Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2081

Search results for: commodity points

2081 Risk Management of Water Derivatives: A New Commodity in The Market

Authors: Daniel Mokatsanyane, Johnny Jansen Van Rensburg

Abstract:

This paper is a concise introduction of the risk management on the water derivatives market. Water, a new commodity in the market, is one of the most important commodity on earth. As important to life and planet as crops, metals, and energy, none of them matters without water. This paper presents a brief overview of water as a tradable commodity via a new first of its kind futures contract on the Nasdaq Veles California Water Index (NQH2O) derivative instrument, TheGeneralised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) statistical model will be the used to measure the water price volatility of the instrument and its performance since it’s been traded. describe the main products and illustrate their usage in risk management and also discuss key challenges with modeling and valuation of water as a traded commodity and finally discuss how water derivatives may be taken as an alternative asset investment class.

Keywords: water derivatives, commodity market, nasdaq veles california water Index (NQH2O, water price, risk management

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2080 A Model for Helicopter Routing Problem

Authors: Aydin Sipahioglu, Gokhan Celik

Abstract:

Helicopter routing problem (HRP) is finding good tours for helicopter so as to pick up and deliver personnel or material among specified nodes, mutually. It can be encountered in case of being lots of supply and demand points for different commodities and requiring delivering commodities with helicopter. For instance, to deliver personnel or material from shore to oil rig is a good example. In fact, HRP is a branch of vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery (VRPPD). However, it has additional constraints such that fuel capacity, performance of helicopter in different altitude and temperature, and the number of maximum takeoff and landing allowed. This kind of pickup and delivery problems can be classified into 3 groups, basically. 1-1 (one to one), M-M (many to many) and 1-M-1 (one to many to one). 1-1 means each commodity has only one supply and one demand point. M-M means there can be more than one supply and demand points for each kind of commodity. 1-M-1 means commodities at depot are delivered to demand points and commodities at customers are delivered to depot. In this case helicopter takes off from its own base, complete its tour and return to its own base. In this study, we define 1-M-M-1 type HRP. That means helicopter takes off from its home base, deliver commodities among the nodes as well as between depot and customers and return to its home base. These problems have NP-hard nature. Therefore, obtaining a good solution in a reasonable time is not easy. In this study, a model is offered for 1-M-M-1 type HRP. It is shown on small scale test instances that the model can find the optimal solution.

Keywords: helicopter routing problem, vehicle routing with pickup and delivery, integer programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
2079 Efficient Utilization of Commodity Computers in Academic Institutes: A Cloud Computing Approach

Authors: Jasraj Meena, Malay Kumar, Manu Vardhan

Abstract:

Cloud computing is a new technology in industry and academia. The technology has grown and matured in last half decade and proven their significant role in changing environment of IT infrastructure where cloud services and resources are offered over the network. Cloud technology enables users to use services and resources without being concerned about the technical implications of technology. There are substantial research work has been performed for the usage of cloud computing in educational institutes and majority of them provides cloud services over high-end blade servers or other high-end CPUs. However, this paper proposes a new stack called “CiCKAStack” which provide cloud services over unutilized computing resources, named as commodity computers. “CiCKAStack” provides IaaS and PaaS using underlying commodity computers. This will not only increasing the utilization of existing computing resources but also provide organize file system, on demand computing resource and design and development environment.

Keywords: commodity computers, cloud-computing, KVM, CloudStack, AppScale

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
2078 Quality Management in Spice Paprika Production as a Synergy of Internal and External Quality Measures

Authors: É. Kónya, E. Szabó, I. Bata-Vidács, T. Deák, M. Ottucsák, N. Adányi, A. Székács

Abstract:

Spice paprika is a major spice commodity in the European Union (EU), produced locally and imported from non-EU countries, reported not only for chemical and microbiological contamination, but also for fraud. The effective interaction between producers’ quality management practices and government and EU activities is described on the example of spice paprika production and control in Hungary, a country of leading spice paprika producer and per capita consumer in Europe. To demonstrate the importance of various contamination factors in the Hungarian production and EU trade of spice paprika, several aspects concerning food safety of this commodity are presented. Alerts in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) of the EU between 2005 and 2013, as well as Hungarian state inspection results on spice paprika in 2004 are discussed, and quality non-compliance claims regarding spice paprika among EU member states are summarized in by means of network analysis. Quality assurance measures established along the spice paprika production technology chain at the leading Hungarian spice paprika manufacturer, Kalocsai Fűszerpaprika Zrt. are surveyed with main critical control points identified. The structure and operation of the Hungarian state food safety inspection system is described. Concerted performance of the latter two quality management systems illustrates the effective interaction between internal (manufacturer) and external (state) quality control measures.

