Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2013

Search results for: drilling machine

2013 Design of Neural Predictor for Vibration Analysis of Drilling Machine

Authors: İkbal Eski

Abstract:

This investigation is researched on design of robust neural network predictors for analyzing vibration effects on moving parts of a drilling machine. Moreover, the research is divided two parts; first part is experimental investigation, second part is simulation analysis with neural networks. Therefore, a real time the drilling machine is used to vibrations during working conditions. The measured real vibration parameters are analyzed with proposed neural network. As results: Simulation approaches show that Radial Basis Neural Network has good performance to adapt real time parameters of the drilling machine.

Keywords: artificial neural network, vibration analyses, drilling machine, robust

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2012 CNC Milling-Drilling Machine Cutting Tool Holder

Authors: Hasan Al Dabbas

Abstract:

In this paper, it is addressed that the mechanical machinery captures a major share of innovation in drilling and milling chucks technology. Users demand higher speeds in milling because they are cutting more aluminum and are relying on higher speeds to eliminate secondary finishing operations. To meet that demand, milling-machine builders have enhanced their machine’s rigidity. Moreover, faster cutting has caught up with boring mills. Cooling these machine’s internal components is a challenge at high speeds. Another trend predicted that it is more use of controlled axes to let the machines do many more operations on 5 sides without having to move or re-fix the work. Advances of technology in mechanical engineering have helped to make high-speed machining equipment. To accompany these changes in milling and drilling machines chucks, the demand of easiest software is increased. An open architecture controller is being sought that would allow flexibility and information exchange.

Keywords: drilling, milling, chucks, cutting edges, tools, machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
2011 Performance of Constant Load Feed Machining for Robotic Drilling

Authors: Youji Miyake

Abstract:

In aircraft assembly, a large number of preparatory holes are required for screw and rivet joints. Currently, many holes are drilled manually because it is difficult to machine the holes using conventional computerized numerical control(CNC) machines. The application of industrial robots to drill the hole has been considered as an alternative to the CNC machines. However, the rigidity of robot arms is so low that vibration is likely to occur during drilling. In this study, it is proposed constant-load feed machining as a method to perform high-precision drilling while minimizing the thrust force, which is considered to be the cause of vibration. In this method, the drill feed is realized by a constant load applied onto the tool so that the thrust force is theoretically kept below the applied load. The performance of the proposed method was experimentally examined through the deep hole drilling of plastic and simultaneous drilling of metal/plastic stack plates. It was confirmed that the deep hole drilling and simultaneous drilling could be performed without generating vibration by controlling the tool feed rate in the appropriate range.

Keywords: constant load feed machining, robotic drilling, deep hole, simultaneous drilling

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2010 Utilization of Process Mapping Tool to Enhance Production Drilling in Underground Metal Mining Operations

Authors: Sidharth Talan, Sanjay Kumar Sharma, Eoin Joseph Wallace, Nikita Agrawal

Abstract:

Underground mining is at the core of rapidly evolving metals and minerals sector due to the increasing mineral consumption globally. Even though the surface mines are still more abundant on earth, the scales of industry are slowly tipping towards underground mining due to rising depth and complexities of orebodies. Thus, the efficient and productive functioning of underground operations depends significantly on the synchronized performance of key elements such as operating site, mining equipment, manpower and mine services. Production drilling is the process of conducting long hole drilling for the purpose of charging and blasting these holes for the production of ore in underground metal mines. Thus, production drilling is the crucial segment in the underground metal mining value chain. This paper presents the process mapping tool to evaluate the production drilling process in the underground metal mining operation by dividing the given process into three segments namely Input, Process and Output. The three segments are further segregated into factors and sub-factors. As per the study, the major input factors crucial for the efficient functioning of production drilling process are power, drilling water, geotechnical support of the drilling site, skilled drilling operators, services installation crew, oils and drill accessories for drilling machine, survey markings at drill site, proper housekeeping, regular maintenance of drill machine, suitable transportation for reaching the drilling site and finally proper ventilation. The major outputs for the production drilling process are ore, waste as a result of dilution, timely reporting and investigation of unsafe practices, optimized process time and finally well fragmented blasted material within specifications set by the mining company. The paper also exhibits the drilling loss matrix, which is utilized to appraise the loss in planned production meters per day in a mine on account of availability loss in the machine due to breakdowns, underutilization of the machine and productivity loss in the machine measured in drilling meters per unit of percussion hour with respect to its planned productivity for the day. The given three losses would be essential to detect the bottlenecks in the process map of production drilling operation so as to instigate the action plan to suppress or prevent the causes leading to the operational performance deficiency. The given tool is beneficial to mine management to focus on the critical factors negatively impacting the production drilling operation and design necessary operational and maintenance strategies to mitigate them. 

