Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2213

Search results for: distance running

2213 The Use of Global Positioning Systems to Evaluate the Effect of Protein and Carbohydrate Supplementation on Collegiate Soccer Performance

Authors: Joshua Bradley, Matthew Buns


This study aimed to identify the effect of concurrent nutritional supplementation on soccer performance as players ingested either carbohydrate CHO (52 g of Cytocarb Maltodextrin) or a combined carbohydrate and protein PRO (Muscle Milk Pro Series 17g CHO + 50 g PRO liquid) supplement. Twelve male, junior college soccer players (age: 18 ± 6 years, wt. 73.3 ± 8.6 kg) completed three trials wearing global positioning systems (GPS) to measure total running distance and sprinting distance during soccer simulation games. The first match simulation was a baseline match with no supplementation. One hour prior to the second match, simulation players were randomly assigned to one of two supplemental groups CHO or CHO + PRO. A repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction revealed a statistically significant increase in the total distance run for the CHO supplementation group in comparison to the CHO + PRO group (10.19 ± .200 km vs. 9.77± .194km, p = .035). Although the total running distance was meaningfully influenced by the supplementation, the pattern of response for total sprinting distance was not influenced by supplementation. There was a decline in sprinting distance and total running distance from first half to second half, both for the control (M = -0.01 km, SD = 0.17) and CHO supplementation group (-0.04 km, SD = .19), although these differences were not statistically meaningful. There was a positive correlation between sprinting distance and total distance, which was statistically significant (r = -.514, n = 36, p = .01) In conclusion, supplementation influenced the pattern of activity and demonstrated between-trial differences.

Keywords: GPS, nutrition, simulation, supplementation

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2212 The Impact of Quality of Life on Satisfaction and Intent to Return for Distance Running

Authors: Chin-Huang Huang, Chun-Chu Yeh


Physical activities have a positive impact on individuals’ health and well-being. They also play an important role in promoting quality of life (QoL). The distance running enhances participants’ life satisfaction and provides positive experiences in physical activity. This study aims to measure the perception of QoL and to find the effect on satisfaction and intent to return for distance runners. Exploratory factor analysis is carried out to extract four major factorial dimensions of QoL, including multiple functions, spiritual, physical and cognitive factors. The main factors of QoL will be introduced into the regression function on satisfaction and return intention. The results show that the QoL factors including multiple functions, spiritual, physical and cognitive factors have a positive and significant impact on satisfaction for participants. The multiple functions and physical factors are also significantly positively correlated to the intent of return for runners.

Keywords: quality of life, physical activity, distance running, satisfaction

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2211 Investigation of Various Physical and Physiological Properties of Ethiopian Elite Men Distances Runners

Authors: Getaye Fisseha Gelaw


The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and physiological characteristics of elite male Ethiopian national team distance runners have an average age of 28.1 [4.3] yr, average training age of 10.1 [5.1] yrs, average weekly distance/training volume of 196.7 [7.5]km, and work out intensity of slow, moderate, to high. Their average half marathon personal bests are 59 min 45 s [0.9] and their average marathon personal bests are 02 hr 03 min 39 s [0.02]. All athletes have a high profile and compete at Olympic Games, World Champions as well as in the platinum and gold label status road races. According to the WA labeling system in 2021, among the 11 samples of the runners 63.63% (7/11)) are platinum label status, and 36.37(4/11 are Gold Label Status runners. Each athlete's height, weight, BMI, body composition, fat percentage (% body weight), VO2 max, cooper test, exercise and resting heart rate, skinfold thickness, and blood pressure were all recorded and tabulated on the table. According to my research, living and training at high altitude, high-intensity training type, Vo2 max, running economy, low BMI, lower skinfold thickness, lower body fat percentage and ectomorphic body composition make Ethiopian athletes so good. The VO2max of Ethiopian elite men long-distance runners competing at the international level ranges from72.6 to 81.9 ml/kg/min. The 12-minute running test (Cooper test), covers an incredible distance, ranging from 3750 m to 4200 m for women.

Keywords: long-distance running, ethiopians, VO2 max, world athletics, anthropometric

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2210 The K-Distance Neighborhood Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Soner Nandappa D., Ahmed Mohammed Naji


In a graph G = (V, E), the distance from a vertex v to a vertex u is the length of shortest v to u path. The eccentricity e(v) of v is the distance to a farthest vertex from v. The diameter diam(G) is the maximum eccentricity. The k-distance neighborhood of v, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is Nk(v) = {u ϵ V (G) : d(v, u) = k}. In this paper, we introduce a new distance degree based topological polynomial of a graph G is called a k- distance neighborhood polynomial, denoted Nk(G, x). It is a polynomial with the coefficient of the term k, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is the sum of the cardinalities of Nk(v) for every v ϵ V (G). Some properties of k- distance neighborhood polynomials are obtained. Exact formulas of the k- distance neighborhood polynomial for some well-known graphs, Cartesian product and join of graphs are presented.

