Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15106

Search results for: cross model

15106 The Influence of the Concentration and Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Carbonyl-Methylcellulose

Authors: Mohamed Rabhi, Kouider Halim Benrahou


The rheological properties of the carbonyl-methylcellulose (CMC), of different concentrations (25000, 50000, 60000, 80000 and 100000 ppm) and different temperatures were studied. We found that the rheological behavior of all CMC solutions presents a pseudo-plastic behavior, it follows the model of Ostwald-de Waele. The objective of this work is the modeling of flow by the CMC Cross model. The Cross model gives us the variation of the viscosity according to the shear rate. This model allowed us to adjust more clearly the rheological characteristics of CMC solutions. A comparison between the Cross model and the model of Ostwald was made. Cross the model fitting parameters were determined by a numerical simulation to make an approach between the experimental curve and those given by the two models. Our study has shown that the model of Cross, describes well the flow of "CMC" for low concentrations.

Keywords: CMC, rheological modeling, Ostwald model, cross model, viscosity

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15105 Mathematical and Numerical Analysis of a Nonlinear Cross Diffusion System

Authors: Hassan Al Salman


We consider a nonlinear parabolic cross diffusion model arising in applied mathematics. A fully practical piecewise linear finite element approximation of the model is studied. By using entropy-type inequalities and compactness arguments, existence of a global weak solution is proved. Providing further regularity of the solution of the model, some uniqueness results and error estimates are established. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed.

Keywords: cross diffusion model, entropy-type inequality, finite element approximation, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
15104 Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Community: Societal Culture Considerations

Authors: Shahnaz Bashir, Abel Usoro, Imran Khan


Hofstede’s culture model is an important model to study culture between different societies. He collected data from world-wide and performed a comprehensive study. Hofstede’s cultural model is widely accepted and has been used to study cross cultural influences in different areas like cross-cultural psychology, cross cultural management, information technology, and intercultural communication. This study investigates the societal cultural aspects of knowledge sharing in virtual communities.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge sharing, societal culture, virtual communities

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
15103 Evaluation of a Piecewise Linear Mixed-Effects Model in the Analysis of Randomized Cross-over Trial

Authors: Moses Mwangi, Geert Verbeke, Geert Molenberghs


Cross-over designs are commonly used in randomized clinical trials to estimate efficacy of a new treatment with respect to a reference treatment (placebo or standard). The main advantage of using cross-over design over conventional parallel design is its flexibility, where every subject become its own control, thereby reducing confounding effect. Jones & Kenward, discuss in detail more recent developments in the analysis of cross-over trials. We revisit the simple piecewise linear mixed-effects model, proposed by Mwangi et. al, (in press) for its first application in the analysis of cross-over trials. We compared performance of the proposed piecewise linear mixed-effects model with two commonly cited statistical models namely, (1) Grizzle model; and (2) Jones & Kenward model, used in estimation of the treatment effect, in the analysis of randomized cross-over trial. We estimate two performance measurements (mean square error (MSE) and coverage probability) for the three methods, using data simulated from the proposed piecewise linear mixed-effects model. Piecewise linear mixed-effects model yielded lowest MSE estimates compared to Grizzle and Jones & Kenward models for both small (Nobs=20) and large (Nobs=600) sample sizes. It’s coverage probability were highest compared to Grizzle and Jones & Kenward models for both small and large sample sizes. A piecewise linear mixed-effects model is a better estimator of treatment effect than its two competing estimators (Grizzle and Jones & Kenward models) in the analysis of cross-over trials. The data generating mechanism used in this paper captures two time periods for a simple 2-Treatments x 2-Periods cross-over design. Its application is extendible to more complex cross-over designs with multiple treatments and periods. In addition, it is important to note that, even for single response models, adding more random effects increases the complexity of the model and thus may be difficult or impossible to fit in some cases.