Keywords: process map, drilling loss matrix, SIPOC, productivity, percussion rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2009 Development of an Advanced Power Ultrasonic-Assisted Drilling System

Authors: M. A. Moghaddas, M. Short, N. Wiley, A. Y. Yi, K. F. Graff

Abstract:

The application of ultrasonic vibrations to machining processes has a long history, ranging from slurry-based systems able to drill brittle materials, to more recent developments involving low power ultrasonics for high precision machining, with many of these at the research and laboratory stages. The focus of this development is the application of high levels of ultrasonic power (1,000’s of watts) to standard, heavy duty machine tools – drilling being the immediate focus, with developments in milling in progress – with the objective of dramatically increasing system productivity through faster feed rates, this benefit arising from the thrust force reductions obtained by power ultrasonic vibrations. The presentation will describe development of an advanced drilling system based on a special, acoustically designed, rugged drill module capable of functioning under heavy duty production conditions, and making use of standard tool holder means, and able to obtain thrust force reductions while maintaining or improving surface finish and drilling accuracy. The characterization of the system performance will be described, and results obtained in drilling several materials (Aluminum, Stainless steel, Titanium) presented.

Keywords: dimensional accuracy, machine tool, productivity, surface roughness, thrust force, ultrasonic vibrations, ultrasonic-assisted drilling

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2008 An Integrated Approach for Optimizing Drillable Parameters to Increase Drilling Performance: A Real Field Case Study

Authors: Hamidoddin Yousife

Abstract:

Drilling optimization requires a prediction of drilling rate of penetration (ROP) since it provides a significant reduction in drilling costs. There are several factors that can have an impact on the ROP, both controllable and uncontrollable. Numerous drilling penetration rate models have been considered based on drilling parameters. This papers considered the effect of proper drilling parameter selection such as bit, Mud Type, applied weight on bit (WOB), Revolution per minutes (RPM), and flow rate on drilling optimization and drilling cost reduction. A predicted analysis is used in real-time drilling performance to determine the optimal drilling operation. As a result of these modeling studies, the real data collected from three directional wells at Azadegan oil fields, Iran, was verified and adjusted to determine the drillability of a specific formation. Simulation results and actual drilling results show significant improvements in inaccuracy. Once simulations had been validated, optimum drilling parameters and equipment specifications were determined by varying weight on bit (WOB), rotary speed (RPM), hydraulics (hydraulic pressure), and bit specification for each well until the highest drilling rate was achieved. To evaluate the potential operational and economic benefits of optimizing results, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data was performed.

Keywords: drlling, cost, optimization, parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
2007 Induced Bone Tissue Temperature in Drilling Procedures: A Comparative Laboratory Study with and without Lubrication

Authors: L. Roseiro, C. Veiga, V. Maranha, A. Neto, N. Laraqi, A. Baïri, N. Alilat

Abstract:

In orthopedic surgery there are various situations in which the surgeon needs to implement methods of cutting and drilling the bone. With this type of procedure the generated friction leads to a localized increase in temperature, which may lead to the bone necrosis. Recognizing the importance of studying this phenomenon, an experimental evaluation of the temperatures developed during the procedure of drilling bone has been done. Additionally the influence of the use of the procedure with / without additional lubrication during drilling of bone has also been done. The obtained results are presented and discussed and suggests an advantage in using additional lubrication as a way to minimize the appearance of bone tissue necrosis during bone drilling procedures.

Keywords: bone necrosis, bone drilling, thermography, surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
2006 A Method of Drilling a Ground Using a Robotic Arm

Authors: Lotfi Beji, Laredj Benchikh

Abstract:

Underground tunnel face bolting and pipe umbrella reinforcement are one of the most challenging tasks in construction whether industrial or not, and infrastructures such as roads or pipelines. It is one of the first sectors of economic activity in the world. Through a variety of soil and rock, a cyclic Conventional Tunneling Method (CTM) remains the best one for projects with highly variable ground conditions or shapes. CTM is the only alternative for the renovation of existing tunnels and creating emergency exit. During the drilling process, a wide variety of non-desired vibrations may arise, and a method using a robot arm is proposed. The main kinds of drilling through vibration here is the bit-bouncing phenomenon (resonant axial vibration). Hence, assisting the task by a robot arm may play an important role on drilling performances and security. We propose to control the axial-vibration phenomenon along the drillstring at a practical resonant frequency, and embed a Resonant Sonic Drilling Head (RSDH) as a robot end effector for drilling. Many questionable industry drilling criteria and stability are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: drilling, resonant vibration, robot arm, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2005 Importance of Solubility and Bubble Pressure Models to Predict Pressure of Nitrified Oil Based Drilling Fluid in Dual Gradient Drilling

Authors: Sajjad Negahban, Ruihe Wang, Baojiang Sun

Abstract:

Gas-lift dual gradient drilling is a solution for deepwater drilling challenges. As well, Continuous development of drilling technology leads to increase employment of mineral oil based drilling fluids and synthetic-based drilling fluids, which have adequate characteristics such as: high rate of penetration, lubricity, shale inhibition and low toxicity. The paper discusses utilization of nitrified mineral oil base drilling for deepwater drilling and for more accurate prediction of pressure in DGD at marine riser, solubility and bubble pressure were considered in steady state hydraulic model. The Standing bubble pressure and solubility correlations, and two models which were acquired from experimental determination were applied in hydraulic model. The effect of the black oil correlations, and new solubility and bubble pressure models was evaluated on the PVT parameters such as oil formation volume factor, density, viscosity, volumetric flow rate. Eventually, the consequent simulated pressure profile due to these models was presented.

