Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1202

Search results for: diversity use

1202 A Call for Transformative Learning Experiences to Facilitate Student Workforce Diversity Learning in the United States

Authors: Jeanetta D. Sims, Chaunda L. Scott, Hung-Lin Lai, Sarah Neese, Atoya Sims, Angelia Barrera-Medina

Abstract:

Given the call for increased transformative learning experiences and the demand for academia to prepare students to enter workforce diversity careers, this study explores the landscape of workforce diversity learning in the United States. Using a multi-disciplinary syllabi browsing process and a content analysis method, the most prevalent instructional activities being used in workforce-diversity related courses in the United States are identified. In addition, the instructional activities are evaluated based on transformative learning tenants.

Keywords: workforce diversity, workforce diversity learning, transformative learning, diversity education, U. S. workforce diversity, workforce diversity assignments

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
1201 The Effect of Diversity Sensitive Orientation on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of diversity sensitive orientation on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Diversity sensitive orientation is the attitude of the individual to respect and accommodate diversity. This is focused on an individual’s perception of diversity. Although being made from the most diversity related research team and organizational level, this study deals with diversity issues at the individual level. To test the proposed research model and hypothesis, the data were collected from 291 Korean employees. The study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis for the validity test. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationship in the conceptual model. The results of this paper were as followings: First, diversity sensitive orientation was positively related to job satisfaction. Second, diversity sensitive orientation was negatively related to turnover intention. In other words, the positive influence of the diversity sensitive orientation has been verified. Based on the findings, this study suggested implications and directions for future research.

Keywords: diversity sensitive orientation, job satisfaction, turnover intention, perception, cognition

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1200 Managing Diversity in MNCS: A Literature Review of Existing Strategic Models for Managing Diversity and a Roadmap to Transfer Them to the Subsidiaries

Authors: Debora Gottardello, Mireia Valverde Aparicio, Juan Llopis Taverner

Abstract:

Globalization has given rise to a great diversity in the composition of people in organizations. Diversity management is therefore key to create growth in today’s competitive global marketplace. This work develops a literature review related to the existing models for managing diversity covering the period from 1980 until 2014. Furthermore, it identifies limitations in previous models. More specifically, the literature review reveals that there is a lack of information about how these models can be adapted from the headquarters to the subsidiaries. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is to suggest how the models should be adapted when they are directed to host countries. Our aim is to highlight the limitations of the developed models with regards to the translation of the diversity management practices to the subsidiaries. Accordingly, a model that will enable MNCs to ensure a global strategy is suggested. Taking advantage of the potential incorporated in a culturally diverse work team should be at the top of every international company’s aims. Executives from headquarters need to use different attitudes when transferring diversity practices towards their subsidiaries. Further studies should reassess local practices of diversity management to find out how this universal management model is translated.

Keywords: culture diversity, diversity management, human resources management, MNCs, subsidiaries, workforce diversity

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1199 The Analysis of Cultural Diversity in EFL Textbook for Senior High School in Indonesia

Authors: Soni Ariawan

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the cultural diversity highlighted in EFL textbook for Senior High School grade 10 in Indonesia. The visual images are selected as the data and qualitatively analysed using content analysis. The reason to choose visual images because images are not always neutral and they might impact teaching and learning process. In the current study, cultural diversity aspects are focused on religion (Muslim, Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian), gender (male, female, unclear), ethnic (Melanesian, Austronesian, Foreigner) and socioeconomic (low, middle, high, undetermined) diversity as the theoretical framework. The four aspects of cultural diversity are sufficiently representative to draw a conclusion in investigating Indonesian culture representation in EFL textbook. The finding shows that cultural diversity is not proportionally reflected in the textbook, particularly in the visual images.