Keywords: spice paprika, quality control, reporting mechanisms, RASFF, vulnerable points, HACCP

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
2077 Dynamic Analysis of Commodity Price Fluctuation and Fiscal Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Abidemi C. Adegboye, Nosakhare Ikponmwosa, Rogers A. Akinsokeji

Abstract:

For many resource-rich developing countries, fiscal policy has become a key tool used for short-run fiscal management since it is considered as playing a critical role in injecting part of resource rents into the economies. However, given its instability, reliance on revenue from commodity exports renders fiscal management, budgetary planning and the efficient use of public resources difficult. In this study, the linkage between commodity prices and fiscal operations among a sample of commodity-exporting countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is investigated. The main question is whether commodity price fluctuations affects the effectiveness of fiscal policy as a macroeconomic stabilization tool in these countries. Fiscal management effectiveness is considered as the ability of fiscal policy to react countercyclically to output gaps in the economy. Fiscal policy is measured as the ratio of fiscal deficit to GDP and the ratio of government spending to GDP, output gap is measured as a Hodrick-Prescott filter of output growth for each country, while commodity prices are associated with each country based on its main export commodity. Given the dynamic nature of fiscal policy effects on the economy overtime, a dynamic framework is devised for the empirical analysis. The panel cointegration and error correction methodology is used to explain the relationships. In particular, the study employs the panel ECM technique to trace short-term effects of commodity prices on fiscal management and also uses the fully modified OLS (FMOLS) technique to determine the long run relationships. These procedures provide sufficient estimation of the dynamic effects of commodity prices on fiscal policy. Data used cover the period 1992 to 2016 for 11 SSA countries. The study finds that the elasticity of the fiscal policy measures with respect to the output gap is significant and positive, suggesting that fiscal policy is actually procyclical among the countries in the sample. This implies that fiscal management for these countries follows the trend of economic performance. Moreover, it is found that fiscal policy has not performed well in delivering macroeconomic stabilization for these countries. The difficulty in applying fiscal stabilization measures is attributable to the unstable revenue inflows due to the highly volatile nature of commodity prices in the international market. For commodity-exporting countries in SSA to improve fiscal management, therefore, fiscal planning should be largely decoupled from commodity revenues, domestic revenue bases must be improved, and longer period perspectives in fiscal policy management are the critical suggestions in this study.

Keywords: commodity prices, ECM, fiscal policy, fiscal procyclicality, fully modified OLS, sub-saharan africa

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2076 In and Out-Of-Sample Performance of Non Simmetric Models in International Price Differential Forecasting in a Commodity Country Framework

Authors: Nicola Rubino

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of a group of commodity exporting countries' nominal exchange rate movements in relationship to the US dollar. Using a series of Unrestricted Self-exciting Threshold Autoregressive models (SETAR), we model and evaluate sixteen national CPI price differentials relative to the US dollar CPI. Out-of-sample forecast accuracy is evaluated through calculation of mean absolute error measures on the basis of two-hundred and fifty-three months rolling window forecasts and extended to three additional models, namely a logistic smooth transition regression (LSTAR), an additive non linear autoregressive model (AAR) and a simple linear Neural Network model (NNET). Our preliminary results confirm presence of some form of TAR non linearity in the majority of the countries analyzed, with a relatively higher goodness of fit, with respect to the linear AR(1) benchmark, in five countries out of sixteen considered. Although no model appears to statistically prevail over the other, our final out-of-sample forecast exercise shows that SETAR models tend to have quite poor relative forecasting performance, especially when compared to alternative non-linear specifications. Finally, by analyzing the implied half-lives of the > coefficients, our results confirms the presence, in the spirit of arbitrage band adjustment, of band convergence with an inner unit root behaviour in five of the sixteen countries analyzed.

