Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2179

Search results for: contour volume

2179 Numerical Investigation of Pressure and Velocity Field Contours of Dynamics of Drop Formation

Authors: Pardeep Bishnoi, Mayank Srivastava, Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha


This article represents the numerical investigation of the pressure and velocity field variation of the dynamics of pendant drop formation through a capillary tube. Numerical simulations are executed using volume of fluid (VOF) method in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this problem, Non Newtonian fluid is considered as dispersed fluid whereas air is considered as a continuous fluid. Pressure contours at various time steps expose that pressure varies nearly hydrostatically at each step of the dynamics of drop formation. A result also shows the pressure variation of the liquid droplet during free fall in the computational domain. The evacuation of the fluid from the necking region is also shown by the contour of the velocity field. The role of surface tension in the Pressure contour of the dynamics of drop formation is also studied.

Keywords: pressure contour, surface tension, volume of fluid, velocity field

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2178 Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering

Authors: Prasannakumar Palaniappan, Dong Ho Shin, Chul Gyu Song


The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.

Keywords: contour filtering, linear array, photoacoustic tomography, universal back projection

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2177 Accurate Cortical Reconstruction in Narrow Sulci with Zero-Non-Zero Distance (ZNZD) Vector Field

Authors: Somojit Saha, Rohit K. Chatterjee, Sarit K. Das, Avijit Kar


A new force field is designed for propagation of the parametric contour into deep narrow cortical fold in the application of knowledge based reconstruction of cerebral cortex from MR image of brain. Designing of this force field is highly inspired by the Generalized Gradient Vector Flow (GGVF) model and markedly differs in manipulation of image information in order to determine the direction of propagation of the contour. While GGVF uses edge map as its main driving force, the newly designed force field uses the map of distance between zero valued pixels and their nearest non-zero valued pixel as its main driving force. Hence, it is called Zero-Non-Zero Distance (ZNZD) force field. The objective of this force field is forceful propagation of the contour beyond spurious convergence due to partial volume effect (PVE) in to narrow sulcal fold. Being function of the corresponding non-zero pixel value, the force field has got an inherent property to determine spuriousness of the edge automatically. It is effectively applied along with some morphological processing in the application of cortical reconstruction to breach the hindrance of PVE in narrow sulci where conventional GGVF fails.

Keywords: deformable model, external force field, partial volume effect, cortical reconstruction, MR image of brain

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2176 Challenges and Opportunities in Computing Logistics Cost in E-Commerce Supply Chain

Authors: Pramod Ghadge, Swadesh Srivastava


Revenue generation of a logistics company depends on how the logistics cost of a shipment is calculated. Logistics cost of a shipment is a function of distance & speed of the shipment travel in a particular network, its volumetric size and dead weight. Logistics billing is based mainly on the consumption of the scarce resource (space or weight carrying capacity of a carrier). Shipment’s size or deadweight is a function of product and packaging weight, dimensions and flexibility. Hence, to arrive at a standard methodology to compute accurate cost to bill the customer, the interplay among above mentioned physical attributes along with their measurement plays a key role. This becomes even more complex for an ecommerce company, like Flipkart, which caters to shipments from both warehouse and marketplace in an unorganized non-standard market like India. In this paper, we will explore various methodologies to define a standard way of billing the non-standard shipments across a wide range of size, shape and deadweight. Those will be, usage of historical volumetric/dead weight data to arrive at a factor which can be used to compute the logistics cost of a shipment, also calculating the real/contour volume of a shipment to address the problem of irregular shipment shapes which cannot be solved by conventional bounding box volume measurements. We will also discuss certain key business practices and operational quality considerations needed to bring standardization and drive appropriate ownership in the ecosystem.

Keywords: contour volume, logistics, real volume, volumetric weight

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2175 Particle Filter Supported with the Neural Network for Aircraft Tracking Based on Kernel and Active Contour

Authors: Mohammad Izadkhah, Mojtaba Hoseini, Alireza Khalili Tehrani


In this paper we presented a new method for tracking flying targets in color video sequences based on contour and kernel. The aim of this work is to overcome the problem of losing target in changing light, large displacement, changing speed, and occlusion. The proposed method is made in three steps, estimate the target location by particle filter, segmentation target region using neural network and find the exact contours by greedy snake algorithm. In the proposed method we have used both region and contour information to create target candidate model and this model is dynamically updated during tracking. To avoid the accumulation of errors when updating, target region given to a perceptron neural network to separate the target from background. Then its output used for exact calculation of size and center of the target. Also it is used as the initial contour for the greedy snake algorithm to find the exact target's edge. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a database which contains a lot of challenges such as high speed and agility of aircrafts, background clutter, occlusions, camera movement, and so on. The experimental results show that the use of neural network increases the accuracy of tracking and segmentation.

