Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 935

Search results for: classical lectures

935 Students' Willingness to Accept Virtual Lecturing Systems: An Empirical Study by Extending the UTAUT Model

Authors: Ahmed Shuhaiber


The explosion of the World Wide Web and the electronic trend of university teaching have transformed the learning style to become more learner-centred, Which has popularized the digital delivery of mediated lectures as an alternative or an adjunct to traditional lectures. Despite its potential and popularity, virtual lectures have not been adopted yet in Jordanian universities. This research aimed to fill this gap by studying the factors that influence student’s willingness to accept virtual lectures in one Jordanian University. A quantitative approach was followed by obtaining 216 survey responses and statistically applying the UTAUT model with some modifications. Results revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences and self-efficacy could significantly influence student’s attitudes towards virtual lectures. Additionally, facilitating conditions and attitudes towards virtual lectures were found with significant influence on student’s intention to take virtual lectures. Research implications and future work were specified afterwards.

Keywords: E-learning, student willingness, UTAUT, virtual Lectures, web-based learning systems

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934 A Genre Analysis of University Lectures

Authors: Lee Kok Yueh, Fatin Hamadah Rahman, David Hassell, Au Thien Wan


This work reports on a genre based study of lectures at a University in Brunei, Universiti Teknologi Brunei to explore the communicative functions and to gain insight into the discourse. It explores these in three different domains; Social Science, Engineering and Computing. Audio recordings from four lecturers comprising 20 lectures were transcribed and analysed, with the duration of each lecture varying between 20 to 90 minutes. This qualitative study found similar patterns and functions of lectures as those found in existing research amongst which include greetings, housekeeping, or recapping of previous lectures in the lecture introductions. In the lecture content, comprehension check and use of examples or analogies are very prevalent. However, the use of examples largely depend on the lecture content; and the more technical the content, the harder it was for lecturers to provide examples or analogies. Three functional moves are identified in the lecture conclusions; announcement, summary and future plan, all of which are optional. Despite the relatively small sample size, the present study shows that lectures are interactive and there are some consistencies with the delivery of lecture in relation to the communicative functions and genre of lecture.

Keywords: communicative functions, genre analysis, higher education, lectures

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933 The Attitude of Second Year Pharmacy Students towards Lectures, Exams and E-Learning

Authors: Ahmed T. Alahmar


There is an increasing trend toward student-centred interactive e-learning methods and students’ feedback is a valuable tool for improving learning methods. The aim of this study was to explore the attitude of second year pharmacy students at the University of Babylon, Iraq, towards lectures, exams and e-learning. Materials and methods: Ninety pharmacy students were surveyed by paper questionnaire about their preference for lecture format, use of e-files, theoretical lectures versus practical experiments, lecture and lab time. Students were also asked about their predilection for Moodle-based online exams, different types of exam questions, exam time and other extra academic activities. Results: Students prefer to read lectures on paper (73.3%), use of PowerPoint file (76.7%), short lectures of less than 10 pages (94.5%), practical experiments (66.7%), lectures and lab time of less than two hours (89.9% and 96.6 respectively) and intra-lecture discussions (68.9%). Students also like to have paper-based exam (73.3%), short essay (40%) or MCQ (34.4%) questions and also prefer to do extra activities like reports (22.2%), seminars (18.6%) and posters (10.8%). Conclusion: Second year pharmacy students have different attitudes toward traditional and electronic leaning and assessment methods. Using multimedia, e-learning and Moodle are increasingly preferred methods among some students.

Keywords: pharmacy, students, lecture, exam, e-learning, Moodle

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932 The Interleaving Effect of Subject Matter and Perceptual Modality on Students’ Attention and Learning: A Portable EEG Study

Authors: Wen Chen


To investigate the interleaving effect of subject matter (mathematics vs. history) and perceptual modality (visual vs. auditory materials) on student’s attention and learning outcomes, the present study collected self-reported data on subjective cognitive load (SCL) and attention level, EEG data, and learning outcomes from micro-lectures. Eighty-one 7th grade students were randomly assigned to four learning conditions: blocked (by subject matter) micro-lectures with auditory textual information (B-A condition), blocked (by subject matter) micro-lectures with visual textual information (B-V condition), interleaved (by subject matter) micro-lectures with auditory textual information (I-A condition), and interleaved micro-lectures by both perceptual modality and subject matter (I-all condition). The results showed that although interleaved conditions may show advantages in certain indices, the I-all condition showed the best overall outcomes (best performance, low SCL, and high attention). This study suggests that interleaving by both subject matter and perceptual modality should be preferred in scheduling and planning classes.

