Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2111

Search results for: digital revolution

2111 Digital Revolution a Veritable Infrastructure for Technological Development

Authors: Osakwe Jude Odiakaosa

Abstract:

Today’s digital society is characterized by e-education or e-learning, e-commerce, and so on. All these have been propelled by digital revolution. Digital technology such as computer technology, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) has been having a tremendous impact on the field of technology. This development has positively affected the scope, methods, speed of data acquisition, data management and the rate of delivery of the results (map and other map products) of data processing. This paper tries to address the impact of revolution brought by digital technology.

Keywords: digital revolution, internet, technology, data management

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2110 Revolution and Nationalism: The Grenada Revolution (1979-83) Contributed Significantly to the Development of a Grenada Nationalism

Authors: Oliver Benoit

Abstract:

On 13 March 1979, a left-wing political party formed in the 1970s overthrew Eric Gairy's government and established the People's Revolutionary Government which governed Grenada from (1979-1983). On the morning of 13 March 1979, the People's Revolutionary Government leader, Maurice Bishop, appealed to the people of Grenada to assist the forces of the revolution in consolidating its newly acquired political power. A cross-section of the Grenadian population responded positively to Maurice Bishop's appeal. Within the four and a half years of the revolution, noticeable social, political, and economic changes affected all areas of social life before internal divisions caused the revolution's collapse. Forty-two years following the revolution's collapse, intellectuals and commentators continue to argue about the impact of the Grenada Revolution on societal and national development. However, the revolution's impact on the spread of nationalism in Grenada is yet to be analyzed. Nationalism, as a modern phenomenon, has impacted many societies since its emergence in England in the seventeenth century, and Grenada is no exception. The paper argues that the Grenada Revolution was motivated by nationalist sentiments and the revolution itself fostered the development of nationalism in Grenada. The argument relies on 40 interviews; people who currently reside in Grenada (2020) and live in Grenada during the revolution as young adults and adults (ages 15 and beyond) and have memories of their experiences of the revolution. The sample of 40 respondence represents about 20,000 people in Grenada who are within the study population between 55 and 75 years today (2020).

Keywords: grenada, motivation, nationalism, revolution

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2109 Study and Simulation of a Dynamic System Using Digital Twin

Authors: J.P. Henriques, E. R. Neto, G. Almeida, G. Ribeiro, J.V. Coutinho, A.B. Lugli

Abstract:

Industry 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is transforming the relationship between people and machines. In this scenario, some technologies such as Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Additive Manufacturing, among others, are making industries and devices increasingly intelligent. One of the most powerful technologies of this new revolution is the Digital Twin, which allows the virtualization of a real system or process. In this context, the present paper addresses the linear and nonlinear dynamic study of a didactic level plant using Digital Twin. In the first part of the work, the level plant is identified at a fixed point of operation, BY using the existing method of least squares means. The linearized model is embedded in a Digital Twin using Automation Studio® from Famous Technologies. Finally, in order to validate the usage of the Digital Twin in the linearized study of the plant, the dynamic response of the real system is compared to the Digital Twin. Furthermore, in order to develop the nonlinear model on a Digital Twin, the didactic level plant is identified by using the method proposed by Hammerstein. Different steps are applied to the plant, and from the Hammerstein algorithm, the nonlinear model is obtained for all operating ranges of the plant. As for the linear approach, the nonlinear model is embedded in the Digital Twin, and the dynamic response is compared to the real system in different points of operation. Finally, yet importantly, from the practical results obtained, one can conclude that the usage of Digital Twin to study the dynamic systems is extremely useful in the industrial environment, taking into account that it is possible to develop and tune controllers BY using the virtual model of the real systems.

Keywords: industry 4.0, digital twin, system identification, linear and nonlinear models

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2108 Economic Characteristics of Bitcoin: "An Analytical Study"

Authors: Abdelhalem Shahen

Abstract:

The world is now experiencing a digital revolution and greatly accelerated technological developments, in addition to the transition from the economy in its traditional form to the digital economy, which has resulted in the emergence of new tools that are appropriate to those developments, and from this, this paper attempts to explore the economic characteristics of the bitcoin currency that circulated recently. Due to the many advantages that distinguish it from money in its traditional forms, which have a range of economic effects. The study found that Bitcoin is among the technological innovations, which contain a set of characteristics that are worth studying, those that make it the focus of attention, such as the digital currency, the peer-to-peer property, Lower and Faster Transaction Costs, transparency, decentralized control, privacy, and Double-Spending, as well as security and Cryptographic, and finally mining.