Keywords: Evaluation, Grizzle model, Jones & Kenward model, Performance measures, Simulation

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15102 Efficient Model Selection in Linear and Non-Linear Quantile Regression by Cross-Validation

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung, Steven N. MacEachern


Check loss function is used to define quantile regression. In the prospect of cross validation, it is also employed as a validation function when underlying truth is unknown. However, our empirical study indicates that the validation with check loss often leads to choosing an over estimated fits. In this work, we suggest a modified or L2-adjusted check loss which rounds the sharp corner in the middle of check loss. It has a large effect of guarding against over fitted model in some extent. Through various simulation settings of linear and non-linear regressions, the improvement of check loss by L2 adjustment is empirically examined. This adjustment is devised to shrink to zero as sample size grows.

Keywords: cross-validation, model selection, quantile regression, tuning parameter selection

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15101 Thermal Performance Investigation on Cross V-Shape Solar Air Collectors

Authors: Xi Luo, Xu Ji, Yunfeng Wang, Guoliang Li, Chongqiang Yan, Ming Li


Two different kinds of cross V-shape solar air collectors are designed and constructed. In the transverse cross V-shape collector, the V-shape bottom plate is along the air flow direction and the absorbing plate is perpendicular to the air flow direction. In the lengthway cross V-shape collector, the V-shape absorbing plate is along the air flow direction and the bottom plate is perpendicular to the air flow direction. Based on heat balance, the mathematical model is built to evaluate their performances. These thermal performances of the two cross V-shape solar air collectors and an extra traditional flat-plate solar air collector are characterized under various operating conditions by experiments. The experimental results agree well with the calculation values. The experimental results prove that the thermal efficiency of transverse cross V-shape collector precedes that of others. The air temperature at any point along the flow direction of the transverse cross V-shape collector is higher than that of the lengthway cross V-shape collector. For the transverse cross V-shape collector, the most effective length of flow channel is 0.9m. For the lengthway cross V-shape collector, a longer flow channel is necessary to achieve a good thermal performance.

Keywords: cross v-shape, performance, solar air collector, thermal efficiency

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15100 Multivariate Rainfall Disaggregation Using MuDRain Model: Malaysia Experience

Authors: Ibrahim Suliman Hanaish


Disaggregation daily rainfall using stochastic models formulated based on multivariate approach (MuDRain) is discussed in this paper. Seven rain gauge stations are considered in this study for different distances from the referred station starting from 4 km to 160 km in Peninsular Malaysia. The hourly rainfall data used are covered the period from 1973 to 2008 and July and November months are considered as an example of dry and wet periods. The cross-correlation among the rain gauges is considered for the available hourly rainfall information at the neighboring stations or not. This paper discussed the applicability of the MuDRain model for disaggregation daily rainfall to hourly rainfall for both sources of cross-correlation. The goodness of fit of the model was based on the reproduction of fitting statistics like the means, variances, coefficients of skewness, lag zero cross-correlation of coefficients and the lag one auto correlation of coefficients. It is found the correlation coefficients based on extracted correlations that was based on daily are slightly higher than correlations based on available hourly rainfall especially for neighboring stations not more than 28 km. The results showed also the MuDRain model did not reproduce statistics very well. In addition, a bad reproduction of the actual hyetographs comparing to the synthetic hourly rainfall data. Mean while, it is showed a good fit between the distribution function of the historical and synthetic hourly rainfall. These discrepancies are unavoidable because of the lowest cross correlation of hourly rainfall. The overall performance indicated that the MuDRain model would not be appropriate choice for disaggregation daily rainfall.

Keywords: rainfall disaggregation, multivariate disaggregation rainfall model, correlation, stochastic model

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15099 BTG-BIBA: A Flexibility-Enhanced Biba Model Using BTG Strategies for Operating System

Authors: Gang Liu, Can Wang, Runnan Zhang, Quan Wang, Huimin Song, Shaomin Ji


Biba model can protect information integrity but might deny various non-malicious access requests of the subjects, thereby decreasing the availability in the system. Therefore, a mechanism that allows exceptional access control is needed. Break the Glass (BTG) strategies refer an efficient means for extending the access rights of users in exceptional cases. These strategies help to prevent a system from stagnation. An approach is presented in this work for integrating Break the Glass strategies into the Biba model. This research proposes a model, BTG-Biba, which provides both an original Biba model used in normal situations and a mechanism used in emergency situations. The proposed model is context aware, can implement a fine-grained type of access control and primarily solves cross-domain access problems. Finally, the flexibility and availability improvement with the use of the proposed model is illustrated.