Keywords: video tracking, particle filter, greedy snake, neural network

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2174 Temperature Contour Detection of Salt Ice Using Color Thermal Image Segmentation Method

Authors: Azam Fazelpour, Saeed Reza Dehghani, Vlastimil Masek, Yuri S. Muzychka


The study uses a novel image analysis based on thermal imaging to detect temperature contours created on salt ice surface during transient phenomena. Thermal cameras detect objects by using their emissivities and IR radiance. The ice surface temperature is not uniform during transient processes. The temperature starts to increase from the boundary of ice towards the center of that. Thermal cameras are able to report temperature changes on the ice surface at every individual moment. Various contours, which show different temperature areas, appear on the ice surface picture captured by a thermal camera. Identifying the exact boundary of these contours is valuable to facilitate ice surface temperature analysis. Image processing techniques are used to extract each contour area precisely. In this study, several pictures are recorded while the temperature is increasing throughout the ice surface. Some pictures are selected to be processed by a specific time interval. An image segmentation method is applied to images to determine the contour areas. Color thermal images are used to exploit the main information. Red, green and blue elements of color images are investigated to find the best contour boundaries. The algorithms of image enhancement and noise removal are applied to images to obtain a high contrast and clear image. A novel edge detection algorithm based on differences in the color of the pixels is established to determine contour boundaries. In this method, the edges of the contours are obtained according to properties of red, blue and green image elements. The color image elements are assessed considering their information. Useful elements proceed to process and useless elements are removed from the process to reduce the consuming time. Neighbor pixels with close intensities are assigned in one contour and differences in intensities determine boundaries. The results are then verified by conducting experimental tests. An experimental setup is performed using ice samples and a thermal camera. To observe the created ice contour by the thermal camera, the samples, which are initially at -20° C, are contacted with a warmer surface. Pictures are captured for 20 seconds. The method is applied to five images ,which are captured at the time intervals of 5 seconds. The study shows the green image element carries no useful information; therefore, the boundary detection method is applied on red and blue image elements. In this case study, the results indicate that proposed algorithm shows the boundaries more effective than other edges detection methods such as Sobel and Canny. Comparison between the contour detection in this method and temperature analysis, which states real boundaries, shows a good agreement. This color image edge detection method is applicable to other similar cases according to their image properties.

Keywords: color image processing, edge detection, ice contour boundary, salt ice, thermal image

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
2173 Experimental Analysis of Advanced Multi-Axial Preforms Conformability to Complex Contours

Authors: Andrew Hardman, Alistair T. McIlhagger, Edward Archer


A degree of research has been undertaken in the determination of 3D textile preforms behaviour to compression with direct comparison to 2D counterparts. Multiscale simulations have been developed to try and accurately analyse the behaviour of varying architectures post-consolidation. However, further understanding is required to experimentally identify the mechanisms and deformations that exist upon conforming to a complex contour. Due to the complexity of 3D textile preforms, determination of yarn behaviour to a complex contour is assessed through consolidation by means of vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM), and the resulting mechanisms are investigated by micrograph analysis. Varying architectures; with known areal densities, pic density and thicknesses are assessed for a cohesive study. The resulting performance of each is assessed qualitatively as well as quantitatively from the perspective of material in terms of the change in representative unit cell (RVE) across the curved beam contour, in crimp percentage, tow angle, resin rich areas and binder distortion. A novel textile is developed from the resulting analysis to overcome the observed deformations.

Keywords: comformability, compression, binder architecture, 3D weaving, textile preform

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2172 Hounsfield-Based Automatic Evaluation of Volumetric Breast Density on Radiotherapy CT-Scans