Keywords: Digital Economics, Digital Currencies, Bitcoin, Features of Bitcoin

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2107 The Digitalization of Occupational Health and Safety Training: A Fourth Industrial Revolution Perspective

Authors: Deonie Botha

Abstract:

Digital transformation and the digitization of occupational health and safety training have grown exponentially due to a variety of contributing factors. The literature suggests that digitalization has numerous benefits but also has associated challenges. The aim of the paper is to develop an understanding of both the perceived benefits and challenges of digitalization in an occupational health and safety context in an effort to design and develop e-learning interventions that will optimize the benefits of digitalization and address the associated challenges. The paper proposes, deliberate and tests the design principles of an e-learning intervention to ensure alignment with the requirements of a digitally transformed environment. The results of the research are based on a literature review regarding the requirements and effect of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on learning and e-learning in particular. The findings of the literature review are enhanced with empirical research in the form of a case study conducted in an organization that designs and develops e-learning content in the occupational health and safety industry. The primary findings of the research indicated that: (i) The requirements of learners and organizations in respect of e-learning are different than previously (i.e., a pre-Fourth Industrial Revolution related work setting). (ii) The design principles of an e-learning intervention need to be aligned with the entire value chain of the organization. (iii) Digital twins support and enhance the design and development of e-learning. (iv)Learning should incorporate a multitude of sensory experiences and should not only be based on visual stimulation. (v) Data that are generated as a result of e-learning interventions should be incorporated into big data streams to be analyzed and to become actionable. It is therefore concluded that there is general consensus on the requirements that e-learning interventions need to adhere to in a digitally transformed occupational health and safety work environment. The challenge remains for organizations to incorporate data generated as a result of e-learning interventions into the digital ecosystem of the organization.

Keywords: digitalization, training, fourth industrial revolution, big data

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2106 Social Change and Cultural Sustainability in the Wake of Digital Media Revolution in South Asia

Authors: Binod C. Agrawal

Abstract:

In modern history, industrial and media merchandising in South Asia from East Asia, Europe, United States and other countries of the West is over 200 years old. Hence, continued external technology and media exposure is not a new experience in multi-lingual and multi religious South Asia which evolved cultural means to withstand structural change. In the post-World War II phase, media exposure especially of telecommunication, film, Internet, radio, print media and television have increased manifold. South Asia did not lose any time in acquiring and adopting digital media accelerated by chip revolution, computer and satellite communication. The penetration of digital media and utilization are exceptionally high though the spread has an unequal intensity, use and effects. The author argues that industrial and media products are “cultural products” apart from being “technological products”; hence their influences are most felt in the cultural domain which may lead to blunting of unique cultural specifics in the multi-cultural, multi-lingual and multi religious South Asia. Social scientists, political leaders and parents have voiced concern of “Cultural domination”, “Digital media colonization” and “Westernization”. Increased digital media access has also opened up doors of pornography and other harmful information that have sparked fresh debates and discussions about serious negative, harmful, and undesirable social effects especially among youth. Within ‘techno-social’ perspective, based on recent research studies, the paper aims to describe and analyse possible socio-economic change due to digital media penetration. Further, analysis supports the view that the ancient multi-lingual and multi-religious cultures of South Asia due to inner cultural strength may sustain without setting in a process of irreversible structural changes in South Asia.

Keywords: cultural sustainability, digital media effects, digital media impact in South Asia, social change in South Asia

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2105 Collaborative Economy in Developing Countries: Perspectives from the Philippines

Authors: Ivy Jessen Galvan

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Over the past decade, a phenomenon has emerged at the frontier of the digital economy: a wave of ‘disruptive’ technologies that offer digital solutions to variety of everyday problems, challenging the way traditional industries operate. Most of these disruptive technologies are applications ('apps') that rely on the Internet to connect people to people for sharing, selling, renting, or lending, creating a unique economic model wherein users provide for other users’ demand – called 'collaborative economy.' Although collaborative economy is spreading in every part of the world, there may be different ways in which this phenomenon is unfolding throughout the developing countries. In this study, the characteristics of collaborative economy in the Philippines are highlighted and compared from observations in the developed world. The paper looks at two leading collaborative economy ventures in the Philippines – Grab and Shopee – probing into how these smartphone-based platforms place technology into the 'micro-frictions' of the Philippine developing context. Using framing analysis on interviews conducted among Grab and Shopee users in Metro Manila, three frames have been identified: 1) metropolitan solution; 2) financial inclusion and; 3) formalization of labor. This research contextualizes the Fourth Industrial Revolution in ASEAN by analyzing the effect of a digital economy in everyday life.

