating conditions, low computational time and lower number of data points requires for the calibration establishes the platform where the model-based approach can be used for the engine calibration and development process. Moreover, the focus of this work is towards establishing a framework for the future model development for other various targets such as soot, Combustion Noise Level (CNL), NO2/NOx ratio etc.

Keywords: diesel engine, machine learning, NOₓ emission, semi-empirical

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2216 Optimal Design of a PV/Diesel Hybrid System for Decentralized Areas through Economic Criteria

Authors: David B. Tsuanyo, Didier Aussel, Yao Azoumah, Pierre Neveu


An innovative concept called “Flexy-Energy”is developing at 2iE. This concept aims to produce electricity at lower cost by smartly mix different available energies sources in accordance to the load profile of the region. With a higher solar irradiation and due to the fact that Diesel generator are massively used in sub-Saharan rural areas, PV/Diesel hybrid systems could be a good application of this concept and a good solution to electrify this region, provided they are reliable, cost effective and economically attractive to investors. Presentation of the developed approach is the aims of this paper. The PV/Diesel hybrid system designed consists to produce electricity and/or heat from a coupling between Diesel gensets and PV panels without batteries storage, while ensuring the substitution of gasoil by bio-fuels available in the area where the system will be installed. The optimal design of this system is based on his technical performances; the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Levelized Cost of Energy are developed and use as economic criteria. The Net Present Value (NPV), the internal rate of return (IRR) and the discounted payback (DPB) are also evaluated according to dual electricity pricing (in sunny and unsunny hours). The PV/Diesel hybrid system obtained is compared to the standalone Diesel gensets. The approach carried out in this paper has been applied to Siby village in Mali (Latitude 12 ° 23'N 8 ° 20'W) with 295 kWh as daily demand. This approach provides optimal physical characteristics (size of the components, number of component) and dynamical characteristics in real time (number of Diesel generator on, their load rate, fuel specific consumptions, and PV penetration rate) of the system. The system obtained is slightly cost effective; but could be improved with optimized tariffing strategies.

Keywords: investments criteria, optimization, PV hybrid, sizing, rural electrification

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2215 Reliability Analysis of a Fuel Supply System in Automobile Engine

Authors: Chitaranjan Sharma


The present paper deals with the analysis of a fuel supply system in an automobile engine of a four wheeler which is having both the option of fuel i.e. PETROL and CNG. Since CNG is cheaper than petrol so the priority is given to consume CNG as compared to petrol. An automatic switch is used to start petrol supply at the time of failure of CNG supply. Using regenerative point technique with Markov renewal process, the reliability characteristics which are useful to system designers are obtained.

Keywords: reliability, redundancy, repair time, transition, probability, regenerative points, markov renewal, process

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2214 Development of Intake System for Improvement of Performance of Compressed Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: Mardani Ali Serah, Yuriadi Kusuma, Chandrasa Soekardi


The improvement of flow strategy was implemented in the intake system of the engine to produce better Compressed Natural Gas engine performance. Three components were studied, designed, simulated, developed,tested and validated in this research. The components are: the mixer, swirl device and fuel cooler device. The three components were installed to produce pressurised turbulent flow with higher fuel volume in the intake system, which is ideal condition for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fuelled engine. A combination of experimental work with simulation technique were carried out. The work included design and fabrication of the engine test rig; the CNG fuel cooling system; fitting of instrumentation and measurement system for the performance testing of both gasoline and CNG modes. The simulation work was utilised to design appropriate mixer and swirl device. The flow test rig, known as the steady state flow rig (SSFR) was constructed to validate the simulation results. Then the investigation of the effect of these components on the CNG engine performance was carried out. A venturi-inlet holes mixer with three variables: number of inlet hole (8, 12, and 16); the inlet angles (300, 400, 500, and 600) and the outlet angles (200, 300, 400, and 500) were studied. The swirl-device with number of revolution and the plane angle variables were also studied. The CNG fuel cooling system with the ability to control water flow rate and the coolant temperature was installed. In this study it was found that the mixer and swirl-device improved the swirl ratio and pressure condition inside the intake manifold. The installation of the mixer, swirl device and CNG fuel cooling system had successfully increased 5.5%, 5%, and 3% of CNG engine performance respectively compared to that of existing operating condition. The overall results proved that there is a high potential of this mixer and swirl device method in increasing the CNG engine performance. The overall improvement on engine performance of power and torque was about 11% and 13% compared to the original mixer.

