Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 152

Search results for: computer-assisted anatomy

152 Surgical Applied Anatomy: Alive and Kicking

Authors: Jake Hindmarch, Edward Farley, Norman Eizenberg, Mark Midwinter

Abstract:

There is a need to bring the anatomical knowledge of medical students up to the standards required by surgical specialties. Contention exists amongst anatomists, clinicians, and surgeons about the standard of anatomical knowledge medical students need. The aim of this study was to explore the standards which the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons are applying knowledge of anatomy. Furthermore, to align medical school teaching to what the surgical profession requires from graduates.: The 2018 volume of the ANZ Journal of Surgery was narrowed down to 254 articles by applying the search term “Anatomy”. The main topic was then extracted from each paper. The content of the paper was assessed for ‘novel description’ or ‘application’ of anatomical knowledge’ and classified accordingly. The majority of papers with an anatomical focus was from the general surgery specialty, which focused on surgical techniques, outcomes and management. Vascular surgery had the highest percentage of papers with a novel description and application of anatomy. Cardiothoracic and paediatric surgery had no papers with a novel description of anatomy. Finally, a novel application of anatomy was the main focus of each speciality. Firstly, a high proportion of novel applications and descriptions of anatomy are in general surgery. Secondly, vascular surgery had the largest proportion of novel application and description of anatomy, namely due to the rise of therapeutic imaging and endovascular techniques. Finally, all disciplines demonstrated a trend towards having a higher proportion of novel application of anatomical knowledge

Keywords: anatomical knowledge, anatomy, surgery, novel anatomy

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151 Managing the Cognitive Load of Medical Students during Anatomy Lecture

Authors: Siti Nurma Hanim Hadie, Asma’ Hassan, Zul Izhar Ismail, Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim, Mohd. Zarawi Mat Nor, Hairul Nizam Ismail

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Anatomy is a medical subject, which contributes to high cognitive load during learning. Despite its complexity, anatomy remains as the most important basic sciences subject with high clinical relevancy. Although anatomy knowledge is required for safe practice, many medical students graduated without having sufficient knowledge. In fact, anatomy knowledge among the medical graduates was reported to be declining and this had led to various medico-legal problems. Applying cognitive load theory (CLT) in anatomy teaching particularly lecture would be able to address this issue since anatomy information is often perceived as cognitively challenging material. CLT identifies three types of loads which are intrinsic, extraneous and germane loads, which combine to form the total cognitive load. CLT describe that learning can only occur when the total cognitive load does not exceed human working memory capacity. Hence, managing these three types of loads with the aim of optimizing the working memory capacity would be beneficial to the students in learning anatomy and retaining the knowledge for future application.

Keywords: cognitive load theory, intrinsic load, extraneous load, germane load

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150 The Relationship between Anatomical Components of Mosques and Place Attachment with Respect to Islamic Wisdom and Art

Authors: Alitajer Saeed, Negintaji Farshad

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This study has been examined the relationship between anatomical components of mosques and place attachment of people to anatomies of mosques with the approach of attending to Islamic wisdom. To this end, this article by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature of mosques' anatomy and the role of anatomy on the architectural design of Iranian mosques by examining the quantitative and qualitative indicators and in order to understand and identify the anatomy of mosques, components such as: entrance, portico, minarets, domes, bedchamber and pool have been investigated. For this purpose, SPSS software has been used. Research is related to field and is of descriptive, analytical and inferential type and quantitative and qualitative indicators have been examined. Statistical analysis obtained from the questionnaire indicates that there is a significant relationship between the anatomical components of architecture and place attachment of the participants. By understanding and identifying the anatomy of mosques and appropriate planning to use the anatomy in Islamic architecture and considering it as an eminent indicators of designing, it can present great Iranian architecture.

Keywords: Islamic wisdom, Islamic architecture, mosque anatomy place attachment, Islamic art

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
149 Impact of Overall Teaching Program of Anatomy in Learning: A Students Perspective

Authors: Mamatha Hosapatna, Anne D. Souza, Antony Sylvan Dsouza, Vrinda Hari Ankolekar

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Our study intends to know the effect of the overall teaching program of Anatomy on a students learning. The advancement of various teaching methodologies in the present era has led to progressive changes in education. A student should be able to correlate well between the theory and practical knowledge attained even in the early years of their education in medicine and should be able to implement the same in patient care. The present study therefore aims to assess the impact the current anatomy teaching program has on a students learning and to what extent is it successful in making the learning program effective. Specific objectives of our study to assess the impact of overall teaching program of Anatomy in a students’ learning. Description of process proposed: A questionnaire will be constructed and the students will be asked to put forth their views regarding the Anatomy teaching program and its method of assessment. Suggestions, if any will also be encouraged to be put forth. Type of study is cross sectional observations. Target population is the first year MBBS students and sample size is 250. Assessment plan is to obtaining students responses using questionnaire. Calculating percentages of the responses obtained. Tabulation of the results will be done.