Keywords: transition regression model, real exchange rate, nonlinearities, price differentials, PPP, commodity points

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2075 Levy Model for Commodity Pricing

Authors: V. Benedico, C. Anacleto, A. Bearzi, L. Brice, V. Delahaye

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The aim in present paper is to construct an affordable and reliable commodity prices based on a recalculation of its cost through time which allows visualize the potential risks and thus, take more appropriate decisions regarding forecasts. Here attention has been focused on Levy model, more reliable and realistic than classical random Gaussian one as it takes into consideration observed abrupt jumps in case of sudden price variation. In application to Energy Trading sector where it has never been used before, equations corresponding to Levy model have been written for electricity pricing in European market. Parameters have been set in order to predict and simulate the price and its evolution through time to remarkable accuracy. As predicted by Levy model, the results show significant spikes which reach unconventional levels contrary to currently used Brownian model.

Keywords: commodity pricing, Lévy Model, price spikes, electricity market

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2074 An Analysis of Oil Price Changes and Other Factors Affecting Iranian Food Basket: A Panel Data Method

Authors: Niloofar Ashktorab, Negar Ashktorab

Abstract:

Oil exports fund nearly half of Iran’s government expenditures, since many years other countries have been imposed different sanctions against Iran. Sanctions that primarily target Iran’s key energy sector have harmed Iran’s economy. The strategic effects of sanctions might be reduction as Iran adjusts to them economically. In this study, we evaluate the impact of oil price and sanctions against Iran on food commodity prices by using panel data method. Here, we find that the food commodity prices, the oil price and real exchange rate are stationary. The results show positive effect of oil price changes, real exchange rate and sanctions on food commodity prices.

Keywords: oil price, food basket, sanctions, panel data, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2073 Bioengineering System for Prediction and Early Prenosological Diagnostics of Stomach Diseases Based on Energy Characteristics of Bioactive Points with Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Mahdi Alshamasin, Riad Al-Kasasbeh, Nikolay Korenevskiy

Abstract:

We apply mathematical models for the interaction of the internal and biologically active points of meridian structures. Amongst the diseases for which reflex diagnostics are effective are those of the stomach disease. It is shown that use of fuzzy logic decision-making yields good results for the prediction and early diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract diseases, depending on the reaction energy of biologically active points (acupuncture points). It is shown that good results for the prediction and early diagnosis of diseases from the reaction energy of biologically active points (acupuncture points) are obtained by using fuzzy logic decision-making.

Keywords: acupuncture points, fuzzy logic, diagnostically important points (DIP), confidence factors, membership functions, stomach diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2072 Modelling Agricultural Commodity Price Volatility with Markov-Switching Regression, Single Regime GARCH and Markov-Switching GARCH Models: Empirical Evidence from South Africa

Authors: Yegnanew A. Shiferaw

Abstract:

Background: commodity price volatility originating from excessive commodity price fluctuation has been a global problem especially after the recent financial crises. Volatility is a measure of risk or uncertainty in financial analysis. It plays a vital role in risk management, portfolio management, and pricing equity. Objectives: the core objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between the prices of agricultural commodities with oil price, gas price, coal price and exchange rate (USD/Rand). In addition, the paper tries to fit an appropriate model that best describes the log return price volatility and estimate Value-at-Risk and expected shortfall. Data and methods: the data used in this study are the daily returns of agricultural commodity prices from 02 January 2007 to 31st October 2016. The data sets consists of the daily returns of agricultural commodity prices namely: white maize, yellow maize, wheat, sunflower, soya, corn, and sorghum. The paper applies the three-state Markov-switching (MS) regression, the standard single-regime GARCH and the two regime Markov-switching GARCH (MS-GARCH) models. Results: to choose the best fit model, the log-likelihood function, Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and deviance information criterion (DIC) are employed under three distributions for innovations. The results indicate that: (i) the price of agricultural commodities was found to be significantly associated with the price of coal, price of natural gas, price of oil and exchange rate, (ii) for all agricultural commodities except sunflower, k=3 had higher log-likelihood values and lower AIC and BIC values. Thus, the three-state MS regression model outperformed the two-state MS regression model (iii) MS-GARCH(1,1) with generalized error distribution (ged) innovation performs best for white maize and yellow maize; MS-GARCH(1,1) with student-t distribution (std) innovation performs better for sorghum; MS-gjrGARCH(1,1) with ged innovation performs better for wheat, sunflower and soya and MS-GARCH(1,1) with std innovation performs better for corn. In conclusion, this paper provided a practical guide for modelling agricultural commodity prices by MS regression and MS-GARCH processes. This paper can be good as a reference when facing modelling agricultural commodity price problems.

