Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 467

Search results for: coherent rake receiver

467 UWB Channel Estimation Using an Efficient Sub-Nyquist Sampling Scheme

Authors: Yaacoub Tina, Youssef Roua, Radoi Emanuel, Burel Gilles

Abstract:

Recently, low-complexity sub-Nyquist sampling schemes based on the Finite Rate of Innovation (FRI) theory have been introduced to sample parametric signals at minimum rates. The multichannel modulating waveforms (MCMW) is such an efficient scheme, where the received signal is mixed with an appropriate set of arbitrary waveforms, integrated and sampled at rates far below the Nyquist rate. In this paper, the MCMW scheme is adapted to the special case of ultra wideband (UWB) channel estimation, characterized by dense multipaths. First, an appropriate structure, which accounts for the bandpass spectrum feature of UWB signals, is defined. Then, a novel approach to decrease the number of processing channels and reduce the complexity of this sampling scheme is presented. Finally, the proposed concepts are validated by simulation results, obtained with real filters, in the framework of a coherent Rake receiver.

Keywords: coherent rake receiver, finite rate of innovation, sub-nyquist sampling, ultra wideband

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466 Experimental Studies on the Effect of Rake Angle on Turning Ti-6Al-4V with TiAlN Coated Carbides

Authors: Satyanarayana Kosaraju, Venu Gopal Anne, Sateesh Nagari

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of cutting speed, feedrate and rake angle in tool geometry on cutting forces and temperature generated on the tool tip in turning were investigated. The data used for the investigation derived from experiments conducted on precision lathe according to the full factorial design to observe the effect of each factor level on the process performance. During the tests, depth of cut were kept constant and each test was conducted with a sharp coated tool insert. Ti-6Al-4V was used as the workpiece material. The effects of cutting parameters and tool geometry on cutting forces and tool tip temperature were analyzed. The main cutting force was observed to have a decreasing trend and temperature found to be increasing trend as the rake angle increased.

Keywords: cutting force, tool tip temperature, rake angle, machining

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465 Bit Error Rate (BER) Performance of Coherent Homodyne BPSK-OCDMA Network for Multimedia Applications

Authors: Morsy Ahmed Morsy Ismail

Abstract:

In this paper, the structure of a coherent homodyne receiver for the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) network is introduced based on the Multi-Length Weighted Modified Prime Code (ML-WMPC) for multimedia applications. The Bit Error Rate (BER) of this homodyne detection is evaluated as a function of the number of active users and the signal to noise ratio for different code lengths according to the multimedia application such as audio, voice, and video. Besides, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used as an external phase modulator in homodyne detection. Furthermore, the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) and the receiver noise in a shot-noise limited regime are taken into consideration in the BER calculations.

Keywords: OCDMA networks, bit error rate, multiple access interference, binary phase-shift keying, multimedia

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
464 Design of Low Power FSK Receiver

Authors: M. Aeysha Parvin, J. Asha, J. Jenifer

Abstract:

This letter presents a novel frequency-shift keying(FSK) receiver using PLL-based FSK demodulator, thereby achieving high sensitivity and low power consumption. The proposed receiver comprises a power amplifier, mixer, 3-stage ring oscillator, PLL based demodulator. Moreover, the proposed receiver is fabricated using 0.12µm CMOS process and consumes 0.7Mw. Measurement results demonstrate that the proposed receiver has a sensitivity of -93dbm with 1Mbps data rate in receiving a 2.4 GHz FSK signal.

Keywords: CMOS FSK receiver, phase locked loop (PLL), 3-stage ring oscillator, FSK signal

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463 Spin Coherent States Without Squeezing

Authors: A. Dehghani, S. Shirin

Abstract:

We propose in this article a new configuration of quantum states, |α, β> := |α>×|β>. Which are composed of vector products of two different copies of spin coherent states, |α> and |β>. Some mathematical as well as physical properties of such states are discussed. For instance, it has been shown that the cross products of two coherent vectors remain coherent again. They admit a resolution of the identity through positive definite measures on the complex plane. They represent packets similar to the true coherent states, in other words we would not expect to take spin squeezing in any of the field quadratures Lˆx, Lˆy and Lˆz. Depending on the particular choice of parameters in the above scenarios, they can be converted into the so-called Dicke states which minimize the uncertainty relations of each pair of the angular momentum components.