Keywords: anatomy, observational study questionnaire, observational study, M.B.B.S students

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148 Cadaveric Dissection versus Systems-Based Anatomy: Testing Final Year Student Surface Anatomy Knowledge to Compare the Long-Term Effectiveness of Different Course Structures

Authors: L. Sun, T. Hargreaves, Z. Ahmad

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Newly-qualified Foundation Year 1 doctors in the United Kingdom are frequently expected to perform practical skills involving the upper limb in clinical practice (for example, venipuncture, cannulation, and blood gas sampling). However, a move towards systems-based undergraduate medical education in the United Kingdom often precludes or limits dedicated time to anatomy teaching with cadavers or prosections, favouring only applied anatomy in the context of pathology. The authors hypothesised that detailed anatomical knowledge may consequently be adversely affected, particularly with respect to long-term retention. A simple picture quiz and accompanying questionnaire testing the identification of 7 upper limb surface landmarks was distributed to a total of 98 final year medical students from two universities - one with a systems-based curriculum, and one with a dedicated longitudinal dissection-based anatomy module in the first year of study. Students with access to dissection and prosection-based anatomy teaching performed more strongly, with a significantly higher rate of correct identification of all but one of the landmarks. Furthermore, it was notable that none of the students who had previously undertaken a systems-based course scored full marks, compared with 20% of those who had participated in the more dedicated anatomy course. This data suggests that a traditional, dissection-based approach to undergraduate anatomy teaching is superior to modern system-based curricula, in terms of aiding long-term retention of anatomical knowledge pertinent to newly-qualified doctors. The authors express concern that this deficit in proficiency could be detrimental to patient care in clinical practice, and propose that, where dissection-led anatomy teaching is not available, further anatomy revision modules are implemented throughout undergraduate education to aid knowledge retention and support clinical excellence.

Keywords: dissection, education, surface anatomy, upper limb

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147 Developing a Virtual Reality System to Assist in Anatomy Teaching and Evaluating the Effectiveness of That System

Authors: Tarek Abdelkader, Suresh Selvaraj, Prasad Iyer, Yong Mun Hin, Hajmath Begum, P. Gopalakrishnakone

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Nowadays, more and more educational institutes, as well as students, rely on 3D anatomy programs as an important tool that helps students correlate the actual locations of anatomical structures in a 3D dimension. Lately, virtual reality (VR) is gaining more favor from the younger generations due to its higher interactive mode. As a result, using virtual reality as a gamified learning platform for anatomy became the current goal. We present a model where a Virtual Human Anatomy Program (VHAP) was developed to assist with the anatomy learning experience of students. The anatomy module has been built, mostly, from real patient CT scans. Segmentation and surface rendering were used to create the 3D model by direct segmentation of CT scans for each organ individually and exporting that model as a 3D file. After acquiring the 3D files for all needed organs, all the files were introduced into a Virtual Reality environment as a complete body anatomy model. In this ongoing experiment, students from different Allied Health orientations are testing the VHAP. Specifically, the cardiovascular system has been selected as the focus system of study since all of our students finished learning about it in the 1st trimester. The initial results suggest that the VHAP system is adding value to the learning process of our students, encouraging them to get more involved and to ask more questions. Involved students comments show that they are excited about the VHAP system with comments about its interactivity as well as the ability to use it solo as a self-learning aid in combination with the lectures. Some students also experienced minor side effects like dizziness.

Keywords: 3D construction, health sciences, teaching pedagogy, virtual reality

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146 Views of South African Academic Instructors to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Anatomy Education

Authors: Lelika Lazarus, Reshma Sookrajh, Kapil S. Satyapal

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Reflecting on teaching is commonly cited as a fundamental practice for personal and professional development. Educational research into the scholarship of teaching and learning anatomy includes engaging in discipline specific literature on teaching, reflecting on individual teaching methods and communicating these findings to peers. The aim of this paper is to formally assess the opinions of senior anatomy instructors regarding the state of anatomical knowledge at their respective institutions. The context of the paper derives from ongoing debates about the perceived decline in standards of anatomical knowledge of medical students and postgraduate learners. An open ended questionnaire was devised consisting of eight direct questions seeking opinions on anatomy teaching, knowledge, and potential educational developments and general thoughts on the teaching of anatomy to medical students. These were distributed to senior anatomy Faculty (identified by the author by their affiliation with the Anatomical Society of Southern Africa) based at the eight national medical schools within the country. A number of key themes emerged. Most senior faculty felt that the standard of medical education at their respective institutions was ‘good.’. However, emphasis was also placed on the ‘quality of teaching’ incorporating clinical scenarios. There were also indications that staff are split into those that are keen to do research and those that are happy to provide teaching to medical students as their primary function. Several challenges were also highlighted such as time constraints within the medical curriculum, the lack of cadavers to reinforce knowledge and gain depth perception and lack of appropriately qualified staff. Recommendations included fostering partnerships with both clinicians and medical scientists into the anatomy curriculum thus improving teaching and research.

Keywords: anatomy, education, reflection, teaching

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145 Identifying the Mindset of Deaf Benildean Students in Learning Anatomy and Physiology

Authors: Joanne Rieta Miranda

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Learning anatomy and physiology among Deaf Non-Science major students is a challenge. They have this mindset that Anatomy and Physiology are difficult and very technical. In this study, nine (9) deaf students who are business majors were considered. Non-conventional teaching strategies and classroom activities were employed such as cooperative learning, virtual lab, Facebook live, big sky, blood typing, mind mapping, reflections, etc. Of all the activities; the deaf students ranked cooperative learning as the best learning activity. This is where they played doctors. They measured the pulse rate, heart rate and blood pressure of their partner classmate. In terms of mindset, 2 out of 9 students have a growth mindset with some fixed ideas while 7 have a fixed mindset with some growth ideas. All the students passed the course. Three out of nine students got a grade of 90% and above. The teacher was evaluated by the deaf students as very satisfactory with a mean score of 3.54. This means that the learner-centered practices in the classroom are manifested to a great extent.

