Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1755

Search results for: composite girder

1755 Behavior of Composite Construction Precast Reactive Powder RC Girder and Ordinary RC Deck Slab

Authors: Nameer A. Alwash, Dunia A. Abd AlRadha, Arshed M. Aljanaby


This study present an experimental investigation of composite behavior for hybrid reinforced concrete slab on girder from locale material in Iraq, ordinary concrete, NC, in slab and reactive powder concrete in girder ,RPC, with steel fibers of different types(straight, hook, and mix between its), tested as simply supported span subjected under two point loading, also study effects on overall behavior such as the ultimate load, crack width and deflection. The result shows that the most suitable for production girder from RPC by using 2% micro straight steel fiber, in terms of ultimate strength and min crack width. Also the results shows that using RPC in girder of composite section increased ultimate load by 79% when compared with same section made of NC, and increased the shear strength which erased the effect of changing reinforcement in shear, and using RPC in girder and epoxy (in shear transfer between composite section) (meaning no stirrups) equivalent presence of shear reinforcement by 90% when compared with same section using Φ[email protected]00 as shear reinforcement. And the result shows that changing the cross section girder shape of the composite section to inverted T, with same section area, increased the ultimate load by 5% when compared with same section of rectangular shape girder.

Keywords: reactive powder concrete, RPC, hybrid concrete, composite section, RC girder, RC slab, shear connecters, inverted T section, shear reinforcment, shear span over effective depth

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1754 FEM and Experimental Studies on the Filled Steel I-Girder Bridge

Authors: Waheed Ahmad Safi, Shunichi Nakamura


Steel/concrete composite bridge with the concrete filled steel I-girder (CFIG) was proposed, and the bending and shear strength was studied by experiments and FEM analysis. The area surrounded by the upper and lower flanges and the web is filled with concrete in CFIG, which is used at the intermediate support of a continuous girder. The bending and shear tests of the CFIG were carried out, showing that the bending strength of CFIG was 2.8 times of the conventional steel I-girder and the shear strength was 3.0 times of the steel I-girder. Finite element models were established to clarify bending and shear behaviors and the load transfer mechanism of CFIG. FEM result agreed very well with the test results. The FEM model was also applied to simulate the shear tests of the CFIG specimens. A trail design was carried out for a four-span continuous highway bridge and the design method was established.

Keywords: bending strength, concrete filled steel I-girder, steel I-girder, FEM, limit states design and shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
1753 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai


The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1752 Non-Chronological Approach in Crane Girder and Composite Steel Beam Installation: Case Study

Authors: Govindaraj Ramanathan


The time delay and the structural stability are major issues in big size projects due to several factors. Improper planning and poor coordination lead to delay in construction, which sometimes result in reworking or rebuilding. This definitely increases the cost and time of project. This situation stresses the structural engineers to plan out of the limits of contemporary technology utilizing non-chronological approach with creative ideas. One of the strategies to solve this issue is through structural integrity solutions in a cost-effective way. We have faced several problems in a project worth 470 million USD, and one such issue is crane girder installation with composite steel beams. We have applied structural integrity approach with the proper and revised planning schedule to solve the problem efficiently with minimal expenses.

Keywords: construction management, delay, non-chronological approach, composite beam, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
1751 Composite Behavior of Precast Concrete Coping with Internal Connector and Precast Girder

Authors: Junki Min, Heeyoung Lee, Wonseok Chung


Traditional marine concrete structures are difficult to construct and may cause environmental pollution. This study presents new concrete bridge system in the marine. The main feature of the proposed bridge is that precast girders and precast coping are applied to facilitate assembly and to improve constructability. In addition, the moment of the girder is reduced by continuation the joint. In this study, a full-scale joint specimen with a span of 7.0 m was fabricated and tested to evaluate the composite behavior of the joint. A finite element model was also developed and compared against the experimental results. All members of the test specimen behaved stably up to the design load. It was found that the precast joint of the proposed bridge showed the composite behavior efficiently before the failure.