Keywords: vertex degrees, distance in graphs, graph operation, Nk-polynomials

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
2209 Utility of Range of Motion Measurements on Classification of Athletes

Authors: Dhiraj Dolai, Rupayan Bhattacharya


In this study, a comparison of Range Of Motion (ROM) of middle and long-distance runners and swimmers has been made. The mobility of the various joints is essential for the quick movement of any sportsman. Knowledge of a ROM helps in preventing injuries, in repeating the movement, and in generating speed and power. ROM varies among individuals, and it is influenced by factors such as gender, age, and whether the motion is performed actively or passively. ROM for running and swimming, both performed with due consideration on speed, plays an important role. The time of generation of speed and mobility of the particular joints are very important for both kinds of athletes. The difficulties that happen during running and swimming in the direction of motion is changed. In this study, data were collected for a total of 102 subjects divided into three groups: control group (22), middle and long-distance runners (40), and swimmers (40), and their ages are between 12 to 18 years. The swimmers have higher ROM in shoulder joint flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movement. Middle and long-distance runners have significantly greater ROM from Control Group in the left shoulder joint flexion with a 5.82 mean difference. Swimmers have significantly higher ROM from the Control Group in the left shoulder joint flexion with 24.84 mean difference and swimmers have significantly higher ROM from the Middle and Long distance runners in left shoulder flexion with 19.02 mean difference. The picture will be clear after a more detailed investigation.

Keywords: range of motion, runners, swimmers, significance

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2208 The Comparison of Backward and Forward Running Program on Balance Development and Plantar Flexion Force in Pre Seniors: Healthy Approach

Authors: Neda Dekamei, Mostafa Sarabzadeh, Masoumeh Bigdeli


Backward running is commonly used in different sports conditioning, motor learning, and neurological purposes, and even more commonly in physical rehabilitation. The present study evaluated the effects of six weeks backward and forward running methods on balance promotion adaptation in students. 12 male and female preseniors with the age range of 45-60 years participated and were randomly classified into two groups of backward running (n: 6) and forward running (n: 6) training interventions. During six weeks, 3 sessions per week, all subjects underwent stated different models of backward and forward running training on treadmill (65-80 of HR max). Pre and post-tests were performed by force plate and electromyogram, two times before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using by T test. On the basis of obtained data, significant differences were recorded on balance and plantar flexion force in backward running (BR) and no difference for forward running (FR). It seems the training model of backward running can generate more stimulus to achieve better plantar flexion force and strengthening ankle protectors which leads to balance improvement in pre aging period. It can be recommended as an effective method to promote seniors life quality especially in balance neuromuscular parameters.

Keywords: backward running, balance, plantar flexion, pre seniors

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2207 The Research of the Relationship between Triathlon Competition Results with Physical Fitness Performance

Authors: Chen Chan Wei


The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of swim 1500m, 10000m run, VO2 max, and body fat on Olympic distance triathlon competition performance. The subjects were thirteen college triathletes with endurance training, with an average age, height and weight of 20.61±1.04 years (mean ± SD), 171.76±8.54 cm and 65.32±8.14 kg respectively. All subjects were required to take the tests of swim 1500m, run 10000m, VO2 max, body fat, and participate in the Olympic distance triathlon competition. First, the swim 1500m test was taken in the standardized 50m pool, with a depth of 2m, and the 10000m run test on the standardized 400m track. After three days, VO2 max was tested with the MetaMax 3B and body fat was measured with the DEXA machine. After two weeks, all 13 subjects joined the Olympic distance triathlon competition at the 2016 New Taipei City Asian Cup. The relationships between swim 1500m, 10000m run, VO2 max, body fat test, and Olympic distance triathlon competition performance were evaluated using Pearson's product-moment correlation. The results show that 10000m run and body fat had a significant positive correlation with Olympic distance triathlon performance (r=.830, .768), but VO2 max has a significant negative correlation with Olympic distance triathlon performance (r=-.735). In conclusion, for improved non-draft Olympic distance triathlon performance, triathletes should focus on running than swimming training and can be measure VO2 max to prediction triathlon performance. Also, managing body fat can improve Olympic distance triathlon performance. In addition, swimming performance was not significantly correlated to Olympic distance triathlon performance, possibly because the 2016 New Taipei City Asian Cup age group was not a drafting competition. The swimming race is the shortest component of Olympic distance triathlons. Therefore, in a non-draft competition, swimming ability is not significantly correlated with overall performance.

Keywords: triathletes, olympic, non-drafting, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
2206 Differences in Activity Patterns between Adult and U-21 Major League Players in Four Field Positions

Authors: U. Harel, E. Carmeli


The Purpose was to measure differences in activity patterns between major league adult and U-21 soccer players. Four U-21 players and four adult team players were evaluated using a repeated measures technique. All eight players were affiliated with the Maccabi Haifa soccer club from the Israeli professional and U-21major leagues, depending on the player’s age. GPS sensors were attached to the players during five consecutive games to identify patterns regarding running distance and speed according to the field positions. There was no significant difference in the total running distances covered by two age groups. When measuring running speed, an advantage was observed in the adult group when comparing two players from different age groups that played the same position. Differences in activity patterns were evident between adult and U-21 major league soccer players. Furthermore, differences in within group activity pattern emerged between the positions under investigation. These findings provide valuable knowledge that may serve the principle of training specificity.

