Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 364

Search results for: constituents

364 Identifying Knowledge Gaps in Incorporating Toxicity of Particulate Matter Constituents for Developing Regulatory Limits on Particulate Matter

Authors: Ananya Das, Arun Kumar, Gazala Habib, Vivekanandan Perumal


Regulatory bodies has proposed limits on Particulate Matter (PM) concentration in air; however, it does not explicitly indicate the incorporation of effects of toxicities of constituents of PM in developing regulatory limits. This study aimed to provide a structured approach to incorporate toxic effects of components in developing regulatory limits on PM. A four-step human health risk assessment framework consists of - (1) hazard identification (parameters: PM and its constituents and their associated toxic effects on health), (2) exposure assessment (parameters: concentrations of PM and constituents, information on size and shape of PM; fate and transport of PM and constituents in respiratory system), (3) dose-response assessment (parameters: reference dose or target toxicity dose of PM and its constituents), and (4) risk estimation (metric: hazard quotient and/or lifetime incremental risk of cancer as applicable). Then parameters required at every step were obtained from literature. Using this information, an attempt has been made to determine limits on PM using component-specific information. An example calculation was conducted for exposures of PM2.5 and its metal constituents from Indian ambient environment to determine limit on PM values. Identified data gaps were: (1) concentrations of PM and its constituents and their relationship with sampling regions, (2) relationship of toxicity of PM with its components.

Keywords: air, component-specific toxicity, human health risks, particulate matter

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363 Determiner Phrase in Persian

Authors: Reza Morad Sahraei, Roghayeh Kazeminahad


Surveying the structure of NP in Persian, this article tries to show that most of NP constituents are either independent of each other or they are dependent to Determiner Phrase (=DP). The writer follows a uniform minimal analysis to illustrate the structural position of relevant constituents of DP, including Possessive Phrase, Ezafat Phrase and Quantifier Phrase, under the tree diagram. The most important point of this article is the claim that NP is mostly one of the dependents of DP. Hence, the final section of the article deals with and analyzes the structure of DP in Persian. The DP analysis undertaken in this article has some advantages. It can explain the internal relevance of all DP constituents and provides them all a uniform analysis. Also, the semantic importance of Persian genitive marker and its role in parsing is borne out.

Keywords: determiner phrase (DP), ezafat phrase (Ezaf P), noun phrase(NP), possessive phrase (PossP), quantifier phrase (QP)

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362 Affective Transparency in Compound Word Processing

Authors: Jordan Gallant


In the compound word processing literature, much attention has been paid to the relationship between a compound’s denotational meaning and that of its morphological whole-word constituents, which is referred to as ‘semantic transparency’. However, the parallel relationship between a compound’s connotation and that of its constituents has not been addressed at all. For instance, while a compound like ‘painkiller’ might be semantically transparent, it is not ‘affectively transparent’. That is, both constituents have primarily negative connotations, while the whole compound has a positive one. This paper investigates the role of affective transparency on compound processing using two methodologies commonly employed in this field: a lexical decision task and a typing task. The critical stimuli used were 112 English bi-constituent compounds that differed in terms of the effective transparency of their constituents. Of these, 36 stimuli contained constituents with similar connotations to the compound (e.g., ‘dreamland’), 36 contained constituents with more positive connotations (e.g. ‘bedpan’), and 36 contained constituents with more negative connotations (e.g. ‘painkiller’). Connotation of whole-word constituents and compounds were operationalized via valence ratings taken from an off-line ratings database. In Experiment 1, compound stimuli and matched non-word controls were presented visually to participants, who were then asked to indicate whether it was a real word in English. Response times and accuracy were recorded. In Experiment 2, participants typed compound stimuli presented to them visually. Individual keystroke response times and typing accuracy were recorded. The results of both experiments provided positive evidence that compound processing is influenced by effective transparency. In Experiment 1, compounds in which both constituents had more negative connotations than the compound itself were responded to significantly more slowly than compounds in which the constituents had similar or more positive connotations. Typed responses from Experiment 2 showed that inter-keystroke intervals at the morphological constituent boundary were significantly longer when the connotation of the head constituent was either more positive or more negative than that of the compound. The interpretation of this finding is discussed in the context of previous compound typing research. Taken together, these findings suggest that affective transparency plays a role in the recognition, storage, and production of English compound words. This study provides a promising first step in a new direction for research on compound words.

