Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1367

Search results for: costs

1337 Increasing the Capacity of Plant Bottlenecks by Using of Improving the Ratio of Mean Time between Failures to Mean Time to Repair

Authors: Jalal Soleimannejad, Mohammad Asadizeidabadi, Mahmoud Koorki, Mojtaba Azarpira

Abstract:

A significant percentage of production costs is the maintenance costs, and analysis of maintenance costs could to achieve greater productivity and competitiveness. With this is mind, the maintenance of machines and installations is considered as an essential part of organizational functions and applying effective strategies causes significant added value in manufacturing activities. Organizations are trying to achieve performance levels on a global scale with emphasis on creating competitive advantage by different methods consist of RCM (Reliability-Center-Maintenance), TPM (Total Productivity Maintenance) etc. In this study, increasing the capacity of Concentration Plant of Golgohar Iron Ore Mining & Industrial Company (GEG) was examined by using of reliability and maintainability analyses. The results of this research showed that instead of increasing the number of machines (in order to solve the bottleneck problems), the improving of reliability and maintainability would solve bottleneck problems in the best way. It should be mention that in the abovementioned study, the data set of Concentration Plant of GEG as a case study, was applied and analyzed.

Keywords: Reliability, Maintainability, maintenance costs, bottleneck, golgohar iron ore mining & industrial company

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1336 Algorithm for Recognizing Trees along Power Grid Using Multispectral Imagery

Authors: C. Hamamura, V. Gialluca

Abstract:

Much of the Eclectricity Distributors has about 70% of its electricity interruptions arising from cause "trees", alone or associated with wind and rain and with or without falling branch and / or trees. This contributes inexorably and significantly to outages, resulting in high costs as compensation in addition to the operation and maintenance costs. On the other hand, there is little data structure and solutions to better organize the trees pruning plan effectively, minimizing costs and environmentally friendly. This work describes the development of an algorithm to provide data of trees associated to power grid. The method is accomplished on several steps using satellite imagery and geographically vectorized grid. A sliding window like approach is performed to seek the area around the grid. The proposed method counted 764 trees on a patch of the grid, which was very close to the 738 trees counted manually. The trees data was used as a part of a larger project that implements a system to optimize tree pruning plan.

Keywords: Neural Network, image pattern recognition, trees pruning, trees recognition

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1335 The Effects of Logistical Centers Realization on Society and Economy

Authors: Juraj Camaj, Anna Dolinayová, Martin Loch

Abstract:

Presently it is necessary to ensure the sustainable development of passenger and freight transport. Increasing performance of road freight have been a negative impact to environment and society. It is therefore necessary to increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport, which is more environmentally friendly. The study describe the effectiveness of logistical centers realization for companies and society and research how the partial internalization of external costs reflected in the efficient use of these centers and increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport to road freight. In our research, we use the method of comparative analysis and market research to describe the advantages of logistic centers for their users as well as for society as a whole. Method normal costing is used for calculation infrastructure and total costs, method of conversion costing for determine the external costs. We modelling of total society costs for road freight transport and inter modal transport chain (we assumed that most of the traffic is carried by rail) with different loading schemes for condition in the Slovak Republic. Our research has shown that higher utilization of inter modal transport chain do good not only for society, but for companies providing freight services too. Increase in use of inter modal transport chain can bring many benefits to society that do not bring direct immediate financial return. They often bring the multiplier effects, such as greater use of environmentally friendly transport mode and reduce the total society costs.

Keywords: Society, Optimization, Ecological Efficiency, delivery time, economy effectiveness, logistical centers

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1334 Political Determinants of Sovereign Spread: The Great East-West Divide

Authors: Maruska Vizek, Josip Glaurdic, Marina Tkalec, Goran Vuksic

Abstract:

We empirically explore whether and how taxation affects bilateral real exchange rates in the euro area – relative unit labor costs and relative consumer price indices. We find that employers’ social security contributions and the value added tax changes have the expected effects put forward in the fiscal devaluation literature and simulations. Increases in employers’ contributions appreciate the relative unit labor costs in the short- and the long-run, while value added tax hike appreciates the relative consumer prices. Somewhat surprisingly, for personal income tax increases, we find a short-run depreciating impact on the relative unit labor costs, while increases in employees’ contributions depreciate both measures of real exchange rates in the short-run.

Keywords: developing countries, European Union, sovereign bonds, political determinants

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1333 An Optimal Algorithm for Finding (R, Q) Policy in a Price-Dependent Order Quantity Inventory System with Soft Budget Constraint

Authors: S. Hamid Mirmohammadi, Shahrazad Tamjidzad

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the single-item continuous review inventory system in which demand is stochastic and discrete. The budget consumed for purchasing the ordered items is not restricted but it incurs extra cost when exceeding specific value. The unit purchasing price depends on the quantity ordered under the all-units discounts cost structure. In many actual systems, the budget as a resource which is occupied by the purchased items is limited and the system is able to confront the resource shortage by charging more costs. Thus, considering the resource shortage costs as a part of system costs, especially when the amount of resource occupied by the purchased item is influenced by quantity discounts, is well motivated by practical concerns. In this paper, an optimization problem is formulated for finding the optimal (R, Q) policy, when the system is influenced by the budget limitation and a discount pricing simultaneously. Properties of the cost function are investigated and then an algorithm based on a one-dimensional search procedure is proposed for finding an optimal (R, Q) policy which minimizes the expected system costs .