Keywords: physical fitness, soccer, positional differences, GPS, training specificity

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2205 Mechanism to Optimize Landing Distance in Order to Minimize Tyre Wear during Braking

Authors: H. V. H. De Soysa, N. D. Hiripitiya, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage


This research was based on developing a mechanism in order to optimize the landing distance. Short distance braking and long distance braking may cause several issues for the aircraft including tyre wearing. The worst case occurs with short distance landing. The issues related to short distance landing were identified after conducting interviews with pilots, aeronautical engineers and technicians. A model was constructed in order to optimize the landing distance. The device started to function at the point where the main wheels of the aircraft touchdown the runway. It was found that implementing this device to the aircraft benefits to optimize the landing distance. This could lead to rectifying several issues occurred due to improper braking distances.

Keywords: aircraft, mechanism, optimize landing distance, runway

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2204 Fighting Competition Stress by Focusing the Psychological Training on the Vigor-Activity Mood States

Authors: Majid Al-Busafi, Alexe Cristina Ioana, Alexe Dan Iulian


The specific competition and pre-competition stress in professional track and field determined an increasing engagement, from a biological and psychological point of view, of the middle distance and long distance runners, to obtain the top performances that would get them to win in a competition. Under these conditions, if the psychological stress is not properly managed, the negative effects can lead to a total drop in self-confidence, and can affect the value, the talent, and the self-trust, which generates an even higher stress. One of the means at our disposal is the psychological training, specially adapted to the athlete's individual characteristics, to the characteristics of the athletic event, or of the competition. This paper aims to highlight certain original aspects regarding the effects of a specific psychological training program on the mood states characterized by psychological activation, vigor, vitality. The subjects were represented by 12 professional middle distance and long distance runners, subjected to an applicative intervention to which they have participated voluntarily, over the course of 6 months (a competition season). The results indicated that The application of a psychological training program, adapted to the track and field competition system, over a period of time characterized by high competition stress, can determine an increase in the states of vigor and psychological activation, at the same time diminishing those moods that have negative effects on the performance, in the middle distance and long distance running events. This conclusion confirms the hypothesis of this research.

Keywords: competition stress, psychological training, track and field, vigor-activity

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2203 Weighted-Distance Sliding Windows and Cooccurrence Graphs for Supporting Entity-Relationship Discovery in Unstructured Text

Authors: Paolo Fantozzi, Luigi Laura, Umberto Nanni


The problem of Entity relation discovery in structured data, a well covered topic in literature, consists in searching within unstructured sources (typically, text) in order to find connections among entities. These can be a whole dictionary, or a specific collection of named items. In many cases machine learning and/or text mining techniques are used for this goal. These approaches might be unfeasible in computationally challenging problems, such as processing massive data streams. A faster approach consists in collecting the cooccurrences of any two words (entities) in order to create a graph of relations - a cooccurrence graph. Indeed each cooccurrence highlights some grade of semantic correlation between the words because it is more common to have related words close each other than having them in the opposite sides of the text. Some authors have used sliding windows for such problem: they count all the occurrences within a sliding windows running over the whole text. In this paper we generalise such technique, coming up to a Weighted-Distance Sliding Window, where each occurrence of two named items within the window is accounted with a weight depending on the distance between items: a closer distance implies a stronger evidence of a relationship. We develop an experiment in order to support this intuition, by applying this technique to a data set consisting in the text of the Bible, split into verses.

Keywords: cooccurrence graph, entity relation graph, unstructured text, weighted distance

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2202 Research on the Correlation between College Students' Physical Fitness and Running Habits: Data Mining of Smart Phone Sports App

Authors: Mingming Guo, Xiaozan Wang


Introduction: The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between the physical fitness of Chinese college students and their daily running habits (RH). Methods: A total of 718 college students from East China Normal University participated in this study (385 boys and 333 girls). Each participant participated in the Chinese Students’ Physical Fitness Test during the 2018-2019 school year. In addition, each student is also required to use the app to record all their running results during each run during the 2018-2019 school year. Researchers can query and export all running records through the app's management platform. Results: (1) The total number of kilometers run by the students showed a significant negative correlation with their vital capacity (VC), sitting body flexion (SBF), and long jump (LJ) (rᵥ

Keywords: college students, physical fitness, running habits, data mining

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2201 Distance Protection Performance Analysis

Authors: Abdelsalam Omar


This paper presents simulation-based case study that indicate the need for accurate dynamic modeling of distance protection relay. In many cases, a static analysis based on current and voltage phasors may be sufficient to assess the performance of distance protection. There are several circumstances under which such a simplified study does not provide the depth of analysis necessary to obtain accurate results, however. This letter present study of the influences of magnetizing inrush and power swing on the performance of distance protection relay. One type of numerical distance protection relay has been investigated: 7SA511. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate the relay response when dynamic model of distance relay is utilized.