Keywords: commodity prices, MS-GARCH model, MS regression model, South Africa, volatility

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2071 Degeneracy and Defectiveness in Non-Hermitian Systems with Open Boundary

Authors: Yongxu Fu, Shaolong Wan

Abstract:

We study the band degeneracy, defectiveness, as well as exceptional points of non-Hermitian systems and materials analytically. We elaborate on the energy bands, the band degeneracy, and the defectiveness of eigenstates under open boundary conditions based on developing a general theory of one-dimensional (1D) non-Hermitian systems. We research the presence of the exceptional points in a generalized non-Hermitian Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model under open boundary conditions. Beyond our general theory, there exist infernal points in 1D non-Hermitian systems, where the energy spectra under open boundary conditions converge on some discrete energy values. We study two 1D non-Hermitian models with the existence of infernal points. We generalize the infernal points to the infernal knots in four-dimensional non-Hermitian systems.

Keywords: non-hermitian, degeneracy, defectiveness, exceptional points, infernal points

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2070 FlexPoints: Efficient Algorithm for Detection of Electrocardiogram Characteristic Points

Authors: Daniel Bulanda, Janusz A. Starzyk, Adrian Horzyk

Abstract:

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most commonly used medical tests, essential for correct diagnosis and treatment of the patient. While ECG devices generate a huge amount of data, only a small part of them carries valuable medical information. To deal with this problem, many compression algorithms and filters have been developed over the past years. However, the rapid development of new machine learning techniques poses new challenges. To address this class of problems, we created the FlexPoints algorithm that searches for characteristic points on the ECG signal and ignores all other points that do not carry relevant medical information. The conducted experiments proved that the presented algorithm can significantly reduce the number of data points which represents ECG signal without losing valuable medical information. These sparse but essential characteristic points (flex points) can be a perfect input for some modern machine learning models, which works much better using flex points as an input instead of raw data or data compressed by many popular algorithms.

Keywords: characteristic points, electrocardiogram, ECG, machine learning, signal compression

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2069 Circular Approximation by Trigonometric Bézier Curves

Authors: Maria Hussin, Malik Zawwar Hussain, Mubashrah Saddiqa

Abstract:

We present a trigonometric scheme to approximate a circular arc with its two end points and two end tangents/unit tangents. A rational cubic trigonometric Bézier curve is constructed whose end control points are defined by the end points of the circular arc. Weight functions and the remaining control points of the cubic trigonometric Bézier curve are estimated by variational approach to reproduce a circular arc. The radius error is calculated and found less than the existing techniques.

Keywords: control points, rational trigonometric Bézier curves, radius error, shape measure, weight functions

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2068 Analysing the Influence of COVID-19 on Major Agricultural Commodity Prices in South Africa

Authors: D. Mokatsanyane, J. Jansen Van Rensburg

Abstract:

This paper analyses the influence and impact of COVID-19 on major agricultural commodity prices in South Africa. According to a World Bank report, the agricultural sector in South Africa has been unable to reduce the domestic food crisis that has been occurring over the past years, hence the increased rate of poverty, which is currently at 55.5 percent as of April 2020. Despite the significance of this sector, empirical findings concluded that the agricultural sector now accounts for 1.88 percent of South Africa's gross domestic product (GDP). Suggesting that the agricultural sector's contribution to the economy has diminished. Despite the low contribution to GDP, this primary sector continues to play an essential role in the economy. Over the past years, multiple factors have contributed to the soaring commodities prices, namely, climate shocks, biofuel demand, demand and supply shocks, the exchange rate, speculation in commodity derivative markets, trade restrictions, and economic growth. The COVID-19 outbursts have currently disturbed the supply and demand of staple crops. To address the disruption, the government has exempted the agricultural sector from closure and restrictions on movement. The spread of COVID-19 has caused turmoil all around the world, but mostly in developing countries. According to Statistic South Africa, South Africa's economy decreased by seven percent in 2020. Consequently, this has arguably made the agricultural sector the most affected sector since slumped economic growth negatively impacts food security, trade, farm livelihood, and greenhouse gas emissions. South Africa is sensitive to the fruitfulness of global food chains. Restrictions in trade, reinforced sanitary control systems, and border controls have influenced food availability and prices internationally. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the behavior of agricultural commodity prices pre-and during-COVID to determine the impact of volatility drivers on these crops. Historical secondary data of spot prices for the top five major commodities, namely white maize, yellow maize, wheat, soybeans, and sunflower seeds, are analysed from 01 January 2017 to 1 September 2021. The timeframe was chosen to capture price fluctuations between pre-COVID-19 (01 January 2017 to 23 March 2020) and during-COVID-19 (24 March 2020 to 01 September 2021). The Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) statistical model will be used to measure the influence of price fluctuations. The results reveal that the commodity market has been experiencing volatility at different points. Extremely high volatility is represented during the first quarter of 2020. During this period, there was high uncertainty, and grain prices were very volatile. Despite the influence of COVID-19 on agricultural prices, the demand for these commodities is still existing and decent. During COVID-19, analysis indicates that prices were low and less volatile during the pandemic. The prices and returns of these commodities were low during COVID-19 because of the government's actions to respond to the virus's spread, which collapsed the market demand for food commodities.

