Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3296

Search results for: construction clients

3296 Effect of Pre-Construction on Construction Schedule and Client Loyalty

Authors: Jong Hoon Kim, Hyun-Soo Lee, Moonseo Park, Min Jeong, Inbeom Lee


Pre-construction is essential in achieving the success of a construction project. Due to the early involvement of project participants in the construction phase, project managers are able to plan ahead and solve issues well in advance leading to the success of the project and the satisfaction of the client. This research utilizes quantitative data derived from construction management projects in order to identify the relationship between pre-construction, construction schedule, and client satisfaction. A total of 65 construction projects and 93 clients were investigated for this research in an attempt to identify (a) the relationship between pre-construction and schedule reduction, and (b) pre-construction and client loyalty. Based on the quantitative analysis, this research was able to establish a negative correlation based on 65 construction projects between pre-construction and project schedule existed. This finding represents that the more pre-construction is performed for a certain project, the overall construction schedule decreased. Then, to determine the relationship between pre-construction and client satisfaction, Net Promoter Score (NPS) of 93 clients from the 65 projects was utilized. Pre-construction and NPS was further analyzed and a positive correlation was found between the two. This infers that clients tend to be more satisfied with projects with higher ratio of pre-construction than those projects with less pre-construction.

Keywords: client loyalty, NPS, pre-construction, schedule reduction

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3295 Impact of Safety and Quality Considerations of Housing Clients on the Construction Firms’ Intention to Adopt Quality Function Deployment: A Case of Construction Sector

Authors: Saif Ul Haq


The current study intends to examine the safety and quality considerations of clients of housing projects and their impact on the adoption of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) by the construction firm. Mixed method research technique has been used to collect and analyze the data wherein a survey was conducted to collect the data from 220 clients of housing projects in Saudi Arabia. Then, the telephonic and Skype interviews were conducted to collect data of 15 professionals working in the top ten real estate companies of Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed by using partial least square (PLS) and thematic analysis techniques. Findings reveal that today’s customer prioritizes the safety and quality requirements of their houses and as a result, construction firms adopt QFD to address the needs of customers. The findings are of great importance for the clients of housing projects as well as for the construction firms as they could apply QFD in housing projects to address the safety and quality concerns of their clients.

Keywords: construction industry, quality considerations, quality function deployment, safety considerations

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
3294 Clients’ Priorities in Delivery of Green Projects: South African Perspective

Authors: C. Mothobiso, D. Root


Purpose: This study attempts to identify the clients’ main priorities when delivering green projects. The aim is to compare if the clients have the same interest that are similar in delivery of convectional buildings as compared to green buildings. The main purpose is to find why other clients are investing in green buildings while others are reluctant and adopting green building at a slow pace. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of construction professional accredited by the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA) was sent a questionnaire to participate in the research. Since GBSCSA accredited professionals have knowledge and experience about the green buildings, they are chosen as the sample. The research is qualitative because it evaluates the perceptions and knowledge around the subject matter. Research limitations: The research focuses only on the South African construction clients. Findings: Findings reveal that private clients invest more on green buildings as compared to government and parastatal entities. Private clients prioritise on maximising returns on investments and they mainly invest on buildings that save energies and have low life cycle costs. Private clients are perceived to be more knowledgeable about the benefits of green building project as compared to government and Parastatals clients. Shortage of expertise and managerial skill leads to low adaptation of green buildings in the government and parastatal projects. Other factors, which seem to disintegrate the adoption of green buildings, are the readiness of supply chain within the industry and inappropriate procurements strategies adopted by clients. The evaluation of the clients’ priorities will enable the design team to come up with innovative ways to approach the design process so that clients’ priorities and needs are identified and met. Practical implications: The findings are indicating that clients’ needs and priorities have a huge impact on the delivery of the project in terms of time, quality and cost of the project.

Keywords: construction clients, design team, green construction and project deliver

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3293 Clients’ Priorities in Design and Delivery of Green Projects: South African Perspective

Authors: Charles Mothobiso


This study attempts to identify the client’s main priority when delivering green projects. The aim is to compare whether clients’ interests are similar when delivering conventional buildings as compared to green buildings. Private clients invest more in green buildings as compared to government and parastatal entities. Private clients prioritize on maximizing a return on investment and they mainly invest in energy-saving buildings that have low life cycle costs. Private clients are perceived to be more knowledgeable about the benefits of green building projects as compared to government and parastatal clients. A shortage of expertise and managerial skill leads to the low adaptation of green buildings in government and parastatal projects. Other factors that seem to prevent the adoption of green buildings are the preparedness of the supply chain within the industry and inappropriate procurement strategies adopted by clients.

Keywords: construction clients, design team, green buildings, procurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
3292 Identifying Project Delay Factors in the Australian Construction Industry

Authors: Syed Sohaib Bin Hasib, Hiyam Al-Kilidar


Meeting project deadlines is a major challenge for most construction projects. In this study, perceptions of contractors, clients, and consultants are compared relative to a list of factors derived from the review of the extant literature on project delay. 59 causes (categorized into 8 groups) of project delays were identified from the literature. A survey was devised to get insights and ranking of these factors from clients, consultants & contractors in the Australian construction industry. Findings showed that project delays in the Australian construction industry are mainly the result of skill shortages, interference in execution, and poor coordination and communication between the project stakeholders.