Keywords: deaf students, learning anatomy and physiology, teaching strategies, learner-entered practices

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144 Gray’s Anatomy for Students: First South Asia Edition Highlights

Authors: Raveendranath Veeramani, Sunil Jonathan Holla, Parkash Chand, Sunil Chumber

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Gray’s Anatomy for Students has been a well-appreciated book among undergraduate students of anatomy in Asia. However, the current curricular requirements of anatomy require a more focused and organized approach. The editors of the first South Asia edition of Gray’s Anatomy for Students hereby highlight the modifications and importance of this edition. There is an emphasis on active learning by making the clinical relevance of anatomy explicit. Learning anatomy in context has been fostered by the association between anatomists and clinicians in keeping with the emerging integrated curriculum of the 21st century. The language has been simplified to aid students who have studied in the vernacular. The original illustrations have been retained, and few illustrations have been added. There are more figure numbers mentioned in the text to encourage students to refer to the illustrations while learning. The text has been made more student-friendly by adding generalizations, classifications and summaries. There are useful review materials at the beginning of the chapters which include digital resources for self-study. There are updates on imaging techniques to encourage students to appreciate the importance of essential knowledge of the relevant anatomy to interpret images, due emphasis has been laid on dissection. Additional importance has been given to the cranial nerves, by describing their relevant details with several additional illustrations and flowcharts. This new edition includes innovative features such as set inductions, outlines for subchapters and flowcharts to facilitate learning. Set inductions are mostly clinical scenarios to create interest in the need to study anatomy for healthcare professions. The outlines are a modern multimodal facilitating approach towards various topics to empower students to explore content and direct their learning and include learning objectives and material for review. The components of the outline encourage the student to be aware of the need to create solutions to clinical problems. The outlines help students direct their learning to recall facts, demonstrate and analyze relationships, use reason to explain concepts, appreciate the significance of structures and their relationships and apply anatomical knowledge. The 'structures to be identified in a dissection' are given as Level I, II and III which represent the 'must know, desirable to know and nice to know' content respectively. The flowcharts have been added to get an overview of the course of a structure, recapitulate important details about structures, and as an aid to recall. There has been a great effort to balance the need to have content that would enable students to understand concepts as well as get the basic material for the current condensed curriculum.

Keywords: Grays anatomy, South Asia, human anatomy, students anatomy

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143 Effectiveness of Powerpoint Presentations in Teaching Anatomy: A Student's Perspective

Authors: Vrinda Hari Ankolekar

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Introduction: The advancement of various audio-visual aids in the present era has led to progressive changes in education. Use of powerpoint presentations play a key role in anatomy to learn and understand a particular topic. As the subject of anatomy involves more of illustrations and demonstrations, powerpoint presentations become essential in conveying the necessary information. Objectives: To assess the students’ perspective about the use of powerpoint presentations in teaching anatomy.Method: A questionnaire was constructed and 55 students were asked to put forth their preferences for the powerpoint presentations or blackboard that would help them to understand the subject better. Results and conclusion: 30 voted PPT as better and effective tool to explain the subject efficiently. 35 chose PPT as more creative than Blackboard to create interest in the subject. 20 wanted to retain chalk and talk for teaching their subject instead of replacing it with PowerPoint. 36 felt chalk and talk as more useful and appropriate tool for teaching than PowerPoint. Only 25 felt chalk and talk relatively more boring than PowerPoint. 23 experienced more involvement and active participation in the class when chalk and talk is used as the teaching tool. 26 stated that chalk and talk has most of the features needed for teaching.One of the limitations of this study is that the sample size is drawn from one institution only and deals with the experience of one particular group of individuals.

Keywords: chalk and board, powerpoint presentation, presentation skills, teaching technologies

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142 Investigation of Anatomical Components of Mosques with the Approach of Attention to Islamic Wisdom

Authors: Farshad Negintaji, Hamid Reza Zeraat Pisheh, Mahshid Ghanea, Zahra Khalifeh, Mohammad Bagher Rahami

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This study has been examined the anatomical components of mosques with the approach of attending to Islamic wisdom and investigated the distinction between the anatomical design of mosques (traditional and modern) by considering the category of perception in Islamic architecture. To this end, this article by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature of mosques' anatomy and the role of anatomy on the architectural design of Iranian mosques by examining the quantitative and qualitative indicators and in order to understand and identify the anatomy of mosques, indicators such as: entrance, portico, minarets, domes, bedchamber and pool have been used. The aim of this study has been to investigate materials, the functional properties, technology, sizes and fitness of (traditional and modern) mosques. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared in which the anatomical and spiritual elements of the mosque shape have been questioned. Research is related to field and is of descriptive, analytical and inferential type and quantitative and qualitative indicators have been examined.

Keywords: Islamic wisdom, Islamic architecture, mosque anatomy, the minaret, dome, bedchamber, entrance, pool, perception

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141 MRCP as a Pre-Operative Tool for Predicting Variant Biliary Anatomy in Living Related Liver Donors

Authors: Awais Ahmed, Atif Rana, Haseeb Zia, Maham Jahangir, Rashed Nazir, Faisal Dar

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Purpose: Biliary complications represent the most common cause of morbidity in living related liver donor transplantation and detailed preoperative evaluation of biliary anatomic variants is crucial for safe patient selection and improved surgical outcomes. Purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of preoperative MRCP in predicting biliary variations when compared to intraoperative cholangiography in living related liver donors. Materials and Methods: From 44 potential donors, 40 consecutive living related liver donors (13 females and 28 males) underwent donor hepatectomy at our centre from April 2012 to August 2013. MRCP and IOC of all patients were retrospectively reviewed separately by two radiologists and a transplant surgeon.MRCP was performed on 1.5 Tesla MR magnets using breath-hold heavily T2 weighted radial slab technique. One patient was excluded due to suboptimal MRCP. The accuracy of MRCP for variant biliary anatomy was calculated. Results: MRCP accurately predicted the biliary anatomy in 38 of 39 cases (97 %). Standard biliary anatomy was predicted by MRCP in 25 (64 %) donors (100% sensitivity). Variant biliary anatomy was noted in 14 (36 %) IOCs of which MRCP predicted precise anatomy of 13 variants (93 % sensitivity). The two most common variations were drainage of the RPSD into the LHD (50%) and the triple confluence of the RASD, RPSD and LHD (21%). Conclusion: MRCP is a sensitive imaging tool for precise pre-operative mapping of biliary variations which is critical to surgical decision making in living related liver transplantation.