Keywords: cognitive load, interleaving effect, micro-lectures, sustained attention

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931 Effects of Listening to Pleasant Thai Classical Music on Increasing Working Memory in Elderly: An Electroencephalogram Study

Authors: Anchana Julsiri, Seree Chadcham


The present study determined the effects of listening to pleasant Thai classical music on increasing working memory in elderly. Thai classical music without lyrics that made participants feel fun and aroused was used in the experiment for 3.19-5.40 minutes. The accuracy scores of Counting Span Task (CST), upper alpha ERD%, and theta ERS% were used to assess working memory of participants both before and after listening to pleasant Thai classical music. The results showed that the accuracy scores of CST and upper alpha ERD% in the frontal area of participants after listening to Thai classical music were significantly higher than before listening to Thai classical music (p < .05). Theta ERS% in the fronto-parietal network of participants after listening to Thai classical music was significantly lower than before listening to Thai classical music (p < .05).

Keywords: brain wave, elderly, pleasant Thai classical music, working memory

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930 Importance of an E-Learning Program in Stress Field for Postgraduate Courses of Doctors

Authors: Ramona-Niculina Jurcau, Ioana-Marieta Jurcau


Background: Preparing in the stress field (SF) is, increasingly, a concern for doctors of different specialties. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the importance of an e-learning program for doctors postgraduate courses, in SF. Methods: Doctors (n= 40 male, 40 female) of different specialties and ages (31-71 years), who attended postgraduate courses in SF, voluntarily responded to a questionnaire that included the following themes: Importance of SF courses for specialty practiced by each respondent doctor (using visual analogue scale, VAS); What SF themes would be indicated as e-learning (EL); Preferred form of SF information assimilation: Classical lectures (CL), EL or a combination of these methods (CL+EL); Which information on the SF course are facilitated by EL model versus CL; In their view which are the first four advantages and the first four disadvantages of EL compared to CL, for SF. Results: To most respondents, the SF courses are important for the specialty they practiced (VAS by an average of 4). The SF themes suggested to be done as EL were: Stress mechanisms; stress factor models for different medical specialties; stress assessment methods; primary stress management methods for different specialties. Preferred form of information assimilation was CL+EL. Aspects of the course facilitated by EL versus CL model: Active reading of theoretical information, with fast access to keywords details; watching documentaries in everyone's favorite order; practice through tests and the rapid control of results. The first four EL advantages, mentioned for SF were: Autonomy in managing the time allocated to the study; saving time for traveling to the venue; the ability to read information in various contexts of time and space; communication with colleagues, in good times for everyone. The first three EL disadvantages, mentioned for SF were: It decreases capabilities for group discussion and mobilization for active participation; EL information accession may depend on electrical source or/and Internet; learning slowdown can appear, by temptation of postponing the implementation. Answering questions was partially influenced by the respondent's age and genre. Conclusions: 1) Post-graduate courses in SF are of interest to doctors of different specialties. 2) The majority of participating doctors preferred EL, but combined with CL (CL+EL). 3) Preference for EL was manifested mainly by young or middle age men doctors. 4) It is important to balance the proper formula for chosen EL, to be the most efficient, interesting, useful and agreeable.

Keywords: stress field, doctors’ postgraduate courses, classical lectures, e-learning lecture

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929 Impact of Western Music Instruments on Indian Classical Music

Authors: Hukam Chand


Over the past few years, the performance of Indian classical music has been improved a lot due to the technical inclusion of western instruments. Infect, the Indian classical music is all about raags which portray a mood and sentiments expressed through a microtonal scale based on natural harmonic series. And, most of the western instruments are not based on natural harmonic series and the tonal system is the only system which has considerable influence on the Indian classical music. However, the use of western instruments has been growing day by day in one way or the other by the Indian artists due to their quality of harmony. As a result of which, there are some common instruments such as harmonium, violin, guitar, saxophone, synthesizer which are being used commonly by Indian and western artists. On the other hand, a lot of fusion has taken place in the music of both sides due to the similar characteristics in their instruments. For example, harmonium which was originally the western instrument has now acquired an important position in Indian classical music to perform raags. Besides, a lot of suggestions for improving in the Indian music have been given by the artists for technical modification in the western instruments to cater the needs of Indian music through melody approach. Pt. Vishav Mohan Bhatt an Indian musician has developed Mohan Veena (called guitar) to perform raags. N. Rajam the Indian lady Violinist has made a remarkable work on Indian classical music by accompanied with vocal music. The purpose of the present research paper is to highlight the changes in Indian Classical Music through performance by using modified western music instruments.

Keywords: Indian classical music, Western instruments, harmonium, guitar, Violin and impact

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928 A Dynamic Round Robin Routing for Z-Fat Tree

Authors: M. O. Adda


In this paper, we propose a topology called Zoned fat tree (Z-Fat tree) which is a further extension to the classical fat trees. The extension relates to the provision of extra degree of connectivity to maximize the number of deployed ports per routing nodes, and hence increases the bisection bandwidth especially for slimmed fat trees. The extra links, when classical routing is used, tend, in deterministic environment, to be under-utilized for some traffic patterns, hence achieving poor performance. We suggest two versions of a dynamic round robin scheme that outperforms the classical D-mod-k and S-mod-K routing and show by simulation that our proposal utilize all the extra added links to the classical fat tree, and achieve better performance for general applications.