Keywords: construction, delay factors, time delay, australian construction industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
3291 Significant Factors to Motivate Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Construction Firms in the Philippines to Implement ISO 9001:2008

Authors: Joseph Berlin P. Juanzon, Manuel M. Muhi


Motivating SME-based construction firms to adopt different management systems is not a simple task, especially if they are not aware of the benefits that they will gain from the new process-based management system. The implementation of ISO 9001:2008, Quality Management System in the construction industry is an ongoing trend, more so in the Small and Medium Enterprise. However, the level of awareness and readiness of the construction industry in the Philippines is still low as compared to the neighboring countries in Asia and in the western countries where ISO 9001:2008 originated. The purpose of this research is to determine the significant factors that will motivate SME-based construction firms in the Philippines to implement ISO 9001:2008. A field study was conducted on SME based construction firms in the Philippines, wherein a total of 139 respondents out of the 613 SME-based construction firms in CALABARZON areas were surveyed. Results reveal that the three main factors that will motivate SME-based construction firms to implement ISO 9001:2008 are: - if required by their clients, - to qualify for bidding, and - to increase customer satisfaction. Therefore, based on the results and findings, a certification of ISO 9001:2008 from an accredited auditor shall be required by clients as a constituent in accrediting SME-based construction firms and to qualify for bidding.

Keywords: construction, ISO 9001:2008, quality management systems (QMS), small medium enterprise (SME)

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
3290 Building Information Modelling for Construction Delay Management

Authors: Essa Alenazi, Zulfikar Adamu


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is not an exception in relying on the growth of its construction industry to support rapid population growth. However, its need for infrastructure development is constrained by low productivity levels and cost overruns caused by factors such as delays to project completion. Delays in delivering a construction project are a global issue and while theories such as Optimism Bias have been used to explain such delays, in KSA, client-related causes of delays are also significant. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework-based approach to explore how the country’s construction industry can manage and reduce delays in construction projects through building information modelling (BIM) in order to mitigate the cost consequences of such delays.  It comprehensively and systematically reviewed the global literature on the subject and identified gaps, critical delay factors and the specific benefits that BIM can deliver for the delay management.  A case study comprising of nine hospital projects that have experienced delay and cost overruns was also carried out. Five critical delay factors related to the clients were identified as candidates that can be mitigated through BIM’s benefits. These factors are: Ineffective planning and scheduling of the project; changes during construction by the client; delay in progress payment; slowness in decision making by the client; and poor communication between clients and other stakeholders. In addition, data from the case study projects strongly suggest that optimism bias is present in many of the hospital projects. Further validation via key stakeholder interviews and documentations are planned.

Keywords: building information modelling (BIM), clients perspective, delay management, optimism bias, public sector projects

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3289 Evaluation and Selection of Construction Contractors by Polish Public Clients

Authors: Kozik Renata, Leśniak Agnieszka, Plebankiewicz Edyta


Contracting authorities in the public sector are obligated to apply the principles provided for in the Polish law for the evaluation and selection of contractors. To analyze the methods of contractors, applied in practice by public clients, the notices of contract award results for construction works were analyzed. The analysis shows that the procedure selected more and more often is open to competitive bidding, where the assessment of the competence of contractors is not very precise, as well as non-competitive bidding, i.e. single source procurement. The share of procurement procedures, where the only criterion is price, is increasing. The solution to the problems existing here might be the introduction of one of the forms of pre-selection of contractors. The article also briefly discusses verification systems for companies applying for public contracts used in EU countries.

Keywords: certification, contractors selection, open tendering, public investors

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3288 Causes and Effects of Delays in Construction Projects in Akure, Ondo State, South-West Nigeria

Authors: K.T Alade, A.F Lawal, A.A Omonori


Construction is an everlasting activity across the globe. Likewise, the problem of delay in the construction industry is a global phenomenon. Although there are several reasons that may be responsible for delay during construction, this may vary from place to place and can be reduced to the minimum when identified. This study considered the major causes and effects of delay in the execution of construction projects in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Using literatures, a total number of 30 causes of construction delays were identified. The convenient sampling technique was used to select sixty respondents for a survey. The respondents comprise twenty-two (22) clients, eighteen consultants (18) and twenty (20) contractors. The analyses of the primary data revealed that the three most important causes of delay in construction projects in Akure, Ondo State Nigeria are poor site management and supervision, inadequate contractors experience and client’s financial difficulties. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were given on how the causes and effects of delay in construction can be mitigated.

Keywords: Akure, causes, construction projects, delay, effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
3287 Eclectic Therapy in Approach to Clients’ Problems and Application of Multiple Intelligence Theory

Authors: Mohamed Sharof Mostafa, Atefeh Ahmadi


Most of traditional single modality psychotherapy and counselling approaches to clients’ problems are based on the application of one therapy in all sessions. Modern developments in these sciences focus on eclectic and integrative interventions to consider all dimensions of an issue and all characteristics of the clients. This paper presents and overview eclectic therapy and its pros and cons. In addition, multiple intelligence theory and its application in eclectic therapy approaches are mentioned.