Keywords: intraoperative cholangiogram, liver transplantation, living related donors, magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreaticogram (MRCP)

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140 A Case Report of Aberrant Vascular Anatomy of the Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Flap

Authors: Karissa Graham, Andrew Campbell-Lloyd

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The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (DIEP) is used to reconstruct large volumes of tissue. The DIEP flap is based on the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and vein. Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of these vessels allows for efficient dissection of the flap, minimal damage to surrounding tissue, and a well vascularized flap. A 54 year old lady was assessed for bilateral delayed autologous reconstruction with DIEP free flaps. The right DIEA was consistent with the described anatomy. The left DIEA had a vessel branching shortly after leaving the external iliac artery and before entering the muscle. This independent branch entered the muscle and had a long intramuscular course to the largest perforator. The main DIEA vessel demonstrated a type II branching pattern but had perforators that were too small to have a viable DIEP flap. There were no communicating arterial branches between the independent vessel and DIEA, however, there was one venous communication between them. A muscle sparing transverse rectus abdominis muscle flap was raised using the main periumbilical perforator from the independent vessel. Our case report demonstrated an unreported anatomical variant of the DIEA. A few anatomical variants have been described in the literature, including a unilateral absent DIEA and peritoneal-cutaneous perforators that had no connection to the DIEA. Doing a pre-operative CTA helps to identify these rare anatomical variations, which leads to safer, more efficient, and effective operating.

Keywords: aberrant anatomy, CT angiography, DIEP anatomy, free flap

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139 Review of the Anatomy of the Middle Cerebral Artery and Its Anomalies

Authors: Karen Cilliers, Benedict John Page

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The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most complex cerebral artery although few anomalies are found compared to the other cerebral arteries. The branches of the MCA cover a large part of each hemisphere, therefore it is exposed in various operations. Although the segments of the MCA are similarly described by most authors, there is some disagreement on the branching pattern of the MCA. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the anatomy and variations of the MCA, and to compare this to a pilot study. For the pilot study, 20 hemispheres were perfused with coloured silicone and the MCA was dissected. According to the literature, the two most common branching configurations are the bifurcating and trifurcating patterns. In the pilot study, bifurcation was observed in 19 hemispheres, and in one hemisphere there was no branching (monofurcation). No trifurcation was observed. The most commonly duplicated branch was the anterior parietal artery in 30%, and most commonly absent was the common temporal artery in 65% and the temporal polar artery in 40%. Very few studies describe the origins of the branches of the MCA, therefore a detailed description is given. Middle cerebral artery variations that are occasionally reported in the literature include fenestration, and a duplicated or accessory MCA, although no variations were observed in the pilot study. Aneurysms can frequently be observed at the branching of cerebral vessels, therefore a thorough knowledge of the vascular anatomy is vital. Furthermore, knowledge of possible variations is important since variations can have serious clinical implications.

Keywords: anatomy, anomaly, description, middle cerebral artery, origin, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
138 Vision and Challenges of Developing VR-Based Digital Anatomy Learning Platforms and a Solution Set for 3D Model Marking

Authors: Gizem Kayar, Ramazan Bakir, M. Ilkay Koşar, Ceren U. Gencer, Alperen Ayyildiz

Abstract:

Anatomy classes are crucial for general education of medical students, whereas learning anatomy is quite challenging and requires memorization of thousands of structures. In traditional teaching methods, learning materials are still based on books, anatomy mannequins, or videos. This results in forgetting many important structures after several years. However, more interactive teaching methods like virtual reality, augmented reality, gamification, and motion sensors are becoming more popular since such methods ease the way we learn and keep the data in mind for longer terms. During our study, we designed a virtual reality based digital head anatomy platform to investigate whether a fully interactive anatomy platform is effective to learn anatomy and to understand the level of teaching and learning optimization. The Head is one of the most complicated human anatomy structures, with thousands of tiny, unique structures. This makes the head anatomy one of the most difficult parts to understand during class sessions. Therefore, we developed a fully interactive digital tool with 3D model marking, quiz structures, 2D/3D puzzle structures, and VR support so as to integrate the power of VR and gamification. The project has been developed in Unity game engine with HTC Vive Cosmos VR headset. The head anatomy 3D model has been selected with full skeletal, muscular, integumentary, head, teeth, lymph, and vein system. The biggest issue during the development was the complexity of our model and the marking of it in the 3D world system. 3D model marking requires to access to each unique structure in the counted subsystems which means hundreds of marking needs to be done. Some parts of our 3D head model were monolithic. This is why we worked on dividing such parts to subparts which is very time-consuming. In order to subdivide monolithic parts, one must use an external modeling tool. However, such tools generally come with high learning curves, and seamless division is not ensured. Second option was to integrate tiny colliders to all unique items for mouse interaction. However, outside colliders which cover inner trigger colliders cause overlapping, and these colliders repel each other. Third option is using raycasting. However, due to its own view-based nature, raycasting has some inherent problems. As the model rotate, view direction changes very frequently, and directional computations become even harder. This is why, finally, we studied on the local coordinate system. By taking the pivot point of the model into consideration (back of the nose), each sub-structure is marked with its own local coordinate with respect to the pivot. After converting the mouse position to the world position and checking its relation with the corresponding structure’s local coordinate, we were able to mark all points correctly. The advantage of this method is its applicability and accuracy for all types of monolithic anatomical structures.

