Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 774

Search results for: cement slurry

774 Mechanical Properties of Cement Slurry by Partially Substitution of Industry Waste Natural Pozzolans

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, S. P. Emadoleslami Oskoei, S. D. Beladi Mousavi, A. Taleb Beydokhti

Abstract:

There have been many reports of the destructive effects of cement on the environment in recent years. In the present research, it has been attempted to reduce the destructive effects of cement by replacing silica fume as adhesive materials instead of cement. The present study has attempted to improve the mechanical properties of cement slurry by using waste material from a glass production factory, located in Qazvin city of Iran, in which accumulation volume has become an environmental threat. The chemical analysis of the waste material indicates that this material contains about 94% of SiO2 and AL2O3 and has a close structure to silica fume. Also, the particle grain size test was performed on the mentioned waste. Then, the unconfined compressive strength test of the slurry was performed by preparing a mixture of water and adhesives with different percentages of cement and silica fume. The water to an adhesive ratio of this mixture is 1:3, and the curing process last 28 days. It was found that the sample had an unconfined compressive strength of about 300 kg/cm2 in a mixture with equal proportions of cement and silica fume. Besides, the sample had a brittle fracture in the slurry sample made of pure cement, however, the fracture in cement-silica fume slurry mixture is flexible and the structure of the specimen remains coherent after fracture. Therefore, considering the flexibility that is achieved by replacing this waste, it can be used to stabilize soils with cracking potential.

Keywords: cement replacement, cement slurry, environmental threat, natural pozzolan, silica fume, waste material

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
773 Investigating the Effects of Hydrogen on Wet Cement for Underground Hydrogen Storage Applications in Oil and Gas Wells

Authors: Hamoud Al-Hadrami, Hossein Emadi, Athar Hussain

Abstract:

Green hydrogen is quickly emerging as a new source of renewable energy for the world. Hydrogen production using water electrolysis is deemed as an environmentally friendly and safe source of energy for transportation and other industries. However, storing a high volume of hydrogen seems to be a significant challenge. Abandoned hydrocarbon reservoirs are considered as viable hydrogen storage options because of the availability of the required infrastructure such as wells and surface facilities. However, long-term wellbore integrity in these wells could be a serious challenge. Hydrogen reduces the compressive strength of a set cement if it gets in contact with the cement slurry. Also, mixing hydrogen with cement slurry slightly increases its density and rheological properties, which need to be considered to have a successful primary cementing operation.

Keywords: hydrogen, well bore integrity, clean energy, cementing

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
772 Slurry Erosion Behaviour of Cryotreated SS316L Impeller Steel Used for Irrigation Pumps

Authors: Jagtar Singh, Kulwinder Singh

Abstract:

Slurry erosion is a type of erosion wherein material is removed from the target surface due to impingement of solid particles entrained in liquid medium. Slurry erosion performance of deep cryogenic treatment on impeller steel SS 316 L has been investigated. Slurry collected from an actual irrigation pump used as the abrasive media in an erosion test rig. An attempt has been made to study the effect of velocity of fluid and impingement angle by constant concentration (ppm) on the slurry erosion behavior of these cryotreated steels under different experimental conditions. The slurry erosion wear analysis of cryotreated and untreated steels was done. The slurry erosion performance of cryotreated SS 316L impeller steel has been found to superior to that of untreated steel. Metallurgical investigation, hardness as well as %age of carbide in both types of steel was also investigated.