Authors: E. M. D. Akuoko, Eliana Vasquez Osorio, Marcel Van Herk, Marianne Aznar


Radiotherapy is an integral part of treatment for many patients with breast cancer. However, side effects can occur, e.g., fibrosis or erythema. If patients at higher risks of radiation-induced side effects could be identified before treatment, they could be given more individual information about the risks and benefits of radiotherapy. We hypothesize that breast density is correlated with the risk of side effects and present a novel method for automatic evaluation based on radiotherapy planning CT scans. Methods: 799 supine CT scans of breast radiotherapy patients were available from the REQUITE dataset. The methodology was first established in a subset of 114 patients (cohort 1) before being applied to the whole dataset (cohort 2). All patients were scanned in the supine position, with arms up, and the treated breast (ipsilateral) was identified. Manual experts contour available in 96 patients for both the ipsilateral and contralateral breast in cohort 1. Breast tissue was segmented using atlas-based automatic contouring software, ADMIRE® v3.4 (Elekta AB, Sweden). Once validated, the automatic segmentation method was applied to cohort 2. Breast density was then investigated by thresholding voxels within the contours, using Otsu threshold and pixel intensity ranges based on Hounsfield units (-200 to -100 for fatty tissue, and -99 to +100 for fibro-glandular tissue). Volumetric breast density (VBD) was defined as the volume of fibro-glandular tissue / (volume of fibro-glandular tissue + volume of fatty tissue). A sensitivity analysis was performed to verify whether calculated VBD was affected by the choice of breast contour. In addition, we investigated the correlation between volumetric breast density (VBD) and patient age and breast size. VBD values were compared between ipsilateral and contralateral breast contours. Results: Estimated VBD values were 0.40 (range 0.17-0.91) in cohort 1, and 0.43 (0.096-0.99) in cohort 2. We observed ipsilateral breasts to be denser than contralateral breasts. Breast density was negatively associated with breast volume (Spearman: R=-0.5, p-value < 2.2e-16) and age (Spearman: R=-0.24, p-value = 4.6e-10). Conclusion: VBD estimates could be obtained automatically on a large CT dataset. Patients’ age or breast volume may not be the only variables that explain breast density. Future work will focus on assessing the usefulness of VBD as a predictive variable for radiation-induced side effects.

Keywords: breast cancer, automatic image segmentation, radiotherapy, big data, breast density, medical imaging

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2171 Delineating Floodplain along the Nasia River in Northern Ghana Using HAND Contour

Authors: Benjamin K. Ghansah, Richard K. Appoh, Iliya Nababa, Eric K. Forkuo


The Nasia River is an important source of water for domestic and agricultural purposes to the inhabitants of its catchment. Major farming activities takes place within the floodplain of the river and its network of tributaries. The actual inundation extent of the river system is; however, unknown. Reasons for this lack of information include financial constraints and inadequate human resources as flood modelling is becoming increasingly complex by the day. Knowledge of the inundation extent will help in the assessment of risk posed by the annual flooding of the river, and help in the planning of flood recession agricultural activities. This study used a simple terrain based algorithm, Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND), to delineate the floodplain of the Nasia River and its tributaries. The HAND model is a drainage normalized digital elevation model, which has its height reference based on the local drainage systems rather than the average mean sea level (AMSL). The underlying principle guiding the development of the HAND model is that hillslope flow paths behave differently when the reference gradient is to the local drainage network as compared to the seaward gradient. The new terrain model of the catchment was created using the NASA’s SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 30m as the only data input. Contours (HAND Contour) were then generated from the normalized DEM. Based on field flood inundation survey, historical information of flooding of the area as well as satellite images, a HAND Contour of 2m was found to best correlates with the flood inundation extent of the river and its tributaries. A percentage accuracy of 75% was obtained when the surface area created by the 2m contour was compared with surface area of the floodplain computed from a satellite image captured during the peak flooding season in September 2016. It was estimated that the flooding of the Nasia River and its tributaries created a floodplain area of 1011 km².

Keywords: digital elevation model, floodplain, HAND contour, inundation extent, Nasia River

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2170 Image Segmentation Using Active Contours Based on Anisotropic Diffusion

Authors: Shafiullah Soomro


Active contour is one of the image segmentation techniques and its goal is to capture required object boundaries within an image. In this paper, we propose a novel image segmentation method by using an active contour method based on anisotropic diffusion feature enhancement technique. The traditional active contour methods use only pixel information to perform segmentation, which produces inaccurate results when an image has some noise or complex background. We use Perona and Malik diffusion scheme for feature enhancement, which sharpens the object boundaries and blurs the background variations. Our main contribution is the formulation of a new SPF (signed pressure force) function, which uses global intensity information across the regions. By minimizing an energy function using partial differential framework the proposed method captures semantically meaningful boundaries instead of catching uninterested regions. Finally, we use a Gaussian kernel which eliminates the problem of reinitialization in level set function. We use several synthetic and real images from different modalities to validate the performance of the proposed method. In the experimental section, we have found the proposed method performance is better qualitatively and quantitatively and yield results with higher accuracy compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: active contours, anisotropic diffusion, level-set, partial differential equations

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2169 Calculating Ventricle’s Area Based on Clinical Dementia Rating Values on Coronal MRI Image

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Ays Rahmadian Subhi, Yogi Ramadhani, Haris B. Widodo


Alzheimer is one type of disease in the elderly that may occur in the world. The severity of the Alzheimer can be measured using a scale called Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) based on a doctor's diagnosis of the patient's condition. Currently, diagnosis of Alzheimer often uses MRI machine, to know the condition of part of the brain called Hippocampus and Ventricle. MRI image itself consists of 3 slices, namely Coronal, Sagittal and Axial. In this paper, we discussed the measurement of the area of the ventricle especially in the Coronal slice based on the severity level referring to the CDR value. We use Active Contour method to segment the ventricle’s region, therefore that ventricle’s area can be calculated automatically. The results show that this method can be used for further development in the automatic diagnosis of Alzheimer.

