Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3768

Search results for: convolutional network

3768 Classification of Echo Signals Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Aisulu Tileukulova, Zhexebay Dauren


Radar plays an important role because it is widely used in civil and military fields. Target detection is one of the most important radar applications. The accuracy of detecting inconspicuous aerial objects in radar facilities is lower against the background of noise. Convolutional neural networks can be used to improve the recognition of this type of aerial object. The purpose of this work is to develop an algorithm for recognizing aerial objects using convolutional neural networks, as well as training a neural network. In this paper, the structure of a convolutional neural network (CNN) consists of different types of layers: 8 convolutional layers and 3 layers of a fully connected perceptron. ReLU is used as an activation function in convolutional layers, while the last layer uses softmax. It is necessary to form a data set for training a neural network in order to detect a target. We built a Confusion Matrix of the CNN model to measure the effectiveness of our model. The results showed that the accuracy when testing the model was 95.7%. Classification of echo signals using CNN shows high accuracy and significantly speeds up the process of predicting the target.

Keywords: radar, neural network, convolutional neural network, echo signals

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3767 Identification of Bayesian Network with Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Mohamed Raouf Benmakrelouf, Wafa Karouche, Joseph Rynkiewicz


In this paper, we propose an alternative method to construct a Bayesian Network (BN). This method relies on a convolutional neural network (CNN classifier), which determinates the edges of the network skeleton. We train a CNN on a normalized empirical probability density distribution (NEPDF) for predicting causal interactions and relationships. We have to find the optimal Bayesian network structure for causal inference. Indeed, we are undertaking a search for pair-wise causality, depending on considered causal assumptions. In order to avoid unreasonable causal structure, we consider a blacklist and a whitelist of causality senses. We tested the method on real data to assess the influence of education on the voting intention for the extreme right-wing party. We show that, with this method, we get a safer causal structure of variables (Bayesian Network) and make to identify a variable that satisfies the backdoor criterion.

Keywords: Bayesian network, structure learning, optimal search, convolutional neural network, causal inference

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3766 Aspect-Level Sentiment Analysis with Multi-Channel and Graph Convolutional Networks

Authors: Jiajun Wang, Xiaoge Li


The purpose of the aspect-level sentiment analysis task is to identify the sentiment polarity of aspects in a sentence. Currently, most methods mainly focus on using neural networks and attention mechanisms to model the relationship between aspects and context, but they ignore the dependence of words in different ranges in the sentence, resulting in deviation when assigning relationship weight to other words other than aspect words. To solve these problems, we propose a new aspect-level sentiment analysis model that combines a multi-channel convolutional network and graph convolutional network (GCN). Firstly, the context and the degree of association between words are characterized by Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and self-attention mechanism. Besides, a multi-channel convolutional network is used to extract the features of words in different ranges. Finally, a convolutional graph network is used to associate the node information of the dependency tree structure. We conduct experiments on four benchmark datasets. The experimental results are compared with those of other models, which shows that our model is better and more effective.

Keywords: aspect-level sentiment analysis, attention, multi-channel convolution network, graph convolution network, dependency tree

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3765 Multimodal Convolutional Neural Network for Musical Instrument Recognition

Authors: Yagya Raj Pandeya, Joonwhoan Lee


The dynamic behavior of music and video makes it difficult to evaluate musical instrument playing in a video by computer system. Any television or film video clip with music information are rich sources for analyzing musical instruments using modern machine learning technologies. In this research, we integrate the audio and video information sources using convolutional neural network (CNN) and pass network learned features through recurrent neural network (RNN) to preserve the dynamic behaviors of audio and video. We use different pre-trained CNN for music and video feature extraction and then fine tune each model. The music network use 2D convolutional network and video network use 3D convolution (C3D). Finally, we concatenate each music and video feature by preserving the time varying features. The long short term memory (LSTM) network is used for long-term dynamic feature characterization and then use late fusion with generalized mean. The proposed network performs better performance to recognize the musical instrument using audio-video multimodal neural network.