Keywords: eclectic therapy, client, multiple intelligence theory, dimensions

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3286 Analysis of the Interference from Risk-Determining Factors of Cooperative and Conventional Construction Contracts

Authors: E. Harrer, M. Mauerhofer, T. Werginz


As a result of intensive competition, the building sector is suffering from a high degree of rivalry. Furthermore, there can be observed an unbalanced distribution of project risks. Clients are aimed to shift their own risks into the sphere of the constructors or planners. The consequence of this is that the number of conflicts between the involved parties is inordinately high or even increasing; an alternative approach to counter on that developments are cooperative project forms in the construction sector. This research compares conventional contract models and models with partnering agreements to examine the influence on project risks by an early integration of the involved parties. The goal is to show up deviations in different project stages from the design phase to the project transfer phase. These deviations are evaluated by a survey of experts from the three spheres: clients, contractors and planners. By rating the influence of the participants on specific risk factors it is possible to identify factors which are relevant for a smooth project execution.

Keywords: building projects, contract models, partnering, project risks

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
3285 The Impact of Client Leadership, Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) on Construction Project: A Case Study in UAE

Authors: C. W. F. Che Wan Putra, M. Alshawi, M. S. Al Ahbabi, M. Jabakhanji


The construction industry is a multi-disciplinary and multi-national industry, which has an important role to play within the overall economy of any country. There are major challenges to an improved performance within the industry. Particularly lacking is, the ability to capture the large amounts of information generated during the life-cycle of projects and to make these available, in the right format, so that professionals can then evaluate alternative solutions based on life-cycle analysis. The fragmented nature of the industry is the main reason behind the unavailability and ill utilisation of project information. The lack of adequately engaging clients and managing their requirements contributes adversely to construction budget and schedule overruns. This is a difficult task to achieve, particularly if clients are not continuously and formally involved in the design and construction process, which means that the design intent is left to designers that may not always satisfy clients’ requirements. Client lead is strongly recognised in bringing change through better collaboration between project stakeholders. However, one of the major challenges is that collaboration is operated under conventional procurement methods, which hugely limit the stakeholders’ roles and responsibilities to bring about the required level of collaboration. A research has been conducted with a typical project in the UAE. A qualitative research work was conducted including semi-structured interviews with project partners to discover the real reasons behind this delay. The case study also investigated the real causes of the problems and if they can be adequately addressed by BIM and IPD. Special focus was also placed on the Client leadership and the role the Client can play to eliminate/minimize these problems. It was found that part of the ‘key elements’ from which the problems exist can be attributed to the client leadership and the collaborative environment and BIM.

Keywords: client leadership, building information modelling (BIM), integrated project delivery (IPD), case study

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3284 Rewriting, Reframing, and Restructuring the Story: A Narrative and Solution Focused Therapy Approach to Family Therapy

Authors: Eman Tadros


Solution Focused Therapy sheds a positive light on a client’s problem(s) by instilling hope, focusing on the connection with the client, and describing the problem in a way to display change being possible. Solution focused therapists highlight clients’ positive strengths, reframe what clients say, do, or believe in a positive statement, action, or belief. Narrative Therapy focuses on the stories individuals tell about their past in which shape their current and future lives. Changing the language used aids clients in reevaluating their values and views of themselves, this then constructs a more positive way of thinking about their story. Both therapies are based on treating each client as an individual with a problem rather than that the individual is a problem and being able to give power back to the client. The purpose of these ideologies is to open a client to alternative understandings. This paper displays how clinicians can empower and identify their clients’ positive strengths and resiliency factors. Narrative and Solution-Focused Techniques will be integrated to instill positivity and empowerment in clients. Techniques such as deconstruction, collaboration, complimenting, miracle/exception/scaling questioning will be analyzed and modeled. Furthermore, bridging Solution Focused Therapy and Narrative Therapy gives a voice to unheard client(s).

Keywords: solution focused therapy, narrative therapy, empowerment, resilience

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
3283 Causes and Impacts of Rework Costs in Construction Projects

Authors: Muhammad Ejaz1


Rework has been defined as: "The unnecessary effort of re-doing a process or activity that was incorrectly implemented the first time." A great threat to the construction industry is rework. By and large due attention has not been given to avoid the causes of reworks, resulting time and cost over runs, in civil engineering projects. Besides these direct consequences, there might also be indirect consequences, such as stress, de-motivation or loss of future clients. When delivered products do not meet the requirements or expectations, work often has to be redone. Rework occurs in various phases of the construction process or in various divisions of a company. Rework can occur on the construction site or in a management department due to for example bad materials management. Rework can also have internal or external origins. Changes in clients’ expectations are an example of an external factor that might lead to rework. Rework can cause many costs to be higher than calculated at the start of the project. Rework events can have many different origins and for this research they have been categorized into four categories; changes, errors, omissions, and damages. The research showed that the major source of reworks were non professional attitude from technical hands and ignorance of total quality management principals by stakeholders. It also revealed that sources of reworks have not major differences among project categories. The causes were further analyzed by interviewing employees. Based on existing literature an extensive list of rework causes was made and during the interviews the interviewees were asked to confirm or deny statements regarding rework causes. The causes that were most frequently confirmed can be grouped into the understanding categories. 56% (max) of the causes are change-related, 30% (max) is error-related and 18% (max) falls into another category. Therefore, by recognizing above mentioned factors, reworks can be reduced to a great extent.