Keywords: deep cryogenic treatment, impeller, Irrigation pumps SS316L, slurry erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
771 Process for Separating and Recovering Materials from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Tarik Ouslimane, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Mouna Hecini, Ouahiba Bouchelaghem, Nadjib Drouiche

Abstract:

Slurry waste is a byproduct generated from the slicing process of multi-crystalline silicon ingots. This waste can be used as a secondary resource to recover high purity silicon which has a great economic value. From the management perspective, the ever increasing generation of kerf slurry waste loss leads to significant challenges for the photovoltaic industry due to the current low use of slurry waste for silicon recovery. Slurry waste, in most cases, contains silicon, silicon carbide, metal fragments and mineral-oil-based or glycol-based slurry vehicle. As a result, of the global scarcity of high purity silicon supply, the high purity silicon content in slurry has increasingly attracted interest for research. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for high purity silicon recovery from kerf slurry waste. Hydrometallurgy is continuously a matter of study and research. However, in this review paper, several new techniques about the process of high purity silicon recovery from slurry waste are introduced. The purpose of the information presented is to improve the development of a clean and effective recovery process of high purity silicon from slurry waste.

Keywords: Kerf-loss, slurry waste, silicon carbide, silicon recovery, photovoltaic, high purity silicon, polyethylen glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
770 Enhancing Inhibition on Phytopathogens by Complex Using Biogas Slurry

Authors: Fang-Bo Yu, Li-Bo Guan, Sheng-Dao Shan

Abstract:

Biogas slurry was mixed with six commercial fungicides and screening against 11 phytopathogens was carried out. Results showed that inhibition of biogas slurry was different for the test strains and no significant difference between treatments of Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia cerealis, F. graminearum and Septoria tritici was observed. However, significant differences were found among Penicillium sp., Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria sonali, F. oxysporum F. sp. melonis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The approach described here presents a promising alternative to current manipulation although some issues still need further examination. This study could contribute to the development of sustainable agriculture and better utilization of biogas slurry.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas slurry, phytopathogen, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
769 Microscopic Visualization of the Ice Slurry Ice Particles

Authors: Juan José Milón Guzmán, Herbert Jesús Del Carpio Beltrán, Sergio Leal Braga

Abstract:

Visualizations of ice particles of ice slurry are performed. The form and size of ice particles is investigated by optical microscopy. It permits to evaluate statistically the geometrical shapes of the ice crystals. The observed particle size corresponds with the different solutes (sugar, salt, propylene glycol).

Keywords: ice slurry, visualization, ice particles, solutes

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
768 Some Investigations of Primary Slurry Used for Production of Ceramic Shells

Authors: Balwinder Singh

Abstract:

In the current competitive environment, casting industry has several challenges such as production of intricate castings, near net shape castings, decrease lead-time from product design to production, improved casting quality and to control costs. The raw materials used to make ceramic shell play an important role in determining the overall final ceramic shell characteristics. In this work, primary slurries were formulated using various combinations of zircon flour, fused silica and aluminosilicate powders as filler, colloidal silica as binder along with wetting and antifoaming agents (Catalyst). Taguchi’s parameter design strategy has been applied to investigate the effect of primary slurry parameters on the viscosity of the slurry and primary coating of shell. The result reveals that primary coating with low viscosity slurry has produced a rough surface of the shell due to stucco penetration.

Keywords: ceramic shell, primary slurry, filler, slurry viscosity, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
767 Inhibiting Effects of Zwitterionic Surfactant on the Erosion-Corrosion of API X52 Steel in Oil Sands Slurry

Authors: M. A. Deyab

Abstract:

The effect of zwitterionic surfactant (ZS) on erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands slurry was studied using Tafel polarization and anodic polarization measurements. The surface morphology of API X52 steel was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZS inhibited the erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands' slurry, and the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing ZS concentration but decreased with increasing temperature. Polarization curves indicate that ZS act as a mixed type of inhibitor. Inhibition efficiencies of ZS in the dynamic condition are not as effective as that obtained in the static condition.

