Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4009

Search results for: common cause

4009 Compact Low-Voltage Biomedical Instrumentation Amplifiers

Authors: Phanumas Khumsat, Chalermchai Janmane

Abstract:

Low-voltage instrumentation amplifier has been proposed for 3-lead electrocardiogram measurement system. The circuit’s interference rejection technique is based upon common-mode feed-forwarding where common-mode currents have cancelled each other at the output nodes. The common-mode current for cancellation is generated by means of common-mode sensing and emitter or source followers with resistors employing only one transistor. Simultaneously this particular transistor also provides common-mode feedback to the patient’s right/left leg to further reduce interference entering the amplifier. The proposed designs have been verified with simulations in 0.18-µm CMOS process operating under 1.0-V supply with CMRR greater than 80dB. Moreover ECG signals have experimentally recorded with the proposed instrumentation amplifiers implemented from discrete BJT (BC547, BC558) and MOSFET (ALD1106, ALD1107) transistors working with 1.5-V supply.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, common-mode feedback, common-mode feedforward, communication engineering

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4008 Civil-Military Relations in Turkey, Europe, and Middle East

Authors: Dorsa Bakhshandehgeyazdi

Abstract:

This article tries to comprehend the change of Turkish common military relations in an analogical viewpoint. The investigation is taking into account two criteria: institutional / legitimate systems and political oversight of the military's self-sufficiency. Examination of European furthermore, Middle Eastern common military relations models to the Turkish ideal model discloses grave contrasts in the middle of Turkish and Middle Eastern common military relations. The Turkish model in change for not less than 10 years is closer to the European show in both lawful and political perspectives. However, the article underscores that Turkish common military relations are still in change and despite the fact that the EU increase procedure has continuously democratized the legitimate arrangement of the nation, law based combining obliges further advances in the political area. A the result, stabilization in Turkey depends not just on withdrawing of the military from the political domain, additionally on the best possible civilization of the administration in hypothesis and practice.

Keywords: Turkish common military, institutional, legitimate systems, political oversight, middle Eastern common military

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
4007 Shared Heart with a Common Atrial Complex and Persistent Right Dorsal Aorta in Conjoined Twins

Authors: L. C. Prasanna, Antony Sylvan D’Souza, Kumar M. R. Bhat

Abstract:

Although life as a conjoined twin would seem intolerable, there has recently been an increased interest in this subject because of the increasing number of cases where attempts have been made to separate them surgically. We have reviewed articles on cardiovascular anomalies in conjoined twins and presenting rarest anomaly in dicephalus parapagus fetus having two heads attached to one body from the neck or upper chest downwards, with a pair of limbs and a set of reproductive organs. Both the twins shared a common thoracic cavity with a single sternum. When the thoracic cavity was opened, a common anterior mediastinum was found. On opening the pericardium, two separate, closely apposed hearts were exposed. The two cardia are placed side by side. The left heart was slightly larger than the right and were joined at the atrial levels. Four atrial appendages were present, two for each twin. The atrial complex was a common chamber posterior to the ventricles. A single large tributary which could be taken as inferior vena cava drains into the common atrial chamber. In this case, the heart could not be assigned to either twin and therefore, it is referred to as the shared heart within a common pericardial sac. The right and left descending thoracic aorta have joined with each other just above the diaphragm to form a common descending thoracic aorta which has an opening in the diaphragm to be continued as common abdominal aorta which has a normal branching pattern. Upon an interior dissection, it is observed that the two atria have a wide communication which could be a wide patent foramen ovale and this common atrial cavity has a communication with a remnant of a possible common sinus venosus.

Keywords: atrium, congenital anomaly, conjoined twin, sinus venosus

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4006 Pattern of Valvular Involvement and Demographic Features of Patients on Benzathine Penicillin at Dhulikhel Hospital

Authors: Sanjaya Humagain, Rajendra Koju

Abstract:

Background: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most common cardiovascular disease in children and young adults. Though declined and almost non-existent in developed nations, RHD is still one of the leading cause for premature death and disability in developing countries. Prevalence of RHD is high in both rural as well as urban area of Nepal. Present study is designed to look at the pattern of valvular involvement and demographic features in RHD. Methods: 326 patients indicated for inj. Benzathine penicillin were selected and echocardiograph performed to see the pattern of vavular involvement. Data analysis was done using SPSS 17. Result: The most common type of lesion was mixed type with mitral valve involvement. MR was the most common isolated lesion. MS was more commonly seen in females whereas AS was more common in males. Secondary prophylaxis was more common than primary prophylaxis. Conclusion: RHD still being a major problem and a preventable disease so extensive screening program is required to identify them early and prevent the complication.