Keywords: ASEAN Unicorns, collaborative economy, developing countries, fourth industrial revolution

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2104 An Investigation of the Influence of the Iranian 1979 Revolution on Tehran’s Public Art

Authors: M. Sohrabi Narciss

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Urban spaces of Tehran, the capital of Iran, have witnessed many revolts, movements, and protests during the past few decades. After the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, the 1979 Revolution has had a profound impact on Tehran’s urban space. In 1979, the world watched as Iranians demonstrated en masse against the Pahlavi dynastdy which eventually led to its overthrow. Tehran’s public space is replete with images and artwork that depict the overthrow of the Pahlavi regime and the establishment of an Islamic government in Iran. The public artworks related to the 1979 Islamic Revolution reflect the riots, protests, and strikes that the Iranians underwent during the revolution. Many of these artworks try to revitalize the events that occurred in the 1970s by means of collective memory. Almost 4 decades have passed since the revolution and ever since the public artwork has been affected either directly or indirectly by the Iran-Iraq War, the Green Movement, and the rise and fall of various political forces. The present study is an attempt to investigate Tehran’s urban artwork such as urban sculptures and mural paintings organized and supervised by the government and the graffiti drawn by the critics or the opposition groups. To this end, in addition to the available documents, field research and questionnaires were used to qulaitatively analyze the data. This paper tries to address the following questions: 1) what changes have occurred in Tehran’s urban art? 2) Does the public, revolution-related artwork have an effect on people’s vitality? 3) do Iranians find these artworks appealing or not?

Keywords: public space, Tehran, public art, movement, Islamic revolution

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2103 Digital Preservation: A Need of Tomorrow

Authors: Gaurav Kumar

Abstract:

Digital libraries have been established all over the world to create, maintain and to preserve the digital materials. This paper exhibits the importance and objectives of digital preservation. The necessities of preservation are hardware and software technology to interpret the digital documents and discuss various aspects of digital preservation.

Keywords: preservation, digital preservation, conservation, archive, repository, document, information technology, hardware, software, organization, machine readable format

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2102 Analyzing the Plausible Alternatives in Contracting the Societal Fissure Caused by Digital Divide in Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

Abstract:

'Digital Divide' is a concept that has existed in this paradigm ever since the discovery of the first-generation technologies. Before the turn of the century, it was basically used to describe the gap between those with telephone communication access and those without it. At present, it is plainly descriptive in itself to illustrate the cavity among those with Internet access and those without. Though the concept of digital divide has been merely lying in sight for as long as time itself, the friction it caused has not yet been fully realized to solve major crisis situations. Unlike well-developed countries, Sri Lanka is still in the verge of moving farther away from a developing country in the race towards reaching a developed state. Access to technological resources varies from region to region, even within the island itself, with one region having a considerable percentage of its community exposed to the Internet and its related technologies, and the other unaware of such. Thus, this paper intends to analyze the roots for the still-extant gap instigated based on the concept of ‘Digital Divide’ and explores the plausible potentials that could be brought about by narrowing this prevailing percentage among the population, specifically entrenching the advantages reaped towards an economic augmentation and culture or lifestyle revolution on the path towards development.

Keywords: communication, digital divide, society, Sri Lanka

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2101 A General Framework to Successfully Operate the Digital Transformation Process in the Post-COVID Era

Authors: Driss Kettani

Abstract:

In this paper, we shed light on “Digital Divide 2.0,” which we see as COVID-19’s Version of the Digital Divide! We believe that “Fighting” against Digital Divide 2.0 necessitates for a Country to be seriously advanced in the Global Digital Transformation that is, naturally, a complex, delicate, costly and long-term Process. We build an argument supporting our assumption and, from there, we present the foundations of a computational framework to guide and streamline Digital Transformation at all levels.

Keywords: digital divide 2.0, digital transformation, ICTs for development, computational outcomes assessment

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2100 The Roles of Aesthetics and Information Quality on Intention to Continued Used of Digital Library within the Context of UTAUT2

Authors: Shahruhaida Adayu Mohd Paili, Abd Latif Abdul Rahman, Asmadi Mohammed Ghazali

Abstract:

Digital library was developed by many organizations, especially universities. The digital library can be considered as a new information system. Digital library brings many benefits to the users. There are many researches that have investigated the importance of the digital library, the acceptance, and continuance use of digital library. The investigation towards the digital library is important and it is crucial to understand the reason why users accept and continued use of digital library. Users can search the information and available resources through the digital library website. It is important to know the user’s perception towards the aesthetics of the digital library. Besides that, because of digital library provided information to the users, the researcher also needed to investigate the quality of information in digital library. This study used Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) in order to know the user’s intention to continued use of digital library.