Keywords: solubility, bubble pressure, gas-lift dual gradient drilling, steady state hydraulic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
2004 Evaluation of Drilling Performance through Bit-Rock Interaction Using Passive Vibration Assisted Rotation Drilling (PVARD) Tool

Authors: Md. Shaheen Shah, Abdelsalam Abugharara, Dipesh Maharjan, Syed Imtiaz, Stephen Butt

Abstract:

Drilling performance is an essential goal in petroleum and mining industry. Drilling rate of penetration (ROP), which is inversely proportional to the mechanical specific energy (MSE) is influenced by numerous factors among which are the applied parameter: torque (T), weight on bit (WOB), fluid flow rate, revolution per minute (rpm), rock related parameters: rock type, rock homogeneousness, rock anisotropy orientation, and mechanical parameters: bit type, configuration of the bottom hole assembly (BHA). This paper is focused on studying the drilling performance by implementing a passive vibration assisted rotary drilling tool (pVARD) as part of the BHA through using different bit types: coring bit, roller cone bit, and PDC bit and various rock types: rock-like material, granite, sandstone, etc. The results of this study aim to produce a pVARD index for optimal drilling performance considering the recommendations of the pVARD’s spring compression tests and stress-strain analysis of rock samples conducted prior to drilling experiments, analyzing the cutting size distribution, and evaluating the applied drilling parameters as a function of WOB. These results are compared with those obtained from drilling without pVARD, which represents the typical rigid BHA of the conventional drilling.

Keywords: BHA, drilling performance, MSE, pVARD, rate of penetration, ROP, tensile and shear fractures, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
2003 Evaluation of Hard Rocks Destruction Effectiveness at Drilling

Authors: Ekaterina Leusheva, Valentin Morenov

Abstract:

Well drilling in hard rocks is coupled with high energy demands which negates the speed of the process and thus reduces overall effectiveness. Aim of this project is to develop the technique of experimental research, which would allow to select optimal washing fluid composition while adding special hardness reducing detergent reagents. Based on the analysis of existing references and conducted experiments, technique dealing with quantitative evaluation of washing fluid weakening influence on drilled rocks was developed, which considers laboratory determination of three mud properties (density, surface tension, specific electrical resistance) and three rock properties (ultimate stress, dynamic strength, micro-hardness). Developed technique can be used in the well drilling technologies and particularly while creating new compositions of drilling muds for increased destruction effectiveness of hard rocks. It can be concluded that given technique introduces coefficient of hard rocks destruction effectiveness that allows quantitative evaluation of different drilling muds on the drilling process to be taken. Correct choice of drilling mud composition with hardness reducing detergent reagents will increase drilling penetration rate and drill meterage per bit.

Keywords: detergent reagents, drilling mud, drilling process stimulation, hard rocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
2002 The Effect of Chisel Edge on Drilling-Induced Delamination

Authors: Parnian Kianfar, Navid Zarif Karimi, Giangiacomo Minak

Abstract:

Drilling is one of the most important machining operations as numerous holes must be drilled in order to install mechanical fasteners for assembly in composite structures. Delamination is a major problem associated with the drilling of fiber reinforced composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. In drilling, delamination is initiated when the drilling force exceeds a threshold value, particularly at the critical entry and exit locations of the drill bit. The chisel edge of twist drill is a major contributor to the thrust force which is the primary cause of delamination. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of chisel edge and pilot hole on thrust force and delamination during drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites. For this purpose, two sets of experiments, with and without pilot hole, were conducted with different drilling conditions. The results show a great reduction in the thrust force when a pilot hole is present which removes the chisel edge contribution.

Keywords: composites, chisel edge, drilling, delamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
2001 Comparison between Torsional Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling and Conventional Drilling of Bone: An in vitro Study

Authors: Nikoo Soleimani

Abstract:

Background: Reducing torque during bone drilling is one of the effective factors in reaching to an optimal drilling process. Methods: 15 bovine femurs were drilled in vitro with a drill bit with a diameter of 4 mm using two methods of torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling (T-UAD) and convent conventional drilling (CD) and the effects of changing the feed rate and rotational speed on the torque were compared in both methods. Results: There was no significant difference in the thrust force measured in both methods due to the direction of vibrations. Results showed that using T-UAD method for bone drilling at feed rates of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm/rev led for all rotational speeds to a decrease of at least 16.3% in torque compared to the CD method. Further, using T-UAD at rotational speeds of 355~1000 rpm with various feed rates resulted in a torque reduction of 16.3~50.5% compared to CD method. Conclusions: Reducing the feed rate and increasing the rotational speed, except for the rotational speed of 500 rpm and a feed rate of 0.32 mm/rev, resulted generally in torque reduction in both methods. However, T-UAD is a more effective and desirable option for bone drilling considering its significant torque reduction.