Keywords: Biba model, break the glass, context, cross-domain, fine-grained

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15098 Coefficient of Performance (COP) Optimization of an R134a Cross Vane Expander Compressor Refrigeration System

Authors: Y. D. Lim, K. S. Yap, K. T. Ooi


Cross Vane Expander Compressor (CVEC) is a newly invented expander-compressor combined unit, where it is introduced to replace the compressor and the expansion valve in traditional refrigeration system. The mathematical model of CVEC has been developed to examine its performance, and it was found that the energy consumption of a conventional refrigeration system was reduced by as much as 18%. It is believed that energy consumption can be further reduced by optimizing the device. In this study, the coefficient of performance (COP) of CVEC has been optimized under predetermined operational parameters and constrained main design parameters. Several main design parameters of CVEC were selected to be the variables, and the optimization was done with theoretical model in a simulation program. The theoretical model consists of geometrical model, dynamic model, heat transfer model and valve dynamics model. Complex optimization method, which is a constrained, direct search and multi-variables method was used in the study. As a result, the optimization study suggested that with an appropriate combination of design parameters, a 58% COP improvement in CVEC R134a refrigeration system is possible.

Keywords: COP, cross vane expander-compressor, CVEC, design, simulation, refrigeration system, air-conditioning, R134a, multi variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
15097 Model for Remanufacture of Medical Equipment in Cross Border Collaboration

Authors: Kingsley Oturu, Winifred Ijomah, Wale Coker, Chibueze Achi


With the impact of BREXIT and the need for cross-border collaboration, this international research investigated the use of a conceptual model for remanufacturing medical equipment (with a focus on anesthetic machines and baby incubators). Early findings of the research suggest that contextual factors need to be taken into consideration, as well as an emphasis on cleaning (e.g., sterilization) during the process of remanufacturing medical equipment. For example, copper tubings may be more important in the remanufacturing of anesthetic equipment in tropical climates than in cold climates.

Keywords: medical equipment remanufacture, sustainability, circular business models, remanufacture process model

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15096 Selection of Variogram Model for Environmental Variables

Authors: Sheikh Samsuzzhan Alam


The present study investigates the selection of variogram model in analyzing spatial variations of environmental variables with the trend. Sometimes, the autofitted theoretical variogram does not really capture the true nature of the empirical semivariogram. So proper exploration and analysis are needed to select the best variogram model. For this study, an open source data collected from California Soil Resource Lab1 is used to explain the problems when fitting a theoretical variogram. Five most commonly used variogram models: Linear, Gaussian, Exponential, Matern, and Spherical were fitted to the experimental semivariogram. Ordinary kriging methods were considered to evaluate the accuracy of the selected variograms through cross-validation. This study is beneficial for selecting an appropriate theoretical variogram model for environmental variables.

Keywords: anisotropy, cross-validation, environmental variables, kriging, variogram models

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15095 Analytical Approximations of the Differential Elastic Scattering Cross-Sections for Slow Electrons and Positrons Transport in Solids: A Comparative Study

Authors: A. Bentabet, A. Aydin, N. Fenineche


In this work, we try to determine the best analytical approximation of differential cross sections, used generally in Monte Carlo simulation, to study the electron/positron slowing down in solid targets in the energy range up to 10 keV. Actually, our comparative study was carried out on the angular distribution of the scattering angle, the elastic total and the first transport cross sections which are the essential quantities used generally in the electron/positron transport study by using both stochastic and deterministic methods. Indeed, the obtained results using the relativistic partial wave expansion method and the backscattering coefficient experimental data are used as criteria to evaluate the used model.