Keywords: Q) policy, stochastic demand, backorders, limited resource, quantity discounts

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1332 Faults in the Projects, Deviation in the Cost

Authors: S. Ahmed, P. Dlask, B. Hasan

Abstract:

There are several ways to estimate the cost of the construction project: simple and detailed. The process of estimating cost is usually done during the design stage, which should take long-time and the designer must give attention to all details. This paper explain the causes of the deviations occurring in the cost of the construction project, and determines the reasons of these differences between contractual cost and final cost of the construction project, through the study of literature review related to this field, and benefiting from the experience of workers in the field of building (owners, contractors) through designing a questionnaire, and finding the most ten important reasons and explain the relation between the contractual cost and the final cost according to these reasons. The difference between those values will be showed through diagrams drawn using the statistical program. In addition to studying the effects of overrun costs on the advancing of the project, and identify the most five important effects. According to the results, we can propose the right direction for the final cost evaluation and propose some measures that would help to control and adjust the deviation in the costs.

Keywords: Building, Cost, Construction Projects, delay, estimating costs, overrun

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
1331 Real-World Economic Burden of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nigeria

Authors: F. Fatoye, C. E. Mbada, T. Gebrye, A. O. Ogunsola, C. Fatoye, O. Oyewole

Abstract:

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) such as low back pain (LBP), cervical spondylosis (CSPD), sprain, osteoarthritis (OA), and post immobilization stiffness (PIS) have a major impact on individuals, health systems and society in terms of morbidity, long-term disability, and economics. This study estimated the direct and indirect costs of common MSDs in Osun State, Nigeria. A review of medical charts for adult patients attending Physiotherapy Outpatient Clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Osun State, Nigeria between 2009 and 2018 was carried out. The occupational class of the patients was determined using the International Labour Classification (ILO). The direct and indirect costs were estimated using a cost-of-illness approach. Physiotherapy related health resource use, and costs of the common MSDs, including consultation fee, total fee charge per session, costs of consumables were estimated. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics mean and standard deviation (SD). Overall, 1582 (Male = 47.5%, Female = 52.5%) patients with MSDs population with a mean age of 47.8 ± 25.7 years participated in this study. The mean (SD) direct costs estimate for LBP, CSPD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other conditions were $18.35 ($17.33), $34.76 ($17.33), $32.13 ($28.37), $35.14 ($44.16), $37.19 ($41.68), and $15.74 ($13.96), respectively. The mean (SD) indirect costs estimate of LBP, CSPD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other MSD conditions were $73.42 ($43.54), $140.57 ($69.31), $128.52 ($113.46), sprain $140.57 ($69.31), $148.77 ($166.71), and $62.98 ($55.84), respectively. Musculoskeletal disorders contribute a substantial economic burden to individuals with the condition and society. The unacceptable economic loss of MSDs should be reduced using appropriate strategies. Further research is required to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of strategies to improve health outcomes of patients with MSDs. The findings of the present study may assist health policy and decision makers to understand the economic burden of MSDs and facilitate efficient allocation of healthcare resources to alleviate the burden associated with these conditions in Nigeria.

Keywords: low back pain, Musculoskeletal Disorders, economic burden, real-world

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1330 The Effects of Cost-Sharing Contracts on the Costs and Operations of E-Commerce Supply Chains

Authors: Sahani Rathnasiri, Pritee Ray, Sardar M. N. Isalm, Carlos A. Vega-Mejia

Abstract:

This study develops a cooperative game theory-based cost-sharing contract model for a business to consumer (B2C) e-commerce supply chain to minimize the overall supply chain costs and the individual costs within an information asymmetry scenario. The objective of this study is to address the issues of strategic interactions among the key players of the e-commerce supply chain operation, which impedes the optimal operational outcomes. Game theory has been included in the field of supply chain management to resolve strategic decision-making issues; however, most of the studies are limited only to two-echelons of the supply chains. Multi-echelon supply chain optimizations based on game-theoretic models are less explored in the previous literature. This study adopts a cooperative game model to focus on the common payoff of operations and addresses the issues of information asymmetry and coordination of a three-echelon e-commerce supply chain. The cost-sharing contract model integrates operational features such as production, inventory management and distribution with the contract related constraints. The outcomes of the model highlight the importance of maintaining lower operational costs by all players to obtain benefits from the cost-sharing contract. Further, the cost-sharing contract ensures true cost revelation, and hence eliminates the information asymmetry issues among the players. Comparing the results of the contract model with the de-centralized e-commerce supply chain operation further emphasizes that the cost-sharing contract derives Pareto-improved outcomes and minimizes the costs of overall e-commerce supply chain operation.