Keywords: finite element analysis, full-scale test, coping, joint performance, marine structure, precast

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
1750 Tensile Force Estimation for Real-Size Pre-Stressed Concrete Girder using Embedded Elasto-Magnetic Sensor

Authors: Junkyeong Kim, Jooyoung Park, Aoqi Zhang, Seunghee Park


The tensile force of Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) girder is the most important factor for evaluating the performance of PSC girder bridges. To measure the tensile force of PSC girder, several NDT methods were studied. However, conventional NDT method cannot be applied to the real-size PSC girder because the PS tendons could not be approached. To measure the tensile force of real-size PSC girder, this study proposed embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation method. The embedded EM sensor could be installed inside of PSC girder as a sheath joint before the concrete casting. After curing process, the PS tendons were installed, and the tensile force was induced step by step using hydraulic jacking machine. The B-H loop was measured using embedded EM sensor at each tensile force steps and to compare with actual tensile force, the load cell was installed at each end of girder. The magnetization energy loss, that is the closed area of B-H loop, was decreased according to the increase of tensile force with regular pattern. Thus, the tensile force could be estimated by the tracking the change of magnetization energy loss of PS tendons. Through the experimental result, the proposed method can be used to estimate the tensile force of the in-situ real-size PSC girder bridge.

Keywords: tensile force estimation, embedded EM sensor, magnetization energy loss, PSC girder

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1749 Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Steel Girder Systems Braced by Solid Web Crossbeams

Authors: Ruoyang Tang, Jianguo Nie


Lateral-torsional bracing members are critical to the stability of girder systems during the construction phase of steel-concrete composite bridges, and the interaction effect of multiple girders plays an essential role in the determination of buckling load. In this paper, an investigation is conducted on the lateral-torsional buckling behavior of the steel girder system which is composed of three or four I-shaped girders and braced by solid web crossbeams. The buckling load for such girder system is comprehensively analyzed and an analytical solution is developed for uniform pressure loading conditions. Furthermore, post-buckling analysis including initial geometric imperfections is performed and parametric studies in terms of bracing density, stiffness ratio as well as the number and spacing of girders are presented in order to find the optimal bracing plans for an arbitrary girder layout. The theoretical solution of critical load on account of local buckling mode shows good agreement with the numerical results in eigenvalue analysis. In addition, parametric analysis results show that both bracing density and stiffness ratio have a significant impact on the initial stiffness, global stability and failure mode of such girder system. Taking into consideration the effect of initial geometric imperfections, an increase in bracing density between adjacent girders can effectively improve the bearing capacity of the structure, and higher beam-girder stiffness ratio can result in a more ductile failure mode.

Keywords: bracing member, construction stage, lateral-torsional buckling, steel girder system

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1748 Suggestion of Reasonable Analysis Model for T-Girder Modular Bridge

Authors: Soonwon Kang, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Seung-Kyung Kye, Sun-Kyu Park


The modular bridge is to be constructed by assembling standardized precast segments. This bridge is classified as a slab type and T-girder type. The T-girder bridge has transverse joint. However, it did not perform the verification on the transverse joint, but the slab type was done on the analytic study on the joint. Therefore, it is necessary for precast modular T-girder bridge that has a transverse joint to propose an appropriated model. In this study, specimens and analysis models compared integrated type with segmented type. Results of the integrated and segmented specimens, each of the deflection was 98.40mm and 74.66mm when the maximum load was 269.71kN and 248.29kN, in case of the modeling the specimens, each of the deflection was 84.04mm, 69.39mm when the maximum load was 269.71kN, 248.29kN, therefore, the precast T-girder modular bridges form the analytic model proposed appropriate.