Keywords: Alzheimer, CDR, coronal, ventricle, active contour

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2168 Influence of Flexible Plate's Contour on Dynamic Behavior of High Speed Flexible Coupling of Combat Aircraft

Authors: Dineshsingh Thakur, S. Nagesh, J. Basha


A lightweight High Speed Flexible Coupling (HSFC) is used to connect the Engine Gear Box (EGB) with an Accessory Gear Box (AGB) of the combat aircraft. The HSFC transmits the power at high speeds ranging from 10000 to 18000 rpm from the EGB to AGB. The HSFC is also accommodates larger misalignments resulting from thermal expansion of the aircraft engine and mounting arrangement. The HSFC has the series of metallic contoured annular thin cross-sectioned flexible plates to accommodate the misalignments. The flexible plates are accommodating the misalignment by the elastic material flexure. As the HSFC operates at higher speed, the flexural and axial resonance frequencies are to be kept away from the operating speed and proper prediction is required to prevent failure in the transmission line of a single engine fighter aircraft. To study the influence of flexible plate’s contour on the lateral critical speed (LCS) of HSFC, a mathematical model of HSFC as a elven rotor system is developed. The flexible plate being the bending member of the system, its bending stiffness which results from the contoured governs the LCS. Using transfer matrix method, Influence of various flexible plate contours on critical speed is analyzed. In the above analysis, the support bearing flexibility on critical speed prediction is also considered. Based on the study, a model is built with the optimum contour of flexible plate, for validation by experimental modal analysis. A good correlation between the theoretical prediction and model behavior is observed. From the study, it is found that the flexible plate’s contour is playing vital role in modification of system’s dynamic behavior and the present model can be extended for the development of similar type of flexible couplings for its computational simplicity and reliability.

Keywords: flexible rotor, critical speed, experimental modal analysis, high speed flexible coupling (HSFC), misalignment

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2167 Using Self Organizing Feature Maps for Automatic Prostate Segmentation in TRUS Images

Authors: Ahad Salimi, Hassan Masoumi


Prostate cancer is one of the most common recognized cancers in men, and, is one of the most important mortality factors of cancer in this group. Determining of prostate’s boundary in TRUS (Transrectal Ultra Sound) images is very necessary for prostate cancer treatments. The weakness edges and speckle noise make the ultrasound images inherently to segment. In this paper a new automatic algorithm for prostate segmentation in TRUS images proposed that include three main stages. At first morphological smoothing and sticks filtering are used for noise removing. In second step, for finding a point in prostate region, SOFM algorithm is enlisted and in the last step, the boundary of prostate extracting accompanying active contour is employed. For validation of proposed method, a number of experiments are conducted. The results obtained by our algorithm show the promise of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: SOFM, preprocessing, GVF contour, segmentation

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2166 Estimation of Lungs Physiological Motion for Patient Undergoing External Lung Irradiation

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah


This is an experimental study deals with detection, measurement and analysis of the periodic physiological organ motion during external beam radiotherapy; to improve the accuracy of the radiation field placement, and to reduce the exposure of healthy tissue during radiation treatments. The importance of this study is to detect the maximum path of the mobile structures during radiotherapy delivery, to define the planning target volume (PTV) and irradiated volume during both inspiration and expiration period and to verify the target volume. In addition to its role to highlight the importance of the application of Intense Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) methods in the field of radiotherapy. The results showed (body contour was equally (3.17 + 0.23 mm), for left lung displacement reading (2.56 + 0.99 mm) and right lung is (2.42 + 0.77 mm) which the radiation oncologist to take suitable countermeasures in case of significant errors. In addition, the use of the image registration technique for automatic position control is predicted potential motion. The motion ranged between 2.13 mm and 12.2 mm (low and high). In conclusion, individualized assessment of tumor mobility can improve the accuracy of target areas definition in patients undergo Sterostatic RT for stage I, II and III lung cancer (NSCLC). Definition of the target volume based on a single CT scan with a margin of 10 mm is clearly inappropriate.