Keywords: Cooperative game theory, information asymmetry, cost-sharing contract, e-commerce supply chain

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1329 Project Controlling of Construction Sites by Unmanned Aerial Systems and Photogrammetry

Authors: Tino Walther, Christian Wolf, Hans-Joachim Bargstaedt

Abstract:

Continuous project control is crucial for the benefit of smooth progress in construction projects. It implies the comparison of the target model with the actual situation of the building site when done on the basis of digital design. Due to the continuous development of the unmanned aerial systems (UAS) technology and its decreasing costs, this technology offers itself to be implemented as a controlling system with UAS-mounted photogrammetry. The aim of this work is to gain a comprehensive insight into project controlling via UAS photogrammetry and to give an example of implementation by a real case project. This serves to examine a real construction project in regard to the controlling at predefined periods and according to its costs and benefits. With the help of continuous imaging of construction progress, as well as the boundary conditions of the construction process, an exact controlling of as-built data is carried out, which lead to the potential that the parties involved in the construction can react to possible shifts in execution on short term and short notice. The generated as-planned simulation model can also be used to identify possible structural deviations. By enlarging this BIM model to 5D, the costs are also monitored during the construction phase. A photogrammetric construction project controlling process can be modeled using UAS. Especially the fast implementation of UAS-devices for photogrammetry on the construction site and the relatively low costs prove to be great advantages. Thus an automated and practical project controlling will be developed. This implementation proves that a photogrammetric UAS controlling for construction projects is feasible.

Keywords: Decision Support Systems, Photogrammetry, bim, UAS, construction progress

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1328 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Use of COBLATION™ Knee Chondroplasty versus Mechanical Debridement in German Patients

Authors: Ayoade Adeyemi, Leo Nherera, Paul Trueman, Antje Emmermann

Abstract:

Background and objectives: Radiofrequency (RF) generated plasma chondroplasty is considered a promising treatment alternative to mechanical debridement (MD) with a shaver. The aim of the study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing costs and outcomes following COBLATION chondroplasty versus mechanical debridement in patients with knee pain associated with a medial meniscus tear and idiopathic ICRS grade III focal lesion of the medial femoral condyle from a payer perspective. Methods: A decision-analytic model was developed comparing economic and clinical outcomes between the two treatment options in German patients following knee chondroplasty. Revision rates based on the frequency of repeat arthroscopy, osteotomy and conversion to total knee replacement, reimbursement costs and outcomes data over a 4-year time horizon were extracted from published literature. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainties around model parameters. Threshold analysis determined the revision rate at which model results change. All costs were reported in 2016 euros, future costs were discounted at a 3% annual rate. Results: Over a 4 year period, COBLATION chondroplasty resulted in an overall net saving cost of €461 due to a lower revision rate of 14% compared to 48% with MD. Threshold analysis showed that both options were associated with comparable costs if COBLATION revision rate was assumed to increase up to 23%. The initial procedure costs for COBLATION were higher compared to MD and outcome scores were significantly improved at 1 and 4 years post-operation versus MD. Conclusion: The analysis shows that COBLATION chondroplasty is a cost-effective option compared to mechanical debridement in the treatment of patients with a medial meniscus tear and idiopathic ICRS grade III defect of the medial femoral condyle.

Keywords: Cost-Effectiveness, COBLATION, knee chondroplasty, mechanical debridement

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1327 Inventory Management to Minimize Storage Costs and Improve Delivery Time in a Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Israel Becerril Rosales, Manuel González De La Rosa, Gerardo Villa Sánchez

Abstract:

In this work, the effects that produce not having a good inventory management is analyzed, in addition of the way that how it affects the storage costs. The research began conducting the historical analysis about stored products, its storage capacity, and distribution. The results were not optimal, since in all its raw materials (RM) have overstocking, the warehouse capacity is only used by 61%, does not have a specific place for each of its RM, causing that the delivery times increases and makes difficult a cyclical inventory. These shortcomings allowed to view and select as design alternatives the inventory ABC, so that depending on the consumption of each RM would be redistributed by using economic amount requested. Also, the Delphi method to ensure the practical applicability of the proposed tool was used, taking in account comments and suggestions of the involved experts, as well as the compliance of NOM-059-SSA1-2015 good manufacturing practices of drug. With the actions implemented, the utilization rate drops of 61% to 32% capacity, it shows that the warehouse was not designed properly due to there is not an industrial engineering area.

Keywords: Inventory Management, lead time, improve delivery, storage costs

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1326 Clarification of the Essential of Life Cycle Cost upon Decision-Making Process: An Empirical Study in Building Projects

Authors: Ayedh Alqahtani, Andrew Whyte

Abstract:

Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is one of the goals and key pillars of the construction management science because it comprises many of the functions and processes necessary, which assist organisations and agencies to achieve their goals. It has therefore become important to design and control assets during their whole life cycle, from the design and planning phase through to disposal phase. LCCA is aimed to improve the decision making system in the ownership of assets by taking into account all the cost elements including to the asset throughout its life. Current application of LCC approach is impractical during misunderstanding of the advantages of LCC. This main objective of this research is to show a different relationship between capital cost and long-term running costs. One hundred and thirty eight actual building projects in United Kingdom (UK) were used in order to achieve and measure the above-mentioned objective of the study. The result shown that LCC is one of the most significant tools should be considered on the decision making process.