Keywords: commodities market, commodity prices, generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH), Price volatility, SAFEX

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2067 Culture and Commodification: A Study of William Gibson's the Bridge Trilogy

Authors: Aruna Bhat

Abstract:

Culture can be placed within the social structure that embodies both the creation of social groups, and the manner in which they interact with each other. As many critics have pointed out, culture in the Postmodern context has often been considered a commodity, and indeed it shares many attributes with commercial products. Popular culture follows many patterns of behavior derived from Economics, from the simple principle of supply and demand, to the creation of marketable demographics which fit certain criterion. This trend is exemplary visible in contemporary fiction, especially in contemporary science fiction; Cyberpunk fiction in particular which is an off shoot of pure science fiction. William Gibson is one such author who in his works portrays such a scenario, and in his The Bridge Trilogy he adds another level of interpretation to this state of affairs, by describing a world that is centered on industrialization of a new kind – that focuses around data in the cyberspace. In this new world, data has become the most important commodity, and man has become nothing but a nodal point in a vast ocean of raw data resulting into commodification of each thing including Culture. This paper will attempt to study the presence of above mentioned elements in William Gibson’s The Bridge Trilogy. The theories applied will be Postmodernism and Cultural studies.

Keywords: culture, commodity, cyberpunk, data, postmodern

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2066 An Optimized RDP Algorithm for Curve Approximation

Authors: Jean-Pierre Lomaliza, Kwang-Seok Moon, Hanhoon Park

Abstract:

It is well-known that Ramer Douglas Peucker (RDP) algorithm greatly depends on the method of choosing starting points. Therefore, this paper focuses on finding such starting points that will optimize the results of RDP algorithm. Specifically, this paper proposes a curve approximation algorithm that finds flat points, called essential points, of an input curve, divides the curve into corner-like sub-curves using the essential points, and applies the RDP algorithm to the sub-curves. The number of essential points play a role on optimizing the approximation results by balancing the degree of shape information loss and the amount of data reduction. Through experiments with curves of various types and complexities of shape, we compared the performance of the proposed algorithm with three other methods, i.e., the RDP algorithm itself and its variants. As a result, the proposed algorithm outperformed the others in term of maintaining the original shapes of the input curve, which is important in various applications like pattern recognition.

Keywords: curve approximation, essential point, RDP algorithm

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2065 Co-Integrated Commodity Forward Pricing Model

Authors: F. Boudet, V. Galano, D. Gmira, L. Munoz, A. Reina

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Commodities pricing needs a specific approach as they are often linked to each other and so are expectedly doing their prices. They are called co-integrated when at least one stationary linear combination exists between them. Though widespread in economic literature, and even if many equilibrium relations and co-movements exist in the economy, this principle of co-movement is not developed in derivatives field. The present study focuses on the following problem: How can the price of a forward agreement on a commodity be simulated, when it is co-integrated with other ones? Theoretical analysis is developed from Gibson-Schwartz model and an analytical solution is given for short maturities contracts and under risk-neutral conditions. The application has been made to crude oil and heating oil energy commodities and result confirms the applicability of proposed method.