Keywords: multimodal, 3D convolution, music-video feature extraction, generalized mean

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3764 Detection of Keypoint in Press-Fit Curve Based on Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Shoujia Fang, Guoqing Ding, Xin Chen


The quality of press-fit assembly is closely related to reliability and safety of product. The paper proposed a keypoint detection method based on convolutional neural network to improve the accuracy of keypoint detection in press-fit curve. It would provide an auxiliary basis for judging quality of press-fit assembly. The press-fit curve is a curve of press-fit force and displacement. Both force data and distance data are time-series data. Therefore, one-dimensional convolutional neural network is used to process the press-fit curve. After the obtained press-fit data is filtered, the multi-layer one-dimensional convolutional neural network is used to perform the automatic learning of press-fit curve features, and then sent to the multi-layer perceptron to finally output keypoint of the curve. We used the data of press-fit assembly equipment in the actual production process to train CNN model, and we used different data from the same equipment to evaluate the performance of detection. Compared with the existing research result, the performance of detection was significantly improved. This method can provide a reliable basis for the judgment of press-fit quality.

Keywords: keypoint detection, curve feature, convolutional neural network, press-fit assembly

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3763 Makhraj Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Zan Azma Nasruddin, Irwan Mazlin, Nor Aziah Daud, Fauziah Redzuan, Fariza Hanis Abdul Razak


This paper focuses on a machine learning that learn the correct pronunciation of Makhraj Huroofs. Usually, people need to find an expert to pronounce the Huroof accurately. In this study, the researchers have developed a system that is able to learn the selected Huroofs which are ha, tsa, zho, and dza using the Convolutional Neural Network. The researchers present the chosen type of the CNN architecture to make the system that is able to learn the data (Huroofs) as quick as possible and produces high accuracy during the prediction. The researchers have experimented the system to measure the accuracy and the cross entropy in the training process.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, Makhraj recognition, speech recognition, signal processing, tensorflow

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3762 Slice Bispectrogram Analysis-Based Classification of Environmental Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Katsumi Hirata


Certain systems can function well only if they recognize the sound environment as humans do. In this research, we focus on sound classification by adopting a convolutional neural network and aim to develop a method that automatically classifies various environmental sounds. Although the neural network is a powerful technique, the performance depends on the type of input data. Therefore, we propose an approach via a slice bispectrogram, which is a third-order spectrogram and is a slice version of the amplitude for the short-time bispectrum. This paper explains the slice bispectrogram and discusses the effectiveness of the derived method by evaluating the experimental results using the ESC‑50 sound dataset. As a result, the proposed scheme gives high accuracy and stability. Furthermore, some relationship between the accuracy and non-Gaussianity of sound signals was confirmed.

Keywords: environmental sound, bispectrum, spectrogram, slice bispectrogram, convolutional neural network

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3761 Using Deep Learning Neural Networks and Candlestick Chart Representation to Predict Stock Market

Authors: Rosdyana Mangir Irawan Kusuma, Wei-Chun Kao, Ho-Thi Trang, Yu-Yen Ou, Kai-Lung Hua


Stock market prediction is still a challenging problem because there are many factors that affect the stock market price such as company news and performance, industry performance, investor sentiment, social media sentiment, and economic factors. This work explores the predictability in the stock market using deep convolutional network and candlestick charts. The outcome is utilized to design a decision support framework that can be used by traders to provide suggested indications of future stock price direction. We perform this work using various types of neural networks like convolutional neural network, residual network and visual geometry group network. From stock market historical data, we converted it to candlestick charts. Finally, these candlestick charts will be feed as input for training a convolutional neural network model. This convolutional neural network model will help us to analyze the patterns inside the candlestick chart and predict the future movements of the stock market. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated in stock market prediction with promising results; 92.2% and 92.1 % accuracy for Taiwan and Indonesian stock market dataset respectively.