Keywords: EFL textbook, cultural diversity, visual images, Indonesia

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1198 The Influence of the Normative Gender Binary in Diversity Management: A Multi-Method Study on Gender Diversity of Diversity Management

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

Abstract:

Diversity Management, as a substantial element of Human Resource Management, aims to secure the economic benefit that assumingly comes with a diverse workforce. Consequently, diversity managers focus on the protection of employees and securing equality measurements to assure organisational gender diversity. Gender diversity as one aspect of Diversity Management seems to adhere to gender binarism and cis-normativity. Workplaces are gendered spaces which are echoing the binary gender-normativity presented in Diversity Management, sold under the label of gender diversity. While the expectation of Diversity Management implies the inclusion of a multiplicity of marginalised groups, such as trans and gender diverse people, in current literature and practice, the reality is curated by gender binarism and cis-normativity. The qualitative multi-method research showed a lack of knowledge about trans and gender diverse matters within the profession of Diversity Management and Human Resources. The semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals from various backgrounds and occupations in Australia exposed missing considerations of trans and gender diverse experiences in the inclusivity and gender equity of various workplaces. Even if practitioners consider trans and gender diverse matters under gender diversity, the practical execution is limited to gender binary structures and cis-normative actions as the photo-elicit questionnaire with diversity managers, human resource officers, and personnel management demonstrates. Diversity Management should approach a broader source of informed practice by extending their business focus to the knowledge of humanity studies. Humanity studies could include diversity, queer, or gender studies to increase the inclusivity of marginalised groups such as trans and gender diverse employees and people. Furthermore, the definition of gender diversity should be extended beyond the gender binary and cis-normative experience. People may lose trust in Diversity Management as a supportive ally of marginalised employees if the understanding of inclusivity is limited to a gender binary and cis-normativity value system that misrepresents the richness of gender diversity.

Keywords: cis-normativity, diversity management, gender binarism, trans and gender diversity

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1197 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd

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The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
1196 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Iranian Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) Accessions Using ISSR Makers

Authors: Mehdi Mohebodini, Iman Khalili-Baseri, Mehdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan

Abstract:

Diversity analysis at the molecular level using PCR-based markers is the efficient and rapid method of identifying the relationships and differences among the genotypes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships among 20 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The genotyping data were used to understand the relationships among the collected accessions and identify genetically diverse purslane accessions. The 25 primers gave a total of 92 bands, of which 62 were polymorphic (67.4%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon’s information index was 0.55, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of an observed allele, effective allele, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei’s index were 2, 1.65, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively.

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., genetic diversity, ISSR, germplasm

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1195 Software Development and Team Diversity

Authors: J. Congalton, K. Logan, B. Crump

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Software is a critical aspect of modern life. However it is costly to develop and industry initiatives have focused on reducing costs and improving the productivity. Increasing, software is being developed in teams, and with greater globalization and migration, the teams are becoming more ethnically diverse. This study investigated whether diversity in terms of ethnicity impacted on the productivity of software development. Project managers of software development teams were interviewed. The study found that while some issues did exist due to language problems, when project managers created an environment of trust and friendliness, diversity made a positive contribution to productivity.

Keywords: diversity, project management, software development, team work

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1194 Diversity Strands in Library and Information Science Graduate Curricula

Authors: Bibi Alajmi, Israa Alshammari

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This study investigates diversity strands covered in courses offered by library and information sciences (LIS) graduate programs. It aims to identify the extent to which these programs prepare students to work in diverse communities. Information was collected from 17 ALA-accredited MLIS programs. Diversity-related topics were identified and categorized. The methodology consisted of content analysis of course syllabi. The findings show that coverage of diversity-related content in LIS graduate curricula is increasing at a slow but significant rate, and is often a low priority. Apart from LIS graduate courses for future librarians and information professionals in public libraries, school libraries, and museums providing services to young adults and children, there is not enough interest in the provision of services to diverse communities.