Keywords: building projects, capital cost, life cycle cost, maintenance costs, operation costs

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1325 Influence of Transportation Mode to the Deterioration Rate: Case Study of Food Transport by Ship

Authors: Danijela Tuljak-Suban, Valter Suban

Abstract:

Food as perishable goods represents a specific and sensitive part in the supply chain theory, since changing of its physical or chemical characteristics considerably influences the approach to stock management. The most delicate phase of this process is transportation, where it becomes difficult to ensure stability conditions that limit the deterioration, since the value of the deterioration rate could be easily influenced by the transportation mode. Fuzzy definition of variables allows taking into account these variations. Furthermore an appropriate choice of the defuzzification method permits to adapt results, as much as possible, to real conditions. In the article will be applied the those methods to the relationship between the deterioration rate of perishable goods and transportation by ship, with the aim: (a) to minimize the total costs function, defined as the sum of the ordering cost, holding cost, disposing cost and transportation costs, and (b) to improve supply chain sustainability by reducing the environmental impact and waste disposal costs.

Keywords: perishable goods, fuzzy reasoning, transport by ship, supply chain sustainability

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1324 Correlation between Nutritional Status and Length of Stay and Hospital Costs in Critical Care and IPD Patients of Somdech Phra Debaratana Medical Center (SDMC), Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital

Authors: Nuttapimon Bhirommuang, Kulapong Jayanama

Abstract:

Background: Prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized patient is higher than general population. As a result of the unawareness of consequence and the more concerning in the other aspects of care, many patients with high risk of malnutrition are unrecognized. Even if malnutrition has been identified as affecting in many patient outcomes, the impact may differ in each population and group of patients. Objectives: The aims of this study were to examine the association between the nutritional status and the length of stay and hospital costs in hospitalized patients, to investigate the factors related these outcomes and to determine the frequency of malnutrition in hospitals. Method: This retrospective cohort study enrolled all patients aged 15 years old or older and admitted in SDMC, Ramathibodi Hospital between 1st January 2016 and 30th September 2016. The nutritional status assessment by Nutrition Alert Form (NAF) was performed by well-trained nurses in all patients at admission. Baseline characteristics were recorded. Length of stay and hospital costs were collected during their hospitalization. Univariate analysis, nonparametric rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare means in the case of nonnormally and noncontinuously distributed data. Chi-square used to analyze categorical variables, the nutritional status and the length of stay and hospital costs and identify possible confounding factors (data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0). Result: Of the 2,906 patients, 3.9% were severe malnutrition (NAF-C score > 10) and 11.4% were moderate malnutrition (NAF-B score 6 - 10). Both length of stay and hospital costs were found significantly higher in more severe malnutrition group (p < 0.001), NAF = A: 3.21 days, 95% CI 3.06-3.35 and 111,544.25 THB, 95% CI 106,994.41 – 116,094.1; NAF = B: 7.54 days, 95% CI 6.32 – 8.76 and 162,302.4 THB, 95% CI 129,557.88 – 195,046.92; NAF =C: 14.77 days, 95% CI 11.34 – 18.2 and 323,572.11 THB, 95% CI 226,958.1 – 420,096.13 (1 THB = 0.03019 USD). Age of each nutritional status group had also significant increase from NAF A to NAF C (p < 0.001): 55.07, 67.03 and 73.88 years old, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of malnutrition in Ramathibodi hospital is voluminous. Severe malnutrition screening by NAF is significantly correlated with worse clinical outcome, especially higher length of stay and hospital costs. Elderly is also a significant factor which correlates with malnutrition. The results of this study could change the awareness of health personnel and the practice protocol. Moreover, the further study concerning nutritional support in high-risk group of malnutrition is ongoing to confirm this hypothesis.

Keywords: Malnutrition, NaF, length of stay, hospital costs

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1323 Impact of Electric Vehicles on Energy Consumption and Environment

Authors: Amela Ajanovic, Reinhard Haas

Abstract:

Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered as an important means to cope with current environmental problems in transport. However, their high capital costs and limited driving ranges state major barriers to a broader market penetration. The core objective of this paper is to investigate the future market prospects of various types of EVs from an economic and ecological point of view. Our method of approach is based on the calculation of total cost of ownership of EVs in comparison to conventional cars and a life-cycle approach to assess the environmental benignity. The most crucial parameters in this context are km driven per year, depreciation time of the car and interest rate. The analysis of future prospects it is based on technological learning regarding investment costs of batteries. The major results are the major disadvantages of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are the high capital costs, mainly due to the battery, and a low driving range in comparison to conventional vehicles. These problems could be reduced with plug-in hybrids (PHEV) and range extenders (REXs). However, these technologies have lower CO₂ emissions in the whole energy supply chain than conventional vehicles, but unlike BEV they are not zero-emission vehicles at the point of use. The number of km driven has a higher impact on total mobility costs than the learning rate. Hence, the use of EVs as taxis and in car-sharing leads to the best economic performance. The most popular EVs are currently full hybrid EVs. They have only slightly higher costs and similar operating ranges as conventional vehicles. But since they are dependent on fossil fuels, they can only be seen as energy efficiency measure. However, they can serve as a bridging technology, as long as BEVs and fuel cell vehicle do not gain high popularity, and together with PHEVs and REX contribute to faster technological learning and reduction in battery costs. Regarding the promotion of EVs, the best results could be reached with a combination of monetary and non-monetary incentives, as in Norway for example. The major conclusion is that to harvest the full environmental benefits of EVs a very important aspect is the introduction of CO₂-based fuel taxes. This should ensure that the electricity for EVs is generated from renewable energy sources; otherwise, total CO₂ emissions are likely higher than those of conventional cars.