Keywords: torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling, torque, bone drilling, rotational speed, feed rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
2000 Analysis of Drilling Parameters for Al-Mg2-Si Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: S. Jahangir, S. H. I. Jaffery, M. Khan, Z. Zareef, A. Yar, A. Mubashir, S. Butt, L. Ali

Abstract:

In this work, drilling responses and behavior of MMC was investigated in Al-Mg2Si composites. For the purpose Al-15% wt. Mg2Si, was selected from the hypereutectic region of Al- Mg2Si phase diagram. Based on hardness and tensile strength, drill bit of appropriate material and morphology was selected. The performance of different drill bits of different morphology and material was studied and analysed using experimental data. For theoretical calculations of axial thrust force and required power calculation, material factor “K” was obtained from different data charts and at the same time cutting forces (drilling forces) were practically obtained using a Peizo electric force dynamometer. These results show the role of reinforcement particles on the machinability of MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control and optimized drilling parameters for the drilling process. Furthermore, in this work, comparison of MMC with non -reinforced Aluminum Alloy regarding drilling operation was also studied.

Keywords: drilling, metal matrix composite (MMC), cutting forces, thrust force

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
1999 Experiment Study on the Influence of Tool Materials on the Drilling of Thick Stacked Plate of 2219 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: G. H. Li, M. Liu, H. J. Qi, Q. Zhu, W. Z. He

Abstract:

The drilling and riveting processes are widely used in the assembly of carrier rocket, which makes the efficiency and quality of drilling become the important factor affecting the assembly process. According to the problem existing in the drilling of thick stacked plate (thickness larger than 10mm) of carrier rocket, such as drill break, large noise and burr etc., experimental study of the influence of tool material on the drilling was carried out. The cutting force was measured by a piezoelectric dynamometer, the aperture was measured with an outline projector, and the burr is observed and measured by a digital stereo microscope. Through the measurement, the effects of tool material on the drilling were analyzed from the aspects of drilling force, diameter, and burr. The results show that, compared with carbide drill and coated carbide one, the drilling force of high speed steel is larger. But, the application of high speed steel also has some advantages, e.g. a higher number of hole can be obtained, the height of burr is small, the exit is smooth and the slim burr is less, and the tool experiences wear but not fracture. Therefore, the high speed steel tool is suitable for the drilling of thick stacked plate of 2219 Aluminum alloy.

Keywords: 2219 aluminum alloy, thick stacked plate, drilling, tool material

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
1998 Experimental Investigation of Cutting Forces and Temperature in Bone Drilling

Authors: Vishwanath Mali, Hemant Warhatkar, Raju Pawade

Abstract:

Drilling of bone has been always challenging for surgeons due to the adverse effect it may impart to bone tissues. Force has to be applied manually by the surgeon while performing conventional bone drilling which may lead to permanent death of bone tissues and nerves. During bone drilling the temperature of the bone tissues increases to higher values above 47 ⁰C that causes thermal osteonecrosis resulting into screw loosening and subsequent implant failures. An attempt has been made here to study the input drilling parameters and surgical drill bit geometry affecting bone health during bone drilling. A One Factor At a Time (OFAT) method is used to plan the experiments. Input drilling parameters studied include spindle speed and feed rate. The drill bit geometry parameter studied include point angle and helix angle. The output variables are drilling thrust force and bone temperature. The experiments were conducted on goat femur bone at room temperature 30 ⁰C. For measurement of thrust forces KISTLER cutting force dynamometer Type 9257BA was used. For continuous data acquisition of temperature NI LabVIEW software was used. Fixture was made on RPT machine for holding the bone specimen while performing drilling operation. Bone specimen were preserved in deep freezer (LABTOP make) under -40 ⁰C. In case of drilling parameters, it is observed that at constant feed rate when spindle speed increases, thrust force as well as temperature decreases and at constant spindle speed when feed rate increases thrust force as well as temperature increases. The effect of drill bit geometry shows that at constant helix angle when point angle increases thrust force as well as temperature increases and at constant point angle when helix angle increase thrust force as well as temperature decreases. Hence it is concluded that as the thrust force increases temperature increases. In case of drilling parameter, the lowest thrust force and temperature i.e. 35.55 N and 36.04 ⁰C respectively were recorded at spindle speed 2000 rpm and feed rate 0.04 mm/rev. In case of drill bit geometry parameter, the lowest thrust force and temperature i.e. 40.81 N and 34 ⁰C respectively were recorded at point angle 70⁰ and helix angle 25⁰ Hence to avoid thermal necrosis of bone it is recommended to use higher spindle speed, lower feed rate, low point angle and high helix angle. The hard nature of cortical bone contributes to a greater rise in temperature whereas a considerable drop in temperature is observed during cancellous bone drilling.