Keywords: acute rheumatic fever, RHD, MS, MR, AS, AR, Inj benzathine penicillin

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4005 The Common Agricultural Policy in a Czech Context

Authors: Markéta Slováková

Abstract:

The largest share of policy and money within the European Union goes to agriculture. The Union’s Common Agricultural Policy has undergone several transformations in the last five decades, with the main change taking place in the 1990's. This change influenced agriculture in the Czech Republic, inasmuch as the fledgling republic was preparing to join the European Union and adopt its policies. In the 1990s, Czech agriculture passed from a centrally planned economy to a market economy and subsequently adopted the terms of the Common Agricultural Policy. The Czech Republic is also characterized by a significant landscape sphere diversification. Agricultural entrepreneurs in the Czech Republic are still not used the possibility of grants from the European Union. They focus rather on national or regional subsidy titles. Only half of all agricultural entrepreneurs in the Czech Republic use European subsidies. This article focuses on the introduction of the Common Agricultural Policy to the Czech Republic and its subsequent influence on Czech agriculture. It is demonstrated on the implementation rate of the CAP in the EU Member States and the closer focus is on the Czech integration.

Keywords: common agricultural policy, agriculture, European Union, transformation

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4004 The Role of the Injured Party's Fault in the Apportionment of Damages in Tort Law: A Comparative-Historical Study between Common Law and Islamic Law

Authors: Alireza Tavakoli Nia

Abstract:

In order to understand the role of the injured party's fault in dividing liability, we studied its historical background. In common law, the traditional contributory negligence rule was a complete defense. Then the legislature and judicial procedure modified that rule to one of apportionment. In Islamic law, too, the Action rule was at first used when the injured party was the sole cause, but jurists expanded the scope of this rule, so this rule was used in cases where both the injured party's fault and that of the other party are involved. There are some popular approaches for apportionment of damages. Some common law countries like Britain had chosen ‘the causal potency approach’ and ‘fixed apportionment’. Islamic countries like Iran have chosen both ‘the relative blameworthiness’ and ‘equal apportionment’ approaches. The article concludes that both common law and Islamic law believe in the division of responsibility between a wrongdoer claimant and the defendant. In contrast, in the apportionment of responsibility, Islamic law mostly believes in equal apportionment that is way easier and saves time and money, but common law legal systems have chosen the causal potency approach, which is more complicated than the rival approach but is fairer.

Keywords: contributory negligence, tort law, damage apportionment, common law, Islamic law

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4003 A Rare Case of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Foot Drop

Authors: John Yahng, Riteesh Bookun

Abstract:

Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common arterial aneurysm of the periphery. It is defined as focal dilation of the artery more than 50% of the normal vessel diameter which usually varies between 7 mm to 11 mm. The most common presentation for PAAs is claudication due to luminal stenmosis secondary to mural thrombus or acute limb ischaemia due to occlusive thrombosis or distal thromboembolism. It is less common for patients to present with non-ischaemic symptoms secondary to mass effect and compression of adjacent structures, and of these, presentation with common peroneal nerve compression is particularly uncommon. We present a rare case of a 92-year-old female patient presenting with 4-month history of left foot drop with radiological evidence of common peroneal nerve compression secondary to PAA of 22 mm by21mm in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the smallest reported popliteal aneurysm presenting with foot drop. We also present the endovascular treatment option taken in our case.

Keywords: aneurysm, foot drop, peroneal nerve, popliteal

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4002 Case Report: A Rare Case of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Foot Drop

Authors: John Yahng, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun

Abstract:

Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common arterial aneurysm of the periphery. It is defined as focal dilation of the artery more than 50% of the normal vessel diameter which usually varies between 7 mm to 11 mm. The most common presentation for PAAs is claudication due to luminal stenosis secondary to mural thrombus or acute limb ischaemia due to occlusive thrombosis or distal thromboembolism. It is less common for patients to present with non-ischaemic symptoms secondary to mass effect and compression of adjacent structures, and of these, presentation with common peroneal nerve compression is particularly uncommon. We present a rare case of a 92-year-old female patient presenting with 4-month history of left foot drop with radiological evidence of common peroneal nerve compression secondary to PAA of 22 mm by 21mm in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the smallest reported popliteal aneurysm presenting with foot drop. We also present the endovascular treatment option taken in our case.