Keywords: precast, T-girder modular bridge, finite element analysis, joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
1747 Simulation and Experimental Study on Tensile Force Measurement of PS Tendons Using an Embedded EM Sensor

Authors: ByoungJoon Yu, Junkyeong Kim, Seunghee Park


The tensile force estimation PS tendons is in great demand on monitoring the structural health condition of PSC girder bridges. Measuring the tensile force of the PS tendons inside the PSC girder using conventional methods is hard due to its location. In this paper, an embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation of PS tendon was carried out by measuring the permeability of the PS tendons in PSC girder. The permeability is changed due to the induced tensile force by the magneto-elastic effect and the effect then lead to the gradient change of the B-H curve. An experiment was performed to obtain the signals from the EM sensor using three down-scaled PSC girder models. The permeability of PS tendons was proportionally decreased according to the increase of the tensile forces. To verify the experiment results, a simulation of tensile force estimation will be conducted in further study. Consequently, it is expected that both the experiment results and the simulation results increase the accuracy of the tensile force estimation, and then it could be one of the solutions for evaluating the performance of PSC girder.

Keywords: tensile force estimation, embedded EM sensor, PSC girder, EM sensor simulation, cross section loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1746 Comparative Study of Concrete Filled Steel I-Girder Bridge with Conventional Type of Bridge

Authors: Waheed Ahmad Safi, Shunichi Nakamura, Abdul Habib Ghaforzai


Steel and concrete composite bridge with concrete filled steel I-girder (CFIG) was proposed and FEM and laboratory tests were conducted to analysis bending and shear behavior. The proposed form of structural steel I-section is mainly used at the intermediate support zone by placing infilled concrete into the top and bottom flanges of steel I-section to resist negative bending moment. The bending and shear tests were carried out to find out the significance of CFIG section. The result for test showing that the bending and shear capacity of proposed CFIG is at least 3 times and 2 times greater than conventional steel I-section (IG) respectively. Finite element study was also carried out to ensure the result for laboratory tests due to bending and shear behavior and load transfer behavior of proposed structural form. Finite element result result agreed the test result. A design example was carried out for a four-span continuous highway bridge and design method was established.

Keywords: bending strength, concrete filled steel I-girder, steel I-girder, FEM, limit states design and shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1745 An Evaluation of Full-Scale Reinforced Concrete and Steel Girder Composite Members Using High Volume Fly-Ash

Authors: Sung-Won Yoo, Chul-Hyeon Kang, Kyoung-Tae Park, Hae-Sik Woo


Numerous studies were dedicated on the High Volume Fly-Ash (HVFA) concrete using high volume fly ash. The material properties of HVFA concrete have been the primordial topics of early studies, and interest shifted gradually toward the structural behavior of HVFA concrete such as elasticity modulus, stress-strain relationship, and structural behavior. However, structural studies consider small-scale members limited to the scope of reinforced concrete only. Therefore, in this paper, on the basis of recent studies on the structural behavior, 2 full-scale test members were manufactured with 7.5 m span length, fly ash replacement ratio of 50 % and concrete compressive strength of 50 MPa in order to evaluate the practicability of HVFA to real structures. In addition, 2 steel composite test members were also manufactured with span length of 3 m and using the same HVFA concrete for the same purpose. The test results of full-scale RC members showed that the practical use of HVFA on such structures is not hard despite small differences between test results and existing research results on the stress-strain relationship. The flexural test revealed very little difference between 50% fly ash concrete and general concrete in view of the similarity exhibited by the displacement and strain patterns. The experimental concrete shear strength being very close to that of design code, the existing design code can be applied. From the flexural test results of steel girder composite members, the composite behavior can be secured as much as that using normal concrete under the condition of sufficient arrangement of reinforcing bar.

Keywords: composite, fly ash, full-scale, high volume

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
1744 Development of a Value Evaluation Model of Highway Box-Girder Bridge

Authors: Hao Hsi Tseng


Taiwan’s infrastructure is gradually deteriorating, while resources for maintenance and replacement are increasingly limited, raising the urgent need for methods for maintaining existing infrastructure within constrained budgets. Infrastructure value evaluation is used to enhance the efficiency of infrastructure maintenance work, allowing administrators to quickly assess the maintenance needs and performance by observing variation in infrastructure value. This research establishes a value evaluation model for Taiwan’s highway box girder bridges. The operating mechanism and process of the model are illustrated in a practical case.