Keywords: diversity, multiculturalism, inclusion, equality, gender

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1193 Homogeneity among Diversity

Authors: Yu Guang

Abstract:

“Case studies are the preferred strategy when ‘how’ or ‘why’ questions are being posed.” Therefore, the study is based on two cases: strategy performed in JingNan War and by NIKE. The two samples are chosen as they are of comparability. Data are gathered and PEST and SWOT are used as analysis models to examine their strategic employment in order that the answer to brilliant strategies in variety is found. The niche strategy has been used in the past and present, in the battle fields and business. The homogeneity among diversity is the skill of performing strategies.

Keywords: challenger, homogeneity, managing diversity, niche strategy

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1192 Team Workforce Diversity and Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

This study was carried out a meta-analysis on team workforce diversity and team outcomes. Using data from 3,534 teams in 13 studies conducted in team-level settings, we examined whether contextual factors at research local and team-size, influenced team outcomes of team workforce diversity. This meta-analytic examines the team workforce diversity and team outcomes. 13 studies included in the analysis are studies published from 2009 to 2014. We first examined the correlations between all types of diversity and team performance, significant result (Fisher`s Z = .112, k = 32, 95% CI = 0.039 to 0.183). After the analysis was conducted to moderating effect of research local (Republic of Korea=1, other area=0) and team-size. As a result, research local moderating effect had a significant but team-size was not supported. Based on the above findings suggest implications and future research directions.

Keywords: team workforce diversity, team outcomes, meta- analytic, cross-cultural research

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1191 Simulation-Based Diversity Management in Human-Robot Collaborative Scenarios

Authors: Titanilla Komenda, Viktorio Malisa

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In this paper, the influence of diversity-related factors on the design of collaborative scenarios is analysed. Based on the evaluation, a framework for simulating human-robot-collaboration is presented that considers both human factors as well as the overall system performance. The implementation of the model is shown on a real-life scenario from industry and validated in terms of traceability, safety and physical limitations. By comparing scenarios that consider diversity with those only meeting system performance, an overall understanding of individually adapted human-robot-collaborative workspaces is reached. A diversity-related guideline for human-robot-collaborations provides a summary of the research and aids in optimizing future applications. Finally, limitations and future amendments of the model are discussed.

Keywords: diversity, human-machine system, human-robot collaboration, simulation

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1190 Diversity of Bird Species and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Adamawa, Nigeria

Authors: D. l. David, J. A. Wahedi, U. Buba, R. Zakariya

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Between January, 2004 to December, 2005, studies were carried out on the bird species diversity and relative abundance of two lakes, Kiri and Gyawana near Numan using the “Timed Species Count (TSC)” method. 163 species in 53 bird families and 160 species in 55 bird families were recorded at Kiri and Gyawana lakes respectively. There was no significant difference in species diversity within bird families between the two lakes (p > 0.05), whereas in Gyawana Lake, one of the sites qualified as Ramsar site, none strongly qualified as an Important Bird Area (IBA). The significance of these findingsare also discussed.

Keywords: conservation, diversity, lacustrine, wetlands

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1189 Agroecological and Socioeconomic Determinants of Conserving Diversity On-Farm: The Case of Wheat Genetic Resources in Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse

Abstract:

Conservation of crop genetic resources presents a challenge of identifying specific determinants driving maintenance of diversity at farm and agroecosystems. The objectives of this study were to identify socioeconomic, market and agroecological determinants of farmers’ maintenance of wheat diversity at the household level and derive implications for policies in designing on-farm conservation programs. We assess wheat diversity at farm level using household survey data. A household decision making model is conceptualized using microeconomic theory to assess and identify factors influencing on-farm rice diversity. The model is then tested econometrically by using various factors affecting farmers’ variety choice and diversity decisions. The findings show that household-specific socioeconomic, agroecological and market factors are important in determining on-farm wheat diversity. The significant variables in explaining richness and evenness of wheat diversity include distance to the nearest market, subsistence ratio, modern variety sold, land types and adult labour working in agriculture. The statistical signs of the factors determining wheat diversity are consistent in explaining the richness, dominance and evenness among rice varieties. Finally, the study implies that the cost-effective means of promoting and sustaining on-farm conservation programmes is to target them in market isolated geographic locations of high crop diversity where farm households have more heterogeneity of agroecological conditions and more active family adult labour working on-farm.