Keywords: total quality management, construction industry, cost overruns, rework, material management, client’s expectations

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
3282 The Utilisation of Storytelling as a Therapeutic Intervention by Educational Psychologists to Address Behavioural Challenges Relating to Grief of Adolescent Clients

Authors: Laila Jeebodh Desai


Storytelling as a therapeutic intervention entails the narrating of events by externalising emotions, thoughts and responses to life-changing events such as loss and grief. This creates the opportunity for clients to engage with psychologists by projecting various beliefs and challenges, such as grief, through a range of therapeutic modalities. This study conducts an inquiry into the ways in which storytelling can be utilised by educational psychologists with adolescent clients to address behavioural challenges relating to grief. This qualitative study therefore aims to facilitate an understanding of the use and benefits of storytelling as a therapeutic intervention. This has been achieved by examining interviews with four educational psychologists who have utilised storytelling as a therapeutic intervention with adolescent clients to overcome challenges with grief. The participants (educational psychologists) discussed case studies during interviews, which provided evidence of their practical administration of storytelling as a therapeutic intervention incorporating integrated theoretical approaches through the use of blended therapeutic techniques. Behavioural challenges relating to grief were also predominant in the case study information provided by the participants. The participants further confirmed that the term ‘grief’ included different types of loss that were experienced among adolescent clients. The implications and recommendations of the findings encouraged the utilisation of storytelling as a therapeutic intervention with adolescent clients in addressing behavioural challenges related to grief, based on the outcome of the case studies discussed by the participants.

Keywords: storytelling, therapeutic intervention, adolescents, grief

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3281 Effects of Main Contractors’ Service Quality on Subcontractors’ Behaviours and Project Outcomes

Authors: Zhuoyuan Wang, Benson T. H. Lim, Imriyas Kamardeen


Effective service quality management has long been touted as a means of improving project and organisational performance. Particularly, in construction projects, main contractors are often seen as a broker between clients and subcontractors, and their service quality is thus associated with the overall project affinity and outcomes. While a considerable amount of research has focused on the aspect of clients-main contractors, very little research has been done to explore the effect of contractors’ service quality on subcontractors’ behaviours and so project outcomes. In addressing this gap, this study surveyed 97 subcontractors in the Chinese Construction industry and data was analysed using the Partial Least Square (PLS) Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique. The overall findings reveal that subcontractors categorised main contractors’ service quality into three dimensions: assurance; responsiveness; reliability and empathy. Of these, it is found that main contractors’ ‘assurance’ and ‘responsiveness’ positively influence subcontractors’ intention to engage in contractual behaviours. The results further show that the subcontractors’ intention to engage in organizational citizenship behaviours is associated with how flexible and committed the main contractors are in reliability and empathy. Collectively, both subcontractors’ contractual and organizational citizenship behaviours positively influence the overall project outcomes. In conclusion, the findings inform contractors different strategies towards managing and gaining subcontractors’ behaviour commitment in a socially connected, yet complex and uncertain, business environment.

Keywords: construction firms, organisational citizenship behaviour, service quality, social exchange theory

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3280 Alpha-Theta a Non-Invasive Treatment for the Self-Exploration of Individuals with Conversion Disorder in Pakistani Society

Authors: Muhammad Tahir Khalily


Aim: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of alpha-theta brainwave Neuro feedback treatment for the internal self-exploration of individuals with conversion disorder. Method: A Purposive sample technique was used and data collected from Kalsoom International Hospital Islamabad and Al-Malik Medical Center Rawalpindi. 123 participants were examined, Male child = 5, female child = 6, male adult = 64, female adult = 48. This study retrospectively examined the symptomatic changes in clients with a range of psychiatric disorders particularly 13 (Male = 3, Female = 10) conversion disorder clients who have received Neuro feedback treatment. Results: Our results indicated a significant improvement (P < .001) in the amelioration of our clients’ symptoms which have enabled them to bring their emotional memories into conscious awareness for the peaceful resolution without self-detachment. Conclusion: Majority of the clients improved their psychiatric symptoms including the symptoms of conversion disorder and was discharged from therapy with the accomplishment of therapeutic goals.

Keywords: EEG, neurofeedback, conversion, therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
3279 Sexual Health Experiences of Older Men: Health Care Professionals' Perspectives