Keywords: anatomy, e-learning, virtual reality, 3D model marking

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137 Cadaveric Study of Lung Anatomy: A Surgical Overview

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Rati Tandon, Saroj Kaler

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Introduction: A thorough knowledge of variations in lung anatomy is of prime significance during surgical procedures like lobectomy, pneumonectomy, and segmentectomy of lungs. The arrangement of structures in the lung hilum act as a guide in performing such procedures. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures in the right lung is eparterial bronchus, pulmonary artery, hyparterial bronchus and pulmonary veins from above downwards. In the left lung, it is pulmonary artery, principal bronchus and pulmonary vein from above downwards. The arrangement of hilar structures from anterior to posterior in both the lungs is pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and principal bronchus. The bronchial arteries are very small and usually the posterior most structures in the hilum of lungs. Aim: The present study aims at reporting the variations in hilar anatomy (arrangement and number) of lungs. Methodology: 75 adult formalin fixed cadaveric lungs from the department of Anatomy AIIMS New Delhi were observed for variations in the lobar anatomy. Arrangement of pulmonary hilar structures was meticulously observed, and any deviation in the pattern of presentation was recorded. Results: Among the 75 adult lung specimens observed 36 specimens were of right lung and the rest of left lung. Seven right lung specimens showed only 2 lobes with an oblique fissure dividing them and one left lung showed 3 lobes. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures was seen in 22 right lungs and 23 left lungs. Rest of the lung specimens (14 right and 16 left) showed a varied pattern of arrangement of hilar structures. Some of them showed alterations in the sequence of arrangement of pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, bronchus, and others in the number of these structures. Conclusion: Alterations in the pattern of arrangement of structures in the lung hilum are quite frequent. A compromise in knowledge of such variations will result in inadvertent complications like intraoperative bleeding during surgical procedures.

Keywords: fissures, hilum, lobes, pulmonary

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136 Evaluation of Computed Tomographic Anatomy of Respiratory System in Caspian Pond Turtle (Mauremys caspica)

Authors: Saghar Karimi, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari Khafi, Amin Abolhasani Foroughi

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In recent decades, keeping exotic species as pet animals has become widespread. Turtles are exotic species from chelonians, which are interested by many people. Caspian pond and European pond turtles from Emydidea family are commonly kept as pets in Iran. Presence of the shell in turtles makes achievement to a comprehensive clinical examination impossible. Respiratory system is one of the most important structures to be examined completely. Presence of the air in the respiratory system makes radiography the first modality to think of; however, image quality would be affected by the shell. Computed tomography (CT) as a radiography-based and non-invasive technique provides cross-sectional scans with little superimposition. The aim of this study was to depict normal computed tomographic anatomy of the respiratory system in Caspian Pond Turtle. Five adult Caspian pond turtle were scanned using a 16-detector CT machine. Our results showed that computed tomography is able to well illustrated different parts of respiratory system in turtle and can be used for detecting abnormalities and disorders.

Keywords: anatomy, computed tomography, respiratory system, turtle

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135 The Feasibility of Online, Interactive Workshops to Facilitate Anatomy Education during the UK COVID-19 Lockdowns

Authors: Prabhvir Singh Marway, Kai Lok Chan, Maria-Ruxandra Jinga, Rachel Bok Ying Lee, Matthew Bok Kit Lee, Krishan Nandapalan, Sze Yi Beh, Harry Carr, Christopher Kui

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We piloted a structured series of online workshops on the 3D segmentation of anatomical structures from CT scans. 33 participants were recruited from four UK universities for two-day workshops between 2020 and 2021. Open-source software (3D-Slicer) was used. We hypothesized that active participation via real-time screen-sharing and voice-communication via Discord would enable improved engagement and learning, despite national lockdowns. Written feedback indicated positive learning experiences, with subjective measures of anatomical understanding and software confidence improving.

Keywords: medical education, workshop, segmentation, anatomy

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134 Improved Anatomy Teaching by the 3D Slicer Platform

Authors: Ahmedou Moulaye Idriss, Yahya Tfeil

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Medical imaging technology has become an indispensable tool in many branches of the biomedical, health area, and research and is vitally important for the training of professionals in these fields. It is not only about the tools, technologies, and knowledge provided but also about the community that this training project proposes. In order to be able to raise the level of anatomy teaching in the medical school of Nouakchott in Mauritania, it is necessary and even urgent to facilitate access to modern technology for African countries. The role of technology as a key driver of justifiable development has long been recognized. Anatomy is an essential discipline for the training of medical students; it is a key element for the training of medical specialists. The quality and results of the work of a young surgeon depend on his better knowledge of anatomical structures. The teaching of anatomy is difficult as the discipline is being neglected by medical students in many academic institutions. However, anatomy remains a vital part of any medical education program. When anatomy is presented in various planes medical students approve of difficulties in understanding. They do not increase their ability to visualize and mentally manipulate 3D structures. They are sometimes not able to correctly identify neighbouring or associated structures. This is the case when they have to make the identification of structures related to the caudate lobe when the liver is moved to different positions. In recent decades, some modern educational tools using digital sources tend to replace old methods. One of the main reasons for this change is the lack of cadavers in laboratories with poorly qualified staff. The emergence of increasingly sophisticated mathematical models, image processing, and visualization tools in biomedical imaging research have enabled sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) representations of anatomical structures. In this paper, we report our current experience in the Faculty of Medicine in Nouakchott Mauritania. One of our main aims is to create a local learning community in the fields of anatomy. The main technological platform used in this project is called 3D Slicer. 3D Slicer platform is an open-source application available for free for viewing, analysis, and interaction with biomedical imaging data. Using the 3D Slicer platform, we created from real medical images anatomical atlases of parts of the human body, including head, thorax, abdomen, liver, and pelvis, upper and lower limbs. Data were collected from several local hospitals and also from the website. We used MRI and CT-Scan imaging data from children and adults. Many different anatomy atlases exist, both in print and digital forms. Anatomy Atlas displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labelled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. Open and free online anatomical atlases developed by our anatomy laboratory team will be available to our students. This will allow pedagogical autonomy and remedy the shortcomings by responding more fully to the objectives of sustainable local development of quality education and good health at the national level. To make this work a reality, our team produced several atlases available in our faculty in the form of research projects.