Keywords: deterministic routing, fat tree, interconnection, traffic pattern

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927 Theorem on Inconsistency of The Classical Logic

Authors: T. J. Stepien, L. T. Stepien


This abstract concerns an extremely fundamental issue. Namely, the fundamental problem of science is the issue of consistency. In this abstract, we present the theorem saying that the classical calculus of quantifiers is inconsistent in the traditional sense. At the beginning, we introduce a notation, and later we remind the definition of the consistency in the traditional sense. S1 is the set of all well-formed formulas in the calculus of quantifiers. RS1 denotes the set of all rules over the set S1. Cn(R, X) is the set of all formulas standardly provable from X by rules R, where R is a subset of RS1, and X is a subset of S1. The couple < R,X > is called a system, whenever R is a subset of RS1, and X is a subset of S1. Definition: The system < R,X > is consistent in the traditional sense if there does not exist any formula from the set S1, such that this formula and its negation are provable from X, by using rules from R. Finally, < R0+, L2 > denotes the classical calculus of quantifiers, where R0+ consists of Modus Ponens and the generalization rule. L2 is the set of all formulas valid in the classical calculus of quantifiers. The Main Result: The system < R0+, L2 > is inconsistent in the traditional sense.

Keywords: classical calculus of quantifiers, classical predicate calculus, generalization rule, consistency in the traditional sense, Modus Ponens

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926 Interdisciplinary Approach in Vocational Training for Orthopaedic Surgery

Authors: Mihail Nagea, Olivera Lupescu, Elena Taina Avramescu, Cristina Patru


Classical education of orthopedic surgeons involves lectures, self study, workshops and cadaver dissections, and sometimes supervised practical training within surgery, which quite seldom gives the young surgeons the feeling of being unable to apply what they have learned especially in surgical practice. The purpose of this paper is to present a different approach from the classical one, which enhances the practical skills of the orthopedic trainees and prepare them for future practice. The paper presents the content of the research project 2015-1-RO01-KA202-015230, ERASMUS+ VET ‘Collaborative learning for enhancing practical skills for patient-focused interventions in gait rehabilitation after orthopedic surgery’ which, using e learning as a basic tool , delivers to the trainees not only courses, but especially practical information through videos and case scenarios including gait analysis in order to build patient focused therapeutic plans, adapted to the characteristics of each patient. The outcome of this project is to enhance the practical skills in orthopedic surgery and the results are evaluated following the answers to the questionnaires, but especially the reactions within the case scenarios. The participants will thus follow the idea that any mistake within solving the cases might represent a failure of treating a real patient. This modern approach, besides using interactivity to evaluate the theoretical and practical knowledge of the trainee, increases the sense of responsibility, as well as the ability to react properly in real cases.

Keywords: interdisciplinary approach, gait analysis, orthopedic surgery, vocational training

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925 Comparing Sounds of the Singing Voice

Authors: Christel Elisabeth Bonin


This experiment aims at showing that classical singing and belting have both different singing qualities, but singing with a speaking voice has no singing quality. For this purpose, a singing female voice was recorded on four different tone pitches, singing the vowel ‘a’ by using 3 different kinds of singing - classical trained voice, belting voice and speaking voice. The recordings have been entered in the Software Praat. Then the formants of each recorded tone were compared to each other and put in relationship to the singer’s formant. The visible results are taken as an indicator of comparable sound qualities of a classical trained female voice and a belting female voice concerning the concentration of overtones in F1 to F5 and a lack of sound quality in the speaking voice for singing purpose. The results also show that classical singing and belting are both valuable vocal techniques for singing due to their richness of overtones and that belting is not comparable to shouting or screaming. Singing with a speaking voice in contrast should not be called singing due to the lack of overtones which means by definition that there is no musical tone.

Keywords: formants, overtone, singer’s formant, singing voice, belting, classical singing, singing with the speaking voice

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924 Collaborative Online Learning for Lecturers

Authors: Lee Bih Ni, Emily Doreen Lee, Wee Hui Yean


This paper was prepared to see the perceptions of online lectures regarding collaborative learning, in terms of how lecturers view online collaborative learning in the higher learning institution. The purpose of this study was conducted to determine the perceptions of online lectures about collaborative learning, especially how lecturers see online collaborative learning in the university. Adult learning education enhance collaborative learning culture with the target of involving learners in the learning process to make teaching and learning more effective and open at the university. This will finally make students learning that will assist each other. It is also to cut down the pressure of loneliness and isolation might felt among adult learners. Their ways in collaborative online was also determined. In this paper, researchers collect data using questionnaires instruments. The collected data were analyzed and interpreted. By analyzing the data, researchers report the results according the proof taken from the respondents. Results from the study, it is not only dependent on the lecturer but also a student to shape a good collaborative learning practice. Rational concepts and pattern to achieve these targets be clear right from the beginning and may be good seen by a number of proposals submitted and include how the higher learning institution has trained with ongoing lectures online. Advantages of online collaborative learning show that lecturers should be trained effectively. Studies have seen that the lecturer aware of online collaborative learning. This positive attitude will encourage the higher learning institution to continue to give the knowledge and skills required.