Keywords: Mobility, Sustainability, Policy, costs

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1322 Recent Developments and Expectations in the Legal Expenses Insurance in Turkey

Authors: Ibrahim Arslan, Mucahit Unal

Abstract:

An important issue to ensure justice is to simplify the right to seek justice. But there is a cost of seeking justice in civil law. It costs at least, attorneys' fees and judicial expenses during the beginning and in case of losing a trial. Indeed, most of the people refrain from seeking justice because of these expenses. Therefore, it is not inappropriate to say that the removal of obstacles staying on the way of seeking justice will increase the belief in justice. Legal expenses insurance is a private law contract of insurance in which the insurer is obliged to pay premiums of the insured, to provide the necessary services for the protection of legal interests of the insured person within the agreed scope. This type of insurance is being practiced in the Western world for a long time. The special rights, duties and obligations of the parties to a legal expenses insurance contract shall be governed by the Turkish Commercial Code (TCC) and the contractual agreements which are regularly closed in the form of general terms and conditions. If the number of the legal expenses insurance contracts concluded increase this will definitely improve the percentage of seeking justice before the courts. The general terms and conditions applicable in Turkey generally include litigation costs, referee fees, guarantee fund , enforcement costs , appeal costs borne decision corrections costs. In addition, besides the insured, other family members or the people specified in the policy are protected in the scope of personal/family legal expenses insurance. The commercial law disputes fall outside the scope of coverage in this insurance branch. The insured person chooses his own lawyer and the insurer is not allowed to give advice during the selection of a lawyer. In April 2015, the Prime Minister announced of a new era in the field of legal expenses insurance in Turkey and this announcement excited the insurance industry and legal community.

Keywords: Insurance, Legal Protection, in the Turkish law on legal protection insurance, legal protection insurance

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1321 A Paradigm Shift in the Cost of Illness of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus over a Decade in South India: A Prevalence Based Study

Authors: Usha S. Adiga, Sachidanada Adiga

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most common non-communicable diseases which imposes a large economic burden on the global health-care system. Cost of illness studies in India have assessed the health care cost of DM, but have certain limitations due to lack of standardization of the methods used, improper documentation of data, lack of follow up, etc. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost of illness of uncomplicated versus complicated type 2 diabetes mellitus in Coastal Karnataka, India. The study also aimed to find out the trend of cost of illness of the disease over a decade. Methodology: A prevalence based bottom-up approach study was carried out in two tertiary care hospitals located in Coastal Karnataka after ethical approval. Direct Medical costs like annual laboratory costs, pharmacy cost, consultation charges, hospital bed charges, surgical /intervention costs of 238 diabetics and 340 diabetic patients respectively from two hospitals were obtained from the medical record sections. Patients were divided into six groups, uncomplicated diabetes, diabetic retinopathy(DR), nephropathy(DN), neuropathy(DNeu), diabetic foot(DF), and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Different costs incurred in 2008 and 2017 in these groups were compared, to study the trend of cost of illness. Kruskal Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test were used to compare median costs between the groups and Spearman's correlation test was used for correlation studies. Results: Uncomplicated patients had significantly lower costs (p <0.0001) compared to other groups. Patients with IHD had highest Medical expenses (p < 0.0001), followed by DN and DF (p < 0.0001 ). Annual medical costs incurred were 1.8, 2.76, 2.77, 1.76, and 4.34 times higher in retinopathy, nephropathy, diabetic foot, neuropathy and IHD patients as compared to the cost incurred in managing uncomplicated diabetics. Other costs also showed a similar pattern of rising. A positive correlation was observed between the costs incurred and duration of diabetes, a negative correlation between the glycemic status and cost incurred. The cost incurred in the management of DM in 2017 was found to be elevated 1.4 - 2.7 times when compared to that in 2008. Conclusion: It is evident from the study that the economic burden due to diabetes mellitus is substantial. It poses a significant financial burden on the healthcare system, individual and society as a whole. There is a need for the strategies to achieve optimal glycemic control and operationalize regular and early screening methods for complications so as to reduce the burden of the disease.

Keywords: Economics, diabetes mellitus, COI, a bottom up approach

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1320 Neurophysiology of Domain Specific Execution Costs of Grasping in Working Memory Phases

Authors: Rumeysa Gunduz, Dirk Koester, Thomas Schack

Abstract:

Previous behavioral studies have shown that working memory (WM) and manual actions share limited capacity cognitive resources, which in turn results in execution costs of manual actions in WM. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study investigating the neurophysiology of execution costs. The current study aims to fill this research gap investigating the neurophysiology of execution costs of grasping in WM phases (encoding, maintenance, retrieval) considering verbal and visuospatial domains of WM. A WM-grasping dual task paradigm was implemented to examine execution costs. Baseline single task required performing verbal or visuospatial version of a WM task. Dual task required performing the WM task embedded in a high precision grasp to place task. 30 participants were tested in a 2 (single vs. dual task) x 2 (visuo-spatial vs. verbal WM) within subject design. Event related potentials (ERPs) were extracted for each WM phase separately in the single and dual tasks. Memory performance for visuospatial WM, but not for verbal WM, was significantly lower in the dual task compared to the single task. Encoding related ERPs in the single task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral anterior sites and right posterior site. In the dual task, bilateral anterior difference disappeared due to bilaterally increased anterior negativities for visuospatial WM. Maintenance related ERPs in the dual task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral posterior sites. There was also anterior negativity for visuospatial WM. Retrieval related ERPs in the single task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral posterior sites. In the dual task, there was no difference between verbal WM and visuospatial WM. Behavioral and ERP findings suggest that execution of grasping shares cognitive resources only with visuospatial WM, which in turn results in domain specific execution costs. Moreover, ERP findings suggest unique patterns of costs in each WM phase, which supports the idea that each WM phase reflects a separate cognitive process. This study not only contributes to the understanding of cognitive principles of manual action control, but also contributes to the understanding of WM as an entity consisting of separate modalities and cognitive processes.

Keywords: Neurophysiology, dual task, grasping execution, working memory domains, working memory phases

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1319 Reducing Change-Related Costs in Assembly of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Cars by Mechanical Decoupling

Authors: Mathias Ordung, Achim Kampker, Heiner Hans Heimes, Nemanja Sarovic

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A key component of the drive train of electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery system. Among various other components, such as the battery management system or the thermal management system, the battery system mostly consists of several cells which are integrated mechanically as well as electrically. Due to different vehicle concepts with regards to space, energy and power specifications, there is a variety of different battery systems. The corresponding assembly lines are specially designed for each battery concept. Minor changes to certain characteristics of the battery have a disproportionally high effect on the set-up effort in the form of high change-related costs. This paper will focus on battery systems which are made out of battery cells with a prismatic format. The product architecture and the assembly process will be analyzed in detail based on battery concepts of existing electric cars and key variety-causing drivers will be identified. On this basis, several measures will be presented and discussed on how to change the product architecture and the assembly process in order to reduce change-related costs.

Keywords: Automotive industry, assembly, battery system, battery concept

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1318 Modeling and Optimization of Micro-Grid Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mehrdad Rezaei, Reza Haghmaram, Nima Amjadi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an operating and cost optimization model for micro-grid (MG). This model takes into account emission costs of NOx, SO2, and CO2, together with the operation and maintenance costs. Wind turbines (WT), photovoltaic (PV) arrays, micro turbines (MT), fuel cells (FC), diesel engine generators (DEG) with different capacities are considered in this model. The aim of the optimization is minimizing operation cost according to constraints, supply demand and safety of the system. The proposed genetic algorithm (GA), with the ability to fine-tune its own settings, is used to optimize the micro-grid operation.

Keywords: Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Micro-Grid

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1317 Transaction Costs in Institutional Environment and Entry Mode Choice

Authors: K. D. Mroczek

Abstract:

In the study presented institutional context is discussed in terms of companies’ entry mode choice. In contrary to many previous analyses, instead of using one or two aggregated variables, a set of eleven determinants is used to establish equity and non-equity internationalization friendly conditions. Based on secondary data, 140 countries are analysed and grouped into clusters revealing similar framework. The range of the economies explored is wide as it covers all regions distinguished by The World Bank. The results can prove a useful alternative for operationalization of institutional variables in further research concerning entry modes or strategic management in international markets.

Keywords: Clustering, entry mode choice, institutional environment, transaction costs

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1316 Optimization of the Feedstock Supply of an Oilseeds Conversion Unit for Biofuel Production in West Africa: A Comparative Study of the Supply of Jatropha curcas and Balanites aegyptiaca Seeds

Authors: Linda D. F. Bambara, Marie Sawadogo

Abstract:

Jatropha curcas (jatropha) is the plant that has been the most studied for biofuel production in West Africa. There exist however other plants such as Balanites aegyptiaca (balanites) that have been targeted as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. This biomass could be an alternative feedstock for the production of straight vegetable oil (SVO) at costs lower than jatropha-based SVO production costs. This study aims firstly to determine, through an MILP model, the optimal organization that minimizes the costs of the oilseeds supply of two biomass conversion units (BCU) exploiting respectively jatropha seeds and the balanitès seeds. Secondly, the study aims to carry out a comparative study of these costs obtained for each BCU. The model was then implemented on two theoretical cases studies built on the basis of the common practices in Burkina Faso and two scenarios were carried out for each case study. In Scenario 1, 3 pre-processing locations ("at the harvesting area", "at the gathering points", "at the BCU") are possible. In scenario 2, only one location ("at the BCU") is possible. For each biomass, the system studied is the upstream supply chain (harvesting, transport and pre-processing (drying, dehulling, depulping)), including cultivation (for jatropha). The model optimizes the area of land to be exploited based on the productivity of the studied plants and material losses that may occur during the harvesting and the supply of the BCU. It then defines the configuration of the logistics network allowing an optimal supply of the BCU taking into account the most common means of transport in West African rural areas. For the two scenarios, the results of the implementation showed that the total area exploited for balanites (1807 ha) is 4.7 times greater than the total area exploited for Jatropha (381 ha). In both case studies, the location of pre-processing “at the harvesting area” was always chosen for scenario1. As the balanites trees were not planted and because the first harvest of the jatropha seeds took place 4 years after planting, the cost price of the seeds at the BCU without the pre-processing costs was about 430 XOF/kg. This cost is 3 times higher than the balanites's one, which is 140 XOF/kg. After the first year of harvest, i.e. 5 years after planting, and assuming that the yield remains constant, the same cost price is about 200 XOF/kg for Jatropha. This cost is still 1.4 times greater than the balanites's one. The transport cost of the balanites seeds is about 120 XOF/kg. This cost is similar for the jatropha seeds. However, when the pre-processing is located at the BCU, i.e. for scenario2, the transport costs of the balanites seeds is 1200 XOF/kg. These costs are 6 times greater than the transport costs of jatropha which is 200 XOF/kg. These results show that the cost price of the balanites seeds at the BCU can be competitive compared to the jatropha's one if the pre-processing is located at the harvesting area.