Keywords: differential cross-section, backscattering coefficient, Rutherford cross-section, Vicanek and Urbassek theory

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15094 Swelling Behavior of Cross-Linked Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

Authors: Salah Hamri, Tewfik Bouchaour, Ulrich Maschke


The aim of this works is the study of swelling ratio of cross-linked polymer networks poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). The system composed of erythrosine and Triethanolamine, in aqueous medium, is used as photo-initiator and 1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate as cross-linker. The analysis of UV-visible and infrared spectra, which were taken at different times during polymerization/cross linking, makes it possible to obtain useful information on the reaction mechanism. The swelling behavior was study by changing the nature of solvent, dye sensitizer (erythrosine, rose Bengal and eosin), and pH of the medium. The exploitation of experimental results using Fick diffusion model is also expected and shows a good correlation between theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: cross-linker, photo-sensitizer, polymer network, swelling ratio

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15093 Measuring Energy Efficiency Performance of Mena Countries

Authors: Azam Mohammadbagheri, Bahram Fathi


DEA has become a very popular method of performance measure, but it still suffers from some shortcomings. One of these shortcomings is the issue of having multiple optimal solutions to weights for efficient DMUs. The cross efficiency evaluation as an extension of DEA is proposed to avoid this problem. Lam (2010) is also proposed a mixed-integer linear programming formulation based on linear discriminate analysis and super efficiency method (MILP model) to avoid having multiple optimal solutions to weights. In this study, we modified MILP model to determine more suitable weight sets and also evaluate the energy efficiency of MENA countries as an application of the proposed model.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, discriminate analysis, cross efficiency, MILP model

Procedia PDF Downloads 582
15092 The Magnitude Scale Evaluation of Cross-Platform Internet Public Opinion

Authors: Yi Wang, Xun Liang


This paper introduces a model of internet public opinion waves, which describes the message propagation and measures the influence of a detected event. We collect data on public opinion propagation from different platforms on the internet, including micro-blogs and news. Then, we compare the spread of public opinion to the seismic waves and correspondently define the P-wave and S-wave and other essential attributes and characteristics in the process. Further, a model is established to evaluate the magnitude scale of the events. In the end, a practical example is used to analyze the influence of network public opinion and test the reasonability and effectiveness of the proposed model.

Keywords: internet public opinion waves (IPOW), magnitude scale, cross-platform, information propagation

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15091 Validation of Codes Dragon4 and Donjon4 by Calculating Keff of a Slowpoke-2 Reactor

Authors: Otman Jai, Otman Elhajjaji, Jaouad Tajmouati


Several neutronic calculation codes must be used to solve the equation for different levels of discretization which all necessitate a specific modelisation. This chain of such models, known as a calculation scheme, leads to the knowledge of the neutron flux in a reactor from its own geometry, its isotopic compositions and a cross-section library. Being small in size, the 'Slowpoke-2' reactor is difficult to model due to the importance of the leaking neutrons. In the paper, the simulation model is presented (geometry, cross section library, assumption, etc.), and the results obtained by DRAGON4/DONJON4 codes were compared to the calculations performed with Monte Carlo code MCNP using detailed geometrical model of the reactor and the experimental data. Criticality calculations have been performed to verify and validate the model. Since created model properly describes the reactor core, it can be used for calculations of reactor core parameters and for optimization of research reactor application.

Keywords: transport equation, Dragon4, Donjon4, neutron flux, effective multiplication factor

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15090 A Prediction Method for Large-Size Event Occurrences in the Sandpile Model

Authors: S. Channgam, A. Sae-Tang, T. Termsaithong


In this research, the occurrences of large size events in various system sizes of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model are considered. The system sizes (square lattice) of model considered here are 25×25, 50×50, 75×75 and 100×100. The cross-correlation between the ratio of sites containing 3 grain time series and the large size event time series for these 4 system sizes are also analyzed. Moreover, a prediction method of the large-size event for the 50×50 system size is also introduced. Lastly, it can be shown that this prediction method provides a slightly higher efficiency than random predictions.