Keywords: aneurysm, foot drop, peroneal nerve, popliteal

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4001 The Different Types of French Language in the Processes of Acquisition: Specifically about The Humor

Authors: Akbarnejad Neda

Abstract:

A foreign language acquisition occurs when we can tell a joke and understand it. Most jokes are told in slang and common language. In the process of foreign language acquisition, an autonomous learner try to learn the standard language. But there is a colossal divergence between the usage of the different types of language in society. Here, we investigate the french slang and common language and examine the accurate perception of their usage. We illuminate the slang language in the french literature that provide considerably different types of language for an autonomous learner. We provide furthermore evidence from the french novels that demonstrate properly the different types of language and give in one sentence its social meanings. For example, the famous Queneau expression « Doukipudonktant » present the impact of slang language in society. The characters in the novel transfer the slang and the common language and their accurate usages. We present that the language of the autonomous learner depends on the language of the text that is read. Because literature is a vehicle of the culture and the expression demonstrate their real significations and usage in the culture, slang and common language have a crucial role in the culture and all of them are manifested in the oral language.

Keywords: common language, french, humor, slang language

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4000 Compositional and Morphological Characteristics of Three Common Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Grown in Algeria

Authors: H. Amellal, Y. Noui, A. Djouab, S. Benamara

Abstract:

Mech-Degla, Degla-Beida, and Frezza are the date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) common varieties with a more or less good availability and feeble trade value. Some morphologic and physicochemical factors were determined. Results show that the whole date weight is significantly different (P= 95%) concerning Mech-Degla and Degla-Beida which are more commercialised than Frezza whereas the pulp/kernel ratio for this last is highest (above 7) since it represents almost the double of that found for the two other varieties. The water content for all fruits is below 15g/100g (wet basis) what confers a dried consistence for common date. Some other morphologic and chemical proprieties of the whole pulps and their two constitutive parts (brown or pigmented and white) are also investigated. The predominance of phenolics in Mech-Degla (4.01g/100g, w.b) and Frezza (4.96 g/100g, w.b) pulps brown part is the main result revealed in this study.

Keywords: common dates, phenolics, sugars, tissues

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3999 Finding the Longest Common Subsequence in Normal DNA and Disease Affected Human DNA Using Self Organizing Map

Authors: G. Tamilpavai, C. Vishnuppriya

Abstract:

Bioinformatics is an active research area which combines biological matter as well as computer science research. The longest common subsequence (LCSS) is one of the major challenges in various bioinformatics applications. The computation of the LCSS plays a vital role in biomedicine and also it is an essential task in DNA sequence analysis in genetics. It includes wide range of disease diagnosing steps. The objective of this proposed system is to find the longest common subsequence which presents in a normal and various disease affected human DNA sequence using Self Organizing Map (SOM) and LCSS. The human DNA sequence is collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Initially, the human DNA sequence is separated as k-mer using k-mer separation rule. Mean and median values are calculated from each separated k-mer. These calculated values are fed as input to the Self Organizing Map for the purpose of clustering. Then obtained clusters are given to the Longest Common Sub Sequence (LCSS) algorithm for finding common subsequence which presents in every clusters. It returns nx(n-1)/2 subsequence for each cluster where n is number of k-mer in a specific cluster. Experimental outcomes of this proposed system produce the possible number of longest common subsequence of normal and disease affected DNA data. Thus the proposed system will be a good initiative aid for finding disease causing sequence. Finally, performance analysis is carried out for different DNA sequences. The obtained values show that the retrieval of LCSS is done in a shorter time than the existing system.

Keywords: clustering, k-mers, longest common subsequence, SOM

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3998 Inter Religion Harmony and World Peace: Theory from Shah Wali Ullah's Philosophy

Authors: Muhammad Usman Ghani

Abstract:

Religious tolerance is essential for the establishment of peace in the world. In the system created by Almighty Allah where a lot of diversity is found, still, this world holds unity itself. In today's world, human beings have been divided into clashes of civilizations or divided on the basis of religions or lingual differences. A religious scholar of Indo- Pak subcontinent describes four ethics, on the basis of which all religions of the world can unite. He says in his philosophy of religion that, there is a number of elements common in all religions but four are very common and they are: cleanliness, nobel deeds, relation to Almighty (existence of Almighty) and justice. He says that this universe also holds its integrity in itself. All humans are different in their attributes but to be a human being is common in them. Similarly, all species of the universe are different in their nature, but to be the creature of God is commonly shared by all of them.