Keywords: compound processing, semantic transparency, typed production, valence

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361 Chemical Profiling of Farsetia Aegyptia Turra and Farsetia Longisiliqua Decne. and Their Chemosystematic Significance

Authors: Mona M. Marzouk, Ahmed Elkhateeb, Mona Elshabrawy, Mai M. Farid, Salwa A. Kawashty, EL-Sayed S. Abdel-Hameed, Sameh R. Hussein


The genus Farsetia Turra belongs to the family Brassicaceae and has approximately 30 accepted species distributed worldwide. Amongst them, Farsetia aegyptia Turra and Farsetia longisiliqua Decne. are two common species characteristic to the Egyptian flora. The present study considers the first characterization of the chemical constituents of F. longisiliqua, aiming to compare with those identified from the medicinal species (F. aegyptia). Additionally, the chemosystematic relationships between the two studied species were evaluated and highlight the medicinal importance for F. longisiliqua. The chemical profiling of their aqueous methanol extracts were carried out using the LC-ESI-MS technique and afforded 54 compounds belonging to different chemical groups. Flavonoids are the major constituents and are represented by 32 compounds (two C-glycosyl flavone, four flavones, and 26 flavonols). Their structural variations and common constituents confirmed the chemosystematic significance of the two species. Moreover, the flavonoid profiles showed major common constituents between the two investigated species, which predicted the medicinal importance of F. longisiliqua.

Keywords: brassicaceae, chemosystematics, farsetia, flavonoids, glucosinolates, LC-ESI-MS

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360 Antioxidant Activity and Chemical Constituents of Leaf Essential Oils of Pseuduvaria Monticola and Pseuduvaria Macrophylla (Annonaceae)

Authors: Hairin Taha, P. Narrima, M. A. Hapipah, A. M. Mustafa


The chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the leaf essential oils of Pseuduvaria monticola and Pseuduvaria macrophylla from the Annonaceae family were investigated. GC-TOFMS analyses identified 46 compounds from Pseuduvaria monticola and 11 compounds from Pseuduvaria macrophylla. The major constituents in the leaf essential oil of Pseuduvaria monticola were a-cadinol (13.0%), calamenene-cis (6.9%), alfa copaene (4%), and epizonarene (3.8%), while in the leaf essential oil of Pseuduvaria macrophylla were caryophyllene oxide (29.7%) and elimicin (28%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oils were determined using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). The present study suggests that both essential oils demonstrated good antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Pseuduvaria monticola, Pseuduvaria macrophylla, leaf essential oils, GC-MSTOF, antioxidant activity

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359 Comparation of Essential Oils Composition from the Leaves and Flowers of Salvia pratensis L.

Authors: Valerija Dunkić, Nada Bezić


Salvia is a genus of the well-known medicinal plant of Lamiaceae family and growing wild throughout the world. This abstract reports the comparation of the essential oils from leaves and flowers composition of Salvia pratensis L. from mountain Velebit, Croatia. Water distilled essential oils from aerial parts of investigation plant have been analysed by GC and GC/MS using VF-5ms capillary column. Fifty-three constituents, representing 99.4% of the leaf oil composition; 51 constituents, representing 86.8% of the flower oil composition. Essential oil yield varied from 0.9% to 1.3% in the leaf and flower parts of the plant. The flower essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of E-caryophyllene (21.9%) and germacrene D (10.2%). Major constituents of the leaf oil were linalool (17.7%), linalool acetate (15.3%) and limonene (9.8%). The comparative results clearly indicated that the leaf and flower oil compositions of S. pratensis were quite different in terms of major components content. The present study gives additional knowledge about secondary metabolites contents on the genus Salvia.

Keywords: essential oil, leaf, flower, Salvia pratensis L.

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358 Image Processing of Scanning Electron Microscope Micrograph of Ferrite and Pearlite Steel for Recognition of Micro-Constituents

Authors: Subir Gupta, Subhas Ganguly


In this paper, we demonstrate the new area of application of image processing in metallurgical images to develop the more opportunity for structure-property correlation based approaches of alloy design. The present exercise focuses on the development of image processing tools suitable for phrase segmentation, grain boundary detection and recognition of micro-constituents in SEM micrographs of ferrite and pearlite steels. A comprehensive data of micrographs have been experimentally developed encompassing the variation of ferrite and pearlite volume fractions and taking images at different magnification (500X, 1000X, 15000X, 2000X, 3000X and 5000X) under scanning electron microscope. The variation in the volume fraction has been achieved using four different plain carbon steel containing 0.1, 0.22, 0.35 and 0.48 wt% C heat treated under annealing and normalizing treatments. The obtained data pool of micrographs arbitrarily divided into two parts to developing training and testing sets of micrographs. The statistical recognition features for ferrite and pearlite constituents have been developed by learning from training set of micrographs. The obtained features for microstructure pattern recognition are applied to test set of micrographs. The analysis of the result shows that the developed strategy can successfully detect the micro constitutes across the wide range of magnification and variation of volume fractions of the constituents in the structure with an accuracy of about +/- 5%.