Keywords: distance protection, magnitizing inrush, power swing, dynamic model of protection relays, simulatio

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2200 The Accuracy of an 8-Minute Running Field Test to Estimate Lactate Threshold

Authors: Timothy Quinn, Ronald Croce, Aliaksandr Leuchanka, Justin Walker


Many endurance athletes train at or just below an intensity associated with their lactate threshold (LT) and often the heart rate (HR) that these athletes use for their LT are above their true LT-HR measured in a laboratory. Training above their true LT-HR may lead to overtraining and injury. Few athletes have the capability of measuring their LT in a laboratory and rely on perception to guide them, as accurate field tests to determine LT are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if an 8-minute field test could accurately define the HR associated with LT as measured in the laboratory. On Day 1, fifteen male runners (mean±SD; age, 27.8±4.1 years; height, 177.9±7.1 cm; body mass, 72.3±6.2 kg; body fat, 8.3±3.1%) performed a discontinuous treadmill LT/maximal oxygen consumption (LT/VO2max) test using a portable metabolic gas analyzer (Cosmed K4b2) and a lactate analyzer (Analox GL5). The LT (and associated HR) was determined using the 1/+1 method, where blood lactate increased by 1 mMol•L-1 over baseline followed by an additional 1 mMol•L-1 increase. Days 2 and 3 were randomized, and the athletes performed either an 8-minute run on the treadmill (TM) or on a 160-m indoor track (TR) in an effort to cover as much distance as possible while maintaining a high intensity throughout the entire 8 minutes. VO2, HR, ventilation (VE), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured using the Cosmed system, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE; 6-20 scale) was recorded every minute. All variables were averaged over the 8 minutes. The total distance covered over the 8 minutes was measured in both conditions. At the completion of the 8-minute runs, blood lactate was measured. Paired sample t-tests and pairwise Pearson correlations were computed to determine the relationship between variables measured in the field tests versus those obtained in the laboratory at LT. An alpha level of <0.05 was required for statistical significance. The HR (mean +SD) during the TM (167+9 bpm) and TR (172+9 bpm) tests were strongly correlated to the HR measured during the laboratory LT (169+11 bpm) test (r=0.68; p<0.03 and r=0.88; p<0.001, respectively). Blood lactate values during the TM and TR tests were not different from each other but were strongly correlated with the laboratory LT (r=0.73; p<0.04 and r=0.66; p<0.05, respectively). VE (Lmin-1) was significantly greater during the TR (134.8+11.4 Lmin-1) as compared to the TM (123.3+16.2 Lmin-1) with moderately strong correlations to the laboratory threshold values (r=0.38; p=0.27 and r=0.58; p=0.06, respectively). VO2 was higher during TR (51.4 mlkg-1min-1) compared to TM (47.4 mlkg-1min-1) with correlations of 0.33 (p=0.35) and 0.48 (p=0.13), respectively to threshold values. Total distance run was significantly greater during the TR (2331.6+180.9 m) as compared to the TM (2177.0+232.6 m), but they were strongly correlated with each other (r=0.82; p<0.002). These results suggest that an 8-minute running field test can accurately predict the HR associated with the LT and may be a simple test that athletes and coaches could implement to aid in training techniques.

Keywords: blood lactate, heart rate, running, training

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2199 The Τraits Τhat Facilitate Successful Student Performance in Distance Education: The Case of the Distance Education Unit at European University Cyprus

Authors: Dimitrios Vlachopoulos, George Tsokkas


Although it is not intended to identify distance education students as a homogeneous group, recent research has demonstrated that there are some demographic and personality common traits among most of them that provide the basis for the description of a typical distance learning student. The purpose of this paper is to describe these common traits and to facilitate their learning journey within a distance education program. The described research is an initiative of the Distance Education Unit at the European University Cyprus (Laureate International Universities) in the context of its action for the improvement of the students’ performance.

Keywords: distance education students, successful student performance, European University Cyprus, common traits

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2198 A Simulation for Behaviors of Preys to Avoid Pursuit of Predator

Authors: Jae Moon Lee


Generally the predator will continuously aim to attack the prey, while the prey will maintain a safe distance from the predator in order to avoid it . If the predator has enough energy to chase a certain amount of distance, it will begin to attack the prey. The prey needs to approach the predator for various reasons such as getting food. However, it will also try to keep a safe distance because of the threat of predators. The safe distance is dependent on the amount of the energy of predator, and the behaviors of prey is changed according to the size of the safe distance. This paper is to simulate the behaviors of preys to avoid the pursuit of predator based on the safe distance. The simulations will be executed experimentally under single predator and multiple preys. The results of the simulations show that the amount of energy of predator gives a great influence on the behavior of the prey.