Keywords: corrosion, surfactant, oil sands slurry, erosion-corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
766 Effect of Chemical Additive on Fixed Abrasive Polishing of LBO Crystal with Non-Water Based Slurry

Authors: Jun Li, Wenze Wang, Zhanggui Hu, Yongwei Zhu, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing was adopted to manufacture LBO crystal for nano precision surface quality because of its deliquescent. Ethyl alcohol was selected as the non-water based slurry solvent and ethanediamine, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide were add in the slurry as a chemical additive, respectively. Effect of different additives with non-water based slurry on material removal rate, surface topography, microscopic appearances and surface roughness were investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of LBO crystal. The results show the best surface quality of LBO crystal with surface roughness Sa 8.2 nm and small damages was obtained by non-water based slurry with lactic acid. Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing can achieve nano precision surface quality of LBO crystal with high material removal.

Keywords: non-water based slurry, LBO crystal, fixed abrasive polishing, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
765 Processes for Valorization of Valuable Products from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Nadjib Drouiche, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Tarik Ouslimane

Abstract:

Although solar cells manufacturing is a conservative industry, economics drivers continue to encourage innovation, feedstock savings and cost reduction. Kerf slurry waste is a complex product containing both valuable substances as well as contaminants. The valuable substances are: i) high purity silicon, ii) polyethylene glycol, and iii) silicon carbide. The contaminants mainly include metal fragments and organics. Therefore, recycling of the kerf slurry waste is an important subject not only from the treatment of waste but also from the recovery of valuable products. The present paper relates to processes for the recovery of valuable products from the kerf slurry waste in which they are contained, such products comprising nanoparticles, polyethylene glycol, high purity silicon, and silicon carbide.

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, Kerf slurry waste, recycling, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
764 Rheological Assessment of Oil Well Cement Paste Dosed with Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC)

Authors: Mohammad Reza Dousti, Yaman Boluk, Vivek Bindiganavile

Abstract:

During the past few decades, oil and natural gas consumption have increased significantly. The limited amount of hydrocarbon resources on earth has led to a stronger desire towards efficient drilling, well completion and extracting, with the least time, energy and money wasted. Well cementing is one of the most crucial and important steps in any well completion, to fill the annulus between the casing string and the well bore. However, since it takes place at the end of the drilling process, a satisfying and acceptable job is rarely done. Hence, a large and significant amount of time and energy is then spent in order to do the required corrections or retrofitting the well in some cases. Oil well cement paste needs to be pumped during the cementing process, therefore the rheological and flow behavior of the paste is of great importance. This study examines the use of innovative cellulose-based nanomaterials on the flow properties of the resulting cementitious system. The cementitious paste developed in this research is composed of water, class G oil well cement, bentonite and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Bentonite is used as a cross contamination component. Initially, the influence of CNC on the flow and rheological behavior of CNC and bentonite suspensions was assessed. Furthermore, the rheological behavior of oil well cement pastes dosed with CNC was studied using a steady shear parallel-plate rheometer and the results were compared to the rheological behavior of a neat oil well cement paste with no CNC. The parameters assessed were the yield shear stress and the viscosity. Significant changes in yield shear stress and viscosity were observed due to the addition of the CNC. Based on the findings in this study, the addition of a very small dosage of CNC to the oil well cement paste results in a more viscous cement slurry with a higher yield stress, demonstrating a shear thinning behavior.

Keywords: cellulose nanocrystal, flow behavior, oil well cement, rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
763 Effect of Nano-CaCO₃ Addition on the Nano-Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Muzeyyen Balcikanli, Selma Ozaslan, Osman Sahin, Burak Uzal, Erdogan Ozbay

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of nano-CaCO3 replacement with cement on the nano-mechanical properties of cement paste was investigated. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics Two types of nano CaCO3 were replaced with Portland cement at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Water to (cement+nano-CaCO3) ratio was kept constant at 0.5 for all mixtures. 36 indentations were applied on each cement paste, and the values of nano-hardness and elastic modulus of cement pastes were determined from the indentation depth-load graphs. Then, by getting the average of them, nano-hardness and elastic modulus were identified for each mixture. Test results illustrate that replacement of hydrophilic n-CaCO3 with cement lead to a significant increase in nano-mechanical properties, however, replacement of hydrophobic n-CaCO3 with cement worsened the nano-mechanical properties considerably.