Keywords: respiratory motion, external beam radiotherapy, image processing, lung

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2165 Two-Dimensional Observation of Oil Displacement by Water in a Petroleum Reservoir through Numerical Simulation and Application to a Petroleum Reservoir

Authors: Ahmad Fahim Nasiry, Shigeo Honma


We examine two-dimensional oil displacement by water in a petroleum reservoir. The pore fluid is immiscible, and the porous media is homogenous and isotropic in the horizontal direction. Buckley-Leverett theory and a combination of Laplacian and Darcy’s law are used to study the fluid flow through porous media, and the Laplacian that defines the dispersion and diffusion of fluid in the sand using heavy oil is discussed. The reservoir is homogenous in the horizontal direction, as expressed by the partial differential equation. Two main factors which are observed are the water saturation and pressure distribution in the reservoir, and they are evaluated for predicting oil recovery in two dimensions by a physical and mathematical simulation model. We review the numerical simulation that solves difficult partial differential reservoir equations. Based on the numerical simulations, the saturation and pressure equations are calculated by the iterative alternating direction implicit method and the iterative alternating direction explicit method, respectively, according to the finite difference assumption. However, to understand the displacement of oil by water and the amount of water dispersion in the reservoir better, an interpolated contour line of the water distribution of the five-spot pattern, that provides an approximate solution which agrees well with the experimental results, is also presented. Finally, a computer program is developed to calculate the equation for pressure and water saturation and to draw the pressure contour line and water distribution contour line for the reservoir.

Keywords: numerical simulation, immiscible, finite difference, IADI, IDE, waterflooding

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2164 Optimization Techniques for Microwave Structures

Authors: Malika Ourabia


A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The discontinuities is characterized using a hybrid spectral/numerical technique. This structure presents an arbitrary number of ports, each one with different orientation and dimensions. This article presents a hybrid method based on multimode contour integral and mode matching techniques. The process is based on segmentation and dividing the structure into key building blocks. We use the multimode contour integral method to analyze the blocks including irregular shape discontinuities. Finally, the multimode scattering matrix of the whole structure can be found by cascading the blocks. Therefore, the new method is suitable for analysis of a wide range of waveguide problems. Therefore, the present approach can be applied easily to the analysis of any multiport junctions and cascade blocks. The accuracy of the method is validated comparing with results for several complex problems found in the literature. CPU times are also included to show the efficiency of the new method proposed.

Keywords: segmentation, s parameters, simulation, optimization

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2163 Allocating Channels and Flow Estimation at Flood Prone Area in Desert, Example from AlKharj City, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Farhan Aljuaidi


The rapid expansion of Alkarj city, Saudi Arabia, towards the outlet of Wadi AlAin is critical for the planners and decision makers. Nowadays, two major projects such as Salman bin Abdulaziz University compound and new industrial area are developed in this flood prone area where no channels are clear and identified. The main contribution of this study is to divert the flow away from these vital projects by reconstructing new channels. To do so, Lidar data were used to generate contour lines for the actual elevation of the highways and local roads. These data were analyzed and compared to the contour lines derived from the topographical maps 1:50.000. The magnitude of the expected flow was estimated using Snyder's Model based on the morphometric data acquired by DEM of the catchment area. The results indicate that maximum discharge peak reaches 2694,3 m3/sec, the mean is 303,7 m3/sec and the minimum is 74,3 m3/sec. The runoff was estimated at 252,2. 610 m3/s, the mean is 41,5. 610 m3/s and the minimum is 12,4. 610 m3/s.

Keywords: Desert flood, Saudi Arabia, Snyder's Model, flow estimation

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2162 A Simple and Easy-To-Use Tool for Detecting Outer Contour of Leukocytes Based on Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Best Leader Nababan, Yogi Ramadhani, Wahyu Siswandari


Blood cell morphology is an important parameter in a hematology test. Currently, in developing countries, a lot of hematology is done manually, either by physicians or laboratory staff. According to the limitation of the human eye, examination based on manual method will result in a lower precision and accuracy. In addition, the hematology test by manual will further complicate the diagnosis in some areas that do not have competent medical personnel. This research aims to develop a simple tool in the detection of blood cell morphology-based computer. In this paper, we focus on the detection of the outer contour of leukocytes. The results show that the system that we developed is promising for detecting blood cell morphology automatically. It is expected, by implementing this method, the problem of accuracy, precision and limitations of the medical staff can be solved.

Keywords: morphology operation, developing countries, hematology test, limitation of medical personnel

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2161 SIF Computation of Cracked Plate by FEM

Authors: Sari Elkahina, Zergoug Mourad, Benachenhou Kamel


The main purpose of this paper is to perform a computations comparison of stress intensity factor 'SIF' evaluation in case of cracked thin plate with Aluminum alloy 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 used in aeronautics structure under uniaxial loading. This evaluation is based on finite element method with a virtual power principle through two techniques: the extrapolation and G−θ. The first one consists to extrapolate the nodal displacements near the cracked tip using a refined triangular mesh with T3 and T6 special elements, while the second, consists of determining the energy release rate G through G−θ method by potential energy derivation which corresponds numerically to the elastic solution post-processing of a cracked solid by a contour integration computation via Gauss points. The SIF obtained results from extrapolation and G−θ methods will be compared to an analytical solution in a particular case. To illustrate the influence of the meshing kind and the size of integration contour position simulations are presented and analyzed.