Keywords: diversity indices, dominance, evenness, on-farm conservation, wheat diversity, richness

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1188 Butterfly Diversity along Urban-Rural Gradient in Kolkata, India

Authors: Sushmita Chaudhuri, Parthiba Basu

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Urbanization leads to habitat degradation and is responsible for the fast disappearance of native butterfly species. Random sampling of rural, suburban and urban sites in an around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 28 species of butterfly belonging to 5 different families in winter (February-March). Butterfly diversity, species richness and abundance decreased with increase in urbanization. Psyche (Leptosia nina of family Pieridae) was the most predominant butterfly species found everywhere in Kolkata during the winter period. The most dominant family was Nymphalidae (11species), followed by Pieridae (6 species), Lycaenidae (5 species), Papilionidae (4 species) and Hesperiidae (2 species). The rural and suburban sites had butterfly species that were unique to those sites. Vegetation cover and flowering shrub density were significantly related to butterfly diversity.

Keywords: butterfly, Kolkata metropolis, Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species diversity

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1187 Diversity and Quality of Food Consumption Compared to Nutritional Status in Ages 15–17 Years Old in Jakarta

Authors: Andra Vidyarini

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Adolescence is a transition period in which various changes occur, both biologically, intellectually and psychosocially. Changes in adolescents, one of which is a change in food consumption patterns that make adolescents vulnerable to nutritional problems that can affect their growth and health in the future. Nutritional problems in adolescents have increased from year to year and one of the causes is the low diversity and quality of consumption. The diversity and quality of consumption can be seen through the Individual Dietary Diversity Score and the Healthy Eating Index. Currently, in Indonesia, data on the diversity and quality of food consumption, especially among adolescents, are still scarce. In general, the purpose of this study is to describe the diversity and quality of adolescent food consumption and the relationship between the diversity and quality of food consumption with nutritional status. This study is a cross-sectional study by looking at the diversity and quality of consumption of adolescents aged 15-17 years. The total number of subjects in this study amounted to 70 teenagers. This research was conducted online via a google form. Data analysis in this study was univariate and bivariate. The results showed that the diversity of the subject's food consumption was in the diverse and very diverse category with an average of 6. However, the quality was still not good, whereas it was still in the bad and moderate categories with an average of 12.93. The nutritional status of the majority of the subjects was in the normal category and overweight to obese. The implementation of blended learning where there are still limited face-to-face meetings at school can be the reason why teenagers' food consumption is more diverse than when they are face-to-face schools. In addition, changes in people's diet during the pandemic also influenced the results of the study. The change in pattern is a change in eating habits to three times a day with menu choices ranging from rice, meat, fish, bean and vegetables. Analysis of the relationship between the diversity and quality of food consumption shows that the diversity of consumption has a significant relationship with the quality of food consumption with a p-value of 0.002 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the diversity and quality of food consumption have no significant relationship with nutritional status, with p values 0.777 and 0.251 (>0.05), respectively. This shows that the diversity of food consumption is directly proportional to the quality of consumption, where if you have a variety of food consumption, the quality or in terms of portions and weight are also sufficient in accordance with the recommendations of PGRS.

Keywords: healthy eating index (HEI), food diversity, quality of consumption, adolescent

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1186 Biodiversity Affects Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) Risk in Ethiopian Cattle: Prospects for Infectious Disease Control

Authors: Sintayehu W. Dejene, Ignas M. A. Heitkönig, Herbert H. T. Prins, Zewdu K. Tessema, Willem F. de Boer