Keywords: nanoindenter, CaCO3, nano-hardness, nano-mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
762 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek

Abstract:

The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
761 Study on the Enhancement of Soil Fertility and Tomato Quality by Applying Concentrated Biogas Slurry

Authors: Fang Bo Yu, Li Bo Guan

Abstract:

Biogas slurry is a low-cost source of crop nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its application scale. In this report, one growing season field research was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of the microflora in both non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could cause significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N, and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, β-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It could be concluded as the application is a practicable means in tomato production and might better service the sustainable agriculture in the near future.

Keywords: concentrated slurry, fruit quality, soil fertility, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
760 The Effect of Soil Fractal Dimension on the Performance of Cement Stabilized Soil

Authors: Nkiru I. Ibeakuzie, Paul D. J. Watson, John F. Pescatore

Abstract:

In roadway construction, the cost of soil-cement stabilization per unit area is significantly influenced by the binder content, hence the need to optimise cement usage. This research work will characterize the influence of soil fractal geometry on properties of cement-stabilized soil, and strive to determine a correlation between mechanical proprieties of cement-stabilized soil and the mass fractal dimension Dₘ indicated by particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregate mixtures. Since strength development in cemented soil relies not only on cement content but also on soil PSD, this study will investigate the possibility of reducing cement content by changing the PSD of soil, without compromising on strength, reduced permeability, and compressibility. A series of soil aggregate mixes will be prepared in the laboratory. The mass fractal dimension Dₘ of each mix will be determined from sieve analysis data prior to stabilization with cement. Stabilized soil samples will be tested for strength, permeability, and compressibility.

Keywords: fractal dimension, particle size distribution, cement stabilization, cement content

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
759 Investigation of the Variables Affecting the Use of Charcoal to Delay Fermentation in Wet Beans Slurry Using Chemical and Physical Analysis

Authors: Anuoluwapo O. Adewole

Abstract:

Fermentation is the conversion of monomeric sugars into ethanol and carbondioxide in the presence of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. In line with the aim and objective of this research project, which is to investigate into the variables affecting the use of charcoal to delay fermentation in wet beans slurry, some physical and chemical analysis were carried out on the wet beans slurry using a PH meter in which a thermometer is incorporated in it, and a measuring cylinder was used for the foam level test. About 250 grams of the ground beans slurry was divided into two portions for testing. The sample with charcoal was labeled sample 'A' while the second sample without charcoal was labeled sample 'B' subsequently. The experiment lasted for a period of 41.15 hours (i.e., forty-one hours and nine minutes). During the fourth process, both samples could not be tested as the laboratory had been saturated with foul odor and both samples were packed and sealed in polythene bag for disposal in the trash can. It was generally observed that the sample with the charcoal lasted for a longer time before that without charcoal before total spoilage occurred.

Keywords: fermentation, monomeric sugars, beans slurry, charcoal, anaerobic conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
758 Evaluating Cement Brands in Southwestern Nigeria for Local Construction Industries

Authors: Olonade, K. A., Jaji, M. B., Rasak, S. A., Ojo, B. A., Adefuye, O. E.

Abstract:

Different brands of cement are used in Nigeria by local contractors for various works without prior knowledge of their performance. Qualities of common cement brands in Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Elephant, Dangote, Gateway, Purechem, Burham and Five Star cements were selected for the study. Fineness, setting times, chemical composition, compressive and flexural strengths of each of the cement brands were determined. The results showed that all the cement brands contained major oxides in amount within the acceptable values except that the sulphite content of Gateway fell outside the range. Strength comparison indicated that Burham had highest flexural and compressive strength, followed by Elephant and then Dangote while Gateway had the lowest strength at 28 days. It was observed that Dangote cement set earlier than other cement brands. The study has shown that there were differences in performance of the selected cement brands and concluded that the choice of cement brand should be based on the expected performance.