Keywords: vector (Cross-)products, minimum uncertainty, angular momentum, measurement, Dicke states

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462 Temporally Coherent 3D Animation Reconstruction from RGB-D Video Data

Authors: Salam Khalifa, Naveed Ahmed

Abstract:

We present a new method to reconstruct a temporally coherent 3D animation from single or multi-view RGB-D video data using unbiased feature point sampling. Given RGB-D video data, in form of a 3D point cloud sequence, our method first extracts feature points using both color and depth information. In the subsequent steps, these feature points are used to match two 3D point clouds in consecutive frames independent of their resolution. Our new motion vectors based dynamic alignment method then fully reconstruct a spatio-temporally coherent 3D animation. We perform extensive quantitative validation using novel error functions to analyze the results. We show that despite the limiting factors of temporal and spatial noise associated to RGB-D data, it is possible to extract temporal coherence to faithfully reconstruct a temporally coherent 3D animation from RGB-D video data.

Keywords: 3D video, 3D animation, RGB-D video, temporally coherent 3D animation

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461 A Low-Power, Low-Noise and High-Gain 58~66 GHz CMOS Receiver Front-End for Short-Range High-Speed Wireless Communications

Authors: Yo-Sheng Lin, Jen-How Lee, Chien-Chin Wang

Abstract:

A 60-GHz receiver front-end using standard 90-nm CMOS technology is reported. The receiver front-end comprises a wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA), and a double-balanced Gilbert cell mixer with a current-reused RF single-to-differential (STD) converter, an LO Marchand balun and a baseband amplifier. The receiver front-end consumes 34.4 mW and achieves LO-RF isolation of 60.7 dB, LO-IF isolation of 45.3 dB and RF-IF isolation of 41.9 dB at RF of 60 GHz and LO of 59.9 GHz. At IF of 0.1 GHz, the receiver front-end achieves maximum conversion gain (CG) of 26.1 dB at RF of 64 GHz and CG of 25.2 dB at RF of 60 GHz. The corresponding 3-dB bandwidth of RF is 7.3 GHz (58.4 GHz to 65.7 GHz). The measured minimum noise figure was 5.6 dB at 64 GHz, one of the best results ever reported for a 60 GHz CMOS receiver front-end. In addition, the measured input 1-dB compression point and input third-order inter-modulation point are -33.1 dBm and -23.3 dBm, respectively, at 60 GHz. These results demonstrate the proposed receiver front-end architecture is very promising for 60 GHz direct-conversion transceiver applications.

Keywords: CMOS, 60 GHz, direct-conversion transceiver, LNA, down-conversion mixer, marchand balun, current-reused

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460 A 1.57ghz Mixer Design for GPS Receiver

Authors: Hamd Ahmed

Abstract:

During the Persian Gulf War in 1991s, The confederation forces were surprised when they were being shot at by friendly forces in Iraqi desert. As obvious was the fact that they were mislead due to the lack of proper guidance and technology resulting in unnecessary loss of life and bloodshed. This unforeseen incident along with many others led the US department of defense to open the doors of GPS. In the very beginning, this technology was for military use, but now it is being widely used and increasingly popular among the public due to its high accuracy and immeasurable significance. The GPS system simply consists of three segments, the space segment (the satellite), the control segment (ground control) and the user segment (receiver). This project work is about designing a 1.57GHZ mixer for triple conversion GPS receiver .The GPS Front-End receiver based on super heterodyne receiver which improves selectivity and image frequency. However the main principle of the super heterodyne receiver depends on the mixer. Many different types of mixers (single balanced mixer, Single Ended mixer, Double balanced mixer) can be used with GPS receiver, it depends on the required specifications. This research project will provide an overview of the GPS system and details about the basic architecture of the GPS receiver. The basic emphasis of this report in on investigating general concept of the mixer circuit some terms related to the mixer along with their definitions and present the types of mixer, then gives some advantages of using singly balanced mixer and its application. The focus of this report is on how to design mixer for GPS receiver and discussing the simulation results.