Authors: Andriana E. Tran, Anna Chur-Hansen


Sexual health is an important aspect of overall wellbeing. This study aimed to explore the sexual health experiences of men aged 50 years and over from the perspective of health care professional participants who were specializing in sexual health care and who consulted with older men. A total of ten interviews were conducted. Eleven themes were identified regarding men’s experiences with sexual health care as reported by participants. 1) Biologically focused: older male clients focus largely on the biological aspect of their sexual health without consideration of other factors which might affect their functioning. 2) Psychological concerns: there is an interaction between mental and sexual health but older male clients do not necessarily see this. 3) Medicalization of sexual functioning: advances in medicine that aid with erectile difficulties which consequently mean that older men tend to favor a medical solution to their sexual concerns. 4) Masculine identity: sexual health concerns are linked to older male clients’ sense of masculinity. 5) Penile functionality: most concerns that older male clients have center on their penile functionality. 6) Relationships: many male clients seek sexual help as they believe it improves relationships. Conversely, having supportive partners may mean older male clients focus less on the physicality of sex. 7) Grief and loss: men experience grief and loss – the loss of their sexual functioning, grief from loss of a long-term partner, and loss of intimacy and privacy when moving from independent living to residential care. 8) Social stigma: older male clients experience stigma around aging sexuality and sex in general. 9) Help-seeking behavior: older male clients will usually seek mechanistic solution for biological sexual concerns, such as medication used for penile dysfunction. 10) Dismissed by health care professionals: many older male clients seek specialist sexual health care without the knowledge of their doctors as they feel dismissed due to lack of expertise, lack of time, and the doctor’s personal attitudes and characteristics. Finally, 11) Lack of resources: there is a distinct lack of resources and training to understand sexuality for healthy older men. These findings may inform future research, professional training, public health campaigns and policies for sexual health in older men.

Keywords: ageing, biopsychosocial model, men's health, sexual health

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3278 Rising STI Prevalence among MSM Clients in Calabar, Nigeria: A Call to Action

Authors: Ugoh Kelechi Melford, Anene O.


Introduction: Evidence has shown that there are increasing rates of new HIV and other STI infections occurring among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) in Nigeria, with the prevalence 3 times higher than the general population as reported by the 2011 National Integrated Bio Behavioral Surveillance Survey. The poor state of health care and support services hinders our effort to control the high rates of these new infections among MSM. Methods: The Initiative for Improved Male Health (IMH-Initiative) works to provide a safe space for young MSM living with HIV to access comprehensive palliative care and support, as well as referrals for other services through drama and dance competitions. An STI assessment was conducted in IMH-Initiative’s Community Center in Calabar, for gay men and other MSM. An STI history was conducted for all clients who visited the community clinic specifically for HCT and STI counseling and referrals within a 5 month period, and their data were collated. Results: 61 MSM were diagnosed, and reported the following in the last 6 months. 49 where living with HIV. 46 had previous histories of untreated anal warts. 20 had previous histories of treated Gonorrhea by self-medication and herbs. 21 had untreated boils and rashes around the genitals. 10 clients where living with HIV, and reported untreated penile and rectal gonorrhea. All clients indicated that there were not comfortable discussing STI infections with staff of public hospitals. Conclusion: It is evident that a reasonable number of STI infections among MSM are not completely treated or ignored. This thereby increases the individual’s risk of HIV infection, and cripples HIV prevention programming in Nigeria. HIV programs targeting MSM must incorporate STI syndromic management, so as to increase access to non-stigmatized diagnosis and treatment of STIs. Also, access to STI drugs for clients cannot be overemphasized.

Keywords: MSM, IBBSS, STI, IMH

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3277 Bank Customers' Satisfaction, Customers' Loyalty and Additional Purchases of Banking Products and Services: A Case Study from the Czech Republic

Authors: Jaroslav Belás, Anna Chochoľáková, Lenka Gabčová


The aim of this article was to examine and quantify the dependence of additional purchases of banking products from customer loyalty and dependence of bank clients’ loyalty on the customers’ satisfaction. In this context, in our research from 2014, the respondents were divided into satisfied (loyal) and dissatisfied (disloyal) banking clients and their attitudes in the area of loyalty and additional purchases of banking products were compared. The differences in attitudes were examined by means of Pearson statistics. It was found out that satisfied customers compared with those dissatisfied clients significantly more advise their bank to their friends, also they often consider that they would use their bank in the future, they are more resistant to the offers from the other banks as well. Loyal customers are more interested in the services of their own banks when considering investments in the financial market, keep their savings in their own bank, take out a mortgage loan from their own bank and use other banking products and services offered by their own bank as well. According to the results of our research, with the different intensities the loyalty of customers is transforming into a potential purchase of additional banking products. The greatest potential interest of the bank customers was in keeping their own savings in the bank and mortgage loans. The intensity of interest in the purchase of financial investments and other products was relatively low.

Keywords: commercial bank, bank customers’ satisfaction, loyalty of bank clients, additional purchases of banking products and services

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3276 Predictors of Lost to Follow-Up among HIV Patients Attending Anti-Retroviral Therapy Treatment Centers in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwasina Folajinmi, Kate Ssamulla, Penninah Lutung, Daniel Reijer


