Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 705

Search results for: cement admixtures

705 Performance of Air Cured Concrete Treated with Waterproofing Admixtures or Surface Treatments

Authors: Sirwan Kamal, Hsein Kew, Hamid Jahromi

Abstract:

This paper reports results of a study conducted to investigate strength, sorptivity, and permeability under pressure of concrete specimens, cured using a water-based curing compound. The specimens are treated with waterproofing admixtures or surface treatments to enhance performance while exposed to water. Four types of concrete specimens were prepared in the laboratory, Portland cement (CEM I), Portland-fly ash (CEM II/A-V), Blast-furnace cement (CEM III) and Portland-silica fume (CEM II/A-D). Concrete cubes were de-molded three hours after casting, and sprayed with a curing compound. Admixtures were added to the mix during batching, whereas surface treatments were applied on concrete after 28 days. Compressive strength test was carried out to assess the efficiency of curing compound to develop required strength. In addition, sorptivity and permeability tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of treated specimens with respect to water ingress. Results show that strength development in specimens cured with curing compound achieved up to 96% and 90% at 7 and 28 days respectively, compared to cubes cured in water. Moreover, specimens treated with waterproofing admixtures or surface treatments materials characterized by hydrophobic impregnation considerably reduced water penetration compared to untreated control cubes. On the other hand, cubes treated with admixtures or surface treatments materials characterized by crystalline effect were ineffective in reducing water penetration.

Keywords: admixtures, concrete, curing compound, surface treatments

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704 The Effect of Urmia-Lake Water on Tensional Strength Concrete with Various Admixtures

Authors: Hadi Barghlame, M. A. Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mehdi Mohammad Rezaei

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of admixtures on the tensional strength of concrete in Urmia-lake water have been investigated. We made different types of concretes with the ratio of w/c and replaced different percentages of micro-silica, air-entraining, super plasticizer, corrosion-inhibiting, and caulk with two types of cement I and II as well as investigating in both ordinary water and Urmia-lake water. The tensional strength was investigated on these samples.

Keywords: Urmia-lake water, tensional strength, concrete, admixtures

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703 Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Cement Based Mortars Containing Two Biopolymers

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, M. Kheradmand, F. Pacheco-Torgal

Abstract:

The use of bio-based admixtures on construction materials is a recent trend that is gaining momentum. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported concerning the use of biopolymers on hybrid cement based mortars. This paper reports experimental results regarding the study of the influence of mix design of 43 hybrid cement mortars containing two different biopolymers on its mechanical performance. The results show that the use of the biopolymer carrageenan is much more effective than the biopolymer xanthan concerning the increase in compressive strength. An optimum biopolymer content was found.

Keywords: waste reuse, fly ash, waste glass, hybrid cement, biopolymers, mechanical strength

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702 Influence of Gum Acacia Karroo on Some Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortars and Concrete

Authors: Mbugua R. N., Salim R. W., Ndambuki J. M.

Abstract:

Natural admixtures provide concrete with enhanced properties but their processing end up making them very expensive resulting in increase to cost of concrete. In this study the effect of Gum from Acacia Karroo (GAK) as set-retarding admixture in cement pastes was studied. The possibility of using GAK as water reducing admixture both in cement mortar concrete was also investigated. Cement pastes with different dosages of GAK were prepared to measure the setting time using different dosages. Compressive strength of cement mortars with 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9% weight of cement and w/c ratio of 0.5 were compared to those with water cement (w/c) ratio of 0.44 but same dosage of GAK. Concrete samples were prepared using higher dosages of GAK (1, 2 and 3\% wt of cement) and a water bidder (w/b) of 0.61 were compared to those with the same GAK dosage but with reduced w/b ratio. There was increase in compressive strength of 9.3% at 28 days for cement mortar samples with 0.9% dosage of GAK and reduced w/c ratio.