Keywords: SEM micrograph, metallurgical image processing, ferrite pearlite steel, microstructure

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357 Chemical Constituents and Biological Evaluation of Leaves Essential Oils of Vitex agnus-castus L. Growing in the Southern-West Algeria

Authors: Abdallah Habbab, Khaled Sekkoum, Nasser Belboukhari


Objective: This study is designed to examine the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex agnus-castus. Methods: The essential oils of dry leaves of Vitex agnus-castus L. were obtained by hydro-distillation, afforded oil in the yield of 5.5% and their volatile constituents were identified by GC/MS. Antioxidant activity of the sample was determined by test system DPPH. Antifungal activity was tested against three fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium escpansum and Aspergillus ochraceus) by direct contact method. Results: Forty-three compounds were identified, representing 98.02% of the oil. Major components of the oil were 1,8-cineole (18.27 %), caryophyllene (8.60 %), N-(M-fluorophenyl)-maleimide (6.30 %), (+)-epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (6.00 %), terpinen-4-ol (5.57 %), pyrrolo (3,2,1-jk) carbazole (5.43 %), caryophyllene oxide (4.79 %), and phenol (4.09 %). Conclusion: The chemical constituents in the essential oil from the locally grown Vitex agnus-castus were identified. Therefore, the essential oil of Vitex agnus-castus is an active candidate which would be used as antioxidant, or antifungal agent in new drugs preparation for therapy of diseases.

Keywords: Vitex agnus-castus, essential oil, GC/MS, DPPH, 1, 8-cineole

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356 Urban Dust Influence on the Foliar Surface and Biochemical Constituents of Selected Plants in the National Capital Region of Delhi, India

Authors: G. P. Gupta, B. Kumar, S. Singh, U. C. Kulshrestha


Very high loadings of atmospheric dust in the Indian region contribute to remarkably higher levels of particulate matter. During dry weather conditions which prevail most of the year, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces affecting their morphology, stomata and biochemical constituents. This study reports chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of two medicinal plants i.e. Morus (Morus alba) and Arjun (Terminalia arjuna) in the urban environment of National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi at two sites i.e. Jawaharlal Nehru University (residential) and Sahibabad (industrial). Atmospheric dust was characterized for major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--) and cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg++, Ca++) along with the biochemical parameters Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total soluble sugar, relative water content (RWC), pH, and ascorbic acid. The results showed that the concentrations of major ions in dustfall were higher at the industrial site as compared to the residential site due to the higher level of anthropogenic activities. Both the plant species grown at industrial site had significantly lower values of chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’, total chlorophyll, carotenoid but relatively higher values of total soluble sugar and ascorbic acid indicating stressful conditions due to industrial and vehicular emissions.

Keywords: dustfall, urban environment, biochemical constituents, atmospheric dust

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355 Dust Ion Acoustic Shock Waves in Dissipative Superthermal Plasmas

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad


In this paper, the properties of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma, whose constituents are inertial ions, superthermal electrons, and stationary dust particles, are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dissipation is taken into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is shown that the basic features of DIA shock waves are significantly modified by the effects of electron superthermality and ion kinematic viscosity.

Keywords: reductive perturbation method, dust ion acoustic shock wave, superthermal electron, dissipative plasmas

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354 Effects of Dietary Copper Supplementation on the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Authors: Muralisankar Thirunavukkarasu, Saravana Bhavan Periyakali, Santhanam Perumal


The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, enzymatic antioxidant and metabolic enzymes of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu was supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg-1 with the basal diets. Cu supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for a period of 90 days. At the end of the feeding experiment, 40 mg kg-1 Cu supplemented feeds fed PL showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement in survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities and concentrations of biochemical constituents. However, PL fed with 60 to 80 mg Cu kg-1 showed negative performance. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants, metabolic enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the muscle and hepatopancreas showed insignificant alterations (P > 0.05) up to 40 mg kg-1 Cu supplemented feeds fed PL. Whereas, 60 and 80 mg of Cu kg-1 supplemented feeds fed PL showed significant alterations on these antioxidants and metabolic enzymes levels. It indicates that beyond 40 mg Cu kg-1 diets were produced some toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, the present study suggests that 40 mg Cu kg-1 can be supplemented in the diets of M. rosenbergii PL for regulating better survival and growth.

Keywords: antioxidants, biochemical constituents, copper, growth, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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353 Chemical Variability in the Essential Oils from the Leaves and Buds of Syzygium Species

Authors: Rabia Waseem, Low Kah Hin, Najihah Mohamed Hashim


The variability in the chemical components of the Syzygium species essential oils has been evaluated. The leaves of Syzygium species have been collected from Perak, Malaysia. The essential oils extracted by using the conventional Hydro-distillation extraction procedure and analyzed by using Gas chromatography System attached with Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Twenty-seven constituents were found in Syzygium species in which the major constituents include: α-Pinene (3.94%), α-Thujene (2.16%), α-Terpineol (2.95%), g-Elemene (2.89%) and D-Limonene (14.59%). The aim of this study was the comparison between the evaluated data and existing literature to fortify the major variability through statistical analysis.