Keywords: candlestick chart, deep learning, neural network, stock market prediction

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3760 Facial Emotion Recognition with Convolutional Neural Network Based Architecture

Authors: Koray U. Erbas


Neural networks are appealing for many applications since they are able to learn complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. As the number of neurons and layers in a neural network increase, it is possible to represent more complex relationships with automatically extracted features. Nowadays Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are widely used in Computer Vision problems such as; classification, object detection, segmentation image editing etc. In this work, Facial Emotion Recognition task is performed by proposed Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based DNN architecture using FER2013 Dataset. Moreover, the effects of different hyperparameters (activation function, kernel size, initializer, batch size and network size) are investigated and ablation study results for Pooling Layer, Dropout and Batch Normalization are presented.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, deep learning, deep learning based FER, facial emotion recognition

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3759 Integrating Knowledge Distillation of Multiple Strategies

Authors: Min Jindong, Wang Mingxia


With the widespread use of artificial intelligence in life, computer vision, especially deep convolutional neural network models, has developed rapidly. With the increase of the complexity of the real visual target detection task and the improvement of the recognition accuracy, the target detection network model is also very large. The huge deep neural network model is not conducive to deployment on edge devices with limited resources, and the timeliness of network model inference is poor. In this paper, knowledge distillation is used to compress the huge and complex deep neural network model, and the knowledge contained in the complex network model is comprehensively transferred to another lightweight network model. Different from traditional knowledge distillation methods, we propose a novel knowledge distillation that incorporates multi-faceted features, called M-KD. In this paper, when training and optimizing the deep neural network model for target detection, the knowledge of the soft target output of the teacher network in knowledge distillation, the relationship between the layers of the teacher network and the feature attention map of the hidden layer of the teacher network are transferred to the student network as all knowledge. in the model. At the same time, we also introduce an intermediate transition layer, that is, an intermediate guidance layer, between the teacher network and the student network to make up for the huge difference between the teacher network and the student network. Finally, this paper adds an exploration module to the traditional knowledge distillation teacher-student network model. The student network model not only inherits the knowledge of the teacher network but also explores some new knowledge and characteristics. Comprehensive experiments in this paper using different distillation parameter configurations across multiple datasets and convolutional neural network models demonstrate that our proposed new network model achieves substantial improvements in speed and accuracy performance.

Keywords: object detection, knowledge distillation, convolutional network, model compression

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3758 Optimizing the Capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Segmentation and Pattern Recognition

Authors: Yalong Jiang, Zheru Chi


In this paper, we study the factors which determine the capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model and propose the ways to evaluate and adjust the capacity of a CNN model for best matching to a specific pattern recognition task. Firstly, a scheme is proposed to adjust the number of independent functional units within a CNN model to make it be better fitted to a task. Secondly, the number of independent functional units in the capsule network is adjusted to fit it to the training dataset. Thirdly, a method based on Bayesian GAN is proposed to enrich the variances in the current dataset to increase its complexity. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC 2010 Person Part dataset and the MNIST dataset show that, in both conventional CNN models and capsule networks, the number of independent functional units is an important factor that determines the capacity of a network model. By adjusting the number of functional units, the capacity of a model can better match the complexity of a dataset.

Keywords: CNN, convolutional neural network, capsule network, capacity optimization, character recognition, data augmentation, semantic segmentation

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3757 Attention Based Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Simultaneous Detection and Segmentation of Optic Disc in Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Gautam Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara


Accurate segmentation of the optic disc is very important for computer-aided diagnosis of several ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertensive retinopathy. The paper presents an accurate and fast optic disc detection and segmentation method using an attention based fully convolutional network. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of extended MESSIDOR database and the trained model is used for segmentation of optic disc. The false positives are removed based on morphological operation and shape features. The result is evaluated using three-fold cross-validation on six public fundus image databases such as DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, AV-INSPIRE, CHASE DB1 and MESSIDOR. The attention based fully convolutional network is robust and effective for detection and segmentation of optic disc in the images affected by diabetic retinopathy and it outperforms existing techniques.

Keywords: attention-based fully convolutional network, optic disc detection and segmentation, retinal fundus image, screening of ocular diseases

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3756 Malignancy Assessment of Brain Tumors Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Chung-Ming Lo, Kevin Li-Chun Hsieh