Keywords: bone drilling, helix angle, point angle, thrust force, temperature, thermal necrosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
1997 Optimization of Cutting Parameters on Delamination Using Taguchi Method during Drilling of GFRP Composites

Authors: Vimanyu Chadha, Ranganath M. Singari

Abstract:

Drilling composite materials is a frequently practiced machining process during assembling in various industries such as automotive and aerospace. However, drilling of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites is significantly affected by damage tendency of these materials under cutting forces such as thrust force and torque. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the various cutting parameters such as cutting speed and feed rate; subsequently also to study the influence of number of layers on delamination produced while drilling a GFRP composite. A plan of experiments, based on Taguchi techniques, was instituted considering drilling with prefixed cutting parameters in a hand lay-up GFRP material. The damage induced associated with drilling GFRP composites were measured. Moreover, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed to obtain minimization of delamination influenced by drilling parameters and number layers. The optimum drilling factor combination was obtained by using the analysis of signal-to-noise ratio. The conclusion revealed that feed rate was the most influential factor on the delamination. The best results of the delamination were obtained with composites with a greater number of layers at lower cutting speeds and feed rates.

Keywords: analysis of variance, delamination, design optimization, drilling, glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
1996 Economic Viability of Using Guar Gum as a Viscofier in Water Based Drilling Fluids

Authors: Devesh Motwani, Amey Kashyap

Abstract:

Interest in cost effective drilling has increased substantially in the past years. Economics associated with drilling fluids is needed to be considered seriously for lesser cost per foot in planning and drilling of a wellbore and the various environmental concerns imposed by international communities related with the constituents of the drilling fluid. Viscofier such as Guar Gum is a high molecular weight polysaccharide from Guar plants, is used to increase viscosity in water-based and brine-based drilling fluids thus enabling more efficient cleaning of the bore. Other applications of this Viscofier are to reduce fluid loss by giving a better colloidal solution, decrease fluid friction and so minimising power requirements and used in hydraulic fracturing to increase the recovery of oil and gas. Guar gum is also used as a surfactant, synthetic polymer and defoamer. This paper presents experimental results to verifying the properties of guar gum as a viscofier and filtrate retainer as well as observing the impact of different quantities of guar gum and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in a standard sample of water based bentonite mud solution. This is in attempt to make a drilling fluid which contains half of the quantity of drilling mud used and yet is equally viscous to the standardised mud sample. Thus we can see that mud economics will be greatly affected by this approach. However guar gum is thermally stable till 60-65°C thus limited to be used in drilling shallow wells and for a wider thermal range, suitable chrome free additives are required.

Keywords: economics, guargum, viscofier, CMC, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
1995 Geophysical Methods and Machine Learning Algorithms for Stuck Pipe Prediction and Avoidance

Authors: Ammar Alali, Mahmoud Abughaban

Abstract:

Cost reduction and drilling optimization is the goal of many drilling operators. Historically, stuck pipe incidents were a major segment of non-productive time (NPT) associated costs. Traditionally, stuck pipe problems are part of the operations and solved post-sticking. However, the real key to savings and success is in predicting the stuck pipe incidents and avoiding the conditions leading to its occurrences. Previous attempts in stuck-pipe predictions have neglected the local geology of the problem. The proposed predictive tool utilizes geophysical data processing techniques and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to predict drilling activities events in real-time using surface drilling data with minimum computational power. The method combines two types of analysis: (1) real-time prediction, and (2) cause analysis. Real-time prediction aggregates the input data, including historical drilling surface data, geological formation tops, and petrophysical data, from wells within the same field. The input data are then flattened per the geological formation and stacked per stuck-pipe incidents. The algorithm uses two physical methods (stacking and flattening) to filter any noise in the signature and create a robust pre-determined pilot that adheres to the local geology. Once the drilling operation starts, the Wellsite Information Transfer Standard Markup Language (WITSML) live surface data are fed into a matrix and aggregated in a similar frequency as the pre-determined signature. Then, the matrix is correlated with the pre-determined stuck-pipe signature for this field, in real-time. The correlation used is a machine learning Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) algorithm, which selects relevant features from the class and identifying redundant features. The correlation output is interpreted as a probability curve of stuck pipe incidents prediction in real-time. Once this probability passes a fixed-threshold defined by the user, the other component, cause analysis, alerts the user of the expected incident based on set pre-determined signatures. A set of recommendations will be provided to reduce the associated risk. The validation process involved feeding of historical drilling data as live-stream, mimicking actual drilling conditions, of an onshore oil field. Pre-determined signatures were created for three problematic geological formations in this field prior. Three wells were processed as case studies, and the stuck-pipe incidents were predicted successfully, with an accuracy of 76%. This accuracy of detection could have resulted in around 50% reduction in NPT, equivalent to 9% cost saving in comparison with offset wells. The prediction of stuck pipe problem requires a method to capture geological, geophysical and drilling data, and recognize the indicators of this issue at a field and geological formation level. This paper illustrates the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed cross-disciplinary approach in its ability to produce such signatures and predicting this NPT event.