Keywords: chemotaxonomy, cluster analysis, essential oil, medicinal plants, statistical analysis

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352 The Application of Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching EFL Students to Understand Spoken Coinages: Based on an Experiment with Speakers of Russian

Authors: Ekaterina Lukianchenko


The present article addresses the nuances of teaching English vocabulary to Russian-speaking students. The experiment involving 39 participants aged 17 to 21 proves that the key to understanding spoken coinages is not only the knowledge of their constituents, but rather the understanding of the context and co-text. The volunteers who took part knew the constituents, but did not know the meaning of the words. The assumption of the authors consists in the fact that the structure of the concept has a direct relation with the form of the particular vocabulary unit, but its form is secondary to its meaning, if the word is a spoken coinage, which is partly proved by the fact that in modern slang words have multiple meanings, as well as one notion can have various embodiments that have virtually nothing in common. The choice of vocabulary items that youngsters use is not exactly arbitrary, but, even if complex nominals are taken into consideration, whose meaning seems clear, as it looks like a sum of their constituents’ meanings, they are still impossible to understand without any context or co-text, as a lot of them are idiomatic, non-transparent. It is further explained what methods might be effective in teaching students how to deal with new words they encounter in real-life situations and how student’s knowledge of vocabulary might be enhanced.

Keywords: spoken language, cognitive linguistics, complex nominals, nominals with the incorporated object, concept, EFL, communicative language teaching

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351 Spectroscopic Determination of Functionalized Active Principles from Coleus aromaticus Benth Leaf Extract Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Zharama M. Llarena


Green chemistry for plant extraction of active principles is the main interest of many researchers concerned with climate change. While classical organic solvents are detrimental to our environment, greener alternatives to ionic liquids are very promising for sustainable organic chemistry. This study focused on the determination of functional groups observed in the main constituents from the ionic liquid extracts of Coleus aromaticus Benth leaves using FT-IR Spectroscopy. Moreover, this research aimed to determine the best ionic liquid that can separate functionalized plant constituents from the leaves Coleus aromaticus Benth using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Coleus aromaticus Benth leaf extract in different ionic liquids, elucidated pharmacologically important functional groups present in major constituents of the plant, namely, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. In connection to distinctive appearance of functional groups in the spectrum and highest % transmittance, potassium chloride-glycerol is the best ionic liquid for green extraction.

Keywords: chlorogenic acid, coleus aromaticus, ionic liquid, rosmarinic acid

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350 Structure Elucidation of Isolated Active Compounds from Nigella sativa and Calotropis procera and Their Efficacy for Treatment of Asthma

Authors: Intisar S. A. Elzein


In Saudi Arabia parts of Nigella sativa, and Calotropis procera are commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cough, eczema and other diseases. The purpose of the study is to identify chemical constituents of Nigella sativa seed and Calotropis procera leave isolated by the bioassay guided fractionation process and find out their relevance to the alleged efficacy of the plant in treating asthma. The medicinal properties of both plants for asthma treatment referred to the rich abundance of thymoquinone and phytol compounds isolated from the essential oil of their seed and leave extracts, which they can form a part of molecules of vitamin K.

Keywords: asthma, Calotropis procera, chemical constituents, Nigella sativa, vitamin K

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349 Essential Oil Analysis of the Aerial Parts of Sideritis incana and Calamitha hispidula

Authors: Smain Amiraa, Hocine Laouerb, Fatima Benchikh-Amiraa, Guido Flaminic


The aerial parts of Sideritis incana and Calamintha hispidula at the flowering stage were submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger–type apparatus for 3 hours and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC coupled to GC-MS. The essential oil contained a total of 99 constituents for S. incana and 31 for C. hispidula representing 95.7% and 99.6 of the total oils, rerspectively. The mains components of S. incana oil were linalool (25.2), cedrol (13.7%), geraniol (7%) and α-terpineol (5.4%). The chemical constituents of the oil from C. hispidula were predominated by pulegone (43.2%), isomenthone (36%), piperitone (3.2%), limonene (2.6%) and 4-terpineol (2.5%). The results revealed that the oil of the plants is characterized by the presence of many important components which could be applied in food, pharmaceutical and perfume industry.

Keywords: essential oils, Calamintha hispidula, Sideritis incana, chemical and molecular engineering

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348 Progressive Changes in Physico-Chemical Constituent of Rainwater: A Case Study at Oyoko, a Rural Community in Ghana

Authors: J. O. Yeboah, K Aboraa, K. Kodom


The chemical and physical characteristics of rainwater harvested from a typical rooftop were progressively studied. The samples of rainwater collected were analyzed for pH, major ion concentrations, TDS, turbidity, conductivity. All the physicochemical constituents fell within the WHO guideline limits at some points as rainfall progresses except the pH. All the components of rainwater quality measured during the study showed higher concentrations during the early stages of rainfall and reduce as time progresses. There was a downward trend in terms of pH as rain progressed, with 18% of the samples recording pH below the WHO limit of 6.5-8.0. It was observed that iron concentration was above the WHO threshold value of 0.3 mg/l on occasions of heavy rains. The results revealed that most of physicochemical characteristics of rainwater samples were generally below the WHO threshold, as such, the rainwater characteristics showed satisfactory conditions in terms of physicochemical constituents.