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Current theories on diversity-disease relationships describe host species diversity and species identity as important factors influencing disease risk, either diluting or amplifying disease prevalence in a community. Whereas the simple term ‘diversity’ embodies a set of animal community characteristics, it is not clear how different measures of species diversity are correlated with disease risk. We, therefore, tested the effects of species richness, Pielou’s evenness and Shannon’s diversity on bTB risk in cattle in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. We also analysed the identity effect of a particular species and the effect of host habitat use overlap on bTB risk. We used the comparative intradermal tuberculin test to assess the number of bTB infected cattle. Our results suggested a dilution effect through species evenness. We found that the identity effect of greater kudu - a maintenance host – confounded the dilution effect of species diversity on bTB risk. bTB infection was positively correlated with habitat use overlap between greater kudu and cattle. Different diversity indices have to be considered together for assessing diversity-disease relationships, for understanding the underlying causal mechanisms. We posit that unpacking diversity metrics is also relevant for formulating control strategies to manage cattle in ecosystems characterized by seasonally limited resources and intense wildlife-livestock interactions.

Keywords: evenness, diversity, greater kudu, identity effect, maintenance hosts, multi-host disease ecology, habitat use overlap

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1185 Racial Diversity in Founding Ownership Teams and Business Performance in New Firms

Authors: Cedric Herring, Loren Henderson, Hayward Derrick Horton, Melvin Thomas

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This paper asks whether business startups benefit from having racially diverse founding ownership teams. Using nationally representative data from the Kauffman Firm Survey, the analysis examines the relationship between the racial diversity of the founding ownership teams of business startups and their net worth, revenue, debt, and profits. The analysis shows that, net of firm characteristics and human capital characteristics, startups with racially diverse founding teams have higher net worth, lower debt, and greater profits than their non-diverse counterparts. The racial diversity of ownership teams is not, however, related to startup firms’ revenues, net of other factors. The implications of these findings are explored.

Keywords: racial diversity, business startups, founding ownership teams, diversity and business performance

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1184 A Closer Look at Inclusion-For-All Approaches to Diversity Initiative Implementation

Authors: Payton Small

Abstract:

In response to increasing demographic diversity, many U.S. organizations have implemented diversity initiatives to increase the representation of women and ethnic minorities. While these initiatives aim to promote more fair and positive outcomes for underrepresented minorities (URMs) widespread backlash against these policies can negatively impact the groups of individuals that are supposed to be supported by them. A recent theory-based analysis of best practices for instituting diversity policies proposes an "inclusion for all" approach that negotiates the oft-divergent goals and motivations of both marginalized and dominant group members in these contexts. Empirical work finds that "inclusion for all" strategies decrease White's tendency to implicitly associate diversity with exclusion and increased their personal endorsement of diversity initiatives. Similarly, Whites report higher belongingness when considering an inclusion for all approach to diversity versus a colorblind approach. While inclusion-for-all approaches may effectively increase Whites' responsiveness to diversity efforts, the downstream consequences of implementing these policies on URM's have yet to be explored. The current research investigated how inclusion-for-all diversity framing influences Whites' sensitivity to detecting discrimination against URM's as well as perceptions of reverse discrimination against Whites. Lastly, the current research looked at how URM's respond to inclusion-for-all diversity approaches. Three studies investigated the impact of inclusion-for-all diversity framing on perceptions of discrimination against Whites and URM's in a company setting. Two separate mechanisms by which exposure to an inclusion-for-all diversity statement might differentially influence perceptions of discrimination for URMs and Whites were also tested. In Studies 1 and 2, exposure to an inclusion-for-all diversity approach reduced Whites' concerns about reverse discrimination and heightened sensitivity to detecting discrimination against URM's. These effects were mediated by decreased concerns about zero-sum outcomes at the company. Study 3 found that racial minorities are concerned about increased discrimination at a company with an inclusion-for-all diversity statement and that this effect is mediated by decreased feelings of belonging at the company. In sum, companies that adopt an inclusion-for-all approach to diversity implementation reduce Whites' backlash and the negative downstream consequences associated with such backlash; however, racial minorities feel excluded and expect heightened experiences of discrimination at these same companies.