Keywords: digital library, aesthetics, information quality, intention to continued use of digital library, UTAUT2

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2099 Using the Countryside to Absorb Urban Political Youth: The Cultural Revolution, Ballet, and Discontent

Authors: Eva Chou

Abstract:

This paper presents a case study of a historical moment in the city vs countryside relationship that is important in urban studies in China. Policies during the Cultural Revolution in China (1966-76) several times sent educated urban youths to the countryside. Initially, they were sent to “make revolution”: they were instructed to instigate powerful disruptions of established village relations. Later, they were “sent-down” to the countryside “to learn from the peasants.” Millions of urban youths “volunteered” to live as peasants did in the poverty of the countryside, thus resolving a political problem of urban unrest for the Party. Many had remained for decades before they were able to leave; others were never re-urbanized. Ballet troupes constituted a special case in both of these periods. This paper examines the differing experiences of individual “sent-down” ballet dancers on the one hand, and on the other hand, ballet troupes assigned to perform in the countryside.

Keywords: cultural revolution, reurbanized, sent-down youths, ballet

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2098 Digital Architectural Practice as a Challenge for Digital Architectural Technology Elements in the Era of Digital Design

Authors: Ling Liyun

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In the field of contemporary architecture, complex forms of architectural works continue to emerge in the world, along with some new terminology emerged: digital architecture, parametric design, algorithm generation, building information modeling, CNC construction and so on. Architects gradually mastered the new skills of mathematical logic in the form of exploration, virtual simulation, and the entire design and coordination in the construction process. Digital construction technology has a greater degree in controlling construction, and ensure its accuracy, creating a series of new construction techniques. As a result, the use of digital technology is an improvement and expansion of the practice of digital architecture design revolution. We worked by reading and analyzing information about the digital architecture development process, a large number of cases, as well as architectural design and construction as a whole process. Thus current developments were introduced and discussed in our paper, such as architectural discourse, design theory, digital design models and techniques, material selecting, as well as artificial intelligence space design. Our paper also pays attention to the representative three cases of digital design and construction experiment at great length in detail to expound high-informatization, high-reliability intelligence, and high-technique in constructing a humane space to cope with the rapid development of urbanization. We concluded that the opportunities and challenges of the shift existed in architectural paradigms, such as the cooperation methods, theories, models, technologies and techniques which were currently employed in digital design research and digital praxis. We also find out that the innovative use of space can gradually change the way people learn, talk, and control information. The past two decades, digital technology radically breaks the technology constraints of industrial technical products, digests the publicity on a particular architectural style (era doctrine). People should not adapt to the machine, but in turn, it’s better to make the machine work for users.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, collaboration, digital architecture, digital design theory, material selection, space construction

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2097 A Practical Approach and Implementation of Digital Library Towards Best Practice in Malaysian Academic Library

Authors: Zainab Ajab Mohideen, Kiran Kaur, A. Basheer Ahamadhu, Noor Azlinda Wan Jan, Sukmawati Muhammad

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The corpus in the digital library is to provide an overview and evidence from library automation that can be used to justify the needs of the digital library. This paper disperses the approach and implementation of the digital library as part of best practices by the Automation Division at Hamzah Sendut Library of the University Science Malaysia (USM). The implemented digital library model emphasizes on the entire library collections, technical perspective, and automation solution. This model served as a foundation for digital library services as part of information delivery in the USM digital library. The approach to digital library includes discussion on key factors, design, architecture, and pragmatic model that has been collected, captured, and identified during the implementation stages. At present, the USM digital library has achieved the status of an Institutional Repository (IR).

Keywords: academic digital library, digital information system, digital library best practice, digital library model

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2096 'Innovation Clusters' as 'Growth Poles' to Propel Industry 4.0 Capacity Building of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and Startups

Authors: Vivek Anand, Rainer Naegele

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Industry 4.0 envisages 'smart' manufacturing and services, taking the automation of the 3rd Industrial Revolution to the autonomy of the 4th Industrial Revolution. Powered by innovations in technology and business models, this disruptive transformation is revitalising industry by integrating silos across and beyond value chains. Motivated by the challenges faced by SMEs and Startups in understanding and adopting Industry 4.0, this paper aims to analyse the concept of Growth Poles and evaluate the possibility of its application to Innovation Clusters that strive to propel Industry 4.0 adoption and capacity building. The proposed paper applies qualitative research methodologies including focus groups and survey questionnaires to identify the various factors that affect formation and development of Innovation Clusters. Employing content analysis, the interaction between SMEs and other ecosystem players in such clusters is studied. A strong collaborative culture is a key driver of digital transformation and technology adoption across sectors, value chains and supply chains; and will position these cluster-based growth poles at the forefront of industrial renaissance. Motivated by this argument, and based on the results of the qualitative research, a roadmap will be proposed to position Innovation Clusters as Growth Poles and effective ecosystems to support Industry 4.0 adoption in a region in the medium to long term. This paper will contribute to the current understanding of the role of Innovation Clusters in capacity building. Relevant management and policy implications stem from the analysis. Furthermore, the findings will be helpful for academicians and policymakers alike, who can leverage an ‘innovation cluster policy’ to enable Industry 4.0 Growth Poles in their regions.