Keywords: drilling optimization, hazard prediction, machine learning, stuck pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
1994 Friction and Wear, Including Mechanisms, Modeling,Characterization, Measurement and Testing (Bangladesh Case)

Authors: Gor Muradyan

Abstract:

The paper is about friction and wear, including mechanisms, modeling, characterization, measurement and testing case in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a country under development, A lot of people live here, approximately 145 million. The territory of this country is very small. Therefore buildings are very close to each other. As the pipe lines are very old, and people get almost dirty water, there are a lot of ongoing projects under ADB. In those projects the contractors using HDD machines (Horizontal Directional Drilling ) and grundoburst. These machines are working underground. As ground in Bangladesh is very sludge, machine can't work relevant because of big friction in the soil. When drilling works are finished machine is pulling the pipe underground. Very often the pulling of the pipes becomes very complicated because of the friction. Therefore long section of the pipe laying can’t be done because of a big friction. In that case, additional problems rise, as well as additional work must be done. As we mentioned above it is not possible to do big section of the pipe laying because of big friction in the soil, Because of this it is coming out that contractors must do more joints, more pressure test. It is always connected with additional expenditure and losing time. This machine can pull in 75 mm to 500 mm pipes connected with the soil condition. Length is possible till 500m related how much friction it will had on the puller. As less as much it can pull. Another machine grundoburst is not working at this soil condition at all. The machine is working with air compressor. This machine are using for the smaller diameter pipes, 20 mm to 63 mm. Most of the cases these machines are being used for the installing of the house connection pipes, for making service connection. To make a friction less contractors using bigger pulling had then the pipe. It is taking down the friction, But the problem of this machine is that it can't work at sludge. Because of mentioned reasons the friction has a big mining during this kind of works. There are a lot of ways to reduce the friction. In this paper we'll introduce the ways that we have researched during our practice in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, friction and wear, HDD machines, reducing friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
1993 Thermodynamically Predicting the Impact of Temperature on the Performance of Drilling Bits as a Function of Time

Authors: Talal Al-Bazali

Abstract:

Air drilling has recently received increasing acceptance by the oil and gas industry due to its unique advantages. The main advantages of air drilling include the higher rate of penetration, less formation damage, lower risk of loss of circulation. However, these advantages cannot be fully realized if thermal effects in air drilling are not well understood and minimized. Due to its high frictional coefficient, low heat conductivity, and high compressibility, air can impact the temperature distribution of bit and thus affect its bit performances. Based on energy and mass balances, a transient thermal model that predicts bit temperature is presented along with numerical solutions in this paper. In addition, several important parameters that influence bit temperature distribution are analyzed. Simulation results show that the bit temperature increases with increasing weight on bit and rotary speed but decreases as the standpipe pressure and flow rate increase. These results can be used to optimize drilling operations and flow parameters for an improved bit performance as shown in this paper.

Keywords: air drilling, rate of penetration, temperature, rotary speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1992 Proprietary Blend Synthetic Rubber as Loss Circulation Material in Drilling Operation

Authors: Zatil Afifah Omar, Siti Nur Izati Azmi, Kathi Swaran, Navin Kumar

Abstract:

Lost circulation has always been one of the greatest problems faced by drilling companies during drilling operations due to excessive drilling Fluids losses. Loss of circulation leads to Huge cost and non-productive time. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sealing efficiency of a proprietary blend of synthetic rubber as loss circulation material in comparison with a conventional product such as calcium carbonate, graphite, cellulosic, and nutshells. Sand Bed Tester with a different proprietary blend of synthetic rubber compositions has been used to determine the effectiveness of the LCM in preventing drilling fluids losses in a lab scale. Test results show the proprietary blend of synthetic rubber have good bridging properties and sealing Off fractures of various sizes. The finish product is environmentally friendly with lower production lead time and lower production cost compared to current conventional loss circulation materials used in current drilling operations.