Keywords: cement brand, compressive strength, flexural strength, local construction industries

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
757 The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.

Keywords: cement sorel, photothermal deflection technique, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
756 Oil Palm Shell Ash: Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya

Abstract:

The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of seven days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.

Keywords: minerals, additive, flexural strength, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
755 Numerical Simulation of Erosion Control in Slurry Pump Casing by Geometrical Flow Pattern Modification Analysis

Authors: A. R. Momeninezhad

Abstract:

Erosion of Slurry Pumps in Related Industries, is one of the major costs in their production process. Many factories in extractive industries try to find ways to diminish this cost. In this paper, we consider the flow pattern modifications by geometric variations made of numerical simulation of flow inside pump casing, which is one of the most important parts analyzed for erosion. The mentioned pump is a cyclone centrifugal slurry pump, which is operating in Sarcheshmeh Copper Industries in Kerman-Iran, named and tagged as HM600 cyclone pump. Simulation shows many improvements in local wear information and situations for better and more qualified design of casing shape and impeller position, before and after geometric corrections. By theory of liquid-solid two-phase flow, the local wear defeats are analyzed and omitted.

Keywords: flow pattern, slurry pump, simulation, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
754 The Increasing of Unconfined Compression Strength of Clay Soils Stabilized with Cement

Authors: Ali̇ Si̇nan Soğanci

Abstract:

The cement stabilization is one of the ground improvement method applied worldwide to increase the strength of clayey soils. The using of cement has got lots of advantages compared to other stabilization methods. Cement stabilization can be done quickly, the cost is low and creates a more durable structure with the soil. Cement can be used in the treatment of a wide variety of soils. The best results of the cement stabilization were seen on silts as well as coarse-grained soils. In this study, blocks of clay were taken from the Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel route which is 125km long will be built in Konya that take the water with 70m3/sec from Mavi tunnel to Hotamış storage. Firstly, the index properties of clay samples were determined according to the Unified Soil Classification System. The experimental program was carried out on compacted soil specimens with 0%, 7 %, 15% and 30 % cement additives and the results of unconfined compression strength were discussed. The results of unconfined compression tests indicated an increase in strength with increasing cement content.

Keywords: cement stabilization, unconfined compression test, clayey soils, unified soil classification system.

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
753 Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

Authors: Fazeera Ujin, Kamran Shavarebi Ali, Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith

Abstract:

This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement. Chemical properties of both eggshells ash and cement are compared. From the results obtained, both eggshells ash and cement have the same chemical composition and primary composition which is the calcium compounds. Results from the setting time show that by adding the eggshells ash to the cement, the setting time of the cement decreases. In short, the higher amount of eggshells ash, the faster the rate of setting and apply to all percentage of eggshells ash that were used in this investigation. Both initial and final setting times fulfill the setting time requirements by Malaysian Standard. Hence, it is suggested that eggshells ash can be used as an admixture in concrete mix.

Keywords: construction materials, eggshells ash, solid waste, setting time

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
752 The Mechanical Behavior of a Chemically Stabilized Soil

Authors: I Lamri, L Arabet, M. Hidjeb

Abstract:

The direct shear test was used to determine the shear strength parameters C and Ø of a series of samples with different cement content. Samples stabilized with a certain percentage of cement showed a substantial gain in compressive strength and a significant increase in shear strength parameters. C and Ø. The laboratory equipment used in UCS tests consisted of a conventional 102mm diameter sample triaxial loading machine. Beyond 4% cement content a very important increase in shear strength was observed. It can be deduced from a comparative study of shear strength of soil samples with 4%, 7%, and 10% cement with sample containing 2 %, that the sample with a 4% cement content showed 90% increase in shear strength while those with 7% and 10% showed an increase of around 13 and 21 fold.