Keywords: conductivity, pH, physicochemical, rainwater quality, TDS

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347 Bioactive, Nutritional and Heavy Metal Constituents of Some Edible Mushrooms Found in Abia State of Nigeria

Authors: I. C. Okwulehie, J. A. Ogoke


The phytocemical, mineral, proximate and heavy metals compositions of six edible and non-edible species of mushrooms were investigated. Fully fleshy mushrooms were used for the analysis. On the averagely, the bioactive constituents of the mushrooms were as follows Alkaloids 0.12 ± 0.02 – 1.01 ± 03 %, Tannins 0.44 ± 0.09 – 1.38 ± 0.6,). Phenols,(0.13 ± 0.01 – 0.26± 0.00, Saponins 0.14 ± 0.03 – 0.32 ± 0.04%, Flavonoids 0.08 ± 0.02 – 0.34 ± 0.02%. The result of proximate composition indicated that the mushroom contained (5.17 ± 0.06 – 12.28 ± 0.16% protein, 0.16 ± 0.02 – 0.67 ± 0.02% fats, 1.06 ± 0.03 – 8.49 ± 0.03 % fibre, (62.06 ± 0.52 – 80.01 ± 4.71% and carbohydrate. The mineral composition of the mushrooms were as follows, calcium 81.49 ± 2.32 - .914 ± 2.32mg/100g, Magnesium(8 ± 1.39-24 ± 2.40mg/100g, Potassium 64.54 ± 0.43 – 164.54 ± 1.23 mg/100g, sodium 9.47 ± 0.12 – 30.97 ± 0.16 mg/100g, and Phosphorus 22.19 ± 0.57-53.2± 0.44 mg/100g. Heavy metals concentration indicated Cadmium 0.7-0.94ppm. Zinc 27.82 – 70.98 ppm. Lead 0.66 – 2.86ppm and Copper 1.8-22.32ppm. The result obtained indicates that the mushrooms are of good sources of phytochemicals, proximate and minerals needed for maintenance of good health and can also be exploited in manufacture of drugs. Heavy metals obtained indicate that when consume intentionally in high content may cause liver, kidney damage and even death.

Keywords: bioactive, heavy metals, mushroom, nutritive

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346 Rhizome-Soaking with Plant-Derived Smoke-Water (Pdsw) And Karrikinolide Boosts the Essential-Oil Yield, Active Constituents and Leaf Physiological Parameters of Mentha Arvensis L

Authors: Sarika Singh, Moin Uddin, M. Masroor A. Khan, Aman Sobia Chishti, Sangram Singh, Urooj Hassan Bhatt


Mentha arvensis L. (Japanese mint) is a perennial plant carrying medicinal, aromatic, antiseptic, and anaesthetic properties. Plant-derived smoke-water (PDSW) plays a significant role in seed germination, seedling growth, and other physiological attributes. To ascertain the effect of PDSW and karrikinolide on Mentha arvensis L., a rhizome-soaking experiment was conducted on Mentha arvensis. Prior to planting, mint rhizomes were soaked for 24 hours with aqueous solutions of various concentrations of PDSW (1:125v/v, 1:250 v/v, 1:500 v/v, and 1:1000 v/v), karrikinolide (10-6M, 10⁻⁷M, 10⁻⁸M, and 10⁻⁹M) using double distilled water as control treatment. Rhizome soaking with 1:500 v/v concentration of PDSW and 10⁻⁸M concentration of KAR1 increased the growth attributes, including plant height, fresh weight, dry, leaf area, and leaf yield per plant of Mentha arvensis. Leaf physiological-parameters, viz. chlorophyll fluorescence, PSII activity, and total chlorophyll and carotenoid content, were also increased as a result of the application of this treatment PDSW (1:500 v/v) and KAR1 (10⁻⁸M). In addition, treatment with 1:500 v/v and 10⁻⁸M significantly increased the essential oil yield and active constituents of Mentha arvensis compared to the control. Results indicated that PDSW, being a cheap source of karrikins, might be successfully used to augment mint essential oil production.