Keywords: loss circulation materials, drilling operation, sealing efficiency, LCM

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
1991 Practical Software for Optimum Bore Hole Cleaning Using Drilling Hydraulics Techniques

Authors: Abdulaziz F. Ettir, Ghait Bashir, Tarek S. Duzan

Abstract:

A proper well planning is very vital to achieve any successful drilling program on the basis of preventing, overcome all drilling problems and minimize cost operations. Since the hydraulic system plays an active role during the drilling operations, that will lead to accelerate the drilling effort and lower the overall well cost. Likewise, an improperly designed hydraulic system can slow drill rate, fail to clean the hole of cuttings, and cause kicks. In most cases, common sense and commercially available computer programs are the only elements required to design the hydraulic system. Drilling optimization is the logical process of analyzing effects and interactions of drilling variables through applied drilling and hydraulic equations and mathematical modeling to achieve maximum drilling efficiency with minimize drilling cost. In this paper, practical software adopted in this paper to define drilling optimization models including four different optimum keys, namely Opti-flow, Opti-clean, Opti-slip and Opti-nozzle that can help to achieve high drilling efficiency with lower cost. The used data in this research from vertical and horizontal wells were recently drilled in Waha Oil Company fields. The input data are: Formation type, Geopressures, Hole Geometry, Bottom hole assembly and Mud reghology. Upon data analysis, all the results from wells show that the proposed program provides a high accuracy than that proposed from the company in terms of hole cleaning efficiency, and cost break down if we consider that the actual data as a reference base for all wells. Finally, it is recommended to use the established Optimization calculations software at drilling design to achieve correct drilling parameters that can provide high drilling efficiency, borehole cleaning and all other hydraulic parameters which assist to minimize hole problems and control drilling operation costs.

Keywords: optimum keys, namely opti-flow, opti-clean, opti-slip and opti-nozzle

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1990 Drilling Quantification and Bioactivity of Machinable Hydroxyapatite : Yttrium phosphate Bioceramic Composite

Authors: Rupita Ghosh, Ritwik Sarkar, Sumit K. Pal, Soumitra Paul

Abstract:

The use of Hydroxyapatite bioceramics as restorative implants is widely known. These materials can be manufactured by pressing and sintering route to a particular shape. However machining processes are still a basic requirement to give a near net shape to those implants for ensuring dimensional and geometrical accuracy. In this context, optimising the machining parameters is an important factor to understand the machinability of the materials and to reduce the production cost. In the present study a method has been optimized to produce true particulate drilled composite of Hydroxyapatite Yttrium Phosphate. The phosphates are used in varying ratio for a comparative study on the effect of flexural strength, hardness, machining (drilling) parameters and bioactivity.. The maximum flexural strength and hardness of the composite that could be attained are 46.07 MPa and 1.02 GPa respectively. Drilling is done with a conventional radial drilling machine aided with dynamometer with high speed steel (HSS) and solid carbide (SC) drills. The effect of variation in drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed), cutting tool, batch composition on torque, thrust force and tool wear are studied. It is observed that the thrust force and torque varies greatly with the increase in the speed, feed and yttrium phosphate content in the composite. Significant differences in the thrust and torque are noticed due to the change of the drills as well. Bioactivity study is done in simulated body fluid (SBF) upto 28 days. The growth of the bone like apatite has become denser with the increase in the number of days for all the composition of the composites and it is comparable to that of the pure hydroxyapatite.

Keywords: Bioactivity, Drilling, Hydroxyapatite, Yttrium Phosphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1989 Residual Compressive Strength of Drilled Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites

Authors: Navid Zarif Karimi, Giangiacomo Minak, Parnian Kianfar

Abstract:

Drilling is one of the most frequently used machining process for glass fiber reinforced polymer composites due to the need for structural joining. In drilling of composite laminates, interlaminar cracking, or delamination, has a detrimental effect on the compressive strength of these materials. The delamination can be controlled by adopting proper drilling condition. In this paper, the effect of feed rate, cutting speed and drill point angle on delamination and residual compressive strength of drilled GFRPs is studied. The objective is to find optimal conditions for maximum residual compressive strength.

Keywords: composite material, delamination, drilling, residual compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
1988 Plane of Equal Settlement above HDD’s Borehole before Operational Condition

Authors: Shokoufeh Sadeghifard

Abstract:

This study is a review of the nature of soil arching that develops in the upper layer of soil during drilling processes before pulling product pipe inside the hole. This study is based on the results of some parametric studies which are investigating the behavior of drained sandy soil above HDD borehole using Plaxis finite element solution. The influence of drilling mud injection in these series of analyses has been ignored. However, a suitable drilling mud pressure helps to achieve stable arch when the height of soil cover over the drilling borehole is not enough. In this study, the soil response to the formation of a HDD borehole is compared to arching theory developed by Terzaghi (1943). It is found that Terzaghi’s approach is capable of describing all of the behaviour seen when a stable arch forms. According to the numerical results, a suitable safe depth of 4D, D is borehole diameter, is suggested for typical range of HDD borehole in sandy soil.