Keywords: intake system, Compressed Natural Gas, volumetric efficiency, engine performance

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2213 Effect of Variation of Injection Timing on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine: A CFD Approach

Authors: N. Balamurugan, N. V. Mahalakshmi


Compression ignition (CI) engines are known for their high thermal efficiency in comparison with spark-ignited (SI) engines. This makes CI engines a potential candidate for the future prime source of power for transportation sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to shrink carbon footprint. However, CI engines produce high levels of NOx and soot emissions. Conventional methods to reduce NOx and soot emissions often result in the infamous NOx-soot trade-off. The injection parameters are one of the most important factors in the working of CI engines. The engine performance, power output, economy etc., is greatly dependent on the effectiveness of the injection parameters. The injection parameter has their direct impact on combustion process and pollutant formation. The injection parameter’s values are required to be optimised according to the application of the engine. Control of fuel injection mode is one method for reduction of NOx and soot emissions that is achievable. This study aims to assess, compare and analyse the influence of the effect of injection characteristics that is SOI timing studied on combustion and emissions in in-cylinder combustion processes with that of conventional DI Diesel Engine system using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) package STAR- CD ES-ICE.

Keywords: variation of injection timing, compression ignition engine, spark-ignited, Computational Fluid Dynamic

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2212 Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Particulate-Phase Exhaust Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

Authors: B. Wang, W. H. Or, S.C. Lee, Y.C. Leung, B. Organ


This study presents an investigation of diesel vehicle particulate-phase emissions with neat ultralow sulphur diesel (B0, ULSD) and 5% waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blend (B5) in Hong Kong. A Euro VI light duty diesel vehicle was tested under transient (New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)), steady-state and idling on a chassis dynamometer. Chemical analyses including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), as well as 30 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 10 oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were conducted. The OC fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for B0 ranged from 2.86 ± 0.33 to 7.19 ± 1.51 mg/kg, and those for B5 ranged from 4.31 ± 0.64 to 15.36 ± 3.77 mg/kg, respectively. The EFs of EC were low for both fuel blends (0.25 mg/kg or below). With B5, the EFs of total PAHs were decreased as compared to B0. Specifically, B5 reduced total PAH emissions by 50.2%, 30.7%, and 15.2% over NEDC, steady-state and idling, respectively. It was found that when B5 was used, PAHs and oxy-PAHs with lower molecular weight (2 to 3 rings) were reduced whereas PAHs/oxy-PAHs with medium or high molecular weight (4 to 7 rings) were increased. Our study suggests the necessity of taking atmospheric and health factors into account for biodiesel application as an alternative motor fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, OC/EC, PAHs, vehicular emission

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2211 Performance Enhancement of Hybrid Racing Car by Design Optimization