Keywords: Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model, cross-correlation, avalanches, prediction method

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15089 Numerical Study on the Effects of Truncated Ribs on Film Cooling with Ribbed Cross-Flow Coolant Channel

Authors: Qijiao He, Lin Ye


To evaluate the effect of the ribs on internal structure in film hole and the film cooling performance on outer surface, the numerical study investigates on the effects of rib configuration on the film cooling performance with ribbed cross-flow coolant channel. The base smooth case and three ribbed cases, including the continuous rib case and two cross-truncated rib cases with different arrangement, are studied. The distributions of adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient are obtained under the blowing ratios with the value of 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. A commercial steady RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) code with realizable k-ε turbulence model and enhanced wall treatment were performed for numerical simulations. The numerical model is validated against available experimental data. The two cross-truncated rib cases produce approximately identical cooling effectiveness compared with the smooth case under lower blowing ratio. The continuous rib case significantly outperforms the other cases. With the increase of blowing ratio, the cases with ribs are inferior to the smooth case, especially in the upstream region. The cross-truncated rib I case produces the highest cooling effectiveness among the studied the ribbed channel case. It is found that film cooling effectiveness deteriorates with the increase of spiral intensity of the cross-flow inside the film hole. Lower spiral intensity leads to a better film coverage and thus results in better cooling effectiveness. The distinct relative merits among the cases at different blowing ratios are explored based on the aforementioned dominant mechanism. With regard to the heat transfer coefficient, the smooth case has higher heat transfer intensity than the ribbed cases under the studied blowing ratios. The laterally-averaged heat transfer coefficient of the cross-truncated rib I case is higher than the cross-truncated rib II case.

Keywords: cross-flow, cross-truncated rib, film cooling, numerical simulation

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15088 Systematic Study of Structure Property Relationship in Highly Crosslinked Elastomers

Authors: Natarajan Ramasamy, Gurulingamurthy Haralur, Ramesh Nivarthu, Nikhil Kumar Singha


Elastomers are polymeric materials with varied backbone architectures ranging from linear to dendrimeric structures and wide varieties of monomeric repeat units. These elastomers show strongly viscous and weakly elastic when it is not cross-linked. But when crosslinked, based on the extent the properties of these elastomers can range from highly flexible to highly stiff nature. Lightly cross-linked systems are well studied and reported. Understanding the nature of highly cross-linked rubber based upon chemical structure and architecture is critical for varieties of applications. One of the critical parameters is cross-link density. In the current work, we have studied the highly cross-linked state of linear, lightly branched to star-shaped branched elastomers and determined the cross-linked density by using different models. Change in hardness, shift in Tg, change in modulus and swelling behavior were measured experimentally as a function of the extent of curing. These properties were analyzed using varied models to determine cross-link density. We used hardness measurements to examine cure time. Hardness to the extent of curing relationship is determined. It is well known that micromechanical transitions like Tg and storage modulus are related to the extent of crosslinking. The Tg of the elastomer in different crosslinked state was determined by DMA, and based on plateau modulus the crosslink density is estimated by using Nielsen’s model. Usually for lightly crosslinked systems, based on equilibrium swelling ratio in solvent the cross link density is estimated by using Flory–Rhener model. When it comes to highly crosslinked system, Flory-Rhener model is not valid because of smaller chain length. So models based on the assumption of polymer as a Non-Gaussian chain like 1) Helmis–Heinrich–Straube (HHS) model, 2) Gloria M.gusler and Yoram Cohen Model, 3) Barbara D. Barr-Howell and Nikolaos A. Peppas model is used for estimating crosslink density. In this work, correction factors are determined to the existing models and based upon it structure-property relationship of highly crosslinked elastomers was studied.

Keywords: dynamic mechanical analysis, glass transition temperature, parts per hundred grams of rubber, crosslink density, number of networks per unit volume of elastomer

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15087 Analysis of Vertical Hall Effect Device Using Current-Mode

Authors: Kim Jin Sup


This paper presents a vertical hall effect device using current-mode. Among different geometries that have been studied and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics, optimized cross-shaped model displayed the best sensitivity. The cross-shaped model emerged as the optimum plate to fit the lowest noise and residual offset and the best sensitivity. The symmetrical cross-shaped hall plate is widely used because of its high sensitivity and immunity to alignment tolerances resulting from the fabrication process. The hall effect device has been designed using a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The simulation uses the nominal bias current of 12μA. The applied magnetic field is from 0 mT to 20 mT. Simulation results achieved in COMSOL and validated with respect to the electrical behavior of equivalent circuit for Cadence. Simulation results of the one structure over the 13 available samples shows for the best geometry a current-mode sensitivity of 6.6 %/T at 20mT. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. R7117-16-0165, Development of Hall Effect Semiconductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: vertical hall device, current-mode, crossed-shaped model, CMOS technology