Keywords: inter-religious relation, peace and harmony, unity, four common ethics/virtues

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3997 Effect of Ecologic Fertilizers on Productivity and Yield Quality of Common and Spelt Wheat

Authors: Danutė Jablonskytė-Raščė, Audronė MankevičIenė, Laura Masilionytė

Abstract:

During the period 2009–2015, in Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, the effect of ecologic fertilizers Ekoplant, bio-activators Biokal 01 and Terra Sorb Foliar and their combinations on the formation of the productivity elements, grain yield and quality of winter wheat, spelt (Triticum spelta L.), and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analysed in ecological agro-system. The soil under FAO classification – Endocalcari-Endo-hypogleyic-Cambisol. In a clay loam soil, ecological fertilizer produced from sunflower hull ash and this fertilizer in combination with plant extracts and bio-humus exerted an influence on the grain yield of spelt and common wheat and their mixture (increased the grain yield by 10.0%, compared with the unfertilized crops). Spelt grain yield was by on average 16.9% lower than that of common wheat and by 11.7% lower than that of the mixture, but the role of spelt in organic production systems is important because with no mineral fertilization it produced grains with a higher (by 4%) gluten content and exhibited a greater ability to suppress weeds (by on average 61.9% lower weed weight) compared with the grain yield and weed suppressive ability of common wheat and mixture. Spelt cultivation in a mixture with common wheat significantly improved quality indicators of the mixture (its grain contained by 2.0% higher protein content and by 4.0% higher gluten content than common wheat grain), reduced disease incidence (by 2-8%), and weed infestation level (by 34-81%).

Keywords: common and spelt-wheat, ecological fertilizers, bio-activators, productivity elements, yield, quality

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3996 Efficient Elimination of Common Allergens through the Application of Dry Microfine Steam on Innate Surfaces

Authors: C. Recchia, M. Bourel, B. Recchia

Abstract:

Dry microfine steam (DMS) technology, developed by Laurastar, was shown to effectively eliminate a range of pathogens such as Sars-CoV-2, E. coli, S. aureus and C. Albicans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DMS technology on allergens. Therefore, the application of the DMS technology was tested on two common allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and cat allergen Fel d 1), on different inert surfaces (e.g., cotton), during 2 to 3 seconds. Quantification of the remaining allergens was performed and the reduction rates reached 100% in 3 seconds for D. pteronyssinus and 97,74% in 2 seconds for cat allergens. In conclusion, DMS showed high efficacy in the elimination of common allergens and could be seen as a natural solution to improve domestic hygiene and reduce allergies.

Keywords: steam, allergens, dust mites, pollens

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3995 Multiple Variations of the Nerves of Gluteal Region and Their Clinical Implications, a Case Report

Authors: A. M. Prasad

Abstract:

Knowledge of variations of nerves of gluteal region is important for clinicians administering intramuscular injections, for orthopedic surgeons dealing with the hip surgeries, possibly for physiotherapists managing the painful conditions and paralysis of this region. Herein, we report multiple variations of the nerves of gluteal region. In the current case, the sciatic nerve was absent. The common peroneal and tibial nerves arose from sacral plexus and reached the gluteal region through greater sciatic foramen above and below piriformis respectively. The common peroneal nerve gave a muscular branch to the gluteus maximus. The inferior gluteal nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh arose from a common trunk. The common trunk was formed by three roots. Upper and middle roots arose from sacral plexus and entered gluteal region through greater sciatic foramen respectively above and below piriformis. The lower root arose from the pudendal nerve and joined the common trunk. These variations were seen in the right gluteal region of an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. Innervation of gluteus maximus by common peroneal nerve and presence of a common trunk of inferior gluteal nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh make this case unique. The variant nerves may be subjected to iatrogenic injuries during surgical approach to the hip. They may also get compressed if there is a hypertrophy of the piriformis syndrome. Hence, the knowledge of these variations is of importance to clinicians, orthopedic surgeons and possibly for physiotherapists.