Keywords: co-integration, commodities, forward pricing, Gibson-Schwartz

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2064 Modelling Volatility Spillovers and Cross Hedging among Major Agricultural Commodity Futures

Authors: Roengchai Tansuchat, Woraphon Yamaka, Paravee Maneejuk

Abstract:

From the past recent, the global financial crisis, economic instability, and large fluctuation in agricultural commodity price have led to increased concerns about the volatility transmission among them. The problem is further exacerbated by commodities volatility caused by other commodity price fluctuations, hence the decision on hedging strategy has become both costly and useless. Thus, this paper is conducted to analysis the volatility spillover effect among major agriculture including corn, soybeans, wheat and rice, to help the commodity suppliers hedge their portfolios, and manage the risk and co-volatility of them. We provide a switching regime approach to analyzing the issue of volatility spillovers in different economic conditions, namely upturn and downturn economic. In particular, we investigate relationships and volatility transmissions between these commodities in different economic conditions. We purposed a Copula-based multivariate Markov Switching GARCH model with two regimes that depend on an economic conditions and perform simulation study to check the accuracy of our proposed model. In this study, the correlation term in the cross-hedge ratio is obtained from six copula families – two elliptical copulas (Gaussian and Student-t) and four Archimedean copulas (Clayton, Gumbel, Frank, and Joe). We use one-step maximum likelihood estimation techniques to estimate our models and compare the performance of these copula using Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criteria (BIC). In the application study of agriculture commodities, the weekly data used are conducted from 4 January 2005 to 1 September 2016, covering 612 observations. The empirical results indicate that the volatility spillover effects among cereal futures are different, as response of different economic condition. In addition, the results of hedge effectiveness will also suggest the optimal cross hedge strategies in different economic condition especially upturn and downturn economic.

Keywords: agricultural commodity futures, cereal, cross-hedge, spillover effect, switching regime approach

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2063 An Intellectual Capital as a Driver for Branding

Authors: Shyam Shukla

Abstract:

A brand is the identity of a specific product, service or business. A brand can take many forms, including a name, sign, symbol, color, combination or slogan. The word brand began simply as a way to tell one person's identity from another by means of a hot iron stamp. A legally protected brand name is called a trademark. The word brand has continued to evolve to encompass identity - it affects the personality of a product, company or service. A concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like AIDS awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity1. In this paper, it is tried to explore the significance of an intellectual capital for the branding of an Institution.

Keywords: brand, commodity, consumer, cultural values, intellectual capital, zonal cluster

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2062 Motion of a Dust Grain Type Particle in Binary Stellar Systems

Authors: Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah

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In this present paper, we use the photogravitational version of the restricted three body problem (RTBP) in binary systems. In the photogravitational RTBP, an infinitesimal particle (dust grain) is moving under the gravitational attraction and radiation pressure from the two bigger primaries. The third particle does not affect the motion of two bigger primaries. The zero-velocity curves, zero-velocity surfaces and their projections on the plane are studied. We have used existing analytical method to solve the equations of motion. We have obtained the Lagrangian points in some binary stellar systems. It is found that mass reduction factor affects the Lagrangian points. The linear stability of Lagrangian points is studied and found that these points are unstable. Moreover, trajectories of the infinitesimal particle at the triangular points are studied.

Keywords: binary systems, Lagrangian points, linear stability, photogravitational RTBP, trajectories

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2061 Lambda-Levelwise Statistical Convergence of a Sequence of Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: F. Berna Benli, Özgür Keskin

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Lately, many mathematicians have been studied the statistical convergence of a sequence of fuzzy numbers. We know that Lambda-statistically convergence is a kind of convergence between ordinary convergence and statistical convergence. In this paper, we will introduce the new kind of convergence such as λ-levelwise statistical convergence. Then, we will define the concept of the λ-levelwise statistical cluster and limit points of a sequence of fuzzy numbers. Also, we will discuss the relations between the sets of λ-levelwise statistical cluster points and λ-levelwise statistical limit points of sequences of fuzzy numbers. This work has been extended in this paper, where some relations have been considered such that when lambda-statistical limit inferior and lambda-statistical limit superior for lambda-statistically convergent sequences of fuzzy numbers are equal. Furthermore, lambda-statistical boundedness condition for different sequences of fuzzy numbers has been studied.