Keywords: collaborative online learning, lecturers’ training, learning, online

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923 An Evaluation of a First Year Introductory Statistics Course at a University in Jamaica

Authors: Ayesha M. Facey


The evaluation sought to determine the factors associated with the high failure rate among students taking a first-year introductory statistics course. By utilizing Tyler’s Objective Based Model, the main objectives were: to assess the effectiveness of the lecturer’s teaching strategies; to determine the proportion of students who attends lectures and tutorials frequently and to determine the impact of infrequent attendance on performance; to determine how the assigned activities assisted in students understanding of the course content; to ascertain the possible issues being faced by students in understanding the course material and obtain possible solutions to the challenges and to determine whether the learning outcomes have been achieved based on an assessment of the second in-course examination. A quantitative survey research strategy was employed and the study population was students enrolled in semester one of the academic year 2015/2016. A convenience sampling approach was employed resulting in a sample of 98 students. Primary data was collected using self-administered questionnaires over a one-week period. Secondary data was obtained from the results of the second in-course examination. Data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version 22 and both univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted on the information obtained from the questionnaires. Univariate analyses provided description of the sample through means, standard deviations and percentages while bivariate analyses were done using Spearman’s Rho correlation coefficient and Chi-square analyses. For secondary data, an item analysis was performed to obtain the reliability of the examination questions, difficulty index and discriminant index. The examination results also provided information on the weak areas of the students and highlighted the learning outcomes that were not achieved. Findings revealed that students were more likely to participate in lectures than tutorials and that attendance was high for both lectures and tutorials. There was a significant relationship between participation in lectures and performance on examination. However, a high proportion of students has been absent from three or more tutorials as well as lectures. A higher proportion of students indicated that they completed the assignments obtained from the lectures sometimes while they rarely completed tutorial worksheets. Students who were more likely to complete their assignments were significantly more likely to perform well on their examination. Additionally, students faced a number of challenges in understanding the course content and the topics of probability, binomial distribution and normal distribution were the most challenging. The item analysis also highlighted these topics as problem areas. Problems doing mathematics and application and analyses were their major challenges faced by students and most students indicated that some of the challenges could be alleviated if additional examples were worked in lectures and they were given more time to solve questions. Analysis of the examination results showed that a number of learning outcomes were not achieved for a number of topics. Based on the findings recommendations were made that suggested adjustments to grade allocations, delivery of lectures and methods of assessment.

Keywords: evaluation, item analysis, Tyler’s objective based model, university statistics

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922 Teaching Food Discourse in Cross-Cultural Communication Lectures at University

Authors: Sanjar Davronov


Linguistic research of food discourse helps to analyze gastronomic picture of the world which plays important role in cross-cultural communications. 20 hours lecture can’t provide broad knowledge about national picture of the world of native speakers whose language being studied by future translator students. This abstract analyses how to research food discourse in “Cross-cultural (or lingvo-cultural) communication” lectures for ESL students. During compare Uzbek and American national meals, we found some specific features of food names in both countries. For example: If names of food includes advertising character in USA restaurant menus like: New York strip Sirloin crowned with Fresh – squeezed orange and lemon with a hint of garlic; Uzbek meals names are too simple, short and force general afford in underlining action – preparation process like: “Dimlama” (dimla(verb-to stew)+ma(suffix of past perfect like- stew- stewed). “Qovurdoq” (qovur (verb- to fry)+ doq (suffix of adverb like “fried one”) but these are the most delicious and difficult in preparing national meals however it is heritage of national cuisine. There are also similarity between US and Uzbek food names which has geographical color - South African Lobster tail; Qashqadaryo tandiri (lamb prepared in “tandir” typical national oven with pine leafs in Qashkadarya region). Food for European people contains physical context more than spiritual but in Asian literature especially Uzbek food has some pragmatic stuff: salt and bread (associates with hospitality and humanity), don’t be faithlessness 40 for owners of house where you where a guest. We share some teaching techniques for food discourse analyzing lectures.

Keywords: cross-cultural communications, food discourse, ESL lectures, linguistic research

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921 Understanding the Prevalence and Expression of Virulence Factors Harbored by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Debjyoti Bhakat, Indranil Mondal, Asish K. Mukhopadayay, Nabendu S. Chatterjee


Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in infants and travelers in developing countries. Colonization factors play an important role in pathogenesis and are one of the main targets for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine development. However, ETEC vaccines had poorly performed in the past, as the prevalence of colonization factors is region-dependent. There are more than 25 classical colonization factors presently known to be expressed by ETEC, although all are not expressed together. Further, there are other multiple non-classical virulence factors that are also identified. Here the presence and expression of common classical and non-classical virulence factors were studied. Further studies were done on the expression of prevalent colonization factors in different strains. For the prevalence determination, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed, which was confirmed by simplex PCR. Quantitative RT-PCR was done to study the RNA expression of these virulence factors. Strains negative for colonization factors expression were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Among the clinical isolates, the most prevalent toxin was est+elt, followed by est and elt, while the pattern was reversed in the control strains. There were 29% and 40% strains negative for any classical colonization factors (CF) or non-classical virulence factors (NCVF) among the clinical and control strains, respectively. Among CF positive ETEC strains, CS6 and CS21 were the prevalent ones in the clinical strains, whereas in control strains, CS6 was the predominant one. For NCVF genes, eatA was the most prevalent among the clinical isolates and etpA for control. CS6 was the most expressed CF, and eatA was the predominantly expressed NCVF for both clinical and controlled ETEC isolates. CS6 expression was more in strains having CS6 alone. Different strains express CS6 at different levels. Not all strains expressed their respective virulence factors. Understanding the prevalent colonization factor, CS6, and its nature of expression will contribute to designing an effective vaccine against ETEC in this region of the globe. The expression pattern of CS6 also will help in examining the relatedness between the ETEC subtypes.

Keywords: classical virulence factors, CS6, diarrhea, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, expression, non-classical virulence factors

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920 Documentary Project as an Active Learning Strategy in a Developmental Psychology Course

Authors: Ozge Gurcanli


Recent studies in active-learning focus on how student experience varies based on the content (e.g. STEM versus Humanities) and the medium (e.g. in-class exercises versus off-campus activities) of experiential learning. However, little is known whether the variation in classroom time and space within the same active learning context affects student experience. This study manipulated the use of classroom time for the active learning component of a developmental psychology course that is offered at a four-year university in the South-West Region of United States. The course uses a blended model: traditional and active learning. In the traditional learning component of the course, students do weekly readings, listen to lectures, and take midterms. In the active learning component, students make a documentary on a developmental topic as a final project. Students used the classroom time and space for the documentary in two ways: regular classroom time slots that were dedicated to the making of the documentary outside without the supervision of the professor (Classroom-time Outside) and lectures that offered basic instructions about how to make a documentary (Documentary Lectures). The study used the public teaching evaluations that are administered by the Office of Registrar’s. A total of two hundred and seven student evaluations were available across six semesters. Because the Office of Registrar’s presented the data separately without personal identifiers, One-Way ANOVA with four groups (Traditional, Experiential-Heavy: 19% Classroom-time Outside, 12% for Documentary Lectures, Experiential-Moderate: 5-7% for Classroom-time Outside, 16-19% for Documentary Lectures, Experiential Light: 4-7% for Classroom-time Outside, 7% for Documentary Lectures) was conducted on five key features (Organization, Quality, Assignments Contribution, Intellectual Curiosity, Teaching Effectiveness). Each measure used a five-point reverse-coded scale (1-Outstanding, 5-Poor). For all experiential conditions, the documentary counted towards 30% of the final grade. Organization (‘The instructors preparation for class was’), Quality (’Overall, I would rate the quality of this course as’) and Assignment Contribution (’The contribution of the graded work that made to the learning experience was’) did not yield any significant differences across four course types (F (3, 202)=1.72, p > .05, F(3, 200)=.32, p > .05, F(3, 203)=.43, p > .05, respectively). Intellectual Curiosity (’The instructor’s ability to stimulate intellectual curiosity was’) yielded a marginal effect (F (3, 201)=2.61, p = .053). Tukey’s HSD (p < .05) indicated that the Experiential-Heavy (M = 1.94, SD = .82) condition was significantly different than all other three conditions (M =1.57, 1.51, 1.58; SD = .68, .66, .77, respectively) showing that heavily active class-time did not elicit intellectual curiosity as much as others. Finally, Teaching Effectiveness (’Overall, I feel that the instructor’s effectiveness as a teacher was’) was significant (F (3, 198)=3.32, p <.05). Tukey’s HSD (p <.05) showed that students found the courses with moderate (M=1.49, SD=.62) to light (M=1.52, SD=.70) active class-time more effective than heavily active class-time (M=1.93, SD=.69). Overall, the findings of this study suggest that within the same active learning context, the time and the space dedicated to active learning results in different outcomes in intellectual curiosity and teaching effectiveness.

Keywords: active learning, learning outcomes, student experience, learning context

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919 Enhanced Physiological Response of Blood Pressure and Improved Performance in Successive Divided Attention Test Seen with Classical Instrumental Background Music Compared to Controls