Keywords: active constituents, essential oil, medicinal plant, mentha arvensis L

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345 Antibacterial and Antityrosinase Activity of Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Ficus platyphylla Del

Authors: Aminu Muhammad, Mustapha Ya’u, Hasnah Mohd Sirat


An investigation of the chemical constituents into the stem bark of Ficus platyphylla (Moraceae) has resulted in the isolation of hordenine, epicatechin, lupeol, lupeol acetate and α-amyrin acetate. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic data as well as comparison with literature data. The antibacterial assay has been tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, while the tyrosinase inhibition assay was examined using L-Dopa as a substrate of mushroom tyrosinase enzyme. hordenine, epicatechin, lupeol, lupeol acetate and α-amyrin acetate showed minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values in the range of 225-900 µg/mL against the bacterial strains. Lupeol, lupeol acetate and α-amyrin acetate showed significant antityrosinase activity against mushroom tyrosinase enzyme with percent inhibition of 67.7%, 66.2% and 62.2%, respectively.

Keywords: antibacterial, antityrosinase, chemical constituents, Ficus platyphylla

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344 Biophysical Features of Glioma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Potential Diagnostic Markers

Authors: Abhimanyu Thakur, Youngjin Lee


Glioma is a lethal brain cancer whose early diagnosis and prognosis are limited due to the dearth of a suitable technique for its early detection. Current approaches, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and invasive biopsy for the diagnosis of this lethal disease, hold several limitations, demanding an alternative method. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been used in numerous biomarker studies, majorly exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), which are found in most of the cells and biofluids, including blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine. Remarkably, glioma cells (GMs) release a high number of EVs, which are found to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and impersonate the constituents of parent GMs including protein, and lncRNA; however, biophysical properties of EVs have not been explored yet as a biomarker for glioma. We isolated EVs from cell culture conditioned medium of GMs and regular primary culture, blood, and urine of wild-type (WT)- and glioma mouse models, and characterized by nano tracking analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, immunogold-EM, and differential light scanning. Next, we measured the biophysical parameters of GMs-EVs by using atomic force microscopy. Further, the functional constituents of EVs were examined by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Exosomes and MVs-derived from GMs, blood, and urine showed distinction biophysical parameters (roughness, adhesion force, and stiffness) and different from that of regular primary glial cells, WT-blood, and -urine, which can be attributed to the characteristic functional constituents. Therefore, biophysical features can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for glioma.

Keywords: glioma, extracellular vesicles, exosomes, microvesicles, biophysical properties

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343 Antidiabetic Effect of Methanolic Leaves Extract and Isolated Constituents from Saraca Asoca

Authors: Sunil Kumar


Background: The present study was performed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the constituents isolated from Sarca asoca by enzyme inhibitory activity. Methods: The dried leaves of Sarca asoca were defatted with petroleum ether and further the same amount plant materials were extracted with methanol. The dried methanol extract was subjected to fractionation and chromatographic separation, which led to the isolation of kaemferol, β-sitosterol and quercetin stigmasterol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies as well as by comparison with the data available in the literature. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro enzyme inhibition effect. Results: The isolated compounds kaemferol, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol showed 45.32, 40.5 and 41.23% α-amylase inhibition respectively and 43.45, 39.29 and 32.43% α-glucosidase inhibition respectively at the conc. of 50 µg/kg. Conclusion: The compounds isolated from Sarca asoca showed in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity. So, Euphorbia hirta is a beneficial plant for management of diabetic disorders.

Keywords: diabetes, quercetin, sitosterol, stigmasterol

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342 Phytochemical Analysis of Some Solanaceous Plants of Chandigarh

Authors: Nishtha, Richa, Anju Rao


Plants are the source of herbal medicine and medicinal value of the plants lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce definite physiological effects on human body. Angiospermic families are known to produce such phytochemical constituents which are termed as secondary plant metabolites. These metabolites include alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and so on. Solanaceae is one of the important families of Angiosperms known for medicinally important alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, solanine, nicotine, capsaicin etc. Medicinally important species of this family mostly belong to the genera of Datura,Atropa,Solanum,Withania and Nicotiana.Six species such as Datura metel, Solanum torvum, Physalis minima, Cestrum nocturnum, Cestrum diurnum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia have been collected from different localities of Chandigarh and adjoining areas.Field and anatomical studies helped to identify the plants and their parts used for the study of secondary plant metabolites. Preliminary phytochemcial studies have been done on various parts of plants such as roots, stem and leaves by making aqueous and alcoholic extracts from their powdered forms which showed the presence of alkaloids in almost all the species followed by steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins etc. HPLC profiles of leaves of Datura metel showed the presence of active compounds such as scopalamine and hyoscyamine and Solanum torvum showed the presence of solanine and solasodine. These alkaloids are important source of drug based medicine used in pharmacognosy. The respective compounds help in treating vomiting, nausea, respiratory disorders, dizziness, asthma and many heart problems.