Keywords: GPS , RF filter, heterodyne, mixer

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459 Performance Analysis of Different PSK Scheme on Receiver Sensitivity and Round Trip Distance for Chipless RFID System for UWB with Rayleigh Fading Channels in Outdoor NLOS Environment

Authors: Khalid Mahmud

Abstract:

In this paper, an analytic approach is presented to evaluate the Bit Error Rate (BER) and round trip distance for a UWB chipless RFID system using diversity technique at the reader receiver using different modulation technique. The analysis is carried out with multiresonator based chipless RFID tags using frequency range from 3 GHz − 6 GHz and bandwidth of 500 M Hz in outdoor non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environment. SISO configuration is used to communicate from the reader to the tag and SIMO configuration is used do vice versa. Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) technique is used in the reader. MPSK, DQPSK, DBPSK, BPSK, QPSK and DMPSK modulation techniques are considered with coherent demodulation to evaluate the BER performance. From the numerical analysis of the results, it is found that at a given BER maximum possible round trip distance can be achieved using DMPSK modulation technique. In addition, it has been proved that, while using DMPSK modulation technique, the application of diversity has very little effect on the overall improvement in reader receiver sensitivity and achievable distance. Finally the method not only proves to be a very good way for tag detection in case of a chipless RFID system but also gives a clear insight regarding the interrelationship between BER, read range, reader received power, number of receiving antenna in outdoor NLOS environment.

Keywords: EGC, MRC, BER, read range, diversity

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458 Multi-Impairment Compensation Based Deep Neural Networks for 16-QAM Coherent Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System

Authors: Ying Han, Yuanxiang Chen, Yongtao Huang, Jia Fu, Kaile Li, Shangjing Lin, Jianguo Yu

Abstract:

In long-haul and high-speed optical transmission system, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal suffers various linear and non-linear impairments. In recent years, researchers have proposed compensation schemes for specific impairment, and the effects are remarkable. However, different impairment compensation algorithms have caused an increase in transmission delay. With the widespread application of deep neural networks (DNN) in communication, multi-impairment compensation based on DNN will be a promising scheme. In this paper, we propose and apply DNN to compensate multi-impairment of 16-QAM coherent optical OFDM signal, thereby improving the performance of the transmission system. The trained DNN models are applied in the offline digital signal processing (DSP) module of the transmission system. The models can optimize the constellation mapping signals at the transmitter and compensate multi-impairment of the OFDM decoded signal at the receiver. Furthermore, the models reduce the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted OFDM signal and the bit error rate (BER) of the received signal. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for 16-QAM Coherent Optical OFDM signal and demonstrate and analyze transmission performance in different transmission scenarios. The experimental results show that the PAPR and BER of the transmission system are significantly reduced after using the trained DNN. It shows that the DNN with specific loss function and network structure can optimize the transmitted signal and learn the channel feature and compensate for multi-impairment in fiber transmission effectively.

Keywords: coherent optical OFDM, deep neural network, multi-impairment compensation, optical transmission

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457 Long Wavelength Coherent Pulse of Sound Propagating in Granular Media

Authors: Rohit Kumar Shrivastava, Amalia Thomas, Nathalie Vriend, Stefan Luding

Abstract:

A mechanical wave or vibration propagating through granular media exhibits a specific signature in time. A coherent pulse or wavefront arrives first with multiply scattered waves (coda) arriving later. The coherent pulse is micro-structure independent i.e. it depends only on the bulk properties of the disordered granular sample, the sound wave velocity of the granular sample and hence bulk and shear moduli. The coherent wavefront attenuates (decreases in amplitude) and broadens with distance from its source. The pulse attenuation and broadening effects are affected by disorder (polydispersity; contrast in size of the granules) and have often been attributed to dispersion and scattering. To study the effect of disorder and initial amplitude (non-linearity) of the pulse imparted to the system on the coherent wavefront, numerical simulations have been carried out on one-dimensional sets of particles (granular chains). The interaction force between the particles is given by a Hertzian contact model. The sizes of particles have been selected randomly from a Gaussian distribution, where the standard deviation of this distribution is the relevant parameter that quantifies the effect of disorder on the coherent wavefront. Since, the coherent wavefront is system configuration independent, ensemble averaging has been used for improving the signal quality of the coherent pulse and removing the multiply scattered waves. The results concerning the width of the coherent wavefront have been formulated in terms of scaling laws. An experimental set-up of photoelastic particles constituting a granular chain is proposed to validate the numerical results.