Authors: Shantala Herlekar


Introduction: Entrainment effect of music on cardiovascular parameters is well established. Music is being used in the background by medical students while studying. However, does it really help them relax faster and concentrate better? Objectives: This study was done to compare the effects of classical instrumental background music versus no music on blood pressure response over time and on successively performed divided attention test in Indian and Malaysian 1st-year medical students. Method: 60 Indian and 60 Malaysian first year medical students, with an equal number of girls and boys were randomized into two groups i.e music group and control group thus creating four subgroups. Three different forms of Symbol Digit Modality Test (to test concentration ability) were used as a pre-test, during music/control session and post-test. It was assessed using total, correct and error score. Simultaneously, multiple Blood Pressure recordings were taken as pre-test, during 1, 5, 15, 25 minutes during music/control (+SDMT) and post-test. The music group performed the test with classical instrumental background music while the control group performed it in silence. Results were analyzed using students paired t test. p value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. A drop in BP recording was indicative of relaxed state and a rise in BP with task performance was indicative of increased arousal. Results: In Symbol Digit Modality Test (SDMT) test, Music group showed significant better results for correct (p = 0.02) and total (p = 0.029) scores during post-test while errors reduced (p = 0.002). Indian music group showed decline in post-test error scores (p = 0.002). Malaysian music group performed significantly better in all categories. Blood pressure response was similar in music and control group with following variations, a drop in BP at 5minutes, being significant in music group (p < 0.001), a steep rise in values till 15minutes (corresponding to SDMT test) also being significant only in music group (p < 0.001) and the Systolic BP readings in controls during post-test were at lower levels compared to music group. On comparing the subgroups, not much difference was noticed in recordings of Indian student’s subgroups while all the paired-t test values in the Malaysian music group were significant. Conclusion: These recordings indicate an increased relaxed state with classical instrumental music and an increased arousal while performing a concentration task. Music used in our study was beneficial to students irrespective of their nationality and preference of music type. It can act as an “active coping” strategy and alleviate stress within a very short period of time, in our study within a span of 5minutes. When used in the background, during task performance, can increase arousal which helps the students perform better. Implications: Music can be used between lectures for a short time to relax the students and help them concentrate better for the subsequent classes, especially for late afternoon sessions.

Keywords: blood pressure, classical instrumental background music, ethnicity, symbol digit modality test

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918 Free Vibration Characteristics of Nanoplates with Various Edge Supports Incorporating Surface Free Energy Effects

Authors: Saeid Sahmani


Due to size-dependent behavior of nanostrustures, the classical continuum models are not applicable for the analyses at this submicrion size. Surface stress effect is one of the most important matters which make the nanoscale structures to have different properties compared to the conventional structures due to high surface to volume ratio. In the present study, free vibration characteristics of nanoplates are investigated including surface stress effects. To this end, non-classical plate model based on Gurtin-Murdoch elasticity theory is proposed to evaluate the surface stress effects on the vibrational behavior of nanoplates subjected to different boundary conditions. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is employed to discretize the governing non-classical differential equations along with various edge supports. Selected numerical results are given to demonstrate the distinction between the behavior of nanoplates predicted by the classical and present non-classical plate models that leads to illustrate the great influence of surface stress effect. It is observed that this influence quite depends on the magnitude of the surface elastic constants which are relevant to the selected material.

Keywords: nanomechanics, surface stress, free vibration, GDQ method, small scale effect

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917 The Classical Islamic Laws of Apostasy in the Present Context

Authors: Ali Akbar


The main purpose of this essay is to examine whether or not the earthly punishments in regards to apostates that are often found in classical Islamic sources are applicable in the present context. The paper indeed addresses how Muslims should understand the question of apostasy in the contemporary context. To do so, the paper first argues that an accurate understanding of the way the Quranic verses and prophetic hadiths deal with the concept of apostasy could help us rethink and re-examine the classical Islamic laws on apostasy in the present context. In addition, building on Abdolkarim Soroush’s theory of contraction and expansion of religious knowledge, this article argues that approaches to apostasy in the present context can move away from what prescribed by classical Islamic laws. Finally, it argues that instances of persecution of apostates in the early days of Islam during the Medinan period of Muhammad’s prophetic mission should be interpreted in their own socio-historical context. Rereading these reports within our modern context supports the mutability of the traditional corporal punishments of apostasy.

Keywords: apostasy, Islam, Quran, hadith, Abdolkarim Soroush, contextualization

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916 Comparative Analysis of Classical and Parallel Inpainting Algorithms Based on Affine Combinations of Projections on Convex Sets

Authors: Irina Maria Artinescu, Costin Radu Boldea, Eduard-Ionut Matei


The paper is a comparative study of two classical variants of parallel projection methods for solving the convex feasibility problem with their equivalents that involve variable weights in the construction of the solutions. We used a graphical representation of these methods for inpainting a convex area of an image in order to investigate their effectiveness in image reconstruction applications. We also presented a numerical analysis of the convergence of these four algorithms in terms of the average number of steps and execution time in classical CPU and, alternatively, in parallel GPU implementation.

Keywords: convex feasibility problem, convergence analysis, inpainting, parallel projection methods

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915 Modern Tragic Substance in O’Neill’s Desire under the Elms and Mourning Becomes Electra

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki


The position Eugene O’Neill occupies in the history of American drama is undisputable. Critics have agreed that the American theatre was waiting for O’Neill to give it substance, character, and value. The American dramatist continues to be considered as a major influence on the body of dramatic repertoire across the globe. The American theatre before O’Neill knew playwrights who were mostly viewed as entertainers. The serious drama had to wait until O’Neill started his career with expressionistic and social drama. His breakthrough, however, came in 1925 when he published Desire Under the Elms, described as the first important tragedy to be written in America. Mourning Becomes Electra, published in 1931, further reinforced the reputation of Eugene O’Neill and was described as his 'magnum opus'. Aspiring to portray the essence of life and man’s innermost conflicts, O’Neill turned to the classical model, rather than to social realistic drama, to create modern tragedies with the aid of the then-new science of psychology. The present paper aims to undertake an in-depth study of how overtones from classical tragedies by the classical masters Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides resonate through O’Neill’s two plays. The paper shows how leaning on classical themes and concepts interpreted in terms of psychological forces have added depth and tragic substance to a modern milieu and produced masterpieces of dramaturgy.