Background: Despite of well-verified benefits of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in prolonging life expectancy being lost to follow-up (LTFU) presents a challenge to the success of ART programs in resource limited countries like Nigeria. In several studies of ART programs in developing countries, researchers have reported that there has been a high rate of LTFU among patients receiving care and treatment at ART treatment centers. This study seeks to determine the cause of LTFU among HIV clients. Method: A descriptive cross sectional study focused on a population of 9,280 persons living with HIV/AIDS who were enrolled in nine treatment centers in Nigeria (both pre-ART and ART patients were included). Out of the total population, 1752 (18.9%) were found to be LTFU. Of this group we randomly selected 1200 clients (68.5%) their d patients’ information was generated through a database. Data on demographics and CD4 counts, causes of LTFU were analyzed and summarized. Results: Out of 1200 LTFU clients selected, 462 (38.5%) were on ART; 341 clients (73.8%) had CD4 level < 500cell/µL and 738 (61.5%) on pre-ART had CD4 level >500/µL. In our records we found telephone number for 675 (56.1%) of these clients. 675 (56.1%) were owners of a phone. The majority of the client’s 731 (60.9%) were living at not more than 25km away from the ART center. A majority were females (926 or 77.2%) while 274 (22.8%) were male. 675 (56.1%) clients were reported traced via telephone and home address. 326 (27.2%) of clients phone numbers were not reachable; 173 (14.4%) of telephone numbers were incomplete. 71 (5.9%) had relocated due to communal crises and expert client trackers reported that some patient could not afford transportation to ART centers. Conclusion: This study shows that, low health education levels, poverty, relocations and lack of reliable phone contact were major predictors of LTFU. Periodic updates of home addresses, telephone contacts including at least two next of kin, phone text messages and home visits may improve follow up. Early and consistent tracking of missed appointments is crucial. Creation of more ART decentralized centres are needed to avoid long distances.

Keywords: anti-retroviral therapy, HIV/AIDS, predictors, lost to follow up

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3275 Mobile Cloud Application in Design Build Bridge Construction

Authors: Meng Sun, Bin Wei


In the past decades, design-build has become a more popular project delivery system especially for the large scaled infrastructure project in North America. It provides a one-stop shopping system for the client therefore improves the efficiency of construction, and reduces the risks and overall cost for the clients. Compared to the project with traditional delivery method, design-build project requires contractor and designer to work together efficiently to deliver the best-value solutions through the construction process. How to facilitate a solid integration and efficient interaction between contractor and designer often affects the schedule, budget and quality of the construction therefore becomes a key factor to the success of a design-build project. This paper presents a concept of using modern mobile cloud technology to provide an integrated solution during the design-build construction. It uses mobile cloud architecture to provide a platform for real-time field progress, change request approval, job progress log, and project time entry with devices integration for field information and communications. The paper uses a real filed change notice as an example to demonstrate how mobile cloud technology applies in a design-build project and how it can improve the project efficiency.

Keywords: cloud, design-build, field change notice, mobile application

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
3274 Cold Tomato Paste as an Alternative Therapy for Elderly Clients with Exacerbation of Arthritis

Authors: Mary Therese G. Caluna, Mark Justin B. Campanero, Erlin Maris T. Cantiller, Claudine Mae A. Cantillo, Nerissa L. Caño


Objective: The study determined the effectiveness of cold tomato paste in relieving pain caused by exacerbation of arthritis in the elderly, specifically on clients 60 years old and above. The study focused on alternative, cost-effective and non-pharmacological techniques in relieving pain experienced by the older people with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Using purposive non-probability sampling, the researchers gathered a total number of 40 subjects that passed the inclusion criteria provided by the researchers. The subjects were divided into two groups, experimental group (20 subjects) and control groups (20 subjects). The Numeric Rating 11-point Scale (NRS-11) was utilized to assess the pain level of the subject prior the application of the treatment and after the application of the treatment. Key findings: There is a significant difference in the pain levels of the experimental group before and after the application of cold tomato paste. This indicates that that the application of cold tomato paste alleviates the pain experienced by elderly clients with exacerbation of arthritis. Conclusion: The effectiveness of cold tomato paste in relieving pain experienced by elderly clients who are in exacerbation of arthritis was proven to be evidence-based. The cold tomato paste application has significant impact in the field of nursing and therefore, can be used in both clinical trials and practices. The effectiveness of cold tomato application promotes innovation in the field of nursing, thus encouraging further researches regarding other uses of tomato and other herbal interventions to relieve the pain caused by osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: alternative therapy, arthritis, cold tomato paste, elderly clients, exacerbation

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3273 A Co-Relational Descriptive Study to Assess the Impact of Cancer Event on Self, Family, Coping Level of Cancer Clients and Quality of Life among Them

Authors: Padma Sree Potru


Abstract: A co-relational descriptive study was conducted to assess the impact of cancer event on self, on family, coping strategies of cancer clients and quality of life among them in G.G.H., Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of cancer events on self, on family, coping of clients and quality of life among cancer patients. Methods: 50 cancer patients were selected through random sampling technique. The data were obtained by using impact of events scale, impact on family scale, coping health inventory and WHOQOL-BREF scale. Results: The results revealed that majority (32%) of them were in the age group of 36-45 years, 72% were females, 44% were having the income of Rs. 5001-10000/- per month, 40% were working for daily wage, and 15% were newly diagnosed of cancer. Among 50 cancer patients, 65% had extreme impact of events, 61% shows extreme impact on family, 46% possess minimal coping strategies and 68% had poor quality of life. This study focuses on that there is a strong positive correlation between quality of life and coping behavior r=0.603 and also between impact of event and impact on family r=0.610, but a negative correlation existed between quality of life and impact of events r= -0.201. ANOVA test reveals that there is a significant difference between subscales of impact on family and coping behavior with f values = 3.893, 3.957 respectively. Chi-square highlights that there is a significant association between impact of events with age, occupation and impact on family with duration of illness. Conclusion: Even though cancer is a dreadful disease still there are many emerging treatment modalities and innovative procedures which are focusing on improving the standards of life among cancer clients. But all this can happen only when the clients accepts the reality, increase their willpower and confidence, desire to live, focusing on coping mechanisms and good ongoing support from the family members.