Keywords: discrete elements, Hertzian contact, polydispersity, weakly nonlinear, wave propagation

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456 Searching the Efficient Frontier for the Coherent Covering Location Problem

Authors: Felipe Azocar Simonet, Luis Acosta Espejo

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In this article, we will try to find an efficient boundary approximation for the bi-objective location problem with coherent coverage for two levels of hierarchy (CCLP). We present the mathematical formulation of the model used. Supported efficient solutions and unsupported efficient solutions are obtained by solving the bi-objective combinatorial problem through the weights method using a Lagrangean heuristic. Subsequently, the results are validated through the DEA analysis with the GEM index (Global efficiency measurement).

Keywords: coherent covering location problem, efficient frontier, lagragian relaxation, data envelopment analysis

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455 The Secrecy Capacity of the Semi-Deterministic Wiretap Channel with Three State Information

Authors: Mustafa El-Halabi

Abstract:

A general model of wiretap channel with states is considered, where the legitimate receiver and the wiretapper’s observations depend on three states S1, S2 and S3. State S1 is non-causally known to the encoder, S2 is known to the receiver, and S3 remains unknown. A secure coding scheme, based using structured-binning, is proposed, and it is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity when the signal at legitimate receiver is a deterministic function of the input.

Keywords: physical layer security, interference, side information, secrecy capacity

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454 QI Wireless Charging a Scope of Magnetic Inductive Coupling

Authors: Sreenesh Shashidharan, Umesh Gaikwad

Abstract:

QI or 'Chee' which is an interface standard for inductive electrical power transfer over distances of up to 4 cm (1.6 inches). The Qi system comprises a power transmission pad and a compatible receiver in a portable device which is placed on top of the power transmission pad, which charges using the principle of electromagnetic induction. An alternating current is passed through the transmitter coil, generating a magnetic field. This, in turn, induces a voltage in the receiver coil; this can be used to power a mobile device or charge a battery. The efficiency of the power transfer depends on the coupling (k) between the inductors and their quality (Q) The coupling is determined by the distance between the inductors (z) and the relative size (D2 /D). The coupling is further determined by the shape of the coils and the angle between them. If the receiver coil is at a certain distance to the transmitter coil, only a fraction of the magnetic flux, which is generated by the transmitter coil, penetrates the receiver coil and contributes to the power transmission. The more flux reaches the receiver, the better the coils are coupled.

Keywords: inductive electric power, electromagnetic induction, magnetic flux, coupling

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453 3D Receiver Operator Characteristic Histogram

Authors: Xiaoli Zhang, Xiongfei Li, Yuncong Feng

Abstract:

ROC curves, as a widely used evaluating tool in machine learning field, are the tradeoff of true positive rate and negative rate. However, they are blamed for ignoring some vital information in the evaluation process, such as the amount of information about the target that each instance carries, predicted score given by each classification model to each instance. Hence, in this paper, a new classification performance method is proposed by extending the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to 3D space, which is denoted as 3D ROC Histogram. In the histogram, the

Keywords: classification, performance evaluation, receiver operating characteristic histogram, hardness prediction

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452 Performance Demonstration of Extendable NSPO Space-Borne GPS Receiver

Authors: Hung-Yuan Chang, Wen-Lung Chiang, Kuo-Liang Wu, Chen-Tsung Lin

Abstract:

National Space Organization (NSPO) has completed in 2014 the development of a space-borne GPS receiver, including design, manufacture, comprehensive functional test, environmental qualification test and so on. The main performance of this receiver include 8-meter positioning accuracy, 0.05 m/sec speed-accuracy, the longest 90 seconds of cold start time, and up to 15g high dynamic scenario. The receiver will be integrated in the autonomous FORMOSAT-7 NSPO-Built satellite scheduled to be launched in 2019 to execute pre-defined scientific missions. The flight model of this receiver manufactured in early 2015 will pass comprehensive functional tests and environmental acceptance tests, etc., which are expected to be completed by the end of 2015. The space-borne GPS receiver is a pure software design in which all GPS baseband signal processing are executed by a digital signal processor (DSP), currently only 50% of its throughput being used. In response to the booming global navigation satellite systems, NSPO will gradually expand this receiver to become a multi-mode, multi-band, high-precision navigation receiver, and even a science payload, such as the reflectometry receiver of a global navigation satellite system. The fundamental purpose of this extension study is to port some software algorithms such as signal acquisition and correlation, reused code and large amount of computation load to the FPGA whose processor is responsible for operational control, navigation solution, and orbit propagation and so on. Due to the development and evolution of the FPGA is pretty fast, the new system architecture upgraded via an FPGA should be able to achieve the goal of being a multi-mode, multi-band high-precision navigation receiver, or scientific receiver. Finally, the results of tests show that the new system architecture not only retains the original overall performance, but also sets aside more resources available for future expansion possibility. This paper will explain the detailed DSP/FPGA architecture, development, test results, and the goals of next development stage of this receiver.