Keywords: classical, drama, O'Neill, modern, tragic

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914 An Optimization Algorithm Based on Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarities and Similarities of Chromosomes

Authors: Radhwan Yousif Sedik Al-Jawadi


Optimization is necessary for finding appropriate solutions to a range of real-life problems. In particular, genetic (or more generally, evolutionary) algorithms have proved very useful in solving many problems for which analytical solutions are not available. In this paper, we present an optimization algorithm called Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarity and Similarity of Chromosomes (DSDSC) which is a variant of the classical genetic algorithm. This approach constructs new chromosomes from a schema and pairs of existing ones by exploring their dissimilarities and similarities. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested and compared with the classical GA, on 15 two-dimensional optimization problems taken from literature. We have found that, in most cases, our method is better than the classical genetic algorithm.

Keywords: chromosome injection, dynamic schema, genetic algorithm, similarity and dissimilarity

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913 A Hybrid Classical-Quantum Algorithm for Boundary Integral Equations of Scattering Theory

Authors: Damir Latypov


A hybrid classical-quantum algorithm to solve boundary integral equations (BIE) arising in problems of electromagnetic and acoustic scattering is proposed. The quantum speed-up is due to a Quantum Linear System Algorithm (QLSA). The original QLSA of Harrow et al. provides an exponential speed-up over the best-known classical algorithms but only in the case of sparse systems. Due to the non-local nature of integral operators, matrices arising from discretization of BIEs, are, however, dense. A QLSA for dense matrices was introduced in 2017. Its runtime as function of the system's size N is bounded by O(√Npolylog(N)). The run time of the best-known classical algorithm for an arbitrary dense matrix scales as O(N².³⁷³). Instead of exponential as in case of sparse matrices, here we have only a polynomial speed-up. Nevertheless, sufficiently high power of this polynomial, ~4.7, should make QLSA an appealing alternative. Unfortunately for the QLSA, the asymptotic separability of the Green's function leads to high compressibility of the BIEs matrices. Classical fast algorithms such as Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) take advantage of this fact and reduce the runtime to O(Nlog(N)), i.e., the QLSA is only quadratically faster than the MLFMM. To be truly impactful for computational electromagnetics and acoustics engineers, QLSA must provide more substantial advantage than that. We propose a computational scheme which combines elements of the classical fast algorithms with the QLSA to achieve the required performance.

Keywords: quantum linear system algorithm, boundary integral equations, dense matrices, electromagnetic scattering theory

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912 Translation and Sociolinguistics of Classical Books

Authors: Laura de Almeida


This paper aims to present research involving the translation of classical books originally in English and translated into the Portuguese language. The objective is to analyze the linguistic varieties evident and how they appear in the other language the work was translated into. We based our study on the sociolinguistics theory, more specifically, the study of the Black English Vernacular. Our methodology is built on collecting data from the speech characters of the Black English Vernacular from some books such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. On doing so, we compare the two versions of a book and how they reflected the linguistic variety. Our purpose is to show that some translators do not worry when dealing with linguistic variety. In other words, they just translate the story without taking into account some important linguistic aspects which need attention, such as language variation.

Keywords: classical books, linguistic variation, sociolinguistics, translation

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911 A Flipped Classroom Approach for Non Science Majors

Authors: Nidhi Gadura


To ensure student success in a non majors biology course, a flipped classroom pedagogical approach is developed and implemented. All students are assigned online lectures to listen to before they come to class. A three hour lecture is split into one hour of online component, one hour of in class lecture and one hour of worksheets done by students in the classroom. This deviation from a traditional 3 hour in class lecture has resulted in increased student interest in science as well as better understanding of difficult scientific concepts. A pre and post survey was given to measure the interest rates and grades were used to measure the success rates. While the overall grade average did not change dramatically, students reported a better appreciation of biology. Also, students overwhelmingly like the use of worksheets in class to help them understand the concepts. They liked the fact that they could listen to lectures at their own pace on line and even repeat if needed. The flipped classroom approach turned out to work really well our non science majors and the author is ready to implement this in other classrooms.