Keywords: digital transformation, fourth industrial revolution, growth poles, industry 4.0, innovation clusters, innovation policy, SMEs and startups

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2095 The Challenges Involved in Investigating and Prosecuting Hate Crime Online

Authors: Mark Williams

Abstract:

The digital revolution has radically transformed our social environment creating vast opportunities for interconnectivity and social interaction. This revolution, however, has also changed the reach and impact of hate crime, with social media providing a new platform to victimize and harass users in their homes. In this way, developments in the information and communication technologies have exacerbated and facilitated the commission of hate crime, increasing its prevalence and impact. Unfortunately, legislators, policymakers and criminal justice professionals have struggled to keep pace with these technological developments, reducing their ability to intervene in, regulate and govern the commission of hate crimes online. This work is further complicated by the global nature of this crime due to the tendency for offenders and victims to reside in multiple different jurisdictions, as well as the need for criminal justice professionals to obtain the cooperation of private companies to access information required for prosecution. Drawing on in-depth interviews with key criminal justice professionals and policymakers with detailed knowledge in this area, this paper examines the specific challenges the police and prosecution services face as they attempt to intervene in and prosecute the commission of hate crimes online. It is argued that any attempt to reduce online othering, such as the commission of hate crimes online, must be multifaceted, collaborative and involve both innovative technological solutions as well as internationally agreed ethical and legal frameworks.

Keywords: cybercrime, digital policing, hate crime, social media

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2094 Rethinking the Role of Umeya Shokichi in the 1911 Revolution: Focusing on His Ties with Sun Yatsen in Hong Kong

Authors: Wai-Ming Ng

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Nowadays Umeya Shokichi has been commonly regarded as the symbol of Sino-Japanese friendship and a close friend of Sun Yatsen. The images of Umeya have been largely built on contemporary political needs rather than historical sources. Based on Japanese and Chinese primary sources, this paper will challenge existing views of Umeya Shokichi in regard to his role in the 1911 Revolution and his relationship with Sun Yatsen. The study of Umeya Shokichi is handicapped by the accessibility and creditability of primary sources. Records of Umeya are largely kept in his family collection. Scholars are relatively difficult to get access to these materials. In addition, Umeya’s records can hardly be cross-checked as he is seldom mentioned in the writings of Sun Yatsen, Miyazaki Toten, James Cantlie and others. Heretofore, studies about Umeya are few and most are not critical enough to provide a balanced historical account of Umeya. This article will reexamine the role of Umeya Shokichi in the 1911 Revolution by highlighting his relationship with Sun Yatsen in Hong Kong from 1886 to 1911. It demonstrates that the role of Umeya in the 1911 Revolution and his relationship with Sun Yatsen are exaggerated by Chinese and Japanese officials as well as Umeya’s family members. The fact is that Sun did not play a direct role in the 1911 Revolution, not to mention his sponsors. To Sun, Umeya was perhaps merely one of his many sponsors rather than an intimate friend. This study will be a thought-provoking and iconoclast piece of scholarship based on critical reading of primary sources.

Keywords: Umeya Shokichi, Sun Yatsen, 1911 Revolution, Sino-Japanese friendship

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2093 Women Retelling the Iranian Revolution: A Comparative Study of Novelists Maryam Madjidi and Negar Djavadi

Authors: Alessandro Giardino

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The Iranian Revolution has been the object of numberless historical and semi-fictional accounts, often providing a monolithic perspective on the events, due to the westerner positioning of those recounting them. Against this tradition, two contemporary French-Iranian novels "Disoriental" (2016) by Negar Djavadi and "Marx and The Doll" (2017) by Maryam Madjidi have offered readers a female-oriented and interestingly layered representation of the Iranian Revolution, hence addressing the responsibilities and misconceptions of Western countries. Furthermore, these two women writers have shed light on the disenchantment of the Iranian intellectual class vis-à-vis the foundation of the Islamic Republic, by particularly focusing on the deterioration of women’s rights, as well as the repression of political, ethnical, religious and sexual minorities. By a psycholinguistic and semasiological analysis of the two novels by Djavadi and Madjidi, this essay will focus on alternative accounts of the revolution in order to reflect upon the role of intersectional literature to the understanding of history. More specifically, as both women, refugees, and bi-cultural writers, Djavadi and Madjidi unearthed moments and figures of the revolution which had disappeared from the prevalent narrative. In doing so, however, these two writers resorted to entirely opposite styles of writing that, it will be argued, stem from different types of female resistance. In defining these two approaches as a "narrative resistance" and a "photographic resistance," the essay will elucidate the dependence of these writers’ language on generational and psychological factors, but it will also stir a reflection on their different communicative strategies.