Keywords: fuzzy number, λ-levelwise statistical cluster points, λ-levelwise statistical convergence, λ-levelwise statistical limit points, λ-statistical cluster points, λ-statistical convergence, λ-statistical limit points

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2060 Health-Related QOL of Motorists with Spinal Cord Injury in Japan

Authors: Hiroaki Hirose, Hiroshi Ikeda, Isao Takeda

Abstract:

The Japanese version of the SF-36 has been employed to assess individuals’ health-related QOL (HRQOL). This study aimed to clarify the HRQOL of motorists with a spinal cord injury, in order to compare these individuals' SF-36 scores and national standard values. A total of 100 motorists with a spinal cord injury participated in this study. Participants’ HRQOL was evaluated using the Japanese version of the SF-36 (second edition). The score for each subscale was standardized based on data on the Japanese population. The average scores for NPF, NRP, NBP, NGH, NVT, NSF, NRE, and NMH were 10.9, 41.8, 45.9, 47.1, 46.1, 46.7, 46.0, and 47.4 points, respectively. Subjects showed significantly lower scores for NPF and NRP compared with national standard values, which were both ≤ 45.0 points, but relatively normal scores for the other items: NBP, NGH, NVT, NSF, NRE and NMH (> 45.0 points). The average scores for PCS, MCS and RCS were 21.9, 56.0, and 50.0 points, respectively. Subjects showed a significantly lower PCS score (≤ 20.0 points); however, the MCS score was higher (> 55.0 points) along with a relatively normal RCS score in these individuals (= 50.0 points).

Keywords: health-related QOL, HRQOL, SF-36, motorist, spinal cord injury, Japan

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2059 Stability of Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium Points in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem with Oblateness up to Zonal Harmonic J₄ of Both Primaries

Authors: Kanshio Richard Tyokyaa, Jagadish Singh

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In this paper, we examined the location and stability of Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium points in the elliptic restricted three-body problem of an infinitesimal body when both primaries are taken as oblate spheroids with oblateness up to zonal harmonic J₄. The positions of the Equilibrium points L₆,₇ and their stability depend on the oblateness of the primaries and the eccentricity of their orbits. We explored the problem numerically to show the effects of parameters involved in the position and stability of the Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium points for the systems: HD188753 and Gliese 667. It is found that their positions are affected by the oblateness of the primaries, eccentricity and the semi-major axis of the orbits, but its stability behavior remains unchanged and is unstable.

Keywords: out-of-plane, equilibrium points, stability, elliptic restricted three-body problem, oblateness, zonal harmonic

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2058 Relationship of Arm Acupressure Points and Thai Traditional Massage

Authors: Boonyarat Chaleephay

Abstract:

The purpose of this research paper was to describe the relationship of acupressure points on the anterior surface of the upper limb in accordance with Applied Thai Traditional Massage (ATTM) and the deep structures located at those acupressure points. There were 2 population groups; normal subjects and cadaver specimens. Eighteen males with age ranging from 20-40 years old and seventeen females with ages ranging from 30-97 years old were studies. This study was able to obtain a fundamental knowledge concerning acupressure point and the deep structures that related to those acupressure points. It might be used as the basic knowledge for clinically applying and planning treatment as well as teaching in ATTM.

Keywords: acupressure point (AP), applie Thai traditional medicine (ATTM), paresthesia, numbness

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2057 A Note on the Fractal Dimension of Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets in Misiurewicz Points

Authors: O. Boussoufi, K. Lamrini Uahabi, M. Atounti

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The main purpose of this paper is to calculate the fractal dimension of some Julia Sets and Mandelbrot Set in the Misiurewicz Points. Using Matlab to generate the Julia Sets images that match the Misiurewicz points and using a Fractal software, we were able to find different measures that characterize those fractals in textures and other features. We are actually focusing on fractal dimension and the error calculated by the software. When executing the given equation of regression or the log-log slope of image a Box Counting method is applied to the entire image, and chosen settings are available in a FracLAc Program. Finally, a comparison is done for each image corresponding to the area (boundary) where Misiurewicz Point is located.