Keywords: alkaloids, flavanoids, phytochemical constituents, pharmacognosy, secondary metabolites

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341 Body Composition Analysis of Wild Labeo Bata in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Chenab, Multan, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Naveed Ahmad Khan


Seventy three wild Labeo bata of different body sizes, ranging from 8.20-16.00 cm total length and 7.4-86.19 g body weight, were studied for the analysis of body composition parameters (Water content, ash content, fat content, protein content) in relation to body size and condition factor. Mean percentage is found as for water 77.71 %, ash 3.42 %, fat 2.20 % and protein content 16.65 % in whole wet body weight. Highly significant positive correlations were observed between condition factor and body weight (r = 0.243). Protein contents, organic content and ash (% wet body weight) increase with increasing percent water contents for Labeo bata while these constituents (% dry body weight) and fat contents (% wet and dry body weight) have no influence on percent water. It was observed that variations in the body constituents have no association to body weight or length.

Keywords: Labeo bata, body size, body composition, condition factor

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340 Sea Level Characteristics Referenced to Specific Geodetic Datum in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Ahmed M. Khedr, Saad M. Abdelrahman, Kareem M. Tonbol


Two geo-referenced sea level datasets (September 2008 – November 2010) and (April 2012 – January 2014) were recorded at Alexandria Western Harbour (AWH). Accurate re-definition of tidal datum, referred to the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF-2014), was discussed and updated to improve our understanding of the old predefined tidal datum at Alexandria. Tidal and non-tidal components of sea level were separated with the use of Delft-3D hydrodynamic model-tide suit (Delft-3D, 2015). Tidal characteristics at AWH were investigated and harmonic analysis showed the most significant 34 constituents with their amplitudes and phases. Tide was identified as semi-diurnal pattern as indicated by a “Form Factor” of 0.24 and 0.25, respectively. Principle tidal datums related to major tidal phenomena were recalculated referred to a meaningful geodetic height datum. The portion of residual energy (surge) out of the total sea level energy was computed for each dataset and found 77% and 72%, respectively. Power spectral density (PSD) showed accurate resolvability in high band (1–6) cycle/days for the nominated independent constituents, except some neighbouring constituents, which are too close in frequency. Wind and atmospheric pressure data, during the recorded sea level time, were analysed and cross-correlated with the surge signals. Moderate association between surge and wind and atmospheric pressure data were obtained. In addition, long-term sea level rise trend at AWH was computed and showed good agreement with earlier estimated rates.

Keywords: Alexandria, Delft-3D, Egypt, geodetic reference, harmonic analysis, sea level

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339 Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Momordica cochinchinesis and Pinus kesiya Extracts

Authors: Pattaramon Pongjetpong


In recent years, infectious diseases have increased considerably, and they are amongst the most common leading causes of death all over the world. Several medicinal plants are well known to contain active constituents such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, which are plausible candidates for therapeutic purposes. This study aimed to examine the antimicrobial activities of M. cochinchinensis and P. kesiya extracts using the agar disk diffusion method and broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. In this study, Momordica cochinchinensis and Pinus kesiya extracts are investigated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that S. aureus was susceptible to P. kesiya extracts with an MIC value of 62.5 µg/ml, while M. cochinchinensis showed MIC against S. aureus was greater than 2000 µg/ml. In summary, P. kesiya extract showed potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus, which could greatly value developing as adjuvant therapy for infectious diseases. However, further investigation regarding purification of the active constituents as well as a determination of the mechanism of antimicrobial action of P. kesiya active compound should be performed to identify the molecular target of the active compounds.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Momordica cochinchinensis, Pinus kesiya, Staphylococcus aureus

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338 Knowledge Management and Motivation Management: Important Constituents of Firm Performance

Authors: Yassir Mahmood, Nadia Ehsan


In current research stream, empirical work regarding knowledge and motivation management along their dimensions is sparse. This study partially filled this void by investigating the influence of knowledge management (tacit and explicit) and motivation management (intrinsic and extrinsic) on firm performance with the mediating effects of innovative performance. Based on the quantitative research method, data were collected through questionnaire from 284 employees working in 18 different firms across the citrus industry located in Sargodha region (Pakistan). The proposed relationships were tested through regression analysis while mediation relations were analyzed through Barron and Kenny (1986) technique. The results suggested that knowledge management (KM) and motivation management (MM) have significant positive impacts on innovative performance (IP). In addition, the role of IP as full mediator between KM and firm performance (FP) is confirmed. Also, IP proved to be a partial mediator between MM and FP. From the managerial perspective, the findings of the study are vital as some of the important constituents of FP have been highlighted. The study produced important underpinnings for managers. In last, implications for policymakers along with future research directions are discussed.