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15086 Optimal Tetra-Allele Cross Designs Including Specific Combining Ability Effects

Authors: Mohd Harun, Cini Varghese, Eldho Varghese, Seema Jaggi


Hybridization crosses find a vital role in breeding experiments to evaluate the combining abilities of individual parental lines or crosses for creation of lines with desirable qualities. There are various ways of obtaining progenies and further studying the combining ability effects of the lines taken in a breeding programme. Some of the most common methods are diallel or two-way cross, triallel or three-way cross, tetra-allele or four-way cross. These techniques help the breeders to improve the quantitative traits which are of economical as well as nutritional importance in crops and animals. Amongst these methods, tetra-allele cross provides extra information in terms of the higher specific combining ability (sca) effects and the hybrids thus produced exhibit individual as well as population buffering mechanism because of the broad genetic base. Most of the common commercial hybrids in corn are either three-way or four-way cross hybrids. Tetra-allele cross came out as the most practical and acceptable scheme for the production of slaughter pigs having fast growth rate, good feed efficiency, and carcass quality. Tetra-allele crosses are mostly used for exploitation of heterosis in case of commercial silkworm production. Experimental designs involving tetra-allele crosses have been studied extensively in literature. Optimality of designs has also been considered as a researchable issue. In practical situations, it is advisable to include sca effects in the model as this information is needed by the breeder to improve economically and nutritionally important quantitative traits. Thus, a model that provides information regarding the specific traits by utilizing sca effects along with general combining ability (gca) effects may help the breeders to deal with the problem of various stresses. In this paper, a model for experimental designs involving tetra-allele crosses that incorporates both gca and sca has been defined. Optimality aspects of such designs have been discussed incorporating sca effects in the model. Orthogonality conditions have been derived for block designs ensuring estimation of contrasts among the gca effects, after eliminating the nuisance factors, independently from sca effects. User friendly SAS macro and web solution (webPTC) have been developed for the generation and analysis of such designs.

Keywords: general combining ability, optimality, specific combining ability, tetra-allele cross, webPTC

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15085 Qsar Studies of Certain Novel Heterocycles Derived From bis-1, 2, 4 Triazoles as Anti-Tumor Agents

Authors: Madhusudan Purohit, Stephen Philip, Bharathkumar Inturi


In this paper we report the quantitative structure activity relationship of novel bis-triazole derivatives for predicting the activity profile. The full model encompassed a dataset of 46 Bis- triazoles. Tripos Sybyl X 2.0 program was used to conduct CoMSIA QSAR modeling. The Partial Least-Squares (PLS) analysis method was used to conduct statistical analysis and to derive a QSAR model based on the field values of CoMSIA descriptor. The compounds were divided into test and training set. The compounds were evaluated by various CoMSIA parameters to predict the best QSAR model. An optimum numbers of components were first determined separately by cross-validation regression for CoMSIA model, which were then applied in the final analysis. A series of parameters were used for the study and the best fit model was obtained using donor, partition coefficient and steric parameters. The CoMSIA models demonstrated good statistical results with regression coefficient (r2) and the cross-validated coefficient (q2) of 0.575 and 0.830 respectively. The standard error for the predicted model was 0.16322. In the CoMSIA model, the steric descriptors make a marginally larger contribution than the electrostatic descriptors. The finding that the steric descriptor is the largest contributor for the CoMSIA QSAR models is consistent with the observation that more than half of the binding site area is occupied by steric regions.