Keywords: predator, prey, energy, safe distance, simulation

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2197 The Kinks, the Solitons, and the Shocks in Series Connected Discrete Josephson Transmission Lines

Authors: Eugene Kogan


We analytically study the localized running waves in the discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTL), constructed from Josephson junctions (JJ) and capacitors. The quasi-continuum approximation reduces the calculation of the running wave properties to the problem of equilibrium of an elastic rod in the potential field. Making additional approximations, we reduce the problem to the motion of the fictitious Newtonian particle in the potential well. We show that there exist running waves in the form of supersonic kinks and solitons and calculate their velocities and profiles. We show that the nonstationary smooth waves, which are small perturbations on the homogeneous non-zero background, are described by Korteweg-de Vries equation, and those on zero background -by the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. We also study the effect of dissipation on the running waves in JTL and find that in the presence of the resistors, shunting the JJ and/or in series with the ground capacitors, the only possible stationary running waves are the shock waves, whose profiles are also found.

Keywords: Josephson transmission line, shocks, solitary waves, nonlinear waves

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2196 Distances over Incomplete Diabetes and Breast Cancer Data Based on Bhattacharyya Distance

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Mahmoud Kaiyal


Missing values in real-world datasets are a common problem. Many algorithms were developed to deal with this problem, most of them replace the missing values with a fixed value that was computed based on the observed values. In our work, we used a distance function based on Bhattacharyya distance to measure the distance between objects with missing values. Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions. The proposed distance distinguishes between known and unknown values. Where the distance between two known values is the Mahalanobis distance. When, on the other hand, one of them is missing the distance is computed based on the distribution of the known values, for the coordinate that contains the missing value. This method was integrated with Wikaya, a digital health company developing a platform that helps to improve prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. In order for Wikaya’s recommendation system to work distance between users need to be measured. Since there are missing values in the collected data, there is a need to develop a distance function distances between incomplete users profiles. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed distance function in reflecting the actual similarity between different objects, when some of them contain missing values, we integrated it within the framework of k nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier, since its computation is based only on the similarity between objects. To validate this, we ran the algorithm over diabetes and breast cancer datasets, standard benchmark datasets from the UCI repository. Our experiments show that kNN classifier using our proposed distance function outperforms the kNN using other existing methods.

Keywords: missing values, incomplete data, distance, incomplete diabetes data

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2195 Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Economy Following Exercise-Induced Fatigue

Authors: Jason Blair, Adeboye Adebayo, Mohamed Saad, Jeannette M. Byrne, Fabien A. Basset


Running economy is a key physiological parameter of an individual’s running efficacy and a valid tool for predicting performance outcomes. Of the many factors known to influence running economy (RE), footwear certainly plays a role owing to its characteristics that vary substantially from model to model. Although minimalist footwear is believed to enhance RE and thereby endurance performance, conclusive research reports are scarce. Indeed, debates remain as to which footwear characteristics most alter RE. The purposes of this study were, therefore, two-fold: (a) to determine whether wearing minimalist shoes results in better RE compared to shod and to identify relationships with kinematic and muscle activation patterns; (b) to determine whether changes in RE with minimalist shoes are still evident following a fatiguing bout of exercise. Well-trained male distance runners (n=10; 29.0 ± 7.5 yrs; 71.0 ± 4.8 kg; 176.3 ± 6.5 cm) partook first in a maximal O₂ uptake determination test (VO₂ₘₐₓ = 61.6 ± 7.3 ml min⁻¹ kg⁻¹) 7 days prior to the experimental sessions. Second, in a fully randomized fashion, an RE test consisting of three 8-min treadmill runs in shod and minimalist footwear were performed prior to and following exercise induced fatigue (EIF). The minimalist and shod conditions were tested with a minimum of 7-day wash-out period between conditions. The RE bouts, interspaced by 2-min rest periods, were run at 2.79, 3.33, and 3.89 m s⁻¹ with a 1% grade. EIF consisted of 7 times 1000 m at 94-97% VO₂ₘₐₓ interspaced with 3-min recovery. Cardiorespiratory, electromyography (EMG), kinematics, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were measured throughout the experimental sessions. A significant main speed effect on RE (p=0.001) and stride frequency (SF) (p=0.001) was observed. The pairwise comparisons showed that running at 2.79 m s⁻¹ was less economic compared to 3.33, and 3.89 m s⁻¹ (3.56 ± 0.38, 3.41 ± 0.45, 3.40 ± 0.45 ml O₂ kg⁻¹ km⁻¹; respectively) and that SF increased as a function of speed (79 ± 5, 82 ± 5, 84 ± 5 strides min⁻¹). Further, EMG analyses revealed that root mean square EMG significantly increased as a function of speed for all muscles (Biceps femoris, Gluteus maximus, Gastrocnemius, Tibialis anterior, Vastus lateralis). During EIF, the statistical analysis revealed a significant main effect of time on lactate production (from 2.7 ± 5.7 to 11.2 ± 6.2 mmol L⁻¹), RPE scores (from 7.6 ± 4.0 to 18.4 ± 2.7) and peak HR (from 171 ± 30 to 181 ± 20 bpm), expect for the recovery period. Surprisingly, a significant main footwear effect was observed on running speed during intervals (p=0.041). Participants ran faster with minimalist shoes compared to shod (3:24 ± 0:44 min [95%CI: 3:14-3:34] vs. 3:30 ± 0:47 min [95%CI: 3:19-3:41]). Although EIF altered lactate production and RPE scores, no other effect was noticeable on RE, EMG, and SF pre- and post-EIF, except for the expected speed effect. The significant footwear effect on running speed during EIF was unforeseen but could be due to shoe mass and/or heel-toe-drop differences. We also cannot discard the effect of speed on foot-strike pattern and therefore, running performance.