Keywords: space-borne, GPS receiver, DSP, FPGA, multi-mode multi-band

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451 Unsupervised Learning of Spatiotemporally Coherent Metrics

Authors: Ross Goroshin, Joan Bruna, Jonathan Tompson, David Eigen, Yann LeCun

Abstract:

Current state-of-the-art classification and detection algorithms rely on supervised training. In this work we study unsupervised feature learning in the context of temporally coherent video data. We focus on feature learning from unlabeled video data, using the assumption that adjacent video frames contain semantically similar information. This assumption is exploited to train a convolutional pooling auto-encoder regularized by slowness and sparsity. We establish a connection between slow feature learning to metric learning and show that the trained encoder can be used to define a more temporally and semantically coherent metric.

Keywords: machine learning, pattern clustering, pooling, classification

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450 Probabilistic Modeling Laser Transmitter

Authors: H. S. Kang

Abstract:

Coupled electrical and optical model for conversion of electrical energy into coherent optical energy for transmitter-receiver link by solid state device is presented. Probability distribution for travelling laser beam switching time intervals and the number of switchings in the time interval is obtained. Selector function mapping is employed to regulate optical data transmission speed. It is established that regulated laser transmission from PhotoActive Laser transmitter follows principal of invariance. This considerably simplifies design of PhotoActive Laser Transmission networks.

Keywords: computational mathematics, finite difference Markov chain methods, sequence spaces, singularly perturbed differential equations

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449 Numerical Investigation of Hot Oil Velocity Effect on Force Heat Convection and Impact of Wind Velocity on Convection Heat Transfer in Receiver Tube of Parabolic Trough Collector System

Authors: O. Afshar

Abstract:

A solar receiver is designed for operation under extremely uneven heat flux distribution, cyclic weather, and cloud transient cycle conditions, which can include large thermal stress and even receiver failure. In this study, the effect of different oil velocity on convection coefficient factor and impact of wind velocity on local Nusselt number by Finite Volume Method will be analyzed. This study is organized to give an overview of the numerical modeling using a MATLAB software, as an accurate, time efficient and economical way of analyzing the heat transfer trends over stationary receiver tube for different Reynolds number. The results reveal when oil velocity is below 0.33m/s, the value of convection coefficient is negligible at low temperature. The numerical graphs indicate that when oil velocity increases up to 1.2 m/s, heat convection coefficient increases significantly. In fact, a reduction in oil velocity causes a reduction in heat conduction through the glass envelope. In addition, the different local Nusselt number is reduced when the wind blows toward the concave side of the collector and it has a significant effect on heat losses reduction through the glass envelope.

Keywords: receiver tube, heat convection, heat conduction, Nusselt number

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448 Impact of Capture Effect on Receiver Initiated Collision Detection with Sequential Resolution in WLAN

Authors: Sethu Lekshmi, Shahanas, Prettha P.

Abstract:

All existing protocols in wireless networks are mainly based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision avoidance. By applying collision detection in wireless networks, the time spent on collision can be reduced and thus improves system throughput. However in a real WLAN scenario due to the use of nonlinear modulation techniques only receiver can decided whether a packet loss take place, even there are multiple transmissions. In this proposed method, the receiver or Access Point detects the collision when multiple data packets are transmitted from different wireless stations. Whenever the receiver detects a collision, it transmits a jamming signal to all the transmitting stations so that they can immediately stop their on-going transmissions. We also provide preferential access to all collided packet to reduce unfairness and to increase system throughput by reducing contention. However, this preferential access will not block the channel for the long time. Here, an in-band transmission is considered in which both the data frames and control frames are transmitted in the same channel. We also provide a simple mathematical model for the proposed protocol and give the simulation result of WLAN scenario under various capture thresholds.