The central nervous system in the World Health Organization defines grade 2, 3, 4 gliomas according to the aggressiveness. For brain tumors, using image examination would have a lower risk than biopsy. Besides, it is a challenge to extract relevant tissues from biopsy operation. Observing the whole tumor structure and composition can provide a more objective assessment. This study further proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on a convolutional neural network to quantitatively evaluate a tumor's malignancy from brain magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 30 grade 2, 43 grade 3, and 57 grade 4 gliomas were collected in the experiment. Transferred parameters from AlexNet were fine-tuned to classify the target brain tumors and achieved an accuracy of 98% and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az) of 0.99. Without pre-trained features, only 61% of accuracy was obtained. The proposed convolutional neural network can accurately and efficiently classify grade 2, 3, and 4 gliomas. The promising accuracy can provide diagnostic suggestions to radiologists in the clinic.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, computer-aided diagnosis, glioblastoma, magnetic resonance imaging

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3755 Optimization of a Convolutional Neural Network for the Automated Diagnosis of Melanoma

Authors: Kemka C. Ihemelandu, Chukwuemeka U. Ihemelandu


The incidence of melanoma has been increasing rapidly over the past two decades, making melanoma a current public health crisis. Unfortunately, even as screening efforts continue to expand in an effort to ameliorate the death rate from melanoma, there is a need to improve diagnostic accuracy to decrease misdiagnosis. Artificial intelligence (AI) a new frontier in patient care has the ability to improve the accuracy of melanoma diagnosis. Convolutional neural network (CNN) a form of deep neural network, most commonly applied to analyze visual imagery, has been shown to outperform the human brain in pattern recognition. However, there are noted limitations with the accuracy of the CNN models. Our aim in this study was the optimization of convolutional neural network algorithms for the automated diagnosis of melanoma. We hypothesized that Optimal selection of the momentum and batch hyperparameter increases model accuracy. Our most successful model developed during this study, showed that optimal selection of momentum of 0.25, batch size of 2, led to a superior performance and a faster model training time, with an accuracy of ~ 83% after nine hours of training. We did notice a lack of diversity in the dataset used, with a noted class imbalance favoring lighter vs. darker skin tone. Training set image transformations did not result in a superior model performance in our study.

Keywords: melanoma, convolutional neural network, momentum, batch hyperparameter

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3754 Image Classification with Localization Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Bhuyain Mobarok Hossain


Image classification and localization research is currently an important strategy in the field of computer vision. The evolution and advancement of deep learning and convolutional neural networks (CNN) have greatly improved the capabilities of object detection and image-based classification. Target detection is important to research in the field of computer vision, especially in video surveillance systems. To solve this problem, we will be applying a convolutional neural network of multiple scales at multiple locations in the image in one sliding window. Most translation networks move away from the bounding box around the area of interest. In contrast to this architecture, we consider the problem to be a classification problem where each pixel of the image is a separate section. Image classification is the method of predicting an individual category or specifying by a shoal of data points. Image classification is a part of the classification problem, including any labels throughout the image. The image can be classified as a day or night shot. Or, likewise, images of cars and motorbikes will be automatically placed in their collection. The deep learning of image classification generally includes convolutional layers; the invention of it is referred to as a convolutional neural network (CNN).

Keywords: image classification, object detection, localization, particle filter

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3753 Tumor Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) Based Neural Network

Authors: Vinai K. Singh


In Neural Network-based Learning techniques, there are several models of Convolutional Networks. Whenever the methods are deployed with large datasets, only then can their applicability and appropriateness be determined. Clinical and pathological pictures of lobular carcinoma are thought to exhibit a large number of random formations and textures. Working with such pictures is a difficult problem in machine learning. Focusing on wet laboratories and following the outcomes, numerous studies have been published with fresh commentaries in the investigation. In this research, we provide a framework that can operate effectively on raw photos of various resolutions while easing the issues caused by the existence of patterns and texturing. The suggested approach produces very good findings that may be used to make decisions in the diagnosis of cancer.

Keywords: lobular carcinoma, convolutional neural networks (CNN), deep learning, histopathological imagery scans

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3752 MhAGCN: Multi-Head Attention Graph Convolutional Network for Web Services Classification

Authors: Bing Li, Zhi Li, Yilong Yang


Web classification can promote the quality of service discovery and management in the service repository. It is widely used to locate developers desired services. Although traditional classification methods based on supervised learning models can achieve classification tasks, developers need to manually mark web services, and the quality of these tags may not be enough to establish an accurate classifier for service classification. With the doubling of the number of web services, the manual tagging method has become unrealistic. In recent years, the attention mechanism has made remarkable progress in the field of deep learning, and its huge potential has been fully demonstrated in various fields. This paper designs a multi-head attention graph convolutional network (MHAGCN) service classification method, which can assign different weights to the neighborhood nodes without complicated matrix operations or relying on understanding the entire graph structure. The framework combines the advantages of the attention mechanism and graph convolutional neural network. It can classify web services through automatic feature extraction. The comprehensive experimental results on a real dataset not only show the superior performance of the proposed model over the existing models but also demonstrate its potentially good interpretability for graph analysis.