Authors: Tarang Varmora, Krupa Shah, Karan Patel


Environmental pollution and shortage of conventional fuel are the main concerns in the transportation sector. Most of the vehicles use an internal combustion engine (ICE), powered by gasoline fuels. This results into emission of toxic gases. Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powered by electric machine and ICE is capable of reducing emission of toxic gases and fuel consumption. However to build HEV, it is required to accommodate motor and batteries in the vehicle along with engine and fuel tank. Thus, overall weight of the vehicle increases. To improve the fuel economy and acceleration, the weight of the HEV can be minimized. In this paper, the design methodology to reduce the weight of the hybrid racing car is proposed. To this end, the chassis design is optimized. Further, attempt is made to obtain the maximum strength with minimum material weight. The best configuration out of the three main configurations such as series, parallel and the dual-mode (series-parallel) is chosen. Moreover, the most suitable type of motor, battery, braking system, steering system and suspension system are identified. The racing car is designed and analyzed in the simulating software. The safety of the vehicle is assured by performing static and dynamic analysis on the chassis frame. From the results, it is observed that, the weight of the racing car is reduced by 11 % without compromising on safety and cost. It is believed that the proposed design and specifications can be implemented practically for manufacturing hybrid racing car.

Keywords: design optimization, hybrid racing car, simulation, vehicle, weight reduction

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2210 Investigating Constructions and Operation of Internal Combustion Engine Water Pumps

Authors: Michał Gęca, Konrad Pietrykowski, Grzegorz Barański


The water pump in the compression-ignition internal combustion engine transports a hot coolant along a system of ducts from the engine block to the radiator where coolant temperature is lowered. This part needs to maintain a constant volumetric flow rate. Its power should be regulated to avoid a significant drop in pressure if a coolant flow decreases. The internal combustion engine cooling system uses centrifugal pumps for suction. The paper investigates 4 constructions of engine pumps. The pumps are from diesel engine of a maximum power of 75 kW. Each of them has a different rotor shape, diameter and width. The test stand was created and the geometry inside the all 4 engine blocks was mapped. For a given pump speed on the inverter of the electric engine motor, the valve position was changed and volumetric flow rate, pressure, and power were recorded. Pump speed was regulated from 1200 RPM to 7000 RPM every 300 RPM. The volumetric flow rates and pressure drops for the pump speeds and efficiencies were specified. Accordingly, the operations of each pump were mapped. Our research was to select a pump for the aircraft compression-ignition engine. There was calculated a pressure drop at a given flow on the block and radiator of the designed aircraft engine. The water pump should be lightweight and have a low power demand. This fact shall affect the shape of a rotor and bearings. The pump volumetric flow rate was assumed as 3 kg/s (previous AVL BOOST research model) where the temperature difference was 5°C between the inlet (90°C) and outlet (95°C). Increasing pump speed above the boundary flow power defined by pressure and volumetric flow rate does not increase it but pump efficiency decreases. The maximum total pump efficiency (PCC) is 45-50%. When the pump is driven by low speeds with a 90% closed valve, its overall efficiency drops to 15-20%. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aircraft engine, diesel engine, flow, water pump

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2209 Validation Study of Radial Aircraft Engine Model

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Tytus Tulwin, Michal Geca, P. Karpinski


This paper presents the radial aircraft engine model which has been created in AVL Boost software. This model is a one-dimensional physical model of the engine, which enables us to investigate the impact of an ignition system design on engine performance (power, torque, fuel consumption). In addition, this model allows research under variable environmental conditions to reflect varied flight conditions (altitude, humidity, cruising speed). Before the simulation research the identifying parameters and validating of model were studied. In order to verify the feasibility to take off power of gasoline radial aircraft engine model, some validation study was carried out. The first stage of the identification was completed with reference to the technical documentation provided by manufacturer of engine and the experiments on the test stand of the real engine. The second stage involved a comparison of simulation results with the results of the engine stand tests performed on a WSK ’PZL-Kalisz’. The engine was loaded by a propeller in a special test bench. Identifying the model parameters referred to a comparison of the test results to the simulation in terms of: pressure behind the throttles, pressure in the inlet pipe, and time course for pressure in the first inlet pipe, power, and specific fuel consumption. Accordingly, the required coefficients and error of simulation calculation relative to the real-object experiments were determined. Obtained the time course for pressure and its value is compatible with the experimental results. Additionally the engine power and specific fuel consumption tends to be significantly compatible with the bench tests. The mapping error does not exceed 1.5%, which verifies positively the model of combustion and allows us to predict engine performance if the process of combustion will be modified. The next conducted tests verified completely model. The maximum mapping error for the pressure behind the throttles and the inlet pipe pressure is 4 %, which proves the model of the inlet duct in the engine with the charging compressor to be correct.