Keywords: anatomy, education, medical imaging, three dimensional

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133 The Effects of Architectural Anatomy on Improving the Quality of Place Identity: Case Study of Shiraz Opera Hall

Authors: Hamid Reza Zeraatpisheh, Shamsoddin Hashemi, Farshad Negintaji

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This study has examined the effects of the architectural anatomy of opera hall on improving the quality of place identity. By measuring the effects of place identity on the inner aspects of human which are influenced by the physical and social environments it has investigated the results of a balance between internal and external environment. To assess the anatomical effects of urban landscape, two components of subjective landscape including perception and diversity and the component of objective landscape including form and order have been measured. The current survey is descriptive and the statistical population has been Shiraz which is a city in Iran. To analyze the data the SPSS software has been used. The results have been investigated in two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics. In the inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient has been used to evaluate the research hypotheses. The results of this study indicate that between the dimensions of landscape, the component of the subjective landscape has the highest impact on the place identity and in the second place, an objective landscape has the impact on the place identity. Anatomical effects have an important role on improving the quality of place identity of Shiraz citizens and in order to enhance the place identity in the urban landscape it is also required that they will be inspired and operated.

Keywords: architectural anatomy, identity, place identity, urban landscape, perception

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132 Response of First Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) Students to Integrated Learning Program

Authors: Raveendranath Veeramani, Parkash Chand, H. Y. Suma, A. Umamageswari

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Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate students’ perception of Integrated Learning Program[ILP]. Settings and Design: A questionnaire was used to survey and evaluate the perceptions of 1styear MBBS students at the Department of Anatomy at our medical college in India. Materials and Methods: The first MBBS Students of Anatomy were involved in the ILP on the Liver and extra hepatic biliary apparatus integrating the Departments of Anatomy, Biochemistry and Hepato-biliary Surgery. The evaluation of the ILP was done by two sets of short questionnaire that had ten items using the Likert five-point grading scale. The data involved both the students’ responses and their grading. Results: A majority of students felt that the ILP was better in as compared to the traditional lecture method of teaching.The integrated teaching method was better at fulfilling learning objectives (128 students, 83%), enabled better understanding (students, 94%), were more interesting (140 students, 90%), ensured that they could score better in exams (115 students, 77%) and involved greater interaction (100 students, 66%), as compared to traditional teaching methods. Most of the students (142 students, 95%) opined that more such sessions should be organized in the future. Conclusions: Responses from students show that the integrated learning session should be incorporated even at first phase of MBBS for selected topics so as to create interest in the medical sciences at the entry level and to make them understand the importance of basic science.

Keywords: integrated learning, students response, vertical integration, horizontal integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
131 Revisiting the Surgical Approaches to Decompression in Quadrangular Space Syndrome: A Cadaveric Study

Authors: Sundip Charmode, Simmi Mehra, Sudhir Kushwaha, Shalom Philip, Pratik Amrutiya, Ranjna Jangal

Abstract:

Introduction: Quadrangular space syndrome involves compression of the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral artery and its management in few cases, requires surgical decompression. The current study reviews the surgical approaches used in the decompression of neurovascular structures and presents our reflections and recommendations. Methods: Four human cadavers, in the Department of Anatomy were used for dissection of the Axillae and the Scapular region by the senior residents of the Department of Anatomy and Department of Orthopedics, who dissected quadrangular space in the eight upper limbs, using anterior and posterior surgical approaches. Observations: Posterior approach to identify the quadrangular space and secure its contents was recognized as the easier and much quicker method by both the Anatomy and Orthopedic residents, but it may result in increased postoperative morbidity. Whereas the anterior (Delto-pectoral) approach involves more skill but reduces postoperative morbidity. Conclusions: Anterior (Delto-pectoral) approach with suggested modifications can prove as an effective method in surgical decompression of quadrangular space syndrome. The authors suggest more cadaveric studies to facilitate anatomists and surgeons with the opportunities to practice and evaluate older and newer surgical approaches.

Keywords: surgical approach, anatomical approach, decompression, axillary nerve, quadrangular space

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130 A Forearm-Wrist Rehabilitation Module for Stroke and Spinal Cord Injuries

Authors: Vahid Mehrabi, Iman Sharifi, H. A. Talebi

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The automation of rehabilitation procedure by the implementation of robotic devices can overcome the limitation in conventional physiotherapy methods by increasing training sessions and duration of process. In this paper, the design of a simple rehabilitation robot for forearm-wrist therapy in stroke and spinal cord injuries is presented. Wrist’s biological joint motion is modeled by a gimbal-like mechanism which resembles the human arm anatomy. Presented device is an exoskeleton robot with rotation axes corresponding to human skeleton anatomy. The mechanical structure, actuator and sensor selection, system kinematics and comparison between our device range of motion and required active daily life values is illustrated.