Keywords: 802.11, WLAN, capture effect, collision detection, collision resolution, receiver initiated

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447 Secure Content Centric Network

Authors: Syed Umair Aziz, Muhammad Faheem, Sameer Hussain, Faraz Idris

Abstract:

Content centric network is the network based on the mechanism of sending and receiving the data based on the interest and data request to the specified node (which has cached data). In this network, the security is bind with the content not with the host hence making it host independent and secure. In this network security is applied by taking content’s MAC (message authentication code) and encrypting it with the public key of the receiver. On the receiver end, the message is first verified and after verification message is saved and decrypted using the receiver's private key.

Keywords: content centric network, client-server, host security threats, message authentication code, named data network, network caching, peer-to-peer

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446 Bank ATM Monitoring System Using IR Sensor

Authors: P. Saravanakumar, N. Raja, M. Rameshkumar, D. Mohankumar, R. Sateeshkumar, B. Maheshwari

Abstract:

This research work is designed using Microsoft VB. Net as front end and MySQL as back end. The project deals with secure the user transaction in the ATM system. This application contains the option for sending the failed transaction details to the particular customer by using the SMS. When the customer withdraws the amount from the Bank ATM system, sometimes the amount will not be dispatched but the amount will be debited to the particular account. This application is used to avoid this type of problems in the ATM system. In this proposed system using IR technique to detect the dispatched amount. IR Transmitter and IR Receiver are placed in the path of cash dispatch. It is connected each other through the IR signal. When the customers withdraw the amount in the ATM system then the amount will be dispatched or not is monitored by IR Receiver. If the amount will be dispatched then the signal will be interrupted between the IR Receiver and the IR Transmitter. At that time, the monitoring system will be reduced their particular withdraw amount on their account. If the cash will not be dispatched, the signal will not be interrupted, at that time the particular withdraw amount will not be reduced their account. If the transaction completed successfully, the transaction details such as withdraw amount and current balance can be sent to the customer via the SMS. If the transaction fails, the transaction failed message can be send to the customer.

Keywords: ATM system, monitoring system, IR Transmitter, IR Receiver

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445 A SiGe Low Power RF Front-End Receiver for 5.8GHz Wireless Biomedical Application

Authors: Hyunwon Moon

Abstract:

It is necessary to realize new biomedical wireless communication systems which send the signals collected from various bio sensors located at human body in order to monitor our health. Also, it should seamlessly connect to the existing wireless communication systems. A 5.8 GHz ISM band low power RF front-end receiver for a biomedical wireless communication system is implemented using a 0.5 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. To achieve low power RF front-end, the current optimization technique for selecting device size is utilized. The implemented low noise amplifier (LNA) shows a power gain of 9.8 dB, a noise figure (NF) of below 1.75 dB, and an IIP3 of higher than 7.5 dBm while current consumption is only 6 mA at supply voltage of 2.5 V. Also, the performance of a down-conversion mixer is measured as a conversion gain of 11 dB and SSB NF of 10 dB.

Keywords: biomedical, LNA, mixer, receiver, RF front-end, SiGe

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444 Determination of Crustal Structure and Moho Depth within the Jammu and Kashmir Region, Northwest Himalaya through Receiver Function

Authors: Shiv Jyoti Pandey, Shveta Puri, G. M. Bhat, Neha Raina

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The Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) region of Northwest Himalaya has a long history of earthquake activity which falls within Seismic Zones IV and V. To know the crustal structure beneath this region, we utilized teleseismic receiver function method. This paper presents the results of the analyses of the teleseismic earthquake waves recorded by 10 seismic observatories installed in the vicinity of major thrusts and faults. The teleseismic waves at epicentral distance between 30o and 90o with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5 that contains large amount of information about the crust and upper mantle structure directly beneath a receiver has been used. The receiver function (RF) technique has been widely applied to investigate crustal structures using P-to-S converted (Ps) phases from velocity discontinuities. The arrival time of the Ps, PpPs and PpSs+ PsPs converted and reverberated phases from the Moho can be combined to constrain the mean crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Over 500 receiver functions from 10 broadband stations located in the Jammu & Kashmir region of Northwest Himalaya were analyzed. With the help of H-K stacking method, we determined the crustal thickness (H) and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio (K) in this region. We also used Neighbourhood algorithm technique to verify our results. The receiver function results for these stations show that the crustal thickness under Jammu & Kashmir ranges from 45.0 to 53.6 km with an average value of 50.01 km. The Vp/Vs ratio varies from 1.63 to 1.99 with an average value of 1.784 which corresponds to an average Poisson’s ratio of 0.266 with a range from 0.198 to 0.331. High Poisson’s ratios under some stations may be related to partial melting in the crust near the uppermost mantle. The crustal structure model developed from this study can be used to refine the velocity model used in the precise epicenter location in the region, thereby increasing the knowledge to understand current seismicity in the region.