Keywords: Iranian revolution, French-Iranian, intersectionality, literature, women writers

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2092 Digital Preservation: Requirement of 21st Century

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Shilpa

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Digital libraries have been established all over the world to create, maintain and to preserve the digital materials. This paper focuses on operational digital preservation systems specifically in educational organizations in India. It considers the broad range of digital objects including e-journals, technical reports, e-records, project documents, scientific data, etc. This paper describes the main objectives, process and technological issues involved in preservation of digital materials. Digital preservation refers to the various methods of keeping digital materials alive for the future. It includes everything from electronic publications on CD-ROM to Online database and collections of experimental data in digital format maintains the ability to display, retrieve and use digital collections in the face of rapidly changing technological and organizational infrastructures elements. This paper exhibits the importance and objectives of digital preservation. The necessities of preservation are hardware and software technology to interpret the digital documents and discuss various aspects of digital preservation.

Keywords: preservation, digital preservation, digital dark age, conservation, archive, repository, document, information technology, hardware, software, organization, machine readable format

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2091 SHIFT: Examining Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions on Digital Citizenship Education

Authors: Cachanda K. Orellana

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This study examined preservice teachers’ perceptions of their role in digital citizenship education. Data was gathered via surveys and coursework from the preservice teachers’ instructional technology course. Pre-service teachers were asked about their role in digital citizenship education during a unit on digital dilemmas. Findings suggest that teacher education programs should consider digital citizenship education as more than the acquisition of a set of skills and behaviors and prepare preservice teachers to support students’ ability to engage in ethical decision-making in digital spaces.

Keywords: digital citizenship, digital dilemmas, pre-service teachers, teacher education

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2090 The Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Digital Transformation of Business Models

Authors: Chante Van Tonder, Bart Bossink, Chris Schachtebeck, Cecile Nieuwenhuizen

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Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) play a key role in national economies around the world, being contributors to economic and social well-being. Due to this, the success, growth and competitiveness of SMEs are critical. However, there are many factors that undermine this, such as resource constraints, poor information communication infrastructure (ICT), skills shortages and poor management. The Fourth Industrial Revolution offers new tools and opportunities such as digital transformation and business model innovation (BMI) to the SME sector to enhance its competitiveness. Adopting and leveraging digital technologies such as cloud, mobile technologies, big data and analytics can significantly improve business efficiencies, value proposition and customer experiences. Digital transformation can contribute to the growth and competitiveness of SMEs. However, SMEs are lagging behind in the participation of digital transformation. Extant research lacks conceptual and empirical research on how digital transformation drives BMI and the impact it has on the growth and competitiveness of SMEs. The purpose of the study is, therefore, to close this gap by developing and empirically validating a conceptual model to determine if SMEs are achieving BMI through digital transformation and how this is impacting the growth, competitiveness and overall business performance. An empirical study is being conducted on 300 SMEs, consisting of 150 South-African and 150 Dutch SMEs, to achieve this purpose. Structural equation modeling is used, since it is a multivariate statistical analysis technique that is used to analyse structural relationships and is a suitable research method to test the hypotheses in the model. Empirical research is needed to gather more insight into how and if SMEs are digitally transformed and how BMI can be driven through digital transformation. The findings of this study can be used by SME business owners, managers and employees at all levels. The findings will indicate if digital transformation can indeed impact the growth, competitiveness and overall performance of an SME, reiterating the importance and potential benefits of adopting digital technologies. In addition, the findings will also exhibit how BMI can be achieved in light of digital transformation. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in a highly relevant and important topic in management studies by analysing the impact of digital transformation on BMI on a large number of SMEs that are distinctly different in economic and cultural factors

Keywords: business models, business model innovation, digital transformation, SMEs

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2089 Rhetoric and Renarrative Structure of Digital Images in Trans-Media

Authors: Yang Geng, Anqi Zhao

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The misreading theory of Harold Bloom provides a new diachronic perspective as an approach to the consistency between rhetoric of digital technology, dynamic movement of digital images and uncertain meaning of text. Reinterpreting the diachroneity of 'intertextuality' in the context of misreading theory extended the range of the 'intermediality' of transmedia to the intense tension between digital images and symbolic images throughout history of images. With the analogy between six categories of revisionary ratios and six steps of digital transformation, digital rhetoric might be illustrated as a linear process reflecting dynamic, intensive relations between digital moving images and original static images. Finally, it was concluded that two-way framework of the rhetoric of transformation of digital images and reversed served as a renarrative structure to revive static images by reconnecting them with digital moving images.