Keywords: cement, compression strength, shear stress, cohesion, angle of internal friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
751 Effect of Silica Fume at Cellular Sprayed Concrete

Authors: Kyong-Ku Yun, Seung-Yeon Han, Kyeo-Re Lee

Abstract:

Silica fume which is a super-fine byproduct of ferrosilicon or silicon metal has a filling effect on micro-air voids or a transition zone in a hardened cement paste by appropriate mixing, placement, and curing. It, also, has a Pozzolan reaction which enhances the interior density of the hydrated cement paste through a formation of calcium silicate hydroxide. When substituting cement with silica fume, it improves water tightness and durability by filling effect and Pozzolan reaction. However, it needs high range water reducer or super-plasticizer to distribute silica fume into a concrete because of its finesses and high specific surface area. In order to distribute into concrete evenly, cement manufacturers make a pre-blended cement of silica fume and provide to a market. However, a special mixing procedures and another transportation charge another cost and this result in a high price of pre-blended cement of silica fume. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the dispersion of silica fume by air slurry and its effect on the mechanical properties of at ready-mixed concrete. The results are as follows: A dispersion effect of silica fume was measured from an analysis of standard deviation for compressive strength test results. It showed that the standard deviation decreased as the air bubble content increased, which means that the dispersion became better as the air bubble content increased. The test result of rapid chloride permeability test showed that permeability resistance increased as the percentages of silica fume increased, but the permeability resistance decreased as the quantity of mixing air bubble increased. The image analysis showed that a spacing factor decreased and a specific surface area increased as the quantity of mixing air bubble increased.

Keywords: cellular sprayed concrete, silica fume, deviation, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
750 On Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Oil Sands Slurry: Electrochemical Studies

Authors: M. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera

Abstract:

The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of carbon steel in oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, steel, oil sands slurry, polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
749 Properties of Cement Pastes with Different Particle Size Fractions of Metakaolin

Authors: M. Boháč, R. Novotný, F. Frajkorová, R. S. Yadav, T. Opravil, M. Palou

Abstract:

Properties of Portland cement mixtures with various fractions of metakaolin were studied. 10 % of Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R was replaced by different fractions of high reactivity metakaolin with defined chemical and mineralogical properties. Various fractions of metakaolin were prepared by jet mill classifying system. There is a clear trend between fineness of metakaolin and hydration heat development. Due to metakaolin presence in mixtures the compressive strength development of mortars is rather slower for coarser fractions but 28-day flexural strengths are improved for all fractions of metakaoline used in mixtures compared to reference sample of pure Portland cement. Yield point, plastic viscosity and adhesion of fresh pastes are considerably influenced by fineness of metakaolin used in cement pastes.

Keywords: calorimetry, cement, metakaolin fineness, rheology, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
748 Characterization of Cement Concrete Pavement

Authors: T. B. Anil Kumar, Mallikarjun Hiremath, V. Ramachandra

Abstract:

The present experimental investigation deals with the quality performance analysis of cement concrete with 0, 15 and 25% fly ash and 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% of polypropylene fibers by weight of cement. The various test parameters like workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and abrasion resistance are detailed in the analysis. The compressive strength of M40 grade concrete attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash and at 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Higher flexural strength of concrete was observed by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.2% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Similarly, split tensile strength value also increases and attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. The percentage of wear gets reduced to 30 to 33% by the addition of fibers at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% in cement concrete replaced by 15 and 25% fly ash. Hence, it is found that the pavement thickness gets reduced up to 20% when compared with plain concrete slab by the 15% fly ash treated with 0.2% PP fibers and also reduced up to 27% of surface course cost.