Keywords: H-K stacking, Poisson’s ratios, receiver function, teleseismic

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443 Coherent Ku-Band Radar for Monitoring Ocean Waves

Authors: Richard Mitchell, Robert Mitchell, Thai Duong, Kyungbin Bae, Daegon Kim, Youngsub Lee, Inho Kim, Inho Park, Hyungseok Lee

Abstract:

Although X-band radar is commonly used to measure the properties of ocean waves, the use of a higher frequency has several advantages, such as increased backscatter coefficient, better Doppler sensitivity, lower power, and a smaller package. A low-power Ku-band radar system was developed to demonstrate these advantages. It is fully coherent, and it interleaves short and long pulses to achieve a transmit duty ratio of 25%, which makes the best use of solid-state amplifiers. The range scales are 2 km, 4 km, and 8 km. The minimum range is 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m for the three range scales, and the range resolution is 4 m, 8 m, and 16 m for the three range scales. Measurements of the significant wave height, wavelength, wave period, and wave direction have been made using traditional 3D-FFT methods. Radar and ultrasonic sensor results collected over an extended period of time at a coastal site in South Korea are presented.

Keywords: measurement of ocean wave parameters, Ku-band radar, coherent radar, compact radar

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442 A Statistical-Algorithmic Approach for the Design and Evaluation of a Fresnel Solar Concentrator-Receiver System

Authors: Hassan Qandil

Abstract:

Using a statistical algorithm incorporated in MATLAB, four types of non-imaging Fresnel lenses are designed; spot-flat, linear-flat, dome-shaped and semi-cylindrical-shaped. The optimization employs a statistical ray-tracing methodology of the incident light, mainly considering effects of chromatic aberration, varying focal lengths, solar inclination and azimuth angles, lens and receiver apertures, and the optimum number of prism grooves. While adopting an equal-groove-width assumption of the Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) prisms, the main target is to maximize the ray intensity on the receiver’s aperture and therefore achieving higher values of heat flux. The algorithm outputs prism angles and 2D sketches. 3D drawings are then generated via AutoCAD and linked to COMSOL Multiphysics software to simulate the lenses under solar ray conditions, which provides optical and thermal analysis at both the lens’ and the receiver’s apertures while setting conditions as per the Dallas-TX weather data. Once the lenses’ characterization is finalized, receivers are designed based on its optimized aperture size. Several cavity shapes; including triangular, arc-shaped and trapezoidal, are tested while coupled with a variety of receiver materials, working fluids, heat transfer mechanisms, and enclosure designs. A vacuum-reflective enclosure is also simulated for an enhanced thermal absorption efficiency. Each receiver type is simulated via COMSOL while coupled with the optimized lens. A lab-scale prototype for the optimum lens-receiver configuration is then fabricated for experimental evaluation. Application-based testing is also performed for the selected configuration, including that of a photovoltaic-thermal cogeneration system and solar furnace system. Finally, some future research work is pointed out, including the coupling of the collector-receiver system with an end-user power generator, and the use of a multi-layered genetic algorithm for comparative studies.

Keywords: COMSOL, concentrator, energy, fresnel, optics, renewable, solar

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441 CFD Analysis of an Aft Sweep Wing in Subsonic Flow and Making Analogy with Roskam Methods

Authors: Ehsan Sakhaei, Ali Taherabadi

Abstract:

In this study, an aft sweep wing with specific characteristic feature was analysis with CFD method in Fluent software. In this analysis wings aerodynamic coefficient was calculated in different rake angle and wing lift curve slope to rake angle was achieved. Wing section was selected among NACA airfoils version 6. The sweep angle of wing is 15 degree, aspect ratio 8 and taper ratios 0.4. Designing and modeling this wing was done in CATIA software. This model was meshed in Gambit software and its three dimensional analysis was done in Fluent software. CFD methods used here were based on pressure base algorithm. SIMPLE technique was used for solving Navier-Stokes equation and Spalart-Allmaras model was utilized to simulate three dimensional wing in air. Roskam method is one of the common and most used methods for determining aerodynamics parameters in the field of airplane designing. In this study besides CFD analysis, an advanced aircraft analysis was used for calculating aerodynamic coefficient using Roskam method. The results of CFD were compared with measured data acquired from Roskam method and authenticity of relation was evaluated. The results and comparison showed that in linear region of lift curve there is a minor difference between aerodynamics parameter acquired from CFD to relation present by Roskam.