Keywords: rhetoric, digital art, intermediality, misreading theory

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2088 The Arab Spring Rebellion or Revolution: An Analysis of the Text

Authors: Sulaiman Ahmed

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This paper will analyse the classical Islamic text in order to determine whether the Arab spring was a rebellion or a revolution. Commencing in 2010, we saw a series of revolutions or what some would call rebellions throughout the Arab peninsula. Many of the religious clergies came out emphatically in support of the people who wanted to overthrow the leaders. This brought forth the important question about the acceptability of rebelling against unjust leaders in Islamic theological texts. The paper will look to analyse the Islamic legal and theological position on the permissibility of rebelling, whether there is scholarly consensus on the issue, and how the texts are analysed in order to come to the current position we have today. The position of the clergy who supported the Arab spring will also be analysed in order to deduce if their position falls within the religious framework. An inquiry will be about to determine the ideology of those who joined the rebellion after the inception and whether these ideas can be found in classical Islamic texts. The nuances of these positions will be analysed in order to determine whether what we witnessed was a rebellion or a revolution.

Keywords: rebellion, revolution, Arab spring, scholarly consensus

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2087 Indian Business-Papers in Industrial Revolution 4.0: A Paradigm Shift

Authors: Disha Batra

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The Industrial Revolution 4.0 is quite different, and a paradigm shift is underway in the media industry. With the advent of automated journalism and social media platforms, newspaper organizations have changed the way news was gathered and reported. The emergence of the fourth industrial revolution in the early 21st century has made the newspapers to adapt the changing technologies to remain relevant. This paper investigates the content of Indian business-papers in the era of the fourth industrial revolution and how these organizations have emerged in the time of convergence. The study is the content analyses of the top three Indian business dailies as per IRS (Indian Readership Survey) 2017 over a decade. The parametric analysis of the different parameters (source of information, use of illustrations, advertisements, layout, and framing, etc.) have been done in order to come across with the distinct adaptations and modifications by these dailies. The paper significantly dwells upon the thematic analysis of these newspapers in order to explore and find out the coverage given to various sub-themes of EBF (economic, business, and financial) journalism. Further, this study reveals the effect of high-speed algorithm-based trading, the aftermath of the fourth industrial revolution on the creative and investigative aspect of delivering financial stories by these respective newspapers. The study indicates a change heading towards an ongoing paradigm shift in the business newspaper industry with an adequate change in the source of information gathering along with the subtle increase in the coverage of financial news stories over the time.

Keywords: business-papers, business news, financial news, industrial revolution 4.0.

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2086 A Corpus-Linguistic Analysis of Online Iranian News Coverage on Syrian Revolution

Authors: Amaal Ali Al-Gamde

Abstract:

The Syrian revolution is a major issue in the Middle East, which draws in world powers and receives a great focus in international mass media since 2011. The heavy global reliance on cyber news and digital sources plays a key role in conveying a sense of bias to a wide range of online readers. Thus, based on the assumption that media discourse possesses ideological implications, this study investigates the representation of Syrian revolution in online media. The paper explores the discursive constructions of anti and pro-government powers in Syrian revolution in 1000,000-word corpus of Fars online reports (an Iranian news agency), issued between 2013 and 2015. Taking a corpus assisted discourse analysis approach, the analysis investigates three types of lexicosemantic relations, the semantic macrostructures within which the two social actors are framed, the lexical collocations characterizing the news discourse and the discourse prosodies they tell about the two sides of the conflict. The study utilizes computer-based approaches, sketch engine and AntConc software to minimize the bias of the subjective analysis. The analysis moves from the insights of lexical frequencies and keyness scores to examine themes and the collocational patterns. The findings reveal the Fars agency’s ideological mode of representations in reporting events of Syrian revolution in two ways. The first is by stereotyping the opposition groups under the umbrella of terrorism, using words such as (law breakers, foreign-backed groups, militant groups, terrorists) to legitimize the atrocities of security forces against protesters and enhance horror among civilians. The second is through emphasizing the power of the government and depicting it as the defender of the Arab land by foregrounding the discourse of international conspiracy against Syria. The paper concludes discussing the potential importance of triangulating corpus linguistic tools with critical discourse analysis to elucidate more about discourses and reality.