Keywords: crack tip, SIF, finite element method, concentration technique, displacement extrapolation, aluminum alloy 7075-T6 and 2024-T3, energy release rate G, G-θ method, Gauss point numerical integration

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2160 Optimizing Volume Fraction Variation Profile of Bidirectional Functionally Graded Circular Plate under Mechanical Loading to Minimize Its Stresses

Authors: Javad Jamali Khouei, Mohammadreza Khoshravan


Considering that application of functionally graded material is increasing in most industries, it seems necessary to present a methodology for designing optimal profile of structures such as plate under mechanical loading which is highly consumed in industries. Therefore, volume fraction variation profile of functionally graded circular plate which has been considered two-directional is optimized so that stress of structure is minimized. For this purpose, equilibrium equations of two-directional functionally graded circular plate are solved by applying semi analytical-numerical method under mechanical loading and support conditions. By solving equilibrium equations, deflections and stresses are obtained in terms of control variables of volume fraction variation profile. As a result, the problem formula can be defined as an optimization problem by aiming at minimization of critical von-mises stress under constraints of deflections, stress and a physical constraint relating to structure of material. Then, the related problem can be solved with help of one of the metaheuristic algorithms such as genetic algorithm. Results of optimization for the applied model under constraints and loadings and boundary conditions show that functionally graded plate should be graded only in radial direction and there is no need for volume fraction variation of the constituent particles in thickness direction. For validating results, optimal values of the obtained design variables are graphically evaluated.

Keywords: two-directional functionally graded material, single objective optimization, semi analytical-numerical solution, genetic algorithm, graphical solution with contour

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2159 Aerodynamic Design of Axisymmetric Supersonic Nozzle Used by an Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Mojtahedpoor


In this paper, it has been studied the method of optimal design of the supersonic nozzle. It could make viscous axisymmetric nozzles that the quality of their outlet flow is quite desired. In this method, it is optimized the divergent nozzle, at first. The initial divergent nozzle contour is designed through the method of characteristics and adding a suitable boundary layer to the inviscid contour. After that, it is made a proper grid and then simulated flow by the numerical solution and AUSM+ method by using the operation boundary condition. At the end, solution outputs are investigated and optimized. The numerical method has been validated with experimental results. Also, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the present method, the nozzles compared with the previous studies. The comparisons show that the nozzles obtained through this method are sufficiently better in some conditions, such as the flow uniformity, size of the boundary layer, and obtained an axial length of the nozzle. Designing the convergent nozzle part affects by flow uniformity through changing its axial length and input diameter. The results show that increasing the length of the convergent part improves the output flow uniformity.

Keywords: nozzle, supersonic, optimization, characteristic method, CFD

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2158 Comparing ITV Definitions From 4D CT-PET and Breath-Hold Technique with Abdominal Compression

Authors: R. D. Esposito, P. Dorado Rodriguez, D. Planes Meseguer


In this work, we compare the contour of Internal Target Volume (ITV), for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of a patient affected by a single liver metastasis, obtained from two different patient data acquisition techniques. The first technique consists in a free breathing Computer Tomography (CT) scan acquisition, followed by exhalation breath-hold and inhalation breath-hold CT scans, all of them applying abdominal compression while the second technique consists in a free breathing 4D CT-PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan. Results obtained with these two methods are consistent, which demonstrate that at least for this specific case, both techniques are adequate for ITV contouring in SBRT treatments.

Keywords: 4D CT-PET, abdominal compression, ITV, SBRT

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2157 Level Set Based Extraction and Update of Lake Contours Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Images

Authors: Yindi Zhao, Yun Zhang, Silu Xia, Lixin Wu


The contours and areas of water surfaces, especially lakes, often change due to natural disasters and construction activities. It is an effective way to extract and update water contours from satellite images using image processing algorithms. However, to produce optimal water surface contours that are close to true boundaries is still a challenging task. This paper compares the performances of three different level set models, including the Chan-Vese (CV) model, the signed pressure force (SPF) model, and the region-scalable fitting (RSF) energy model for extracting lake contours. After experiment testing, it is indicated that the RSF model, in which a region-scalable fitting (RSF) energy functional is defined and incorporated into a variational level set formulation, is superior to CV and SPF, and it can get desirable contour lines when there are “holes” in the regions of waters, such as the islands in the lake. Therefore, the RSF model is applied to extracting lake contours from Landsat satellite images. Four temporal Landsat satellite images of the years of 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014 are used in our study. All of them were acquired in May, with the same path/row (121/036) covering Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China. Firstly, the near infrared (NIR) band is selected for water extraction. Image registration is conducted on NIR bands of different temporal images for information update, and linear stretching is also done in order to distinguish water from other land cover types. Then for the first temporal image acquired in 2000, lake contours are extracted via the RSF model with initialization of user-defined rectangles. Afterwards, using the lake contours extracted the previous temporal image as the initialized values, lake contours are updated for the current temporal image by means of the RSF model. Meanwhile, the changed and unchanged lakes are also detected. The results show that great changes have taken place in two lakes, i.e. Dalong Lake and Panan Lake, and RSF can actually extract and effectively update lake contours using multi-temporal satellite image.