Keywords: exercise-induced fatigue, interval training, minimalist footwear, running economy

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2194 Decision Trees Constructing Based on K-Means Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Loai Abdallah, Malik Yousef


A domain space for the data should reflect the actual similarity between objects. Since objects belonging to the same cluster usually share some common traits even though their geometric distance might be relatively large. In general, the Euclidean distance of data points that represented by large number of features is not capturing the actual relation between those points. In this study, we propose a new method to construct a different space that is based on clustering to form a new distance metric. The new distance space is based on ensemble clustering (EC). The EC distance space is defined by tracking the membership of the points over multiple runs of clustering algorithm metric. Over this distance, we train the decision trees classifier (DT-EC). The results obtained by applying DT-EC on 10 datasets confirm our hypotheses that embedding the EC space as a distance metric would improve the performance.

Keywords: ensemble clustering, decision trees, classification, K nearest neighbors

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2193 The Effect of Irradiation Distance on Microhardness of Hybrid Resin Composite Polymerization Using Light-Emitting Diodes

Authors: Deli Mona, Rafika Husni


The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of lighting distance on surface hardness of light composite resin. We held laboratory experimental research with post-test only group design. The samples used are 30 disc-like hybrid composite resins with the diameter is 6 mm and the thickness is 2 mm, lighted by an LED for 20 seconds. They were divided into 3 groups, and every group was consisted by 10 samples, which were 0 mm, 2 mm, and 5 mm lighting distance group. Every samples group was treated with hardness test, Vicker Hardness Test, then analyzed with one-way ANOVA test to evaluate the effect of lighting distance differences on surface hardness of light composite resin. Statistic test result shown hardness mean change of composite renin between 0 mm and 2 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), between 0 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), and 2 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.05 significance (p<0.05). According to the result of this research, we concluded that the further lighting distance, the more surface hardness decline of hybrid composite resin.

Keywords: composite resin hybrid, tip distance, microhardness, light curing LED

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2192 The Net as a Living Experience of Distance Motherhood within Italian Culture

Authors: C. Papapicco


Motherhood is an existential human relationship that lasts for the whole life and is always interwoven with subjectivity and culture. As a result of the brain drain, the motherhood becomes motherhood at distance. Starting from the hypothesis that re-signification of the mother at distance practices is culturally relevant; the research aims to understand the experience of mother at a distance in order to extrapolate the strategies of management of the empty nest. Specifically, the research aims to evaluate the experience of a brain drain’s mother, who created a blog that intends to take care of other parents at a distance. Actually, the blog is the only artifact symbol of the Italian culture of motherhood at distance. In the research, a Netnographic Analysis of the blog is offered with the aim of understanding if the online world becomes an opportunity to manage the role of mother at a distance. A narrative interview with the blog creator was conducted and then the texts were analyzed by means of a Diatextual Analysis approach. It emerged that the migration projects of talented children take on different meanings and representations for parents. Thus, it is shown that the blog becomes a new form of understanding and practicing motherhood at a distance.

Keywords: brain drain, diatextual analysis, distance motherhood blog, online and offline narrations

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2191 Analytical Solution for Stellar Distance Based on Photon Dominated Cosmic Expansion Model

Authors: Xiaoyun Li, Suoang Longzhou


This paper derives the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift based on the photon-dominated universe expansion model. Firstly, it calculates stellar separation speed and the farthest distance of observable stars via simulation. Then the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift is derived. It shows that when the redshift is large, the stellar distance (and its separation speed) is not proportional to its redshift due to the relativity effect. It also reveals the relationship between stellar age and its redshift. The correctness of the analytical solution is verified by the latest astronomic observations of Ia supernovas in 2020.