Keywords: box girder bridge, deterioration, infrastructure, maintenance, value evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
1743 A Full-Scale Test of Coping-Girder Integrated Bridge

Authors: Heeyoung Lee, Woosung Bin, Kangseog Seo, Hyojeong Yun, Zuog An


Recently, a new continuous bridge system has been proposed to increase the space under the bridge and to improve aesthetic aspect of the urban area. The main feature of the proposed bridge is to connect steel I-girders and coping by means of prestressed high-strength steel bars and steel plate. The proposed bridge is able to lower the height of the bridge to ensure the workability and efficiency through a reduction of the cost of road construction. This study presents the experimental result of the full-scale connection between steel I-girders and coping under the negative bending moment. The composite behavior is thoroughly examined and discussed under the specific load levels such as service load, factored load and crack load. Structural response showed full composite action until the final load level because no relative displacement between coping and girder was observed. It was also found prestressing force into high-strength bars was able to control tensile stresses of deck slab. This indicated that cracks in deck slab can be controlled by above-mentioned prestressing force.

Keywords: coping, crack, integrated bridge, full-scale test

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
1742 The Application of Artificial Neural Network for Bridge Structures Design Optimization

Authors: Angga S. Fajar, A. Aminullah, J. Kiyono, R. A. Safitri


This paper discusses about the application of ANN for optimizing of bridge structure design. ANN has been applied in various field of science concerning prediction and optimization. The structural optimization has several benefit including accelerate structural design process, saving the structural material, and minimize self-weight and mass of structure. In this paper, there are three types of bridge structure that being optimized including PSC I-girder superstructure, composite steel-concrete girder superstructure, and RC bridge pier. The different optimization strategy on each bridge structure implement back propagation method of ANN is conducted in this research. The optimal weight and easier design process of bridge structure with satisfied error are achieved.

Keywords: bridge structures, ANN, optimization, back propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1741 Rational Approach to Analysis and Construction of Curved Composite Box Girders in Bridges

Authors: Dongming Feng, Fangyin Zhang, Liling Cao


Horizontally curved steel-concrete composite box girders are extensively used in highway bridges. They consist of reinforced concrete deck on top of prefabricated steel box section beam which exhibits a high torsional rigidity to resist torsional effects induced by the curved structural geometry. This type of structural system is often constructed in two stages. The composite section will take the tension mainly by the steel box and, the compression by the concrete deck. The steel girders are delivered in large pre-fabricated U-shaped sections that are designed for ease of construction. They are then erected on site and overlaid by cast-in-place reinforced concrete deck. The functionality of the composite section is not achieved until the closed section is formed by fully cured concrete. Since this kind of composite section is built in two stages, the erection of the open steel box presents some challenges to contractors. When the reinforced concrete slab is cast-in-place, special care should be taken on bracings that can prevent the open U-shaped steel box from global and local buckling. In the case of multiple steel boxes, the design detailing should pay enough attention to the installation requirement of the bracings connecting adjacent steel boxes to prevent the global buckling. The slope in transverse direction and grade in longitudinal direction will result in some local deformation of the steel boxes that affect the connection of the bracings. During the design phase, it is common for engineers to model the curved composite box girder using one-dimensional beam elements. This is adequate to analyze the global behavior, however, it is unable to capture the local deformation which affects the installation of the field bracing connection. The presence of the local deformation may become a critical component to control the construction tolerance, and overlooking this deformation will produce inadequate structural details that eventually cause misalignment in field and erection failure. This paper will briefly describe the construction issues we encountered in real structures, investigate the difference between beam element modeling and shell/solid element modeling, and their impact on the different construction stages. P-delta effect due to the slope and curvature of the composite box girder is analyzed, and the secondary deformation is compared to the first-order response and evaluated for its impact on installation of lateral bracings. The paper will discuss the rational approach to prepare construction documents and recommendations are made on the communications between engineers, erectors, and fabricators to smooth out construction process.