Keywords: gluteal region, multiple variations, nerve injury, sciatic nerve

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3994 Identification of Common Indicators of Family Environment of Pupils of Alternative Schools

Authors: Yveta Pohnětalová, Veronika Nováková, Lucie Hrašová

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of research in which we were looking for common characteristics of the family environment of students alternative and innovative education systems. Topicality comes from the fact that nowadays in the Czech Republic there are several civic and parental initiatives held with the aim to establish schools for their children. The goal of our research was to reveal key aspects of these families and to identify their common indicators. Among other things, we were interested what reasons lead parents to decide to enroll their child into different education than standard (common). The survey was qualitative and there were eighteen respondents of parents of alternative schools´ pupils. The reason to implement qualitative design was the opportunity to gain deeper insight into the essence of phenomena and to obtain detailed information, which would become the basis for subsequent quantitative research. There have been semi structured interviews done with the respondents which had been recorded and transcribed. By an analysis of gained data (categorization and by coding), we found out that common indicator of our respondents is higher education and higher economic level. This issue should be at the forefront of the researches because there is lack of analysis which would provide a comparison of common and alternative schools in the Czech Republic especially with regard to quality of education. Based on results, we consider questions whether approaches of these parents towards standard education come from their own experience or from the lack of knowledge of current goals and objectives of education policy of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: alternative schools, family environment, quality of education, parents´ approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
3993 Common Fixed Point Results and Stability of a Modified Jungck Iterative Scheme

Authors: Hudson Akewe

Abstract:

In this study, we introduce a modified Jungck (Dual Jungck) iterative scheme and use the scheme to approximate the unique common fixed point of a pair of generalized contractive-like operators in a Banach space. The iterative scheme is also shown to be stable with respect to the maps (S,T). An example is taken to justify the convergence of the scheme. Our result is a generalization and improvement of several results in the literature on single map T.

Keywords: generalized contractive-like operators, modified Jungck iterative scheme, stability results, weakly compatible maps, unique common fixed point

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3992 Removal of Perchloroethylene, a Common Pollutant, in Groundwater Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Marianne Miguet, Gaël Plantard, Yves Jaeger, Vincent Goetz

Abstract:

The contamination of groundwater is a major concern. A common pollutant, the perchloroethylene, is the target contaminant. Water treatment process as Granular Activated Carbons are very efficient but requires pilot-scale testing to determine the full-scale GAC performance. First, the batch mode was used to get a reliable experimental method to estimate the adsorption capacity of a common volatile compound is settled. The Langmuir model is acceptable to fit the isotherms. Dynamic tests were performed with three columns and different operating conditions. A database of concentration profiles and breakthroughs were obtained. The resolution of the set of differential equations is acceptable to fit the dynamics tests and could be used for a full-scale adsorber.

Keywords: activated carbon, groundwater, perchloroethylene, full-scale

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3991 Numerical Investigation of the Electromagnetic Common Rail Injector Characteristics

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Ksenia Siadkowska, Tytus Tulwin

Abstract:

The paper describes the modeling of a fuel injector for common rail systems. A one-dimensional model of a solenoid-valve-controlled injector with Valve Closes Orifice (VCO) spray was modelled in the AVL Hydsim. This model shows the dynamic phenomena that occur in the injector. The accuracy of the calibration, based on a regulation of the parameters of the control valve and the nozzle needle lift, was verified by comparing the numerical results of injector flow rate. Our model is capable of a precise simulation of injector operating parameters in relation to injection time and fuel pressure in a fuel rail. As a result, there were made characteristics of the injector flow rate and backflow.

Keywords: common rail, diesel engine, fuel injector, modeling

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3990 Clinician's Perspective of Common Factors of Change in Family Therapy: A Cross-National Exploration

Authors: Hassan Karimi, Fred Piercy, Ruoxi Chen, Ana L. Jaramillo-Sierra, Wei-Ning Chang, Manjushree Palit, Catherine Martosudarmo, Angelito Antonio

Abstract:

Background: The two psychotherapy camps, the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and the common factors model, have competitively claimed specific explanations for therapy effectiveness. Recently, scholars called for empirical evidence to show the role of common factors in therapeutic outcome in marriage and family therapy. Purpose: This cross-national study aims to explore how clinicians, across different nations and theoretical orientations, attribute the contribution of common factors to therapy outcome. Method: A brief common factors questionnaire (CFQ-with a Cronbach’s Alpha, 0.77) was developed and administered in seven nations. A series of statistical analyses (paired-samples t-test, independent sample t-test, ANOVA) were conducted: to compare clinicians perceived contribution of total common factors versus model-specific factors, to compare each pair of common factors’ categories, and to compare clinicians from collectivistic nations versus clinicians from individualistic nation. Results: Clinicians across seven nations attributed 86% to common factors versus 14% to model-specific factors. Clinicians attributed 34% of therapeutic change to client’s factors, 26% to therapist’s factors, 26% to relationship factors, and 14% to model-specific techniques. The ANOVA test indicated each of the three categories of common factors (client 34%, therapist 26%, relationship 26%) showed higher contribution in therapeutic outcome than the category of model specific factors (techniques 14%). Clinicians with psychology degree attributed more contribution to model-specific factors than clinicians with MFT and counseling degrees who attributed more contribution to client factors. Clinicians from collectivistic nations attributed larger contributions to therapist’s factors (M=28.96, SD=12.75) than the US clinicians (M=23.22, SD=7.73). The US clinicians attributed a larger contribution to client’s factors (M=39.02, SD=1504) than clinicians from the collectivistic nations (M=28.71, SD=15.74). Conclusion: The findings indicate clinicians across the globe attributed more than two thirds of therapeutic change to CFs, which emphasize the training of the common factors model in the field. CFs, like model-specific factors, vary in their contribution to therapy outcome in relation to specific client, therapist, problem, treatment model, and sociocultural context. Sociocultural expectations and norms should be considered as a context in which both CFs and model-specific factors function toward therapeutic goals. Clinicians need to foster a cultural competency specifically regarding the divergent ways that CFs can be activated due to specific sociocultural values.

Keywords: common factors, model-specific factors, cross-national survey, therapist cultural competency, enhancing therapist efficacy

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3989 The Τraits Τhat Facilitate Successful Student Performance in Distance Education: The Case of the Distance Education Unit at European University Cyprus

Authors: Dimitrios Vlachopoulos, George Tsokkas

Abstract:

Although it is not intended to identify distance education students as a homogeneous group, recent research has demonstrated that there are some demographic and personality common traits among most of them that provide the basis for the description of a typical distance learning student. The purpose of this paper is to describe these common traits and to facilitate their learning journey within a distance education program. The described research is an initiative of the Distance Education Unit at the European University Cyprus (Laureate International Universities) in the context of its action for the improvement of the students’ performance.

Keywords: distance education students, successful student performance, European University Cyprus, common traits

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3988 Explicit Iterative Scheme for Approximating a Common Solution of Generalized Mixed Equilibrium Problem and Fixed Point Problem for a Nonexpansive Semigroup in Hilbert Space

Authors: Mohammad Farid

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce and study an explicit iterative method based on hybrid extragradient method to approximate a common solution of generalized mixed equilibrium problem and fixed point problem for a nonexpansive semigroup in Hilbert space. Further, we prove that the sequence generated by the proposed iterative scheme converge strongly to the common solution of generalized mixed equilibrium problem and fixed point problem for a nonexpansive semigroup. This common solution is the unique solution of a variational inequality problem and is the optimality condition for a minimization problem. The results presented in this paper are the supplement, extension and generalization of the previously known results in this area.

Keywords: generalized mixed equilibrium problem, fixed-point problem, nonexpansive semigroup, variational inequality problem, iterative algorithms, hybrid extragradient method

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3987 Quantitative Phase Imaging System Based on a Three-Lens Common-Path Interferometer

Authors: Alexander Machikhin, Olga Polschikova, Vitold Pozhar, Alina Ramazanova

Abstract:

White-light quantitative phase imaging is an effective technique for achieving sub-nanometer phase sensitivity. Highly stable interferometers based on common-path geometry have been developed in recent years to solve this task. Some of these methods also apply multispectral approach. The purpose of this research is to suggest a simple and effective interferometer for such systems. We developed a three-lens common-path interferometer, which can be used for quantitative phase imaging with or without multispectral modality. The lens system consists of two components, the first one of which is a compound lens, consisting of two lenses. A pinhole is placed between the components. The lens-in-lens approach enables effective light transmission and high stability of the interferometer. The multispectrality is easily implemented by placing a tunable filter in front of the interferometer. In our work, we used an acousto-optical tunable filter. Some design considerations are discussed and multispectral quantitative phase retrieval is demonstrated.

Keywords: acousto-optical tunable filter, common-path interferometry, digital holography, multispectral quantitative phase imaging

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3986 Common Laws Principles: A Way to Solve Global Environmental Change

Authors: Neelam Kadyan

Abstract:

Global environmental change is happening at an alarming rate in the present world. Floods, Tsunamis’, Avalanches, Change in Weather patterns, Rise in sea temperature, Landslides, are only few evidences of this change. To regulate such alarming growth of global change in environment certain regulatory system or mechanism is required. Nuisance,negligence,absolute liability,strict liability and trespass are some of the effective common law principles which are helpful in environmental problems. What we need today is sufficient law and adequate machinery to enforce the legal standards. Without law environmental standards cannot be enforced and once again there is need to adopt the common law approach in solving the problem of environmental change as through this approach the affected person can get compensation and as the same time it puts check on wrongdoer.