Keywords: redshift, cosmic expansion model, analytical solution, stellar distance

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2190 Assessing Distance Education Practices: Teachers Experience and Perceptions

Authors: Mohammed Amraouy, Mostafa Bellafkih, Abdellah Bennane, Aziza Benomar


Distance education has become popular due to their ability to provide learning from almost anywhere and anytime. COVID-19 forced educational institutions to urgently introduce distance education to ensure pedagogical continuity, so all stakeholders were invited to adapt to this new paradigm. In order to identify strengths and weaknesses, the research focuses on the need to create an effective mechanism for evaluating distance education. The aims of this research were to explore and evaluate the use of digital media in general and official platforms in particular in distance education practices. To this end, we have developed and validated a questionnaire before administering it to a sample of 431 teachers in Morocco. Teachers reported lower knowledge and skills in the didactic use of ICT in the distance education process. In addition, although age and educative experience of the teachers continue to modulate the level of instrumental skills. Therefore, resources (digital resources and infrastructure) and the teachers’ ICT training present serious limitations, which require a training more focused on the distance educational paradigm and educational environments that allow teachers to create educational activities able to promote and facilitate the distance learning process.

Keywords: distance education, e-learning, teachers’ perceptions, assessment

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2189 The Impact of Barefoot versus Shod Running on Lower Limb Gait Cycle Pattern among Recreational Club Runners in Durban, South Africa

Authors: Siyabonga Kunene, Calvin Shipley


Introduction: Despite health benefits that come with running, injuries are common with prevalence ranging between 18.2% and 92.4% worldwide. Differences in gait patterns between barefoot and shod running, can determine traits that could lead to running injuries. The aim was to assess and compare lower limb gait cycle patterns between barefoot and shod running among runners. Methods: An experimental same-subject study design was used. The study population consisted of male and female adult recreational runners who were injury free from a running club in Durban. A convenience sampling method was used and 14 participants were recruited. The study was conducted in the physiotherapy performance laboratory at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. A Woodway Desmo Treadmill and KinePro gait analysis system were used. Descriptive & inferential statistics were analysed using Microsoft Excel and Intercooled Stata. Results: Participants included a greater percentage of females (57.1%, n = 8) than males (42.9%, n = 6). The mean population age was 38.57. A significant difference (p < 0.0009) between barefoot cadence (177.9236steps/min) and shod cadence (171.9445steps/min) was observed. Right (0.261s) and left (0.257s) barefoot stand phase was shorter than right (0.273s) and left (0.270s) shod stand phase. Right barefoot swing phase exhibited less significant (0.420s) results when compared to right shod swing phase (0.427s), whereas left barefoot swing phase was quicker (0.416s) than left shod swing phase (0.432s). Significant differences between barefoot and shod stand (p < 0.009) and swing (p < 0.040) phase symmetry occurred. Conclusion: A considerable difference was found between barefoot and shod running gait cycle patterns among participants. This difference may play a role in prevention of running related injuries.

Keywords: barefoot running, shod running, gait cycle pattern, same-subject study design

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2188 Effects of Acacia Honey Drink Ingestion during Rehydration after Exercise Compared to Sports Drink on Physiological Parameters and Subsequent Running Performance in the Heat

Authors: Foong Kiew Ooi, Aidi Naim Mohamad Samsani, Chee Keong Chen, Mohamed Saat Ismail


Introduction: Prolonged exercise in a hot and humid environment can result in glycogen depletion and associated with loss of body fluid. Carbohydrate contained in sports beverages is beneficial for improving sports performance and preventing dehydration. Carbohydrate contained in honey is believed can be served as an alternative form of carbohydrate for enhancing sports performance. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of honey drink compared to sports drink as a recovery aid for running performance and physiological parameters in the heat. Method: Ten male recreational athletes (age: 22.2 ± 2.0 years, VO2max: 51.5 ± 3.7 participated in this randomized cross-over study. On each trial, participants were required to run for 1 hour in the glycogen depletion phase (Run-1), followed by a rehydration phase for 2 hours and subsequently a 20 minutes time trial performance (Run-2). During Run-1, subjects were required to run on the treadmill in the heat (31°C) with 70% relative humidity at 70 % of their VO2max. During rehydration phase, participants drank either honey drink or sports drink, or plain water with amount equivalent to 150% of body weight loss in dispersed interval (60 %, 50 % and 40 %) at 0 min, 30 min and 60 min respectively. Subsequently, time trial was performed by the participants in 20 minutes and the longest distance covered was recorded. Physiological parameters were analysed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measure and time trial performance was analysed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Result showed that Acacia honey elicited a better time trial performance with significantly longer distance compared to water trial (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between Acacia honey and sport drink trials (P > 0.05). Acacia honey and sports drink trials elicited 249 m (8.24 %) and 211 m (6.79 %) longer in distance compared to the water trial respectively. For physiological parameters, plasma glucose, plasma insulin and plasma free fatty acids in Acacia honey and sports drink trials were significantly higher compared to the water trial respectively during rehydration phase and time trial running performance phase. There were no significant differences in body weight changes, oxygen uptake, hematocrit, plasma volume changes and plasma cortisol in all the trials. Conclusion: Acacia honey elicited greatest beneficial effects on sports performance among the drinks, thus it has potential to be used for rehydration in athletes who train and compete in hot environment.