Keywords: box counting, FracLac, fractal dimension, Julia Sets, Mandelbrot Set, Misiurewicz Points

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2056 Investigating the Dose Effect of Electroacupuncture on Mice Inflammatory Pain Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Shen, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

Abstract:

Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported effective for many kinds of pain and is a common treatment for acute or chronic pain. However, to date, there are limited studies examining the effect of acupuncture dosage. In our experiment, after injecting mice with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) to induce inflammatory pain, two groups of mice were administered two different 15 min EA treatments at 2Hz. The first group received EA at a single acupuncture point (ST36, Zusanli) in both legs (two points), whereas the second group received two acupuncture points in both legs (four points) and the analgesic effect was compared. It was found that double points (ST36, Zusanli and SP6, Sanyinjiao) were significantly superior to single points (ST36, Zusanli) when evaluated using the electronic von Frey Test (mechanic) and Hargreaves’ Test (thermal). Through this study, it is expected more novel physiological mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia will be discovered.

Keywords: anti-inflammation, dose effect, electroacupuncture, pain control

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
2055 LEED Empirical Evidence in Northern and Southern Europe

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar

Abstract:

The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating system is recognized in Europe. LEED uses regional priority (RP) points that are adapted to different environmental conditions. However, the appropriateness of the RP points is still a controversial question. To clarify this issue, two different parts of Europe: northern Europe (Finland and Sweden) and southern Europe (Turkey and Spain) were considered. Similarities and differences in the performances of LEED 2009-new construction (LEED-NC 2009) in these four countries were analyzed. It was found that LEED-NC 2009 performances in northern and southern parts of Europe in terms of Sustainable Sites (SS), Water Efficiency (WE), Materials and Resources (MR), and Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ) were similar, whereas in Energy and Atmosphere (EA), their performances were different. WE and SS revealed high performances (70-100%); EA and EQ demonstrated intermediate performance (40-60%); and MR displayed low performance (20-40%). It should be recommended introducing the following new RP points: for Turkey - water-related points and for all four observed countries - green power-related points for improving the LEED adaptation in Europe.

Keywords: green building, Europe, LEED, leadership in energy and environmental design, regional priority points

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
2054 Improved K-Means Clustering Algorithm Using RHadoop with Combiner

Authors: Ji Eun Shin, Dong Hoon Lim

Abstract:

Data clustering is a common technique used in data analysis and is used in many applications, such as artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, economics, ecology, psychiatry and marketing. K-means clustering is a well-known clustering algorithm aiming to cluster a set of data points to a predefined number of clusters. In this paper, we implement K-means algorithm based on MapReduce framework with RHadoop to make the clustering method applicable to large scale data. RHadoop is a collection of R packages that allow users to manage and analyze data with Hadoop. The main idea is to introduce a combiner as a function of our map output to decrease the amount of data needed to be processed by reducers. The experimental results demonstrated that K-means algorithm using RHadoop can scale well and efficiently process large data sets on commodity hardware. We also showed that our K-means algorithm using RHadoop with combiner was faster than regular algorithm without combiner as the size of data set increases.

Keywords: big data, combiner, K-means clustering, RHadoop

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
2053 Motion of an Infinitesimal Particle in Binary Stellar Systems: Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-16, Kepler-413

Authors: Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah

Abstract:

The present research was motivated by the recent discovery of the binary star systems. In this paper, we use the restricted three-body problem in the binary stellar systems, considering photogravitational effects of both the stars. The aim of this study is to investigate the motion of the infinitesimal mass in the vicinity of the Lagrangian points. The stability and periodic orbits of collinear points and the stability and trajectories of the triangular points are studied in stellar binary systems Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413 and Kepler-16 systems. A detailed comparison is made among periodic orbits and trajectories.

Keywords: exoplanetary systems, lagrangian points, periodic orbit, restricted three body problem, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
2052 Clustering Color Space, Time Interest Points for Moving Objects

Authors: Insaf Bellamine, Hamid Tairi

Abstract:

Detecting moving objects in sequences is an essential step for video analysis. This paper mainly contributes to the Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP) extraction and detection. We propose a new method for detection of moving objects. Two main steps compose the proposed method. First, we suggest to apply the algorithm of the detection of Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP) on both components of the Color Structure-Texture Image Decomposition which is based on a Partial Differential Equation (PDE): a color geometric structure component and a color texture component. A descriptor is associated to each of these points. In a second stage, we address the problem of grouping the points (CSTIP) into clusters. Experiments and comparison to other motion detection methods on challenging sequences show the performance of the proposed method and its utility for video analysis. Experimental results are obtained from very different types of videos, namely sport videos and animation movies.

Keywords: Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP), Color Structure-Texture Image Decomposition, Motion Detection, clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 304