Keywords: attention mechanism, graph convolutional network, interpretability, service classification, service discovery

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3751 Text Localization in Fixed-Layout Documents Using Convolutional Networks in a Coarse-to-Fine Manner

Authors: Beier Zhu, Rui Zhang, Qi Song


Text contained within fixed-layout documents can be of great semantic value and so requires a high localization accuracy, such as ID cards, invoices, cheques, and passports. Recently, algorithms based on deep convolutional networks achieve high performance on text detection tasks. However, for text localization in fixed-layout documents, such algorithms detect word bounding boxes individually, which ignores the layout information. This paper presents a novel architecture built on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). A global text localization network and a regional bounding-box regression network are introduced to tackle the problem in a coarse-to-fine manner. The text localization network simultaneously locates word bounding points, which takes the layout information into account. The bounding-box regression network inputs the features pooled from arbitrarily sized RoIs and refine the localizations. These two networks share their convolutional features and are trained jointly. A typical type of fixed-layout documents: ID cards, is selected to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system. These networks are trained on data cropped from nature scene images, and synthetic data produced by a synthetic text generation engine. Experiments show that our approach locates high accuracy word bounding boxes and achieves state-of-the-art performance.

Keywords: bounding box regression, convolutional networks, fixed-layout documents, text localization

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3750 Automatic Classification of Periodic Heart Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Jia Xin Low, Keng Wah Choo


This paper presents an automatic normal and abnormal heart sound classification model developed based on deep learning algorithm. MITHSDB heart sounds datasets obtained from the 2016 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge database were used in this research with the assumption that the electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded simultaneously with the heart sounds (phonocardiogram, PCG). The PCG time series are segmented per heart beat, and each sub-segment is converted to form a square intensity matrix, and classified using convolutional neural network (CNN) models. This approach removes the need to provide classification features for the supervised machine learning algorithm. Instead, the features are determined automatically through training, from the time series provided. The result proves that the prediction model is able to provide reasonable and comparable classification accuracy despite simple implementation. This approach can be used for real-time classification of heart sounds in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), e.g. remote monitoring applications of PCG signal.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, discrete wavelet transform, deep learning, heart sound classification

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3749 Bias Prevention in Automated Diagnosis of Melanoma: Augmentation of a Convolutional Neural Network Classifier

Authors: Kemka Ihemelandu, Chukwuemeka Ihemelandu


Melanoma remains a public health crisis, with incidence rates increasing rapidly in the past decades. Improving diagnostic accuracy to decrease misdiagnosis using Artificial intelligence (AI) continues to be documented. Unfortunately, unintended racially biased outcomes, a product of lack of diversity in the dataset used, with a noted class imbalance favoring lighter vs. darker skin tone, have increasingly been recognized as a problem.Resulting in noted limitations of the accuracy of the Convolutional neural network (CNN)models. CNN models are prone to biased output due to biases in the dataset used to train them. Our aim in this study was the optimization of convolutional neural network algorithms to mitigate bias in the automated diagnosis of melanoma. We hypothesized that our proposed training algorithms based on a data augmentation method to optimize the diagnostic accuracy of a CNN classifier by generating new training samples from the original ones will reduce bias in the automated diagnosis of melanoma. We applied geometric transformation, including; rotations, translations, scale change, flipping, and shearing. Resulting in a CNN model that provided a modifiedinput data making for a model that could learn subtle racial features. Optimal selection of the momentum and batch hyperparameter increased our model accuracy. We show that our augmented model reduces bias while maintaining accuracy in the automated diagnosis of melanoma.