Keywords: global environmental problems, nuisance, negligence, trespass, strict liability, absolute liability

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3985 Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance and Grain Yield of 63 Common Bean Genotypes Grown Under Field Conditions at Malkerns Eswatini

Authors: Rotondwa P. Gunununu, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora

Abstract:

Common bean is the most importantly high protein grain legume grown in Southern Africa for human consumption and income generation. Although common bean can associate with rhizobia to fix N₂ for bacterial use and plant growth, it is reported to be a poor nitrogen fixer when compared to other legumes. N₂ fixation can vary with legume species, genotype and rhizobial strain. Therefore, screening legume germplasm can reveal rhizobia/genotype combinations with high N₂-fixing efficiency for use by farmers. This study assessed symbiotic performance and N₂ fixation in 63 common bean genotypes under field conditions at Malkerns Station in Eswatini, using the ¹⁵N natural abundance technique. The shoots of common bean genotypes were sampled at a pod-filling stage, oven-dried (65oC for 72h), weighed, ground into a fine powder (0.50 mm sieve), and subjected to ¹⁵N/¹⁴N isotopic analysis using mass spectrometry. At maturity, plants from the inner rows were harvested for the determination of grain yield. The results revealed significantly higher modulation (p≤0.05) in genotypes MCA98 and CIM-RM01-97-8 relative to the other genotypes. Shoot N concentration was highest in genotype MCA 98, followed by KAB 10 F2.8-84, with most genotypes showing shoot N concentrations below 2%. Percent N derived from atmospheric N₂ fixation (%Ndfa) differed markedly among genotypes, with CIM-RM01-92-3 and DAB 174, respectively, recording the highest values of 66.65% and 66.22 % N derived from fixation. There were also significant differences in grain yield, with CIM-RM02-79-1 producing the highest yield (3618.75 kg/ha). These results represent an important contribution in the profiling of symbiotic functioning of common bean germplasm for improved N₂ fixation.

Keywords: nitrogen fixation, %Ndfa, ¹⁵N natural abundance, grain yield

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3984 Bean in Turkey: Characterization, Inter Gene Pool Hybridization Events, Breeding, Utilizations

Authors: Faheem Shahzad Baloch, Muhammad Azhar Nadeem, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Ephrem Habyarimana, Gonul Comertpay, Tolga Karakoy, Rustu Hatipoglu, Mehmet Zahit Yeken, Vahdettin Ciftci

Abstract:

Turkey is considered a bridge between Europe, Asia, and Africa and possibly played an important role in the distribution of many crops including common bean. Hundreds of common bean landraces can be found in Turkey, particularly in farmers’ fields, and they consistently contribute to the overall production. To investigate the existing genetic diversity and hybridization events between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools in the Turkish common bean, 188 common bean accessions (182 landraces and 6 modern cultivars as controls) were collected from 19 different Turkish geographic regions. These accessions were characterized using phenotypic data (growth habit and seed weight), geographic provenance, 12557 high-quality whole-genome DArTseq markers, and 3767 novel DArTseq loci were also identified. The clustering algorithms resolved the Turkish common bean landrace germplasm into the two recognized gene pools, the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools. Hybridization events were observed in both gene pools (14.36% of the accessions) but mostly in the Mesoamerican (7.97% of the accessions), and was low relative to previous European studies. The lower level of hybridization witnessed the existence of Turkish common bean germplasm in its original form as compared to Europe. Mesoamerican gene pool reflected a higher level of diversity, while the Andean gene pool was predominant (56.91% of the accessions), but genetically less diverse and phenotypically more pure, reflecting farmers greater preference for the Andean gene pool. We also found some genetically distinct landraces and overall, a meaningful level of genetic variability which can be used by the scientific community in breeding efforts to develop superior common bean strains.