Keywords: rehabilitation, robotic devices, physiotherapy, forearm-wrist

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
129 Anatomy Study of Seeds of Calligonium comosum in Vitro

Authors: Abobkar Saad, Qasmia Abdalla, Fatma Emhemed

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Eighty-four of Calligonum comosum were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium on every combination supplemented with different concentrations of IAA, BA, Zeatin, and GA3. When 84 seeds were inoculated on MS free hormones, different types of cells contain dense cytoplasm were observed ater 23 days and long thick wall cells arranged in layers. In case of using MS +BA(0.5mg/L), different types and shapes of parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm were detected after four weeks. In the case of using MS + BA(1mg/L) + GA3 (3mg/L), thick wall parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm after 19 days, but many layers of parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm after 28 days. When MS +kin(0.5mg/L) a thick cells wall as Sclereids were observed after 29 days. No any response were observed on Zeatin (0.5, 1 mg/L).

Keywords: anatomy, Calligonum comosum, in vitro, aeeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
128 Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (Evar) with Endoanchors: For Tandem Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (Aaa) with Hostile Neck & Proximal Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer

Authors: Von Jerick Tenorio, Jonald Lucero, Marivic Vestal, Edwin Tiempo

Abstract:

In patients with hostile aortic neck anatomy, the risks of proximal seal complications and stent migration remain with EVAR despite improved endograft technology. This case report discusses how the technical challenges of the hostile neck anatomy, proximal penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) and tortuous femoral access were addressed. The CT aortogram of a 63-year-old hypertensive and diabetic man with recurring abdominal discomfort revealed a fusiform infra-renal aneurysm measuring 8.8 cm in length and 5.7 cm in diameter. The proximal landing zone only has a 3 mm healthy neck with a conicity of > 10% and a thrombus of 4 mm thick. Proximal to the aneurysm is a PAU with a circumferential mural thrombus. The right femoral artery is tortuous with > 90o angulation. A 20% oversized Endurant II endograft and Aptus Heli-FX EndoAnchors were deployed as prophylaxis for type I endoleaks and endograft migration consequent to the conical neck and proximal aneurysm extension consequent to the PAU. A stiff Backup Meier guide wire facilitated the deployment of the endograft. Coil embolization of the right internal iliac artery was performed as prophylaxis for type II endoleaks. EndoAnchors can be used as an adjunct to EVAR as prophylaxis for proximal seal complications and stent migration in patients with hostile aortic aneurysm neck anatomy and concomitant proximal PAU.

Keywords: endoAnchors, endoleaks, EVAR, hostile neck

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
127 Study of Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography of Frontoethmoidal Cells Using International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification

Authors: Prabesh Karki, Shyam Thapa Chettri, Bajarang Prasad Sah, Manoj Bhattarai, Sudeep Mishra

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Introduction: Frontal sinus is frequently described as the most difficult sinus to access surgically due to its proximity to the cribriform plate, orbit, and anterior ethmoid artery. Frontal sinus surgery requires a detailed understanding of the cellular structure and FSDP unique to each patient, making high-resolution CT scans an indispensable tool to assess the difficulty of planned sinus surgery. International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification (IFAC) was developed to provide a more precise nomenclature for cells in the frontal recess, classifying cells based on their anatomic origin. Objectives: To assess the proportion of frontal cell variants defined by IFAC, variation with respect to age and gender. Methods: 54 cases were enrolled after a detailed clinical history, thorough general and physical examinations, and CT a report ordered in a film. Assessment and tabulation of the presence of frontal cells according to the IFAC analyzed. The prevalence of each cell type was calculated, and data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics and frequencies were defined for categorical and numerical variables. Frequency, percentage, the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Result: Among 54 patients, 30 (55.6%) were male and 24 (44.4%) were female. The patient enrolled ranged from 18 to 78 years. Majority33.3% (n=18) were in age group of >50 years.According to IFAC, Agger nasi cells (92.6%) were most common, whereas supraorbital ethmoidal cells were least common 16 (29.6%). Prevalence of other frontoethmoidal cells was SAC- 57.4%, SAFC- 38.9%, SBC- 74.1%, SBFC- 33.3%, FSC- 38.9% of 54 cases. Conclusion: IFAC is an international consensus document that describes an anatomically precise nomenclature for classifying frontoethmoidal cells' anatomy. This study has defined the prevalence, symmetry and reliability of frontoethmoidal cells as established by the IFAC system as in other parts of the world.

Keywords: frontal sinus, frontoethmoidal cells, international frontal sinus anatomy classification

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126 Anatomical and Pathological Evaluation of Anomaly Cases Presented to the Department of Pathology at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, between 2017 and 2019

Authors: Gülseren Kırbaş Doğan, Emin Karakurt, Mushap Kuru, Hilmi Nuhoğlu

Abstract:

Developmental anomalies can be caused by defects in bone tissue, cartilage tissue, or primitive mesenchymal tissue. Genetic-, environmental-, teratogenic-, faulty breeding selection–, or feeding-related anomalies can be observed either locally or systemically. This study aimed to evaluate in detail the various anomalies in six calves according to pathological and anatomical investigations. Six calves were delivered to the Department of Pathology at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine between 2017 and 2019. These calves comprised one with anencephaly, one with the diencephalic syndrome, one with Schistosoma reflexum, two with anasarca, and one with nasal and calvarium openings. After necropsy, samples were taken from the organs, foreseen, and routine pathological examinations were performed. Following these procedures, the calves were brought to the anatomy laboratory and anatomically examined. As a result, various anomalies in 6 calves were evaluated according to pathological and anatomical investigations. These findings are believed to contribute to the literature.