Keywords: bias, augmentation, melanoma, convolutional neural network

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3748 Causal Relation Identification Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Features

Authors: Tharini N. de Silva, Xiao Zhibo, Zhao Rui, Mao Kezhi


Causal relation identification is a crucial task in information extraction and knowledge discovery. In this work, we present two approaches to causal relation identification. The first is a classification model trained on a set of knowledge-based features. The second is a deep learning based approach training a model using convolutional neural networks to classify causal relations. We experiment with several different convolutional neural networks (CNN) models based on previous work on relation extraction as well as our own research. Our models are able to identify both explicit and implicit causal relations as well as the direction of the causal relation. The results of our experiments show a higher accuracy than previously achieved for causal relation identification tasks.

Keywords: causal realtion extraction, relation extracton, convolutional neural network, text representation

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3747 Investigating the Viability of Ultra-Low Parameter Count Networks for Real-Time Football Detection

Authors: Tim Farrelly


In recent years, AI-powered object detection systems have opened the doors for innovative new applications and products, especially those operating in the real world or ‘on edge’ – namely, in sport. This paper investigates the viability of an ultra-low parameter convolutional neural network specially designed for the detection of footballs on ‘on the edge’ devices. The main contribution of this paper is the exploration of integrating new design features (depth-wise separable convolutional blocks and squeezed and excitation modules) into an ultra-low parameter network and demonstrating subsequent improvements in performance. The results show that tracking the ball from Full HD images with negligibly high accu-racy is possible in real-time.

Keywords: deep learning, object detection, machine vision applications, sport, network design

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3746 Brain Age Prediction Based on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging by 3D Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Leila Keshavarz Afshar, Hedieh Sajedi


Estimation of biological brain age from MR images is a topic that has been much addressed in recent years due to the importance it attaches to early diagnosis of diseases such as Alzheimer's. In this paper, we use a 3D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to provide a method for estimating the biological age of the brain. The 3D-CNN model is trained by MRI data that has been normalized. In addition, to reduce computation while saving overall performance, some effectual slices are selected for age estimation. By this method, the biological age of individuals using selected normalized data was estimated with Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 4.82 years.

Keywords: brain age estimation, biological age, 3D-CNN, deep learning, T1-weighted image, SPM, preprocessing, MRI, canny, gray matter

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3745 Chinese Sentence Level Lip Recognition

Authors: Peng Wang, Tigang Jiang


The computer based lip reading method of different languages cannot be universal. At present, for the research of Chinese lip reading, whether the work on data sets or recognition algorithms, is far from mature. In this paper, we study the Chinese lipreading method based on machine learning, and propose a Chinese Sentence-level lip-reading network (CNLipNet) model which consists of spatio-temporal convolutional neural network(CNN), recurrent neural network(RNN) and Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) loss function. This model can map variable-length sequence of video frames to Chinese Pinyin sequence and is trained end-to-end. More over, We create CNLRS, a Chinese Lipreading Dataset, which contains 5948 samples and can be shared through github. The evaluation of CNLipNet on this dataset yielded a 41% word correct rate and a 70.6% character correct rate. This evaluation result is far superior to the professional human lip readers, indicating that CNLipNet performs well in lipreading.

Keywords: lipreading, machine learning, spatio-temporal, convolutional neural network, recurrent neural network

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3744 Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Chaitanya Chawla, Divya Panwar, Gurneesh Singh Anand, M. P. S Bhatia


This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.

Keywords: image forensics, computer graphics, classification, deep learning, convolutional neural networks

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3743 A Mechanical Diagnosis Method Based on Vibration Fault Signal down-Sampling and the Improved One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Bowei Yuan, Shi Li, Liuyang Song, Huaqing Wang, Lingli Cui


Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have received extensive attention in the field of fault diagnosis. Many fault diagnosis methods use CNN for fault type identification. However, when the amount of raw data collected by sensors is massive, the neural network needs to perform a time-consuming classification task. In this paper, a mechanical fault diagnosis method based on vibration signal down-sampling and the improved one-dimensional convolutional neural network is proposed. Through the robust principal component analysis, the low-rank feature matrix of a large amount of raw data can be separated, and then down-sampling is realized to reduce the subsequent calculation amount. In the improved one-dimensional CNN, a smaller convolution kernel is used to reduce the number of parameters and computational complexity, and regularization is introduced before the fully connected layer to prevent overfitting. In addition, the multi-connected layers can better generalize classification results without cumbersome parameter adjustments. The effectiveness of the method is verified by monitoring the signal of the centrifugal pump test bench, and the average test accuracy is above 98%. When compared with the traditional deep belief network (DBN) and support vector machine (SVM) methods, this method has better performance.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, vibration signal down-sampling, 1D-CNN

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3742 Traffic Light Detection Using Image Segmentation

Authors: Vaishnavi Shivde, Shrishti Sinha, Trapti Mishra


Traffic light detection from a moving vehicle is an important technology both for driver safety assistance functions as well as for autonomous driving in the city. This paper proposed a deep-learning-based traffic light recognition method that consists of a pixel-wise image segmentation technique and a fully convolutional network i.e., UNET architecture. This paper has used a method for detecting the position and recognizing the state of the traffic lights in video sequences is presented and evaluated using Traffic Light Dataset which contains masked traffic light image data. The first stage is the detection, which is accomplished through image processing (image segmentation) techniques such as image cropping, color transformation, segmentation of possible traffic lights. The second stage is the recognition, which means identifying the color of the traffic light or knowing the state of traffic light which is achieved by using a Convolutional Neural Network (UNET architecture).

Keywords: traffic light detection, image segmentation, machine learning, classification, convolutional neural networks

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3741 Cells Detection and Recognition in Bone Marrow Examination with Deep Learning Method

Authors: Shiyin He, Zheng Huang


In this paper, deep learning methods are applied in bio-medical field to detect and count different types of cells in an automatic way instead of manual work in medical practice, specifically in bone marrow examination. The process is mainly composed of two steps, detection and recognition. Mask-Region-Convolutional Neural Networks (Mask-RCNN) was used for detection and image segmentation to extract cells and then Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), as well as Deep Residual Network (ResNet) was used to classify. Result of cell detection network shows high efficiency to meet application requirements. For the cell recognition network, two networks are compared and the final system is fully applicable.

Keywords: cell detection, cell recognition, deep learning, Mask-RCNN, ResNet

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3740 Traffic Sign Recognition System Using Convolutional Neural NetworkDevineni

Authors: Devineni Vijay Bhaskar, Yendluri Raja


We recommend a model for traffic sign detection stranded on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). We first renovate the unique image into the gray scale image through with support vector machines, then use convolutional neural networks with fixed and learnable layers for revealing and understanding. The permanent layer can reduction the amount of attention areas to notice and crop the limits very close to the boundaries of traffic signs. The learnable coverings can rise the accuracy of detection significantly. Besides, we use bootstrap procedures to progress the accuracy and avoid overfitting problem. In the German Traffic Sign Detection Benchmark, we obtained modest results, with an area under the precision-recall curve (AUC) of 99.49% in the group “Risk”, and an AUC of 96.62% in the group “Obligatory”.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, support vector machine, detection, traffic signs, bootstrap procedures, precision-recall curve

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3739 Convolutional Neural Network and LSTM Applied to Abnormal Behaviour Detection from Highway Footage

Authors: Rafael Marinho de Andrade, Elcio Hideti Shiguemori, Rafael Duarte Coelho dos Santos


Relying on computer vision, many clever things are possible in order to make the world safer and optimized on resource management, especially considering time and attention as manageable resources, once the modern world is very abundant in cameras from inside our pockets to above our heads while crossing the streets. Thus, automated solutions based on computer vision techniques to detect, react, or even prevent relevant events such as robbery, car crashes and traffic jams can be accomplished and implemented for the sake of both logistical and surveillance improvements. In this paper, we present an approach for vehicles’ abnormal behaviors detection from highway footages, in which the vectorial data of the vehicles’ displacement are extracted directly from surveillance cameras footage through object detection and tracking with a deep convolutional neural network and inserted into a long-short term memory neural network for behavior classification. The results show that the classifications of behaviors are consistent and the same principles may be applied to other trackable objects and scenarios as well.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, behavior detection, computer vision, convolutional neural networks, LSTM, highway footage

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