Keywords: 1D-model, aircraft engine, performance, validation

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2208 Evaluation of the Energy Performance and Emissions of an Aircraft Engine: J69 Using Fuel Blends of Jet A1 and Biodiesel

Authors: Gabriel Fernando Talero Rojas, Vladimir Silva Leal, Camilo Bayona-Roa, Juan Pava, Mauricio Lopez Gomez


The substitution of conventional aviation fuels with biomass-derived alternative fuels is an emerging field of study in the aviation transport, mainly due to its energy consumption, the contribution to the global Greenhouse Gas - GHG emissions and the fossil fuel price fluctuations. Nevertheless, several challenges remain as the biofuel production cost and its degradative effect over the fuel systems that alter the operating safety. Moreover, experimentation on full-scale aeronautic turbines are expensive and complex, leading to most of the research to the testing of small-size turbojets with a major absence of information regarding the effects in the energy performance and the emissions. The main purpose of the current study is to present the results of experimentation in a full-scale military turbojet engine J69-T-25A (presented in Fig. 1) with 640 kW of power rating and using blends of Jet A1 with oil palm biodiesel. The main findings are related to the thrust specific fuel consumption – TSFC, the engine global efficiency – η, the air/fuel ratio – AFR and the volume fractions of O2, CO2, CO, and HC. Two fuels are used in the present study: a commercial Jet A1 and a Colombian palm oil biodiesel. The experimental plan is conducted using the biodiesel volume contents - w_BD from 0 % (B0) to 50 % (B50). The engine operating regimes are set to Idle, Cruise, and Take-off conditions. The turbojet engine J69 is used by the Colombian Air Force and it is installed in a testing bench with the instrumentation that corresponds to the technical manual of the engine. The increment of w_BD from 0 % to 50 % reduces the η near 3,3 % and the thrust force in a 26,6 % at Idle regime. These variations are related to the reduction of the 〖HHV〗_ad of the fuel blend. The evolved CO and HC tend to be reduced in all the operating conditions when increasing w_BD. Furthermore, a reduction of the atomization angle is presented in Fig. 2, indicating a poor atomization in the fuel nozzle injectors when using a higher biodiesel content as the viscosity of fuel blend increases. An evolution of cloudiness is also observed during the shutdown procedure as presented in Fig. 3a, particularly after 20 % of biodiesel content in the fuel blend. This promotes the contamination of some components of the combustion chamber of the J69 engine with soot and unburned matter (Fig. 3). Thus, the substitution of biodiesel content above 20 % is not recommended in order to avoid a significant decrease of η and the thrust force. A more detail examination of the mechanical wearing of the main components of the engine is advised in further studies.

Keywords: aviation, air to fuel ratio, biodiesel, energy performance, fuel atomization, gas turbine

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2207 Biodegradation Effects onto Source Identification of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Soils