Keywords: buckling, curved composite box girder, stage construction, structural detailing

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1740 Fatigue Evaluation of Link Slab for Continuous Girder-Type Precast Modular Bridges

Authors: Jae-Joon Song, Sang-Yoon Lee, Bong-Chul Joo


The girder-type precast modular bridge has been developed as a simply supported bridge. The girder-type precast modular bridge could be applied to the multi-span bridges through the continuity method. The continuity of the girder-type precast modular bridge is achieved by using the link slab which is easy to construction and appropriate to the rapid construction. In this study, the link slab with transition zone was used for the continuity of the precast modular bridges, and the construction detail of link slab was modified. In addition, the modified iterative design method of link slab was proposed in this study. To verify the proposed design method, the fatigue test using the mock-up specimen was conducted with cycle loading condition up to two million cycles.

Keywords: precast, modular bridge, link slab

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
1739 Finite Element Approach to Evaluate Time Dependent Shear Behavior of Connections in Hybrid Steel-PC Girder under Sustained Loading

Authors: Mohammad Najmol Haque, Takeshi Maki, Jun Sasaki


Headed stud shear connections are widely used in the junction or embedded zone of hybrid girder to achieve whole composite action with continuity that can sustain steel-concrete interfacial tensile and shear forces. In Japan, Japan Road Association (JRA) specifications are used for hybrid girder design that utilizes very low level of stud capacity than those of American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) specifications, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) specifications and EURO code. As low design shear strength is considered in design of connections, the time dependent shear behavior due to sustained external loading is not considered, even not fully studied. In this study, a finite element approach was used to evaluate the time dependent shear behavior for headed studs used as connections at the junction. This study clarified, how the sustained loading distinctively impacted on changing the interfacial shear of connections with time which was sensitive to lodging history, positions of flanges, neighboring studs, position of prestress bar and reinforcing bar, concrete strength, etc. and also identified a shear influence area. Stud strength was also confirmed through pushout tests. The outcome obtained from the study may provide an important basis and reference data in designing connections of hybrid girders with enhanced stud capacity with due consideration of their long-term shear behavior.

Keywords: finite element, hybrid girder, shear connections, sustained loading, time dependent behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1738 Influence of Prestress Loss on Mechanical Performance of Fabricated Girder Bridge

Authors: Wu Xiaoguang, Liu Jiaxin, Fang Miaomiao, Wei Saidong


There are many prestressed concrete prefabricated girder Bridges with small and medium span and the damage is serious. This paper mainly study the effect of prestress loss of prefabricated bridge bearing performance, through the establishment of ANSYS finite element model, from the condition of different prestress loss research, get the stress and strain data, draw curve, finally get the following conclusion: loss of prestress can reduce the ultimate bearing capacity of Bridges, the side span across the deflection value than the influence of times side span, the influence of the deflection in the midspan cross value. Therefore, the prestress loss and the effective prestress should be strictly considered in the design and construction process.

Keywords: across the deflection, loss of prestress, prefabricated girder bridge, the main tensile stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
1737 Structural Behavior of Incomplete Box Girder Bridges Subjected to Unpredicted Loads

Authors: E. H. N. Gashti, J. Razzaghi, K. Kujala


In general, codes and regulations consider seismic loads only for completed structures of the bridges while, evaluation of incomplete structure of bridges, especially those constructed by free cantilever method, under these loads is also of great importance. Hence, this research tried to study the behavior of incomplete structure of common bridge type (box girder bridge), in construction phase under vertical seismic loads. Subsequently, the paper provided suitable guidelines and solutions to withstand this destructive phenomena. Research results proved that use of preventive methods can significantly reduce the stresses resulted from vertical seismic loads in box cross sections to an acceptable range recommended by design codes.