Keywords: diversity, intergroup relations, organizational social psychology, zero-sum

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1183 Genomic Diversity of Clostridium perfringens Strains in Food and Human Sources

Authors: Asma Afshari, Abdollah Jamshidi, Jamshid Razmyar, Mehrnaz Rad

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Clostridium perfringens is a serious pathogen which causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. Spores can survive cooking processes and play an important role in the possible onset of disease. In this study RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR were used to examine the genetic diversity of 49isolates ofC. Perfringens type A from 3 different sources. The results of RAPD-PCR revealed the most genetic diversity among poultry isolates, while human isolates showed the least genetic diversity. Cluster analysis obtained from RAPD_PCR and based on the genetic distances split the 49 strains into five distinct major clusters (A, B, C, D, and E). Cluster A and C were composed of isolates from poultry meat, cluster B was composed of isolates from human feces, cluster D was composed of isolates from minced meat, poultry meat and human feces and cluster E was composed of isolates from minced meat. Further characterization of these strains by using (GTG) 5 fingerprint repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis did not show further differentiation between various types of strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolates from different types of meats and human feces has been investigated.

Keywords: C. perfringens, genetic diversity, RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR

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1182 Enhancement of Genetic Diversity through Cross Breeding of Two Catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus) in Bangladesh

Authors: M. F. Miah, A. Chakrabarty

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Two popular and highly valued fish, Stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) and Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) are considered for observing genetic enhancement. Cross breeding was performed considering wild and farmed fish through inducing agent. Five RAPD markers were used to assess genetic diversity among parents and offspring of these two catfish for evaluating genetic enhancement in F1 generation. Considering different genetic data such as banding pattern of DNA, polymorphic loci, polymorphic information content (PIC), inter individual pair wise similarity, Nei genetic similarity, genetic distance, phylogenetic relationships, allele frequency, genotype frequency, intra locus gene diversity and average gene diversity of parents and offspring of these two fish were analyzed and finally in both cases higher genetic diversity was found in F1 generation than the parents.

Keywords: Heteropneustes fossilis, Clarias batrachus, cross breeding, genetic enhancement

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1181 A Preliminary Study on Factors Determining the Success of High Conservation Value Area in Oil Palm Plantations

Authors: Yanto Santosa, Rozza Tri Kwatrina

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High Conservation Value (HCV) is an area with conservation function within oil palm plantation. Despite the important role of HCV area in biodiversity conservation and various studies on HCV, there was a lack of research studying the factors determining its success. A preliminary study was conducted to identify the determinant factor of HCV that affected the diversity. Line transect method was used to calculate the species diversity of butterfly, birds, mammals, and herpetofauna species as well as their richness. Specifically for mammals, camera traps were also used. The research sites comprised of 12 HCV areas in 3 provinces of Indonesia (Central Kalimantan, Riau, and Palembang). The relationship between the HCV biophysical factor with the species number and species diversity for each wildlife class was identified using Chi-Square analysis with Cross tab (contingency table). Results of the study revealed that species diversity varied by research locations. Four factors determining the success of HCV area in relations to the number and diversity of wildlife species are land cover types for mammals, the width of area and distance to rivers for birds, and distance to settlements for butterflies.

Keywords: wildlife diversity, oil palm plantation, high conservation value area, ecological factors

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1180 Investigation of Genetic Diversity in Bread Wheat by RAPD and SSR Markers

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Khavarinejad

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In this study, genetic diversity of 10 bread wheat genotypes by SSR and RAPD markers was evaluated. 11 primers were used included 6 RAPD primers and 5 SSR primers. RAPDs and SSRs could find 33 and 17 polymorphism respectively. In RAPDs, primers UBC 350 and UBC 109 and in SSRs, Primers Xgwm 469-6D and Xgwm120-2B showed genetic diversity among genotypes more than others.