Keywords: Optimization, biomass conversion, jatropha curcas, Balanites aegyptiaca, post-harvest operations

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1315 Use of Logistics for Demand Control in a Commercial Establishment in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

Authors: Carlos Fontanillas

Abstract:

Brazil is going through a real revolution in the logistics area. It is increasingly common to find articles and news in this context, as companies begin to become aware that a good management of the areas that make up the logistics can bring excellent results in reducing costs and increasing productivity. With this, companies are investing more emphasis on reduced spending on storage and transport of their products to ensure competitiveness. The scope of this work is the analysis of the logistics of a restaurant and materials will be presented the best way to serve the customer, avoiding the interruption of production due to lack of materials; for it will be analyzed the supply chain in terms of acquisition costs, maintenance and service demand.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Productivity, Logistic, ABC curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
1314 Data Analytics in Energy Management

Authors: Sanjivrao Katakam, Thanumoorthi I., Antony Gerald, Ratan Kulkarni, Shaju Nair

Abstract:

With increasing energy costs and its impact on the business, sustainability today has evolved from a social expectation to an economic imperative. Therefore, finding methods to reduce cost has become a critical directive for Industry leaders. Effective energy management is the only way to cut costs. However, Energy Management has been a challenge because it requires a change in old habits and legacy systems followed for decades. Today exorbitant levels of energy and operational data is being captured and stored by Industries, but they are unable to convert these structured and unstructured data sets into meaningful business intelligence. It must be noted that for quick decisions, organizations must learn to cope with large volumes of operational data in different formats. Energy analytics not only helps in extracting inferences from these data sets, but also is instrumental in transformation from old approaches of energy management to new. This in turn assists in effective decision making for implementation. It is the requirement of organizations to have an established corporate strategy for reducing operational costs through visibility and optimization of energy usage. Energy analytics play a key role in optimization of operations. The paper describes how today energy data analytics is extensively used in different scenarios like reducing operational costs, predicting energy demands, optimizing network efficiency, asset maintenance, improving customer insights and device data insights. The paper also highlights how analytics helps transform insights obtained from energy data into sustainable solutions. The paper utilizes data from an array of segments such as retail, transportation, and water sectors.

Keywords: Business Intelligence, Optimization, Energy Management, Energy Analytics, operational data

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1313 Efficient Design of Distribution Logistics by Using a Model-Based Decision Support System

Authors: J. Becker, R. Arnold

Abstract:

The design of distribution logistics has a decisive impact on a company's logistics costs and performance. Hence, such solutions make an essential contribution to corporate success. This article describes a decision support system for analyzing the potential of distribution logistics in terms of logistics costs and performance. In contrast to previous procedures of business process re-engineering (BPR), this method maps distribution logistics holistically under variable distribution structures. Combined with qualitative measures the decision support system will contribute to a more efficient design of distribution logistics.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Distribution Logistics, Decision Support System, potential analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1312 Application of Costing System in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) in Turkey

Authors: Hamide Özyürek, Metin Yılmaz

Abstract:

Standard processes, similar and limited production lines, the production of high direct costs will be more accurate than the use of parts of the traditional cost systems in the literature. However, direct costs, overhead expenses, in turn, decreases the burden of increasingly sophisticated production facilities, a situation that led the researchers to look for the cost of traditional systems of alternative techniques. Variety cost management approaches for example Total quality management (TQM), just-in-time (JIT), benchmarking, kaizen costing, targeting cost, life cycle costs (LLC), activity-based costing (ABC) value engineering have been introduced. Management and cost applications have changed over the past decade and will continue to change. Modern cost systems can provide relevant and accurate cost information. These methods provide the decisions about customer, product and process improvement. The aim of study is to describe and explain the adoption and application of costing systems in SME. This purpose reports on a survey conducted during 2014 small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in Ankara. The survey results were evaluated using SPSS package program.