Keywords: level set model, multi-temporal image, lake contour extraction, contour update

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2156 Automated Ultrasound Carotid Artery Image Segmentation Using Curvelet Threshold Decomposition

Authors: Latha Subbiah, Dhanalakshmi Samiappan


In this paper, we propose denoising Common Carotid Artery (CCA) B mode ultrasound images by a decomposition approach to curvelet thresholding and automatic segmentation of the intima media thickness and adventitia boundary. By decomposition, the local geometry of the image, its direction of gradients are well preserved. The components are combined into a single vector valued function, thus removes noise patches. Double threshold is applied to inherently remove speckle noise in the image. The denoised image is segmented by active contour without specifying seed points. Combined with level set theory, they provide sub regions with continuous boundaries. The deformable contours match to the shapes and motion of objects in the images. A curve or a surface under constraints is developed from the image with the goal that it is pulled into the necessary features of the image. Region based and boundary based information are integrated to achieve the contour. The method treats the multiplicative speckle noise in objective and subjective quality measurements and thus leads to better-segmented results. The proposed denoising method gives better performance metrics compared with other state of art denoising algorithms.

Keywords: curvelet, decomposition, levelset, ultrasound

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2155 A General Framework for Knowledge Discovery from Echocardiographic and Natural Images

Authors: S. Nandagopalan, N. Pradeep


The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for storing, analyzing, and extracting knowledge from two-dimensional echocardiographic images, color Doppler images, non-medical images, and general data sets. A number of high performance data mining algorithms have been used to carry out this task. Our framework encompasses four layers namely physical storage, object identification, knowledge discovery, user level. Techniques such as active contour model to identify the cardiac chambers, pixel classification to segment the color Doppler echo image, universal model for image retrieval, Bayesian method for classification, parallel algorithms for image segmentation, etc., were employed. Using the feature vector database that have been efficiently constructed, one can perform various data mining tasks like clustering, classification, etc. with efficient algorithms along with image mining given a query image. All these facilities are included in the framework that is supported by state-of-the-art user interface (UI). The algorithms were tested with actual patient data and Coral image database and the results show that their performance is better than the results reported already.

Keywords: active contour, Bayesian, echocardiographic image, feature vector

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2154 A General Framework for Knowledge Discovery Using High Performance Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: S. Nandagopalan, N. Pradeep


The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for storing, analyzing, and extracting knowledge from two-dimensional echocardiographic images, color Doppler images, non-medical images, and general data sets. A number of high performance data mining algorithms have been used to carry out this task. Our framework encompasses four layers namely physical storage, object identification, knowledge discovery, user level. Techniques such as active contour model to identify the cardiac chambers, pixel classification to segment the color Doppler echo image, universal model for image retrieval, Bayesian method for classification, parallel algorithms for image segmentation, etc., were employed. Using the feature vector database that have been efficiently constructed, one can perform various data mining tasks like clustering, classification, etc. with efficient algorithms along with image mining given a query image. All these facilities are included in the framework that is supported by state-of-the-art user interface (UI). The algorithms were tested with actual patient data and Coral image database and the results show that their performance is better than the results reported already.

Keywords: active contour, bayesian, echocardiographic image, feature vector

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2153 Visual, Zoological Metaphors and 'Urtiin Duu' (Long Song) in Alshaa, Inner Mongolia