Keywords: wheat, molecular markers, SSR, RAPD

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1179 Board Gender Diversity and Firm Sustainable Investment: An Empirical Evidence

Authors: Muhammad Atif, M. Samsul Alam

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of board room gender diversity on firm sustainable investment. We test the extent to which sustainable investment is affected by the presence of female directors on U.S. corporate boards. Using data of S&P 1500 indexed firms collected from Bloomberg covering the period 2004-2016, we estimate the baseline model to investigate the effects of board room gender diversity on firm sustainable investment. We find a positive relationship between board gender diversity and sustainable investment. We also find that boards with two or more women have a pronounced impact on sustainable investment, consistent with the critical mass theory. Female independent directors have a stronger impact on sustainable investment than female executive directors. Our findings are robust to different identification and estimation techniques. The study offers another perspective of the ongoing debate in the social responsibility literature about the accountability relationships between business and society.

Keywords: sustainable investment, gender diversity, environmental proctection, social responsibility

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1178 Gender Diversity on the Board and Asymmetry Information: An Empirical Analysis for Spanish Listed Firms

Authors: David Abad, M. Encarnación Lucas-Pérez, Antonio Minguez-Vera, José Yagüe

Abstract:

We examine explicitly the relation between the gender diversity on corporate boards and the levels of information asymmetry in the stock market. Based on prior evidence that suggests that the presence of women on director boards increases the quantity and quality of public disclosure by firms, we expect firms with higher gender diversity on their boards to show lower levels of information asymmetry in the market. Using a Spanish sample for the period 2004-2009, proxies for information asymmetry estimated from high-frequency data, and a system GMM methodology, we find that the gender diversity on boards is negative associated with the level of information asymmetry in the stock market. Our findings support legislative changes implemented to increase the presence of women on boards in several European countries by providing evidence that gender diverse boards have beneficial effects on stock markets.

Keywords: corporate board, female directors, gender diversity, information asymmetry, market microstructure

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1177 Climate Change and Its Effects on Terrestrial Insect Diversity in Mukuruthi National Park, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Tamilnadu, India

Authors: M. Elanchezhian, C. Gunasekaran, A. Agnes Deepa, M. Salahudeen

Abstract:

In recent years climate change is one of the most emerging threats facing by biodiversity both the animals and plants species. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations, extreme temperature, changes in rainfall patterns, insects-plant interaction are the main criteria that affect biodiversity. In the present study, which emphasis the climate change and its effects on terrestrial insect diversity in Mukuruthi National Park a protected areas of Western Ghats in India. Sampling was done seasonally at the three areas using pitfall traps, over the period of January to December 2013. The statistical findings were done by Shannon wiener diversity index (H). A significant seasonal variation pattern was detected for total insect’s diversity at the different study areas. Totally nine orders of insects were recorded. Diversity and abundance of terrestrial insects shows much difference between the Natural, Shoal forest and the Grasslands.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, mukuruthi national park, terrestrial invertebrates

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1176 Racial Microaggressions and Diversity Climate at Selected South African Organisations: The Role of Ethnicity

Authors: Sean McCallaghan, Marita Heyns, Leon Jackson

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Diversity is an essential contributor towards organizational performance, and therefore organizations will continue to diversify their workforces. This will result in organizations seeking to attract and retain diverse staff from various backgrounds, cultures and races. Although theoretically, a heterogeneous workforce should be more beneficial than a homogeneous workforce, selected research has shown that increased diversity might be associated with undesirable employee behaviours such as stereotyping and even prejudice. Consequently, this study proposed and tested a moderation model to determine if the interaction between racial microaggressions and ethnicity would impact diversity climate. Existing literature suggests that the majority of diversity climate examinations have largely explored related outputs. Therefore, the present study identified a research opportunity to investigate the racial microaggressions and ethnic interaction in predicting a diverse climate in a unique, diverse environment such as South Africa. The quantitative cross-sectional study collected 230 responses from a convenience sample. Participants were from the financial and banking sector and the retail and industrial and manufacturing sectors based in the Gauteng Province in South Africa. Respondents completed measures to collect data on biographical information, racial microaggressions and diversity climate. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, correlations, a moderation model and ANOVAs. Results indicate that the interaction between racial microaggressions and ethnicity would significantly predict diversity climate. The study also found evidence that African respondents experience more racial microaggressions when compared to their white counterparts. The study concludes that ethnic diversification is an essential factor in creating conducive diversity climates.