Keywords: box girder bridges, prestress loads, free cantilever method, seismic loads, construction phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
1736 Numerical Study on Pretensioned Bridge Girder Using Thermal Strain Technique

Authors: Prashant Motwani, Arghadeep Laskar


The transfer of prestress force from prestressing strands to the surrounding concrete is dependent on the bond between the two materials. It is essential to understand the actual bond stress distribution along the transfer length to determine the transfer zone in pre-tensioned concrete. A 3-D nonlinear finite element model has been developed to simulate the transfer of prestress force from steel to concrete in pre-tensioned bridge girders through thermal strain technique using commercially available package ABAQUS. Full-scale bridge girder has been analyzed with thermal strain approach where the damage plasticity constitutive model has been used to model concrete. Parameters such as concrete strain, effective prestress, upward camber and longitudinal stress have been compared with analytical results. The discrepancy between numerical and analytical values was within 20%. The paper also presents a convergence study on mesh density and aspect ratio of the elements to perform the finite element study.

Keywords: aspect ratio, bridge girder, centre of gravity of strand, mesh density, finite element model, pretensioned bridge girder

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
1735 A Study on Application of Elastic Theory for Computing Flexural Stresses in Preflex Beam

Authors: Nasiri Ahmadullah, Shimozato Tetsuhiro, Masayuki Tai


This paper presents the step-by-step procedure for using Elastic Theory to calculate the internal stresses in composite bridge girders prestressed by the Preflexing Technology, called Prebeam in Japan and Preflex beam worldwide. Elastic Theory approaches preflex beams the same way as it does the conventional composite girders. Since preflex beam undergoes different stages of construction, calculations are made using different sectional and material properties. Stresses are calculated in every stage using the properties of the specific section. Stress accumulation gives the available stress in a section of interest. Concrete presence in the section implies prestress loss due to creep and shrinkage, however; more work is required to be done in this field. In addition to the graphical presentation of this application, this paper further discusses important notes of graphical comparison between the results of an experimental-only research carried out on a preflex beam, with the results of simulation based on the elastic theory approach, for an identical beam using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) by the author.

Keywords: composite girder, Elastic Theory, preflex beam, prestressing

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
1734 Analytical Study on the Shape of T-Type Girder Modular Bridge Connection by Using Parametric

Authors: Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Seung-Kyung Kye, Sun-Kyu Park


Recently, to cope with the rapidly changing construction trend because of aging infrastructures, modular bridge technology has been studied actively. Modular bridge is easily constructed by assembling standardized precast structure members in the field. It will be possible to construct rapidly and reduce construction cost efficiently. However, the shape examination of the transverse connection of T-type girder newly developed between the segmented modules is not performed. Therefore, the investigation of the connection shape is needed. In this study, shape of the modular T-girder bridge transverse connection was analyzed by finite element model that was verified in study which was verification of model for transverse connection using Abaqus. Connection angle was chosen as the parameter. The result of analyses showed that optimal value of angle is 130 degree.

Keywords: modular bridge, optimal transverse shape, parameter, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 533
1733 Investigation of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges under Blasting Loads Based on Slope Reflection

Authors: Yuan Li, Yitao Han, Zhao Zhu


In this paper, the effect of blasting loads on steel-concrete composite bridges has been investigated considering the slope reflection effect. Reasonable values of girder size, plate thickness, stiffening rib, and other design parameters were selected according to design specifications. Modified RHT (Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma) was used as constitutive relation in analyses. In order to simulate the slope reflection effect, the slope of the bridge was precisely built in the model. Different blasting conditions, including top, middle, and bottom explosions, were simulated. The multi-Euler domain method based on fully coupled Lagrange and Euler models was adopted for the structural analysis of the explosion process using commercial software AUTODYN. The obtained results showed that explosion overpressure was increased by 3006, 879, and 449kPa, corresponding to explosions occurring at the top, middle, and bottom of the slope, respectively. At the same time, due to energy accumulation and transmission dissipation caused by slope reflection, the corresponding yield lengths of steel beams were increased by 8, 0, and 5m, respectively.