Keywords: flipped classroom, non science majors, pedagogy, technological pedagogical model

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910 Axiomatic Systems as an Alternative to Teach Physics

Authors: Liliana M. Marinelli, Cristina T. Varanese


In the last few years, students from higher education have difficulties in grasping mathematical concepts which support physical matters, especially those in the first years of this education. Classical Physics teaching turns to be complex when students are not able to make use of mathematical tools which lead to the conceptual structure of Physics. When derivation and integration rules are not used or developed in parallel with other disciplines, the physical meaning that we attempt to convey turns to be complicated. Due to this fact, it could be of great use to see the Classical Mechanics from an axiomatic approach, where the correspondence rules give physical meaning, if we expect students to understand concepts clearly and accurately. Using the Minkowski point of view adapted to a two-dimensional space and time where vectors, matrices, and straight lines (worked from an affine space) give mathematical and physical rigorosity even when it is more abstract. An interesting option would be to develop the disciplinary contents from an axiomatic version which embraces the Classical Mechanics as a particular case of Relativistic Mechanics. The observation about the increase in the difficulties stated by students in the first years of education allows this idea to grow as a possible option to improve performance and understanding of the concepts of this subject.

Keywords: axioms, classical physics, physical concepts, relativity

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909 Classical Myths in Modern Drama: A Study of the Vision of Jean Anouilh in Antigone

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki


Modern drama was characterised by realism and naturalism as dominant literary movements that focused on contemporary people and their issues to reflect the status of modern man and his environment. However, some modern dramatists have often fallen on classical mythology in ancient Greek tragedies to create a sense of the universality of the human experience. The tragic overtones of classical myths have helped modern dramatists in their attempts to create an enduring piece by evoking the majestic grandeur of the ancient myths and the heroic struggle of man against forces he cannot fight. Myths have continued to appeal to modern playwrights not only for the plot and narrative material but also for the vision and insight into the human experience and human condition. This paper intends to study how the reworking of Sophocles’ Antigone by Jean Anouilh in his Antigone, written in 1942 at the height of the Second World War and during the German occupation of his country, France, fits his own purpose and his own time. The paper will also offer an analysis of the vision in both plays to show how Anouilh has used the classical Antigone freely to produce a modern vision of the dilemma of man when faced by personal and national conflicts.

Keywords: Anouilh, Antigone, drama, Greek tragedy, modern, myth, sophocles

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908 Exploring the Visual Roots of Classical Rhetoric and Its Implication for Gender Politics: Reflection upon Roman Rhetoric from a Bakhtin's Perspective

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang


This study aims to explore the visual roots of classical rhetoric and its implication for gender politics by the constant reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s theory of novelist time. First, it attempts to clarify the argument that “visuality always has been integral to rhetorical consciousness” by critically re-reading the rhetorical theories of roman rhetorician such as Cicero and Quintilian. Thereby, the vague clues of visuality would be realized from the so-called ‘five canons of rhetoric’ (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery), which originally deriving from verbal and spoken rhetorical tradition. Drawing on Mikhail Bakhtin’s elaboration of novelist time in contrast to epic time, it addresses the specific timeline inherent in the dynamics of visual rhetoric involves the refusing the ‘absolute past’, the focusing on unfinalized contemporary reality, and the expecting for open future. Taking the primary visions of Taipei LGBT parade over the past 13 years as research cases, it mentions that visuality could not only activate the rhetorical functions of classical rhetoric, but also inspire gender politics in the contemporary era.

Keywords: classical rhetoric, gender politics, Mikhail Bakhtin, visuality

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907 The Next Game Changer: 3-D Printed Musical Instruments

Authors: Leonardo Ko


In an era marked by rapid technological innovation, the classical instrument industry nonetheless has not seen significant change. Is this a matter of stubborn traditionalism, or do old, conventional instruments really sound better? Because of the widespread use of 3-D printing, it seems feasible to produce modern, 3-D printed instruments that adhere to the basic conventions of standard construction. This study aimed to design and create a practical, effective 3-D printed acoustic violin. A cost-benefit analysis of materials and design is presented in addition to a report on sound tests in which a pool of professional musicians compared the traditional violin to its synthetic counterpart with regard to acoustic properties. With a low-cost yet functional instrument, musicians of all levels would be able to afford instruments with much greater ease; the present study thus hopes to contribute to efforts to increase the accessibility of classical music education.

Keywords: acoustic musical instrument, classical musical education, low-cost, 3-D printing

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906 The Way Digitized Lectures and Film Presence Coaching Impact Academic Identity: An Expert Facilitated Participatory Action Research Case Study

Authors: Amanda Burrell, Tonia Gary, David Wright, Kumara Ward


This paper explores the concept of academic identity as it relates to the lecture, in particular, the digitized lecture delivered to a camera, in the absence of a student audience. Many academics have the performance aspect of the role thrust upon them with little or no training. For the purpose of this study, we look at the performance of the academic identity and examine tailored film presence coaching for its contributions toward academic identity, specifically in relation to feelings of self-confidence and diminishment of discomfort or stage fright. The case is articulated through the lens of scholar-practitioners, using expert facilitated participatory action research. It demonstrates in our sample of experienced academics, all reported some feelings of uncertainty about presenting lectures to camera prior to coaching. We share how power poses and reframing fear, produced improvements in the ease and competency of all participants. We share exactly how this insight could be adapted for self-coaching by any academic when called to present to a camera and consider the relationship between this and academic identity.

Keywords: academic identity, digitized lecture, embodied learning, performance coaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 260