Keywords: anatomy, anomaly, calf, pathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
125 Anatomy of the Human Mitral Valve Leaflets: Implications for Transcatheter and Surgical Mitral Valve Repair Techniques

Authors: Agata Krawczyk-Ozog, Mateusz K. Holda, Mateusz Koziej, Danuta Sorysz, Zbigniew Siudak, Wieslawa Klimek-Piotrowska, Dariusz Dudek

Abstract:

Introduction: Rapid development of the surgical and less-invasive percutaneous mitral valve repair procedures greatly increase the interest of the mitral valve anatomy. The aim of this study was to characterize morphological variability of the mitral valve leaflets and to provide the size of their particular parts. Materials and Methods: In the study, we included 200 autopsied human hearts from Caucasian individuals (25% females) with mean age 47.5 (±17.9) without any valvular diseases. The morphology of the mitral valve was evaluated. The intercommissural and aorto-mural diameters of the mitral annulus were measured. All leaflets and their scallops were identified. The base and the height of the posteromedial commissure (PM-C), anterolateral commissure (AL-C), anterior leaflet (AL) and posterior leaflet (PL) with their scallops were measured. Results: The intercommissural diameter was 28.0±4.8 mm, the aorto-mural diameter 19.7±4.8 mm, circumference of the mitral annulus 89.9±12.6 mm and the area of the mitral valve 485.4±171.4 mm2. Classical mitral valves (AL+AL-C+PL(P1,P2,P3)+PM-C) were found in 141 (70.5%) specimens. In classical type, the mean AL base and height were 30.8±4.9 mm and 20.6±4.2 mm, while mean PL base and height 45.1±8.2 mm 12.9±2.8 mm respectively. The mean ratio of the AL base to PL base was 0.7±0.2. Variations in PL were found in 55 (27.5%) and in AL in 5 (2.5%) hearts. The most common variations were: valve with one accessory scallop (AcS) between P3 and PM-C (7%); AcS between P1 and AL-C (4%); connections of P2 and P3 scallops (4%); connections of P1 and P2 scallops (3%); AcS in AL (2.5%). All AcS were smaller than the main PL scallops. The mean intertrigonal distance was 21.9±3.8 mm. Conclusions: In all cases, the mitral valve is built by two main leaflets with possible variants in secondary to leaflets scallops (29.5%). The variations are largely associated with PL and are mostly related to the presence of AcS. Anatomically the AL is not divided into scallops, and it occupies 34.5% of the mitral annulus circumference. Understanding the anatomy of the mitral valve leaflets helps to planning and performing mitral valve repair procedures.

Keywords: accessory scallop, commissure, connected scallops, human heart, mitral leaflets, mitral valve

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
124 The Anatomy of Inter-Religious Conflict in Northern Nigeria: A Conflict without Peace Education

Authors: Shehu Hashimu

Abstract:

Ever since the independence, Northern Nigeria has been experiencing a flashpoint of all sorts of conflict ranging from ethnoreligious, intra-religious, and inter-religious violence; many people are of the view and worrisome that indeed the region (North) is becoming a religious-political battle-ground. The trends of violence associated with these conflicts are a reflection of high level of misunderstanding, misinform unpolitical zeal toward uplifting peace education for greater enhancement among the religious, ethnic group or sects in the northern region. The aims of this paper, among other things, are to outline the misconception on the term inter-religious conflict. It is justifiable to state the brief historical antecedence of the making of contemporary Northern Nigeria and how conflict is fluctuating over and over without concrete resolution is another concern of the paper. The desirability of peace education in enhancing cordial relations and cementing potholes among various religious sects in the region (Northern Nigeria) cannot over emphasized considering the pivotal role play toward national cohesion; therefore, this paper strategically made a lengthy discourse for elaborations. In the conclusion aspect of it, the paper outline some relevant recommendation and suggestions for viable co-existence if properly implemented.

Keywords: anatomy, inter-religious, conflict, peace education

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
123 The Twelfth Rib as a Landmark for Surgery

Authors: Jake Tempo, Georgina Williams, Iain Robertson, Claire Pascoe, Darren Rama, Richard Cetti

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Introduction: The twelfth rib is commonly used as a landmark for surgery; however, its variability in length has not been formally studied. The highly variable rib length provides a challenge for urologists seeking a consistent landmark for percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retroperitoneoscopic surgery. Methods and materials: We analysed CT scans of 100 adults who had imaging between 23rd March and twelfth April 2020 at an Australian Hospital. We measured the distance from the mid-sagittal line to the twelfth rib tip in the axial plane as a surrogate for true rib length. We also measured the distance from the twelfth rib tip to the kidney, spleen, and liver. Results: Length from the mid-sagittal line to the right twelfth rib tip varied from 46 (percentile 95%CI 40 to 57) to 136mm (percentile 95%CI 133 to 138). On the left, the distances varied from 55 (percentile 95%CI 50 to 64) to 134mm (percentile 95%CI 131 to 135). Twenty-three percent of people had an organ lying between the tip of the twelfth rib and the kidney on the right, and 11% of people had the same finding on the left. Conclusion: The twelfth rib is highly variable in its length. Similar variability was recorded in the distance from the tip to intra-abdominal organs. Due to the frequency of organs lying between the tip of the rib and the kidney, it should not be used as a landmark for accessing the kidney without prior knowledge of an individual patient’s anatomy, as seen on imaging.

Keywords: PCNL, rib, anatomy, nephrolithotomy

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