Keywords: steel-concrete composite bridge, explosion damage, slope reflection, blasting loads, RHT

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1732 Dynamic Behaviors of a Floating Bridge with Mooring Lines under Wind and Wave Excitations

Authors: Chungkuk Jin, Moohyun Kim, Woo Chul Chung


This paper presents global performance and dynamic behaviors of a discrete-pontoon-type floating bridge with mooring lines in time domain under wind and wave excitations. The structure is designed for long-distance and deep-water crossing and consists of the girder, columns, pontoons, and mooring lines. Their functionality and behaviors are investigated by using elastic-floater/mooring fully-coupled dynamic simulation computer program. Dynamic wind, first- and second-order wave forces, and current loads are considered as environmental loads. Girder’s dynamic responses and mooring tensions are analyzed under different analysis methods and environmental conditions. Girder’s lateral responses are highly influenced by the second-order wave and wind loads while the first-order wave load mainly influences its vertical responses.

Keywords: floating bridge, mooring line, pontoon, wave excitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
1731 Impact of Welding Distortion on the Design of Fabricated T-Girders Using Finite Element Modeling

Authors: Ahmed Hammad, Yehia Abdel-Nasser, Mohamed Shamma


The main configuration of ship construction consists of standard and fabricated stiffening members which are commonly used in shipbuilding such as fabricated T-sections. During the welding process, the non-uniform heating and rapid cooling lead to the inevitable presence of out-of-plane distortion and welding induced residual stresses. Because of these imperfections, the fabricated structural members may not attain their design load to be carried. The removal of these imperfections will require extra man-hours. In the present work, controlling these imperfections has been investigated at both design and fabrication stages. A typical fabricated T-girder is selected to investigate the problem of these imperfections using double-side welding. A numerical simulation based on finite element (FE) modeling has been used to investigate the effect of different parameters of the selected fabricated T-girder such as geometrical properties and welding sequences on the magnitude of welding imperfections. FE results were compared with the results of experimental model of a double-side fillet weld. The present work concludes that: Firstly, in the design stage, the optimum geometry of the fabricated T- girder is determined based on minimum steel weight and out- of- plane distortion. Secondly, in the fabrication stage, the best welding sequence is determined on the basis of minimum welding out- of- plane distortion.

Keywords: fabricated T-girder, FEM, out-of-plane distortion, section modulus, welding residual stresses

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1730 Investigation of the Corroded Steel Beam

Authors: Hesamaddin Khoshnoodi, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji


Corrosion in steel structures is one of the most important issues that should be considered in designing and constructing. Corrosion reduces the cross section and load capacity of element and leads to costly damage of structures. In this paper, the corrosion has been modeled for moment stresses. Moreover, the steel beam has been modeled using ABAQUS advanced finite element software. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the displacement of the analyzed composite steel girder bridge might increase.

Keywords: Abaqus, Corrosion, deformation, Steel Beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1729 Sensitivity Analysis of Prestressed Post-Tensioned I-Girder and Deck System

Authors: Tahsin A. H. Nishat, Raquib Ahsan


Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of the optimization procedure can become a significant factor while designing any structural system. The objectives of the study are to analyze the sensitivity of deck slab thickness parameter obtained from both the conventional and optimum design methodology of pre-stressed post-tensioned I-girder and deck system and to compare the relative significance of slab thickness. For analysis on conventional method, the values of 14 design parameters obtained by the conventional iterative method of design of a real-life I-girder bridge project have been considered. On the other side for analysis on optimization method, cost optimization of this system has been done using global optimization methodology 'Evolutionary Operation (EVOP)'. The problem, by which optimum values of 14 design parameters have been obtained, contains 14 explicit constraints and 46 implicit constraints. For both types of design parameters, sensitivity analysis has been conducted on deck slab thickness parameter which can become too sensitive for the obtained optimum solution. Deviations of slab thickness on both the upper and lower side of its optimum value have been considered reflecting its realistic possible ranges of variations during construction. In this procedure, the remaining parameters have been kept unchanged. For small deviations from the optimum value, compliance with the explicit and implicit constraints has been examined. Variations in the cost have also been estimated. It is obtained that without violating any constraint deck slab thickness obtained by the conventional method can be increased up to 25 mm whereas slab thickness obtained by cost optimization can be increased only up to 0.3 mm. The obtained result suggests that slab thickness becomes less sensitive in case of conventional method of design. Therefore, for realistic design purpose sensitivity should be conducted for any of the design procedure of girder and deck system.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, optimum design, evolutionary operations, PC I-girder, deck system