Keywords: innovative performance, firm performance, knowledge management, motivation management, Sargodha

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337 Damage Mesomodel Based Low-Velocity Impact Damage Analysis of Laminated Composite Structures

Authors: Semayat Fanta, P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay


Damage meso-model for laminates is one of the most widely applicable approaches for the analysis of damage induced in laminated fiber-reinforced polymeric composites. Damage meso-model for laminates has been developed over the last three decades by many researchers in experimental, theoretical, and analytical methods that have been carried out in micromechanics as well as meso-mechanics analysis approaches. It has been fundamentally developed based on the micromechanical description that aims to predict the damage initiation and evolution until the failure of structure in various loading conditions. The current damage meso-model for laminates aimed to act as a bridge between micromechanics and macro-mechanics of the laminated composite structure. This model considers two meso-constituents for the analysis of damage in ply and interface that imparted from low-velocity impact. The damages considered in this study include fiber breakage, matrix cracking, and diffused damage of the lamina, and delamination of the interface. The damage initiation and evolution in laminae can be modeled in terms of damaged strain energy density using damage parameters and the thermodynamic irreversible forces. Interface damage can be modeled with a new concept of spherical micro-void in the resin-rich zone of interface material. The damage evolution is controlled by the damage parameter (d) and the radius of micro-void (r) from the point of damage nucleation to its saturation. The constitutive martial model for meso-constituents is defined in a user material subroutine VUMAT and implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit finite element modeling tool. The model predicts the damages in the meso-constituents level very accurately and is considered the most effective technique of modeling low-velocity impact simulation for laminated composite structures.

Keywords: mesomodel, laminate, low-energy impact, micromechanics

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336 In vitro Callus Production from Lantana Camara: A Step towards Biotransformation Studies

Authors: Maged El-Sayed Mohamed


Plant tissue culture practices are presented nowadays as the most promising substitute to a whole plant in the terms of secondary metabolites production. They offer the advantages of high production, tunability and they have less effect on plant ecosystems. Lantana camara is a weed, which is common all over the world as an ornamental plant. Weeds can adapt to any type of soil and climate due to their rich cellular machinery for secondary metabolites’ production. This characteristic is found in Lantana camara as a plant of very rich diversity of secondary metabolites with no dominant class of compounds. Aim: This trait has encouraged the author to develop tissue culture experiments for Lantana camara to be a platform for production and manipulation of secondary metabolites through biotransformation. Methodology: The plant was collected in its flowering stage in September 2014, from which explants were prepared from shoot tip, auxiliary bud and leaf. Different types of culture media were tried as well as four phytohormones and their combinations; NAA, 2,4-D, BAP and kinetin. Explants were grown in dark or in 12 hours dark and light cycles at 25°C. A metabolic profile for the produced callus was made and then compared to the whole plant profile. The metabolic profile was made using GC-MS for volatile constituents (extracted by n-hexane) and by HPLC-MS and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) for non-volatile constituents (extracted by ethanol and water). Results: The best conditions for the callus induction was achieved using MS media supplied with 30 gm sucrose and NAA/BAP (1:0.2 mg/L). Initiation of callus was favoured by incubation in dark for 20 day. The callus produced under these conditions showed yellow colour, which changed to brownish after 30 days. The rate of callus growth was high, expressed in the callus diameter, which reached to 1.15±0.2 cm in 30 days; however, the induction of callus delayed for 15 days. The metabolic profile for both volatile and non-volatile constituents of callus showed more simple background metabolites than the whole plant with two new (unresolved) peaks in the callus’ nonvolatile constituents’ chromatogram. Conclusion: Lantana camara callus production can be itself a source of new secondary metabolites and could be used for biotransformation studies due to its simple metabolic background, which allow easy identification of newly formed metabolites. The callus production gathered the simple metabolic background with the rich cellular secondary metabolite machinery of the plant, which could be elicited to produce valuable medicinally active products.

Keywords: capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, metabolic profile, plant tissue culture

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335 Role of Sodium Concentration, Waiting Time and Constituents’ Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete

Authors: Muhammet M. Erdem, Erdoğan Özbay, Ibrahim H. Durmuş, Mustafa Erdemir, Murat Bikçe, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı


In this paper, rheological behavior of alkali activated slag concretes were investigated depending on the sodium concentration (SC), waiting time (WT) after production, and constituents’ temperature (CT) parameters. For this purpose, an experimental program was conducted with four different SCs of 1.85, 3.0, 4.15, and 5.30%, three different WT of 0 (just after production), 15, and 30 minutes and three different CT of 18, 30, and 40 °C. Solid precursors are activated by water glass and sodium hydroxide solutions with silicate modulus (Ms = SiO2/Na2O) of 1. Slag content and (water + activator solution)/slag ratio were kept constant in all mixtures. Yield stress and plastic viscosity values were defined for each mixture by using the ICAR rheometer. Test results were demonstrated that all of the three studied parameters have tremendous effect on the yield stress and plastic viscosity values of the alkali activated slag concretes. Increasing the SC, WT, and CT drastically augmented the rheological parameters. At the 15 and 30 minutes WT after production, most of the alkali activated slag concretes were set instantaneously, and rheological measurements were not performed.

Keywords: alkali activation, slag, rheology, yield stress, plastic viscosity

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