Keywords: impact of event, impact on family, coping, quality of event

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3272 Infection Prevention Techniques as a Hallmark of Quality Service Provision in Family Planning Outreach during Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Elvis Ume


Background: Mobile FP Service provision strategically brings Providers closer to high un-met need communities, thereby presenting opportunities to serve and to cause harm. Mariestopes Outreach strategy was aimed at achieving service provision devoid of harm to the clients. Highturnout of clients at sites can task a mobile team beyond their readiness; hence quality can be compromised, resulting in harm to clients. Mariestopes has recorded progress in harm reduction. Methodology The Outreach teammoves with mobile hand washing equipment to sites enforcing staff and clients to use same, including PPEs.Instrument sterilization adheres to MoH standard of 0.5% chlorine solution, including proper hand Hygiene, proper handling of sharp items, environmental cleanliness, Proper waste segregation/ disposal, Aseptic technique, properStorage and traveling with enoughautoclaved insertion kits for each method of family planning per day, avoiding crowds by strictly observing social distancing at all time and educating all clients on how to keep the insertion site free from infestation. Outreach team members undergo thorough clinical competency assessment and a continuous supportive supervisory visit. YearlyInternal quality technical assessment is conducted using a designed checklist as a tool to ascertain their technical skills, clinical governance, infection prevention skills, medical emergency management, storage of consumables, and documentation skill. Result: Out of 16,601 clients served between January to September 2020, 50 infection related incidents were reported, which is 0.30% of the total women served. 24 and 26 of the incidents reported were Minor and moderate incidents; respectively, no critical incident was recorded. All Outreach Service Providers attained competency level 1. Conclusion: Proper and consistent application of MSION clinical quality standard by the outreach team has given room for minute infection related incidents, more satisfied clients, and success stories.

Keywords: Family Planning Service Provision, Clinical Quality, COVID 19 Pandemic, Infection Prevention Techniques

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3271 An Evaluation Study of Sleep and Sleep-Related Factors in Clinic Clients with Sleep Difficulties

Authors: Chi-Feng Lai, Wen-Chun Liao Liao


Many people are bothered by sleep difficulties in Taiwan’s society. However, majority of patients get medical treatments without a comprehensive sleep assessment. It is still a big challenge to formulate a comprehensive assessment of sleep difficulties in clinical settings, even though many assessment tools have existed in literature. This study tries to implement reliable and effective ‘comprehensive sleep assessment scales’ in a medical center and to explore differences in sleep-related factors between clinic clients with or without sleep difficulty complaints. The comprehensive sleep assessment (CSA) scales were composed of 5 dimensions: ‘personal factors’, ‘physiological factors’, ‘psychological factors’, ‘social factors’ and ‘environmental factors, and were first evaluated by expert validity and 20 participants with test-retest reliability. The Content Validity Index (CVI) of the CSA was 0.94 and the alpha of the consistency reliability ranged 0.996-1.000. Clients who visited sleep clinic due to sleep difficulties (n=32, 16 males and 16 females, ages 43.66 ±14.214) and gender-and age- matched healthy subjects without sleep difficulties (n=96, 47 males and 49 females, ages 41.99 ±13.69) were randomly recruited at a ratio of 1:3 (with sleep difficulties vs. without sleep difficulties) to compare their sleep and the CSA factors. Results show that all clinic clients with sleep difficulties did have poor sleep quality (PSQI>5) and mild to moderate daytime sleepiness (ESS >11). Personal factors of long working hours (χ2= 10.315, p=0.001), shift workers (χ2= 8.964, p=0.003), night shift (χ2=9.395, p=0.004) and perceived stress (χ2=9.503, p=0.002) were disruptors of sleep difficulties. Physiological factors from physical examination including breathing by mouth, low soft palate, high narrow palate, Edward Angle, tongue hypertrophy, and occlusion of the worn surface were observed in clinic clients. Psychological factors including higher perceived stress (χ2=32.542, p=0.000), anxiety and depression (χ2=32.868, p=0.000); social factors including lack of leisure activities (χ2=39.857, p=0.000), more drinking habits (χ2=1.798, p=0.018), irregular amount and frequency in meals (χ2=5.086, p=0.024), excessive dinner (χ2=21.511, p=0.000), being incapable of getting up on time due to previous poor night sleep (χ2=4.444, p=0.035); and environmental factors including lights (χ2=7.683, p=0.006), noise (χ2=5.086, p=0.024), low or high bedroom temperature (χ2=4.595, p=0.032) were existed in clients. In conclusion, the CSA scales can work as valid and reliable instruments for evaluating sleep-related factors. Findings of this study provide important reference for assessing clinic clients with sleep difficulties.