Keywords: HDD, Plaxis, finite element, arching, settlement, drilling

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1987 Derivation of Fragility Functions of Marine Drilling Risers Under Ocean Environment

Authors: Pranjal Srivastava, Piyali Sengupta

Abstract:

The performance of marine drilling risers is crucial in the offshore oil and gas industry to ensure safe drilling operation with minimum downtime. Experimental investigations on marine drilling risers are limited in the literature owing to the expensive and exhaustive test setup required to replicate the realistic riser model and ocean environment in the laboratory. Therefore, this study presents an analytical model of marine drilling riser for determining its fragility under ocean environmental loading. In this study, the marine drilling riser is idealized as a continuous beam having a concentric circular cross-section. Hydrodynamic loading acting on the marine drilling riser is determined by Morison’s equations. By considering the equilibrium of forces on the marine drilling riser for the connected and normal drilling conditions, the governing partial differential equations in terms of independent variables z (depth) and t (time) are derived. Subsequently, the Runge Kutta method and Finite Difference Method are employed for solving the partial differential equations arising from the analytical model. The proposed analytical approach is successfully validated with respect to the experimental results from the literature. From the dynamic analysis results of the proposed analytical approach, the critical design parameters peak displacements, upper and lower flex joint rotations and von Mises stresses of marine drilling risers are determined. An extensive parametric study is conducted to explore the effects of top tension, drilling depth, ocean current speed and platform drift on the critical design parameters of the marine drilling riser. Thereafter, incremental dynamic analysis is performed to derive the fragility functions of shallow water and deep-water marine drilling risers under ocean environmental loading. The proposed methodology can also be adopted for downtime estimation of marine drilling risers incorporating the ranges of uncertainties associated with the ocean environment, especially at deep and ultra-deepwater.

Keywords: drilling riser, marine, analytical model, fragility

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
1986 Laser Beam Micro-Drilling Effect on Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy Sheet Properties

Authors: Petr Homola, Roman Růžek

Abstract:

Laser beam micro-drilling (LBMD) is one of the most important non-contact machining processes of materials that are difficult to machine by means oeqf conventional machining methods used in various industries. The paper is focused on LBMD knock-down effect on Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5) titanium alloy sheets properties. Two various process configurations were verified with a focus on laser damages in back-structure parts affected by the process. The effects of the LBMD on the material properties were assessed by means of tensile and fatigue tests and fracture surface analyses. Fatigue limit of LBMD configurations reached a significantly lower value between 15% and 30% of the static strength as compared to the reference raw material with 58% value. The farther back-structure configuration gives a two-fold fatigue life as compared to the closer LBMD configuration at a given stress applied.

Keywords: fatigue, fracture surface, laser beam micro-drilling, titanium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
1985 Thermal Effects on Wellbore Stability and Fluid Loss in High-Temperature Geothermal Drilling

Authors: Mubarek Alpkiray, Tan Nguyen, Arild Saasen

Abstract:

Geothermal drilling operations contain numerous challenges that are encountered to increase the well cost and nonproductive time. Fluid loss is one of the most undesirable troublesome that can cause well abandonment in geothermal drilling. Lost circulation can be seen due to natural fractures, high mud weight, and extremely high formation temperatures. This challenge may cause wellbore stability problems and lead to expensive drilling operations. Wellbore stability is the main domain that should be considered to mitigate or prevent fluid loss into the formation. This paper describes the causes of fluid loss in the Pamukoren geothermal field in Turkey. A geomechanics approach integration and assessment is applied to help the understanding of fluid loss problems. In geothermal drillings, geomechanics is primarily based on rock properties, in-situ stress characterization, the temperature of the rock, determination of stresses around the wellbore, and rock failure criteria. Since a high-temperature difference between the wellbore wall and drilling fluid is presented, temperature distribution through the wellbore is estimated and implemented to the wellbore stability approach. This study reviewed geothermal drilling data to analyze temperature estimation along the wellbore, the cause of fluid loss and stored electric capacity of the reservoir. Our observation demonstrates the geomechanical approach's significant role in understanding safe drilling operations on high-temperature wells. Fluid loss is encountered due to thermal stress effects around the borehole. This paper provides a wellbore stability analysis for a geothermal drilling operation to discuss the causes of lost circulation resulting in nonproductive time and cost.

Keywords: geothermal wells, drilling, wellbore stresses, drilling fluid loss, thermal stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
1984 A Case Study of Kick Control in Tough Potohar Region

Authors: Iftikhar Raza

Abstract:

Well control is the management of the hazardous effects caused by the unexpected release of formation fluid, such as natural gas and/or crude oil, upon surface equipment of oil or gas drilling rigs and escaping into the atmosphere. Technically, oil well control involves preventing the formation fluid, usually referred to as kick, from entering into the wellbore during drilling. Oil well control is one of the most important aspects of drilling operations. Improper handling of kicks in oil well control can result in blowouts with very grave consequences, including the loss of valuable resources. Even though the cost of a blowout (as a result of improper/no oil well control) can easily reach several millions of US dollars, the monetary loss is not as serious as the other damages that can occur: irreparable damage to the environment, waste of valuable resources, ruined equipment, and most importantly, the safety and lives of personnel on the drilling rig. In this paper, case study of a well is discussed with field data showing the properties of the well. The whole procedure of controlling this well is illustrated in this which may be helpful for professional dealing with such kind of problems.

Keywords: kick control, kill sheet, oil well, gas drilling

Procedia PDF Downloads 397