Keywords: cement, fly ash, polypropylene fiber, pavement design, cost analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
747 Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin on the Compressive Strengths of Ternary Cement Mortars

Authors: Olubajo Olumide Olu

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of Metakaolin (MK) and Rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of ternary cement mortar at replacement level up to 30%. The compressive strength test of the blended cement mortars were conducted using Tonic Technic compression and machine. Nineteen ternary cement mortars were prepared comprising of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Rice husk ash (RHA) and Metakaolin (MK) at different proportion. Ternary mortar prisms in which Portland cement was replaced by up to 30% were tested at various age; 2, 7, 28 and 60 days. Result showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortars increased as the curing days were lengthened for both OPC and the blended cement samples. The ternary cement’s compressive strengths showed significant improvement compared with the control especially beyond 28 days. This can be attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction resulting from the formation of additional CSH from the interaction of the residual CH content and the silica available in the Metakaolin and Rice husk ash, thus providing significant strength gain at later age. Results indicated that the addition of metakaolin with rice husk ash kept constant was found to lead to an increment in the compressive strength. This can either be attributed to the high silica/alumina contribution to the matrix or the C/S ratio in the cement matrix. Whereas, increment in the rice husk ash content while metakaolin was held constant led to an increment in the compressive strength, which could be attributed to the reactivity of the rice husk ash followed by decrement owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the RHA matrix. The best compressive strength results were obtained at 10% cement replacement (5% RHA, 5% MK); 15% cement replacement (10% MK and 5% RHA); 20% cement replacement (15% MK and 5% RHA); 25% cement replacement (20% MK and 5% RHA); 30% cement replacement (10%/20% MK and 20%/10% RHA). With the optimal combination of either 15% and 20% MK with 5% RHA giving the best compressive strength of 40.5MPa.

Keywords: metakaolin, rice husk ash, compressive strength, ternary mortar, curing days

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
746 Influence of Gum Acacia Karroo on Some Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortars and Concrete

Authors: Mbugua R. N., Salim R. W., Ndambuki J. M.

Abstract:

Natural admixtures provide concrete with enhanced properties but their processing end up making them very expensive resulting in increase to cost of concrete. In this study the effect of Gum from Acacia Karroo (GAK) as set-retarding admixture in cement pastes was studied. The possibility of using GAK as water reducing admixture both in cement mortar concrete was also investigated. Cement pastes with different dosages of GAK were prepared to measure the setting time using different dosages. Compressive strength of cement mortars with 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9% weight of cement and w/c ratio of 0.5 were compared to those with water cement (w/c) ratio of 0.44 but same dosage of GAK. Concrete samples were prepared using higher dosages of GAK (1, 2 and 3\% wt of cement) and a water bidder (w/b) of 0.61 were compared to those with the same GAK dosage but with reduced w/b ratio. There was increase in compressive strength of 9.3% at 28 days for cement mortar samples with 0.9% dosage of GAK and reduced w/c ratio.

Keywords: compressive strength, Gum Acacia Karroo, retarding admixture, setting time, water-reducing admixture

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
745 Experimental Investigations on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soft Soil Improved by a Group of End-Bearing Column

Authors: Mamata Mohanty, J. T. Shahu

Abstract:

The in-situ deep mixing is an effective ground improvement technique which involves columnar inclusion into soft ground to increase its bearing capacity and reduce settlement. The first part of the study presents the results of unconfined compression on cement-admixed clay prepared at different cement content and subjected to varying curing periods. It is found that cement content is a prime factor controlling the strength of the cement-admixed clay. Besides cement content, curing period is important parameter that adds to the strength of cement-admixed clay. Increase in cement content leads to significant increase in Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) values especially at cement contents greater than 8%. The second part of the study investigated the bearing capacity of the clay ground improved by a group of end-bearing column using model tests under plain-strain condition. This study mainly focus to examine the effect of cement contents on the ultimate bearing capacity and failure stress of the improved clay ground. The study shows that the bearing capacity of the improved ground increases significantly with increase in cement contents of the soil-cement columns. A considerable increase in the stiffness of the model ground and failure stress was observed with increase in cement contents.

Keywords: bearing capacity, cement content, curing time, unconfined compressive strength, undrained shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 102