Keywords: bean germplasm, DArTseq markers, genotyping by sequencing, Turkey, whole genome diversity

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3983 A Systematic Review on Assessing the Prevalence, Types, and Predictors of Sleep Disturbances in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: E. Botchway, C. Godfrey, V. Anderson, C. Catroppa

Abstract:

Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common after childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence, types, and predictors of sleep disturbances in childhood TBI. Methods: Medline, Pubmed, PsychInfo, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched. Out of the 547 articles assessed, 15 met selection criteria for this review. Results: Sleep disturbances were common in children and adolescents with TBI, irrespective of injury severity. Excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia were the most common sleep disturbances reported. Sleep disturbance was predicted by sex, injury severity, pre-existing sleep disturbances, younger age, pain, and high body mass index. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in childhood TBI, regardless of the injury severity. Routine assessment of sleep in survivors of childhood TBI is recommended.

Keywords: traumatic brain injury, sleep diatiurbances, childhood, systematic review

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
3982 Employee Inventor Compensation: A New Quest for Comparative Law

Authors: Andrea Borroni

Abstract:

The evolution of technology, the global scale of economy, and the new short-term employment contracts make a very peculiar set of disposition of raising interest for the legal interpreter: the employee inventor compensation. Around the globe, this issue is differently regulated according to the legal systems; therefore, it is extremely fragmented. Of course, employers with transnational businesses should face this issue from a comparative perspective. Different legal regimes are available worldwide awarding, as a consequence, diverse compensation to the inventor and according to their own methodology. Given these premises, the recourse to comparative law methodology (legal formants, diachronic and synchronic methodology, common core approach) is the best equipped to face all these different national approaches in order to achieve a tidy systematic. This research, so, elaborates a map of the specific criteria to grant the compensation for the inventor and to show the criteria to calculate them. This finding has been the first step to find out a common core of the discipline given by the common features present in the different legal systems.

Keywords: comparative law, employee invention, intellectual property, legal transplant

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3981 Prevalence of Lupus Glomerulonephritis in Renal Biopsies in an Eastern Region of the Arab World

Authors: M. Fayez Al Homsi, Reem Al Homsi

Abstract:

Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Glomerular diseases make a small portion of the renal disease. Lupus glomerulonephritis (GN) is the commonest among the GN of systemic diseases. More than a hundred and eighty-eight consecutive renal biopsies are performed and evaluated for clinically suspected glomerular diseases over a period of two years. As in a standard practice after receiving the ultrasound-guided renal biopsies, the fresh biopsy is divided to three parts, one part is frozen for immunofluorescence evaluation, the second part is placed in 4% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopic evaluation, and the third part is placed in 10% buffered formalin for light microscopic evaluation. Primary glomerular diseases are detected in 83 biopsies; glomerulonephritis (GN) of systemic diseases are identified in 88, glomerular lesions in vascular diseases in 3, glomerular lesions in metabolic diseases in 7, hereditary nephropathies in 2, end-stage kidney in 2, and glomerular lesions in transplantation in 3 biopsies. Among the primary lesions, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28) and mesangial proliferative GN (26) were the most common. Lupus GN (67) and Ig A nephropathy (20) were the most common of the GN of systemic diseases. Lupus nephritis biopsies included one biopsy diagnosed as class 1 (normal), 17 biopsies class 2 (mesangial proliferation), 5 biopsies class 3 (focal proliferative GN), 39 biopsies class 4 diffuse proliferative GN), 3 biopsies class 5 (membranous GN), and 2 biopsies class 6 (crescentic GN). Lupus GN is the most common among GN of systemic diseases. While diabetes is very common here, diabetic GN (3 biopsies) is not as common as might one expects. Most likely this is due to sampling and reluctance on part of nephrologists and patients in sampling the kidney in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes, glomerulonephritis, lupus, mesangial proliferation, nephropathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
3980 A Three-Step Iterative Process for Common Fixed Points of Three Contractive-Like Operators

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan, H. Fukhar-ud-Din

Abstract:

The concept of quasi-contractive type operators was given by Berinde and extended by Imoru and Olatinwo. They named this new type as contractive-like operators. On the other hand, Xu and Noo introduced a three-step-one-mappings iterative process which can be seen as a generalization of Mann and Ishikawa iterative processes. Approximating common fixed points has its own importance as it has a direct link with minimization problem. Motivated by this, in this paper, we first extend the iterative process of Xu and Noor to the case of three-step-three-mappings and then prove a strong convergence result using contractive-like operators for this iterative process. In general, this generalizes corresponding results using Mann, Ishikawa and Xu-Noor iterative processes with quasi-contractive type operators. It is to be pointed out that our results can also be proved with iterative process involving error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative process, common fixed point, strong convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 478