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1728 Evaluation of Structural Integrity for Composite Lattice Structure

Authors: Jae Moon Im, Kwang Bok Shin, Sang Woo Lee


In this paper, evaluation of structural integrity for composite lattice structure was conducted by compressive test. Composite lattice structure was manufactured by carbon fiber using filament winding method. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of composite lattice structure, compressive test was done using anti-buckling fixture. The delamination occurred 84 Tons of compressive load. It was found that composite lattice structure satisfied the design requirements.

Keywords: composite material, compressive test, lattice structure, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
1727 Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Concrete Filled Steel I-Girder Bridge

Authors: Waheed Ahmad Safi, Shunichi Nakamura


Concrete filled steel I-girder (CFIG) bridge was proposed and the bending and shear strength was confirmed by experiments. The area surrounded by the upper and lower flanges and the web is filled with concrete in CFIG, which is used to the intermediate support of a continuous girder. Three-dimensional finite element models were established to simulate the bending and shear behaviors of CFIG and to clarify the load transfer mechanism. Steel plates and filled concrete were modeled as a three-dimensional 8-node solid element and steel reinforcement bars as a three-dimensional 2-node truss element. The elements were mostly divided into the 50 x 50 mm mesh size. The non-linear stress-strain relation is assumed for concrete in compression including the softening effect after the peak, and the stress increases linearly for concrete in tension until concrete cracking but then decreases due to tension stiffening effect. The stress-strain relation for steel plates was tri-linear and that for reinforcements was bi-linear. The concrete and the steel plates were rigidly connected. The developed FEM model was applied to simulate and analysis the bending behaviors of the CFIG specimens. The vertical displacements and the strains of steel plates and the filled concrete obtained by FEM agreed very well with the test results until the yield load. The specimens collapsed when the upper flange buckled or the concrete spalled off. These phenomena cannot be properly analyzed by FEM, which produces a small discrepancy at the ultimate states. The FEM model was also applied to simulate and analysis the shear tests of the CFIG specimens. The vertical displacements and strains of steel and concrete calculated by FEM model agreed well with the test results. A truss action was confirmed by the FEM and the experiment, clarifying that shear forces were mainly resisted by the tension strut of the steel plate and the compression strut of the filled concrete acting in the diagonal direction. A trail design with the CFIG was carried out for a four-span continuous highway bridge and the design method was established. Construction cost was estimated about 12% lower than that of a conventional steel I-section girder.

Keywords: concrete filled steel I-girder, bending strength, FEM, limit states design, steel I-girder, shear strength

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1726 Effect of Pressing Pressure on Mechanical Properties of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Fronds-Based Composite Board

Authors: Ellisha Iling, Dayang Siti Hazimmah Ali


Experimental composite boards were fabricated using oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) fronds particles by applying hot press pressure of 5MPa, 6MPa and 7MPa respectively. Modulus of rupture (MOR) and internal bond strength (IB) of the composite boards made with target density of 0.80 g/cm³ were evaluated. Composite board fabricated under hot press pressure of 5MPa had MOR and IB values of 16.27 and 4.34 N/mm² respectively. Corresponding values for composite board fabricated under hot press pressure of 6MPa were 16.76 and 5.41 N/mm² respectively. Whereas, the MOR and IB values of composite board fabricated under hot press pressure of 7MPa were 17.24 and 6.19 N/mm² respectively. All composite boards met the MOR and IB requirement stated in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Based on results of this work, the strength of mechanical properties of composite board increased with increase of hot press pressure. This study revealed that the selection of applied pressure during fabrication of composite board is important to improve mechanical properties of composite boards.

Keywords: composite board, Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Fronds, hot press pressure, mechanical properties

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