Keywords: racial microaggressions, diversity climate, ethnicity, South Africa

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1175 Genetic Diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Genotypes as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Pangirayi Tongoona

Abstract:

Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown for food, feed and bioenergy. Knowledge of genetic diversity is important for conservation of genetic resources and improvement of crop plants through breeding. The objective of this study was to assess the level of genetic diversity among sorghum genotypes using microsatellite markers. A total of 103 accessions of sorghum genotypes obtained from the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the African Centre for Crop Improvement and Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute collections in South Africa were estimated using 30 microsatellite markers. For all the loci analysed, 306 polymorphic alleles were detected with a mean value of 6.4 per locus. The polymorphic information content had an average value of 0.50 with heterozygosity mean value of 0.55 suggesting an important genetic diversity within the sorghum genotypes used. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering based on Euclidian coefficients revealed two major distinct groups without allocating genotypes based on the source of collection or origin. The genotypes 4154.1.1.1, 2055.1.1.1, 4441.1.1.1, 4442.1.1.1, 4722.1.1.1, and 4606.1.1.1 were the most diverse. The sorghum genotypes with high genetic diversity could serve as important sources of novel alleles for breeding and strategic genetic conservation.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Genotypes, Microsatellites, Sorghum

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1174 The Impact of Research and Development Cooperation Partner Diversity, Knowledge Source Diversity and Knowledge Source Network Embeddedness on Radical Innovation: Direct Relationships and Interaction with Non-Price Competition

Authors: Natalia Strobel, Jan Kratzer

Abstract:

In this paper, we test whether different types of research and development (R&D) alliances positively impact the radical innovation performance of firms. We differentiate between the R&D alliances without extern R&D orders and embeddedness in knowledge source network. We test the differences between the domestically diversified R&D alliances and R&D alliances diversified abroad. Moreover, we test how non-price competition influences the impact of domestically diversified R&D alliances, and R&D alliance diversified abroad on radical innovation performance. Our empirical analysis is based on the comprehensive Swiss innovation panel, which allowed us to study 3520 firms between the years between 1996 and 2011 in 3 years intervals. We analyzed the data with a linear estimation with Swamy-Aurora transformation using plm package in R software. Our results show as hypothesized a positive impact of R&D alliances diversity abroad as well as domestically on radical innovation performance. The effect of non-price interaction is in contrast to our hypothesis, not significant. This suggests that diversity of R&D alliances is highly advantageous independent of non-price competition.

Keywords: R&D alliances, partner diversity, knowledge source diversity, non-price competition, absorptive capacity

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1173 Soil Surface Insect Diversity of Tobacco Agricultural Ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia

Authors: Martina Faika Harianja, Zahtamal, Indah Nuraini, Septi Mutia Handayani, R. C. Hidayat Soesilohadi

Abstract:

Tobacco is a valuable commodity that supports economic growth in Indonesia. Soil surface insects are important components that influence productivity of tobacco. Thus, diversity of soil surface insects needs to be studied in order to acquire information about specific roles of each species in ecosystem. This research aimed to study the soil surface insect diversity of tobacco agricultural ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. Samples were collected by pitfall-sugar bait trap in August 2015. Result showed 5 orders, 8 families, and 17 genera of soil surface insects were found. The diversity category of soil surface insects in tobacco agricultural ecosystem was poor. Dominant genus was Monomorium with dominance index score 0.07588. Percentages of insects’ roles were omnivores 43%, detritivores 24%, predators 19%, and herbivores 14%.

Keywords: diversity, Indonesia, soil surface insect, tobacco

Procedia PDF Downloads 203