Keywords: honey drink, rehydration, sports performance, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, plasma cortisol

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2187 Analysis of Brain Activities due to Differences in Running Shoe Properties

Authors: Kei Okubo, Yosuke Kurihara, Takashi Kaburagi, Kajiro Watanabe


Many of the ever-growing elderly population require exercise, such as running, for health management. One important element of a runner’s training is the choice of shoes for exercise; shoes are important because they provide the interface between the feet and road. When we purchase shoes, we may instinctively choose a pair after trying on many different pairs of shoes. Selecting the shoes instinctively may work, but it does not guarantee a suitable fit for running activities. Therefore, if we could select suitable shoes for each runner from the viewpoint of brain activities, it would be helpful for validating shoe selection. In this paper, we describe how brain activities show different characteristics during particular task, corresponding to different properties of shoes. Using five subjects, we performed a verification experiment, applying weight, softness, and flexibility as shoe properties. In order to affect the shoe property’s differences to the brain, subjects run for ten min. Before and after running, subjects conducted a paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as the particular task; and the subjects’ brain activities during the PASAT are evaluated based on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin relative concentration changes, measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). When the brain works actively, oxihemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration drastically changes; therefore, we calculate the maximum values of concentration changes. In order to normalize relative concentration changes after running, the maximum value are divided by before running maximum value as evaluation parameters. The classification of the groups of shoes is expressed on a self-organizing map (SOM). As a result, deoxyhemoglobin can make clusters for two of the three types of shoes.

Keywords: brain activities, NIRS, PASAT, running shoes

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2186 Evaluation of Distance Education Needs of Athletes

Authors: Yunus Emre Karakaya, Sebahattin Devecioglu, Bilal Coban


Today, information technology’s presence is felt in every field of life. Fields of education and sports sciences have their own share too. Especially developments in informatics technologies changed the perspectives of these fields. The altered technological conditions made distance education argumentative in these fields. Due to advantages distance education provides to students, they can access the desired education without concerns about time and place. Education facilities are seen to head for distance education in this manner and expedite the process. Distance education applications, which was first started to be applied in the mid-1800s, have been implemented in Turkey since 1970s and still continues today. In this study, the historical development of distance education in the world and Turkey and the problems athletes face in education were discussed. Accordingly, suggestions were made evaluating the importance and requirements of distance education in sports education facilities at higher education level. Additionally, Questions of “Is distance education important in sports education in Turkey?”, “What are the problems of athletes in the education field in Turkey?” and similar questions were attempted to be answered. Finally, in Turkey, distance sports education applications in universities should be launched to ensure that athletes’ educations are not deficit and unfinished. Within this framework, legal regulations should be implemented by “Council of Higher Education” to develop the distance sports education in Turkey and utilize distance education efficiently in solving the sports education problems. By ensuring the advancement of athletes with this method, it is expected for athletes to contribute to sports in the country in both government and the private sector in the medium and long terms. Individuals who participated in the distance sports education will set an example in extending the country’s youth to national and international fields.

Keywords: athletes, distance education, higher education, sports education, Turkey

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2185 The Vertex Degree Distance of One Vertex Union of the Cycle and the Star

Authors: Ying Wang, Haiyan Xie, Aoming Zhang


The degree distance of a graph is a graph invariant that is more sensitive than the Wiener index. In this paper, we calculate the vertex degree distances of one vertex union of the cycle and the star, and the degree distance of one vertex union of the cycle and the star. These results lay a foundation for further study on the extreme value of the vertex degree distances, and the distribution of the vertices with the extreme value in one vertex union of the cycle and the star.

Keywords: degree distance, vertex-degree-distance, one vertex union of a cycle and a star, graph

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2184 Approach for Demonstrating Reliability Targets for Rail Transport during Low Mileage Accumulation in the Field: Methodology and Case Study

Authors: Nipun Manirajan, Heeralal Gargama, Sushil Guhe, Manoj Prabhakaran


In railway industry, train sets are designed based on contractual requirements (mission profile), where reliability targets are measured in terms of mean distance between failures (MDBF). However, during the beginning of revenue services, trains do not achieve the designed mission profile distance (mileage) within the timeframe due to infrastructure constraints, scarcity of commuters or other operational challenges thereby not respecting the original design inputs. Since trains do not run sufficiently and do not achieve the designed mileage within the specified time, car builder has a risk of not achieving the contractual MDBF target. This paper proposes a constant failure rate based model to deal with the situations where mileage accumulation is not a part of the design mission profile. The model provides appropriate MDBF target to be demonstrated based on actual accumulated mileage. A case study of rolling stock running in the field is undertaken to analyze the failure data and MDBF target demonstration during low mileage accumulation. The results of case study prove that with the proposed method, reliability targets are achieved under low mileage accumulation.

Keywords: mean distance between failures, mileage-based reliability, reliability target appropriations, rolling stock reliability

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