Keywords: discourse prosody, ideology, keyness, semantic macrostructure

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2085 Jordan Curves in the Digital Plane with Respect to the Connectednesses given by Certain Adjacency Graphs

Authors: Josef Slapal

Abstract:

Digital images are approximations of real ones and, therefore, to be able to study them, we need the digital plane Z2 to be equipped with a convenient structure that behaves analogously to the Euclidean topology on the real plane. In particular, it is required that such a structure allows for a digital analogue of the Jordan curve theorem. We introduce certain adjacency graphs on the digital plane and prove digital Jordan curves for them thus showing that the graphs provide convenient structures on Z2 for the study and processing of digital images. Further convenient structures including the wellknown Khalimsky and Marcus-Wyse adjacency graphs may be obtained as quotients of the graphs introduced. Since digital Jordan curves represent borders of objects in digital images, the adjacency graphs discussed may be used as background structures on the digital plane for solving the problems of digital image processing that are closely related to borders like border detection, contour filling, pattern recognition, thinning, etc.

Keywords: digital plane, adjacency graph, Jordan curve, quotient adjacency

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2084 Digital Leadership and HR practices

Authors: Joanna Konstantinou

Abstract:

Due to the pandemic, we have recently witnessed an explosion of HR Tech offering a variety of solutions for digital transformation, as well as a large number of HR practices implemented by professionals both in data science and occupational psychology. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of these practices and their effectiveness and to develop an understanding of digital leadership. The study will be based on semi-structured interviews using qualitative research methods and tools.

Keywords: HR practices, digital trasformation, pandemic, digital leadership

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2083 The Development of Digital Economy in Thailand

Authors: Danuvasin Charoen

Abstract:

This study investigates the development of the digital economy policy in Thailand. The researcher describes the importance of digital technologies for competitiveness development of the country. In addition, the researcher analyzes the components and roadmap of the digital economy policy in Thailand. Main problems and challenges of the policy were identified. The data were gathered and analyzed from secondary sources. The finding can be used to guide the implementation of the digital economy in Thailand and other developing economies.

Keywords: digital economy, ICT in developing countries, Thailand, ICT development

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2082 The Role of Social Media in the Success or Failure of a Revolution: A Comparative Case Study of 2008/2018 Revolutions in Armenia

Authors: Nane Giloyan

Abstract:

The rapid development of social networks in the 21st century increases the interests towards the role and impact of social media on the success or failure of a revolution. Even though studies are investigating the role of social media on the outcome of a revolution, still, the conclusions on this matter are ambiguous so far. Hence, this research aims to investigate the role of social media in the success or failure of a revolution and make a contribution to the literature gap. The study aims to examine the research question whether the use of social media explains the success or failure of revolutions in 2008 and 2018 in Armenia. The research question is investigated through content analysis of two cases; failed revolution in 2008 and the successful revolution in 2018 in Armenia. The secondary data analysis was based on information devoted to two revolutions using local and major international news articles, journal and critical articles, in Armenian, Russian and English, also videos, posts and live streams of the revolutionary leaders. There can be many factors explaining the success or failure of a revolution. However, the investigation of the factors and their role to explain the outcome of a revolution other than the use of social media is beyond the scope of this research study. The study holds other variables constant and concludes that in the cases of 2008 and 2018 revolutions in Armenia the mobilization of society through social media explains the differences in the outcomes (failed or successful). The comparative case study of the revolutions in 2008 and 2018 in Armenia emphasizes the important role and impact of the use of social media on the success or failure of a revolution. The results highlight that the use of the Internet, particularly social media and live streams, by the opposition was the essential difference between two revolutions. Social media platforms, live streams, and communication apps that were absent in the revolutionary situation in 2008 were fundamental to the Armenian Velvet Revolution in 2018. The changes in the situation in favor of the opposition, so the outcome of the protests, were mainly based on the Internet-based mobilization of the society. It is also important to take into consideration that the country experienced a great increase in penetration rates over the decade. The percentage of access to the Internet drastically increased between 2008 and 2018. This fact may help to have a clearer understanding of the use of the Internet and social media by the opposition and the reliance on social media by society. According to the results of the continent analysis, the use of social media to direct the protests and to mobilize the society, have a vital role and positive impact on the outcome of a revolution. Thus the study concludes that it is the use of social media to initiate, organize, and direct the protests that explain the success or failure of two Armenian revolutions.

Keywords: social media, revolution, Armenia, success, failure

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