Keywords: 3D QSAR, CoMSIA, triazoles, novel heterocycles

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15084 Scheduling of Cross-Docking Center: An Auction-Based Algorithm

Authors: Eldho Paul, Brijesh Paul


This work proposes an auction mechanism based solution methodology for the optimum scheduling of trucks in a cross-docking centre. The cross-docking centre is an important element of lean supply chain. It reduces the amount of storage and transportation costs in the distribution system compared to an ordinary warehouse. Better scheduling of trucks in a cross-docking center is the best way to reduce storage and transportation costs. Auction mechanism is commonly used for allocation of limited resources in different real-life applications. Here, we try to schedule inbound trucks by integrating auction mechanism with the functioning of a cross-docking centre. A mathematical model is developed for the optimal scheduling of inbound trucks based on the auction methodology. The determination of exact solution for problems involving large number of trucks was found to be computationally difficult, and hence a genetic algorithm based heuristic methodology is proposed in this work. A comparative study of exact and heuristic solutions is done using five classes of data sets. It is observed from the study that the auction-based mechanism is capable of providing good solutions to scheduling problem in cross-docking centres.

Keywords: auction mechanism, cross-docking centre, genetic algorithm, scheduling of trucks

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15083 Parental Negative Emotional States, Parenting Style and Child Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Australia-Indonesia Cross-Cultural Study

Authors: Yulina E. Riany, Divna Haslam, Matthew Sanders


This cross-cultural study aims to compare the level of parental depression and stress, parenting style use, and child emotional and behavioural problems between parents in Australia as an example of a Western country and parents in Indonesia as an example of Asian culture. A series of hierarchical regressions were undertaken to determine two models examining the factors that predict child problems residing in Australia (Model 1) and in Indonesia (Model 2). The online survey was completed by 179 parents in Australia and 448 parents in Indonesia. Results indicated that Australian parents reported higher levels of depression, authoritative parenting and higher levels of child misbehaviours compared to Indonesian parents. In comparison, Indonesian parents reported higher authoritarian parenting. Analyses performed to examine Model 1 and 2 revealed that parental negative emotional states and parenting style predicted child emotional and behavioural problems in both countries.

Keywords: cross-cutural study, parental stress, parenting, child misbehaviour

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15082 Nanofluid Flow Heat Transfer Through Ducts with Different Cross-Sections

Authors: Amir Dehshiri, Mohammad Reza Salimpour


In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. We check the effects of different parameters such as cross-sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enhancement than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: nanofluid, cross-sectional shape, TiO2, convection

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15081 Truck Scheduling Problem in a Cross-Dock Centre with Fixed Due Dates

Authors: Mohsen S. Sajadieha, Danyar Molavia


In this paper, a truck scheduling problem is investigated at a two-touch cross-docking center with due dates for outbound trucks as a hard constraint. The objective is to minimize the total cost comprising penalty and delivery cost of delayed shipments. The sequence of unloading shipments is considered and is assumed that shipments are sent to shipping dock doors immediately after unloading and a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) policy is considered for loading the shipments. A mixed integer programming model is developed for the proposed model. Two meta-heuristic algorithms including genetic algorithm (GA) and variable neighborhood search (VNS) are developed to solve the problem in medium and large sized scales. The numerical results show that increase in due dates for outbound trucks has a crucial impact on the reduction of penalty costs of delayed shipments. In addition, by increase the due dates, the improvement in the objective function arises on average in comparison with the situation that the cross-dock is multi-touch and shipments are sent to shipping dock doors only after unloading the whole inbound truck.

Keywords: cross-docking, truck scheduling, fixed due date, door assignment

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15080 Two-Photon-Exchange Effects in the Electromagnetic Production of Pions

Authors: Hui-Yun Cao, Hai-Qing Zhou


The high precision measurements and experiments play more and more important roles in particle physics and atomic physics. To analyse the precise experimental data sets, the corresponding precise and reliable theoretical calculations are necessary. Until now, the form factors of elemental constituents such as pion and proton are still attractive issues in current Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In this work, the two-photon-exchange (TPE) effects in ep→enπ⁺ at small -t are discussed within a hadronic model. Under the pion dominance approximation and the limit mₑ→0, the TPE contribution to the amplitude can be described by a scalar function. We calculate TPE contributions to the amplitude, and the unpolarized differential cross section with the only elastic intermediate state is considered. The results show that the TPE corrections to the unpolarized differential cross section are about from -4% to -20% at Q²=1-1.6 GeV². After considering the TPE corrections to the experimental data sets of unpolarized differential cross section, we analyze the TPE corrections to the separated cross sections σ(L,T,LT,TT). We find that the TPE corrections (at Q²=1-1.6 GeV²) to σL are about from -10% to -30%, to σT are about 20%, and to σ(LT,TT) are much larger. By these analyses, we conclude that the TPE contributions in ep→enπ⁺ at small -t are important to extract the separated cross sections σ(L,T,LT,TT) and the electromagnetic form factor of π⁺ in the experimental analysis.