Authors: Oyuna Weina


This study examines how musicians use visual and zoological metaphors for singing technique and voice quality in a genre of traditional music called urtiin duu (‘long song’) in Alshaa, Inner Mongolia, China. Previous studies have discussed melodic contour in Mongol music, but little study of the intersection of singing technique, visual and zoological metaphors has yet been undertaken. The purpose of this study is to address this lack by analysing urtiin duu itself, traditional pedagogy and performances, all of which have been inspired and are assessed by reference to nature and mobile pastoral herding practices. This study investigates the visual and zoological metaphors related to urtiin duu especially colour, the shape of the circle and animals in the Mongol community. Urtiin duu singing is associated with certain colours in song texts, in selection of repertoire and in the status of singers. Musicians also use colour to describe timbre. These colours in turn reference worship of nature, religions, and daily practices of most Mongols in Alshaa. Moreover, voice quality and singing technique are often related to the animals not only in song text but also in the approach to breathing and to melodic contour. Additionally, the concept of boronhoi (‘the shape of circle’), not only is applied to the melodic contour but also to the voice quality and singing technique. These three factors illustrate the connections among nature, spiritual world and everyday herding life of Mongols. These different connections provide evidence of multi-layered meanings. In contemporary Alshaa, urtiin duu singers received Western musical training from the city and returned to their homelands to perform urtiin duu. In doing so, they are also trying to reconnect with the history, nature and spiritual world in order to achieve their ideal sound. Within a multicultural society, singers negotiate amongst themselves, and with ethnic groups, audiences and government officials. The power of the metaphor therefore assists and reconnects the strength of regional identity and ethnic identity in Alshaa.

Keywords: Alshaa, urtiin duu, visual, zoological metaphors

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2152 Random Subspace Neural Classifier for Meteor Recognition in the Night Sky

Authors: Carlos Vera, Tetyana Baydyk, Ernst Kussul, Graciela Velasco, Miguel Aparicio


This article describes the Random Subspace Neural Classifier (RSC) for the recognition of meteors in the night sky. We used images of meteors entering the atmosphere at night between 8:00 p.m.-5: 00 a.m. The objective of this project is to classify meteor and star images (with stars as the image background). The monitoring of the sky and the classification of meteors are made for future applications by scientists. The image database was collected from different websites. We worked with RGB-type images with dimensions of 220x220 pixels stored in the BitMap Protocol (BMP) format. Subsequent window scanning and processing were carried out for each image. The scan window where the characteristics were extracted had the size of 20x20 pixels with a scanning step size of 10 pixels. Brightness, contrast and contour orientation histograms were used as inputs for the RSC. The RSC worked with two classes and classified into: 1) with meteors and 2) without meteors. Different tests were carried out by varying the number of training cycles and the number of images for training and recognition. The percentage error for the neural classifier was calculated. The results show a good RSC classifier response with 89% correct recognition. The results of these experiments are presented and discussed.

Keywords: contour orientation histogram, meteors, night sky, RSC neural classifier, stars

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2151 3D Liver Segmentation from CT Images Using a Level Set Method Based on a Shape and Intensity Distribution Prior

Authors: Nuseiba M. Altarawneh, Suhuai Luo, Brian Regan, Guijin Tang


Liver segmentation from medical images poses more challenges than analogous segmentations of other organs. This contribution introduces a liver segmentation method from a series of computer tomography images. Overall, we present a novel method for segmenting liver by coupling density matching with shape priors. Density matching signifies a tracking method which operates via maximizing the Bhattacharyya similarity measure between the photometric distribution from an estimated image region and a model photometric distribution. Density matching controls the direction of the evolution process and slows down the evolving contour in regions with weak edges. The shape prior improves the robustness of density matching and discourages the evolving contour from exceeding liver’s boundaries at regions with weak boundaries. The model is implemented using a modified distance regularized level set (DRLS) model. The experimental results show that the method achieves a satisfactory result. By comparing with the original DRLS model, it is evident that the proposed model herein is more effective in addressing the over segmentation problem. Finally, we gauge our performance of our model against matrices comprising of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

Keywords: Bhattacharyya distance, distance regularized level set (DRLS) model, liver segmentation, level set method

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2150 Research of Strong-Column-Weak-Beam Criteria of Reinforced Concrete Frames Subjected to Biaxial Seismic Excitation

Authors: Chong Zhang, Mu-Xuan Tao


In several earthquakes, numerous reinforced concrete (RC) frames subjected to seismic excitation demonstrated a collapse pattern characterized by column hinges, though designed according to the Strong-Column-Weak-Beam (S-C-W-B) criteria. The effect of biaxial seismic excitation on the disparity between design and actual performance is carefully investigated in this article. First, a modified load contour method is proposed to derive a closed-form equation of biaxial bending moment strength, which is verified by numerical and experimental tests. Afterwards, a group of time history analyses of a simple frame modeled by fiber beam-column elements subjected to biaxial seismic excitation are conducted to verify that the current S-C-W-B criteria are not adequate to prevent the occurrence of column hinges. A biaxial over-strength factor is developed based on the proposed equation, and the reinforcement of columns is appropriately amplified with this factor to prevent the occurrence of column hinges under biaxial excitation, which is proved to be effective by another group of time history analyses.

Keywords: biaxial bending moment capacity, biaxial seismic excitation, fiber beam model, load contour method, strong-column-weak-beam

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