Keywords: aft sweep wing, CFD method, fluent, Roskam, Spalart-Allmaras model

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440 Transport and Mixing Phenomena Developed by Vortex Formation in Flow around Airfoil Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures

Authors: Riaz Ahmad, Jiazhong Zhang, Asma Farooqi

Abstract:

In this study, mass transport between separation bubbles and the flow around a two-dimensional airfoil are numerically investigated using Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). Finite Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) technique is used for the computation to identify invariant manifolds and LCSs. Moreover, the Characteristic Base Split (CBS) scheme combined with dual time stepping technique is applied to simulate such transient flow at low Reynolds number. We then investigate the evolution of vortex structures during the transport process with the aid of LCSs. To explore the vortex formation at the surface of the airfoil, the dynamics of separatrix is also taken into account which is formed by the combination of stable-unstable manifolds. The Lagrangian analysis gives a detailed understanding of vortex dynamics and separation bubbles which plays a significant role to explore the performance of the unsteady flow generated by the airfoil. Transport process and flow separation phenomena are studied extensively to analyze the flow pattern by Lagrangian point of view.

Keywords: transport phenomena, CBS Method, vortex formation, Lagrangian Coherent Structures

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439 Measurement of Ionospheric Plasma Distribution over Myanmar Using Single Frequency Global Positioning System Receiver

Authors: Win Zaw Hein, Khin Sandar Linn, Su Su Yi Mon, Yoshitaka Goto

Abstract:

The Earth ionosphere is located at the altitude of about 70 km to several 100 km from the ground, and it is composed of ions and electrons called plasma. In the ionosphere, these plasma makes delay in GPS (Global Positioning System) signals and reflect in radio waves. The delay along the signal path from the satellite to the receiver is directly proportional to the total electron content (TEC) of plasma, and this delay is the largest error factor in satellite positioning and navigation. Sounding observation from the top and bottom of the ionosphere was popular to investigate such ionospheric plasma for a long time. Recently, continuous monitoring of the TEC using networks of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) observation stations, which are basically built for land survey, has been conducted in several countries. However, in these stations, multi-frequency support receivers are installed to estimate the effect of plasma delay using their frequency dependence and the cost of multi-frequency support receivers are much higher than single frequency support GPS receiver. In this research, single frequency GPS receiver was used instead of expensive multi-frequency GNSS receivers to measure the ionospheric plasma variation such as vertical TEC distribution. In this measurement, single-frequency support ublox GPS receiver was used to probe ionospheric TEC. The location of observation was assigned at Mandalay Technological University in Myanmar. In the method, the ionospheric TEC distribution is represented by polynomial functions for latitude and longitude, and parameters of the functions are determined by least-squares fitting on pseudorange data obtained at a known location under an assumption of thin layer ionosphere. The validity of the method was evaluated by measurements obtained by the Japanese GNSS observation network called GEONET. The performance of measurement results using single-frequency of GPS receiver was compared with the results by dual-frequency measurement.

Keywords: ionosphere, global positioning system, GPS, ionospheric delay, total electron content, TEC

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438 Exploiting Fast Independent Component Analysis Based Algorithm for Equalization of Impaired Baseband Received Signal

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Syed Qasim Gilani

Abstract:

A technique using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for blind receiver signal processing is investigated. The problem of the receiver signal processing is viewed as of signal equalization and implementation imperfections compensation. Based on this, a model similar to a general ICA problem is developed for the received signal. Then, the use of ICA technique for blind signal equalization in the time domain is presented. The equalization is regarded as a signal separation problem, since the desired signal is separated from interference terms. This problem is addressed in the paper by over-sampling of the received signal. By using ICA for equalization, besides channel equalization, other transmission imperfections such as Direct current (DC) bias offset, carrier phase and In phase Quadrature phase imbalance will also be corrected. Simulation results for a system using 16-Quadraure Amplitude Modulation(QAM) are presented to show the performance of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: blind equalization, blind signal separation, equalization, independent component analysis, transmission impairments, QAM receiver

Procedia PDF Downloads 93