Keywords: comprehensive sleep assessment, sleep-related factors, sleep difficulties

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3270 Lessons-Learned in a Post-Alliance Framework

Authors: Olubukola Olumuyiwa Tokede, Dominic D. Ahiaga-Dagbui, John Morrison


The project environment in construction has been widely criticised for its inability to learn from experience effectively. As each project is bespoke, learning is ephemeral, as it is often confined within its bounds and seldom assimilated with others that are being delivered in the project environment. To engender learning across construction projects, collaborative contractual arrangements, such as alliancing and partnering, have been embraced to aid the transferability of lessons across projects. These cooperative arrangements, however, tend to be costly, and hence construction organisations could revert to less expensive traditional procurement approaches after successful collaborative project delivery. This research, therefore, seeks to assess the lessons-learned in a post-alliance contractual framework. Using a case-study approach, we examine the experiences of a public sector authority who engaged a project facilitator to foster learning during the delivery of a significant piece of critical infrastructure. It was found that the facilitator enabled optimal learning outcomes in post-alliance contractual frameworks by attenuating the otherwise adversarial relationship between clients and contractors. Further research will seek to assess the effectiveness of different knowledge-brokering agencies in construction projects.

Keywords: facilitation, knowledge-brokering, learning, projects

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3269 The Successful in Construction Project via Effectiveness of Project Team

Authors: Zarabizan Zakaria, Hayati Zainal


The construction industry is one of the most important sectors that contribute to the nation’s economy and catalyze towards the growth of other industries. However, some construction projects have not been completed on its stipulated time and duration, scope and budget due to several factors. This problem arises due to the weaknesses of human factors, especially from ineffective leadership quality practiced by project managers and contractors in managing project teams. Therefore, a construction project should impose the element of Project Team. The project team is formed in the implementation of the project which includes the project brief, project scope, customer requirements and provided designs. Many organizations in the construction sector use teams to meet today's global competition and customer expectations, however, team effectiveness evaluation is required. In insuring the construction team is successful and effectiveness, the construction department must encourage, measure, set up, and evaluate or review the effectiveness of project team that was formed. In order to produce a better outcome for a high-end project, an effective and efficient project team is required which also help in increasing overall productivity. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of team effectiveness in the construction project team based on the overall construction project performance. It examines several different factors which related to team effectiveness. It also examines the relationship between team effectiveness factor and project performance aspect. Team Effect Review and Project Performance Review are developed to be used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using several statistical tests. Results obtained from data analysis are validated using semi-structured interviews. Besides that, a comprehensive survey were developed to assess the way construction project teams in order to maintain its effectiveness throughout the project phase. In order to determine a project successful it has been found that Project Team Leadership is the most important factor. In addition, the definition of team effectiveness in the construction project team is developed based on the perspective of project clients and project team members. The results of this study are expected to provide an idea on the factors that are needed to be focused on improving the team's effectiveness towards project performance aspects. At the same time, the definition of team effectiveness from team members and owner views has been developed in order to provide a better understanding of the word team's effectiveness in construction projects.

Keywords: project team, leadership, construction project, project successful

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3268 Evaluations of 3D Concrete Printing Produced in the Environment of United Arab Emirates

Authors: Adil K. Tamimi, Tarig Ali, Rawan Anoohi, Ahmed Rajput, Kaltham Alkamali


3D concrete printing is one of the most innovative and modern techniques in the field of construction that achieved several milestones in that field for the following advantages: saving project’s time, ability to execute complicated shapes, reduce waste and low cost. However, the concept of 3D printing in UAE is relatively new where construction teams, including clients, consultants, and contractors, do not have the required knowledge and experience in the field. This is the most significant obstacle for the construction parties, which make them refrained from using 3D concrete printing compared to conventional concreting methods. This study shows the historical development of the 3D concrete printing, its advantages, and the challenges facing this innovation. Concrete mixes and materials have been proposed and evaluated to select the best combination for successful 3D concrete printing. The main characteristics of the 3D concrete printing in the fresh and hardened states are considered, such as slump test, flow table, compressive strength, tensile, and flexural strengths. There is need to assess the structural stability of the 3D concrete by testing the bond between interlayers of the concrete.  

Keywords: 3D printing, workability, compressive strength, robots, dimensions

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3267 Resource Leveling Optimization in Construction Projects of High Voltage Substations Using Nature-Inspired Intelligent Evolutionary Algorithms

Authors: Dimitrios Ntardas, Alexandros Tzanetos, Georgios Dounias


High Voltage Substations (HVS) are the intermediate step between production of power and successfully transmitting it to clients, making them one of the most important checkpoints in power grids. Nowadays - renewable resources and consequently distributed generation are growing fast, the construction of HVS is of high importance both in terms of quality and time completion so that new energy producers can quickly and safely intergrade in power grids. The resources needed, such as machines and workers, should be carefully allocated so that the construction of a HVS is completed on time, with the lowest possible cost (e.g. not spending additional cost that were not taken into consideration, because of project delays), but in the highest quality. In addition, there are milestones and several checkpoints to be precisely achieved during construction to ensure the cost and timeline control and to ensure that the percentage of governmental funding will be granted. The management of such a demanding project is a NP-hard problem that consists of prerequisite constraints and resource limits for each task of the project. In this work, a hybrid meta-heuristic method is implemented to solve this problem. Meta-heuristics have been proven to be quite useful when dealing with high-dimensional constraint optimization problems. Hybridization of them results in boost of their performance.

Keywords: hybrid meta-heuristic methods, substation construction, resource allocation, time-cost efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 63