Authors: Colin S. Chen, Chien-Jung Tien, Hsin-Jan Huang


For weathering studies, the change of chemical constituents by biodegradation effect in diesel-contaminated soils are important factors to be considered, especially when there is a prolonged period of weathering processes. The objective was to evaluate biodegradation effects onto hydrocarbon fingerprinting and distribution patterns of diesel fuels, fuel source screening and differentiation, source-specific marker compounds, and diagnostic ratios of diesel fuel constituents by laboratory and field studies. Biodegradation processes of diesel contaminated soils were evaluated by experiments lasting for 15 and 12 months, respectively. The degradation of diesel fuel in top soils was affected by organic carbon content and biomass of microorganisms in soils. Higher depletion of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), n-alkanes, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkyl homologues was observed in soils containing higher organic carbon content and biomass. Decreased ratio of selected isoprenoids (i.e., pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph)) including n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane was observed. The ratio of pristane/phytane was remained consistent for a longer period of time. At the end of the experimental period, a decrease of pristane/phytane was observed. Biomarker compounds of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS) were less susceptible to the effects of biodegradation. The ratios of characteristic factors such as C15 sesquiterpane/ 8β(H)-drimane (BS3/BS5), C15 sesquiterpane/ 8β(H)-drimane (BS4/BS5), 8β(H)-drimane/8β(H)-homodrimane (BS5/BS10), and C15 sesquiterpane/8β(H)-homodrimane (BS3/BS10) could be adopted for source identification of diesel fuels in top soil. However, for biodegradation processes lasted for six months but shorter than nine months, only BS3/BS5 and BS3/BS10 could be distinguished in two diesel fuels. In subsoil experiments (contaminated soil located 50 cm below), the ratios of characteristic factors including BS3/BS5, BS4/BS5, and BS5/BS10 were valid for source identification of two diesel fuels for nine month biodegradation. At the early stage of contamination, biomass of soil decreased significantly. However, 6 and 7 dominant species were found in soils in top soil experiments, respectively. With less oxygen and nutrients in subsoil, less biomass of microorganisms was observed in subsoils. Only 2 and 4 diesel-degrading species of microorganisms were identified in two soils, respectively. Parameters of double ratio such as fluorene/C1-fluorene: C2-phenanthrene/C3-phenanthrene (C0F/C1F:C2P/C3P) in both top and subsoil, C2-naphthalene/C2-phenanthrene: C1-phenanthrene/C3-phenanthrene (C2N/C2P:C1P/C3P), and C1-phenanthrene/C1-fluorene: C3-naphthalene/C3-phenanthrene (C1P/C1F:C3N/C3P) in subsoil could serve as forensic indicators in diesel contaminated sites. BS3/BS10:BS4/BS5 could be used in 6 to 9 months of biodegradation processes. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that source identification of diesel fuels in top soil could only be perofrmed for weathering process less than 6 months. For subsoil, identification can be conducted for weathering process less than 9 months. Ratio of isoprenoids (pristane and phytane) and PAHs might be affected by biodegradation in spilled sites. The ratios of bicyclic sesquiterpanes could serve as forensic indicators in diesel-contaminated soils. Finally, source identification was attemped for samples collected from different fuel contaminated sites by using the unique pattern of sesquiterpanes. It was anticipated that the information generated from this study would be adopted by decision makers to evaluate the liability of cleanup in diesel contaminated sites.

Keywords: biodegradation, diagnostic ratio, diesel fuel, environmental forensics

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2206 Mathematical Modelling for Diesel Consumption of Articulated Vehicle Used in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ganiyu Samson Okunlola, Ladanu Abiodun Ajala, Olaide Oluwaseun Adegbayo


Since the usefulness of articulated vehicles is becoming more apparent and the diesel consumption of these vehicles constitutes a major portion of operating costs, development of mathematical model for their diesel consumption is of a great importance. Therefore, the present work developed a quantitative relationship between diesel consumption and vehicle age, annual use and cost of maintenance of the different makes of articulated vehicles. The vehicles selected for the study were FIAT 682 T3, IVECO 19036 and M.A.N. Diesel 19.240. The operating parameters for 90 vehicles of different age groups were recorded. Multiple regression models for diesel consumption of articulated vehicles of different makes were developed. From the analysis of results, it can be concluded that as the age of the vehicles increases, the diesel consumption increases. Also, as the diesel consumption increases, the cost of maintenance increases and there is a subsequent decrease in annual use. Moreover, FIAT 682 T3 and IVECO 19036 should be replaced at 7 years of age while M.A.N diesel should be replaced at 8 years of age. These are the ages where the diesel consumption becomes abnormal and uneconomical and they are points of optimal overhaul.

Keywords: vehicle, overhaul, age, uneconomical, diesel, consumption

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