Keywords: Managerial Accounting, Cost Accounting, modern costing systems, costing

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1311 Investigating the Road Maintenance Performance in Developing Countries

Authors: Jamaa Salih, Francis Edum-Fotwe, Andrew Price

Abstract:

One of the most critical aspects of the management of road infrastructure is the type and scale of maintenance systems adopted and the consequences of their inadequacy. The performance of road maintenance systems can be assessed by a number of important indicators such as: cost, safety, environmental impact, and level of complaints by users. A review of practice reveals that insufficient level of expenditure or poor management of the road network often has serious consequences for the economic and social life of a country in terms of vehicle operating costs (VOC), travel time costs, accident costs and environmental impact. Despite an increase in the attention paid by global road agencies to the environmental and the road users’ satisfaction, the overwhelming evidence from the available literature agree on the lack of similar levels of attention for the two factors in many developing countries. While many sources agree that the road maintenance backlog is caused by either the shortage of expenditures or lack of proper management or both, it appears that managing the available assets particularly in the developing countries is the main issue. To address this subject, this paper will concentrate on exposing the various issues related to this field.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Performance Indicators, road maintenance, users’ satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1310 A Multi Objective Reliable Location-Inventory Capacitated Disruption Facility Problem with Penalty Cost Solve with Efficient Meta Historic Algorithms

Authors: Elham Taghizadeh, Mostafa Abedzadeh, Mostafa Setak

Abstract:

Logistics network is expected that opened facilities work continuously for a long time horizon without any failure; but in real world problems, facilities may face disruptions. This paper studies a reliable joint inventory location problem to optimize cost of facility locations, customers’ assignment, and inventory management decisions when facilities face failure risks and doesn’t work. In our model we assume when a facility is out of work, its customers may be reassigned to other operational facilities otherwise they must endure high penalty costs associated with losing service. For defining the model closer to real world problems, the model is proposed based on p-median problem and the facilities are considered to have limited capacities. We define a new binary variable (Z_is) for showing that customers are not assigned to any facilities. Our problem involve a bi-objective model; the first one minimizes the sum of facility construction costs and expected inventory holding costs, the second one function that mention for the first one is minimizes maximum expected customer costs under normal and failure scenarios. For solving this model we use NSGAII and MOSS algorithms have been applied to find the pareto- archive solution. Also Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is applied for optimizing the NSGAII Algorithm Parameters. We compare performance of two algorithms with three metrics and the results show NSGAII is more suitable for our model.

Keywords: joint inventory-location problem, facility location, NSGAII, MOSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
1309 Scheduling in a Single-Stage, Multi-Item Compatible Process Using Multiple Arc Network Model

Authors: Bokkasam Sasidhar, Ibrahim Aljasser

Abstract:

The problem of finding optimal schedules for each equipment in a production process is considered, which consists of a single stage of manufacturing and which can handle different types of products, where changeover for handling one type of product to the other type incurs certain costs. The machine capacity is determined by the upper limit for the quantity that can be processed for each of the products in a set up. The changeover costs increase with the number of set ups and hence to minimize the costs associated with the product changeover, the planning should be such that similar types of products should be processed successively so that the total number of changeovers and in turn the associated set up costs are minimized. The problem of cost minimization is equivalent to the problem of minimizing the number of set ups or equivalently maximizing the capacity utilization in between every set up or maximizing the total capacity utilization. Further, the production is usually planned against customers’ orders, and generally different customers’ orders are assigned one of the two priorities – “normal” or “priority” order. The problem of production planning in such a situation can be formulated into a Multiple Arc Network (MAN) model and can be solved sequentially using the algorithm for maximizing flow along a MAN and the algorithm for maximizing flow along a MAN with priority arcs. The model aims to provide optimal production schedule with an objective of maximizing capacity utilization, so that the customer-wise delivery schedules are fulfilled, keeping in view the customer priorities. Algorithms have been presented for solving the MAN formulation of the production planning with customer priorities. The application of the model is demonstrated through numerical examples.

Keywords: Optimization, Scheduling, maximal flow problem, multiple arc network model

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
1308 Modal Approach for Decoupling Damage Cost Dependencies in Building Stories

Authors: Haj Najafi Leila, Tehranizadeh Mohsen

Abstract:

Dependencies between diverse factors involved in probabilistic seismic loss evaluation are recognized to be an imperative issue in acquiring accurate loss estimates. Dependencies among component damage costs could be taken into account considering two partial distinct states of independent or perfectly-dependent for component damage states; however, in our best knowledge, there is no available procedure to take account of loss dependencies in story level. This paper attempts to present a method called "modal cost superposition method" for decoupling story damage costs subjected to earthquake ground motions dealt with closed form differential equations between damage cost and engineering demand parameters which should be solved in complex system considering all stories' cost equations by the means of the introduced "substituted matrixes of mass and stiffness". Costs are treated as probabilistic variables with definite statistic factors of median and standard deviation amounts and a presumed probability distribution. To supplement the proposed procedure and also to display straightforwardness of its application, one benchmark study has been conducted. Acceptable compatibility has been proven for the estimated damage costs evaluated by the new proposed modal and also frequently used stochastic approaches for entire building; however, in story level, insufficiency of employing modification factor for incorporating occurrence probability dependencies between stories has been revealed due to discrepant amounts of dependency between damage costs of different stories. Also, more dependency contribution in occurrence probability of loss could be concluded regarding more compatibility of loss results in higher stories than the lower ones, whereas reduction in incorporation portion of cost modes provides acceptable level of accuracy and gets away from time consuming calculations including some limited number of cost modes in high mode situation.

Keywords: dependency, story-cost, cost modes, engineering demand parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 77