Keywords: differential cross section, form factor, hadronic, two-photon

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15079 Evaluation Model in the Branch of Virtual Education of “Universidad Manuela Beltrán” Bogotá-Colombia

Authors: Javier López


This Paper presents the evaluation model designed for the virtual education branch of The “Universidad Manuela Beltrán, Bogotá-Colombia”. This was the result of a research, developed as a case study, which had three stages: Document review, observation, and a perception survey for teachers. In the present model, the evaluation is a cross-cutting issue to the educational process. Therefore, it consists in a group of actions and guidelines which lead to analyze the student’s learning process from the admission, during the academic training, and to the graduation. This model contributes to the evaluation components which might interest other educational institutions or might offer methodological guidance to consolidate an own model

Keywords: model, evaluation, virtual education, learning process

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15078 Application of Hydrologic Engineering Centers and River Analysis System Model for Hydrodynamic Analysis of Arial Khan River

Authors: Najeeb Hassan, Mahmudur Rahman


Arial Khan River is one of the main south-eastward outlets of the River Padma. This river maintains a meander channel through its course and is erosional in nature. The specific objective of the research is to study and evaluate the hydrological characteristics in the form of assessing changes of cross-sections, discharge, water level and velocity profile in different stations and to create a hydrodynamic model of the Arial Khan River. Necessary data have been collected from Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) and Center for Environment and Geographic Information Services (CEGIS). Satellite images have been observed from Google earth. In this study, hydrodynamic model of Arial Khan River has been developed using well known steady open channel flow code Hydrologic Engineering Centers and River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) using field surveyed geometric data. Cross-section properties at 22 locations of River Arial Khan for the years 2011, 2013 and 2015 were also analysed. 1-D HEC-RAS model has been developed using the cross sectional data of 2015 and appropriate boundary condition is being used to run the model. This Arial Khan River model is calibrated using the pick discharge of 2015. The applicable value of Mannings roughness coefficient (n) is adjusted through the process of calibration. The value of water level which ties with the observed data to an acceptable accuracy is taken as calibrated model. The 1-D HEC-RAS model then validated by using the pick discharges from 2009-2018. Variation in observed water level in the model and collected water level data is being compared to validate the model. It is observed that due to seasonal variation, discharge of the river changes rapidly and Mannings roughness coefficient (n) also changes due to the vegetation growth along the river banks. This river model may act as a tool to measure flood area in future. By considering the past pick flow discharge, it is strongly recommended to improve the carrying capacity of Arial Khan River to protect the surrounding areas from flash flood.


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15077 Community Based Heritage Tourism in the Old City of Nazareth

Authors: Alon Gelbman, Daniel Laven


The paper focuses on a case study of a small-scale heritage tourism venture that seeks to influence tourism development in Nazareth’s old city. This is an exploratory case study that uses qualitative research methods including extensive participant observation and in-depth interviews with the venture’s senior management group and selected employees. Study findings indicate a model of the relationship between community-based tourism development, heritage, and peace-building in a city that has experienced a wide range of cross-cultural conflicts. This model represents an alternative view to the notion that heritage serves to enhance differences and dissonance between different cultural groups. In contrast, findings from this study suggest that heritage in the form of tourism; can help create shared interests between different communities in settings characterized by cross-cultural conflict. This model represents an alternative view to the notion that heritage serves to enhance differences and dissonance between different cultural groups. In contrast, findings from this study suggest that heritage in the form of tourism; can help create shared interests between different communities in settings characterized by cross-cultural conflict.

Keywords: cultural heritage tourism, tourism and peace, community-based tourism, sustainable tourism, cross-cultural conflict, Nazareth historic city

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