Keywords: compressive strength, Gum Acacia Karroo, retarding admixture, setting time, water-reducing admixture

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701 Study of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Addition of Polymer Admixtures

Authors: Olesia Mikhailova, Pavel Rovnaník

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In the present work, metakaolin-based geopolymer including different polymer admixtures was studied. Different types of commercial polymer admixtures VINNAPAS® and polyethylene glycol of different relative molecular weight were used as polymer admixtures. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different types of admixtures on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars considering their different dosage. Mechanical properties, such as flexural and compressive strength were experimentally determined. Also, study of the microstructure of selected specimens by using a scanning electron microscope was performed. The results showed that the specimen with addition of 1.5% of VINNAPAS® 7016 F and 10% of polyethylene glycol 400 achieved maximum mechanical properties.

Keywords: geopolymer, mechanical properties, metakaolin, microstructure, polymer admixtures, porosity

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700 Flow Performance of Hybrid Cement Based Mortars

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, M. Kheradmand, F. Pacheco Torgal

Abstract:

The workability of hybrid alkaline cements is a field of knowledge that still needs further research efforts. This paper reports experimental results of 32 hybrid cement mixes regarding the joint effect of sodium hydroxide concentration, the use of a commercial superplasticizer and a biopolymer on the flow and compressive strength performance. The results show that the use of commercial admixtures led to a slightly increase in the flow of mortars with lower sodium hydroxide concentration.

Keywords: waste reuse, fly ash, waste glass, hybrid cement, biopolymer, polycarboxylate, flow

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699 Non-linear Model of Elasticity of Compressive Strength of Concrete

Authors: Charles Horace Ampong

Abstract:

Non-linear models have been found to be useful in modeling the elasticity (measure of degree of responsiveness) of a dependent variable with respect to a set of independent variables ceteris paribus. This constant elasticity principle was applied to the dependent variable (Compressive Strength of Concrete in MPa) which was found to be non-linearly related to the independent variable (Water-Cement ratio in kg/m3) for given Ages of Concrete in days (3, 7, 28) at different levels of admixtures Superplasticizer (in kg/m3), Blast Furnace Slag (in kg/m3) and Fly Ash (in kg/m3). The levels of the admixtures were categorized as: S1=Some Plasticizer added & S0=No Plasticizer added; B1=some Blast Furnace Slag added & B0=No Blast Furnace Slag added; F1=Some Fly Ash added & F0=No Fly Ash added. The number of observations (samples) used for the research was one-hundred and thirty-two (132) in all. For Superplasticizer, it was found that Compressive Strength of Concrete was more elastic with regards to Water-Cement ratio at S1 level than at S0 level for the given ages of concrete 3, 7and 28 days. For Blast Furnace Slag, Compressive Strength with regards to Water-Cement ratio was more elastic at B0 level than at B1 level for concrete ages 3, 7 and 28 days. For Fly Ash, Compressive Strength with regards to Water-Cement ratio was more elastic at B0 level than at B1 level for Ages 3, 7 and 28 days. The research also tested for different combinations of the levels of Superplasticizer, Blast Furnace Slag and Fly Ash. It was found that Compressive Strength elasticity with regards to Water-Cement ratio was lowest (Elasticity=-1.746) with a combination of S0, B0 and F0 for concrete age of 3 days. This was followed by Elasticity of -1.611 with a combination of S0, B0 and F0 for a concrete of age 7 days. Next, the highest was an Elasticity of -1.414 with combination of S0, B0 and F0 for a concrete age of 28 days. Based on preceding outcomes, three (3) non-linear model equations for predicting the output elasticity of Compressive Strength of Concrete (in %) or the value of Compressive Strength of Concrete (in MPa) with regards to Water to Cement was formulated. The model equations were based on the three different ages of concrete namely 3, 7 and 28 days under investigation. The three models showed that higher elasticity translates into higher compressive strength. And the models revealed a trend of increasing concrete strength from 3 to 28 days for a given amount of water to cement ratio. Using the models, an increasing modulus of elasticity from 3 to 28 days was deduced.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, elasticity, water-cement

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698 Efficacy of Crystalline Admixtures in Self-Healing Capacity of Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Evangelia Tsampali, Evangelos Yfantidis, Andreas Ioakim, Maria Stefanidou

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The purpose of this paper is the characterization of the effects of crystalline admixtures on concrete. Crystallites, aided by the presence of humidity, form idiomorphic crystals that block cracks and pores resulting in reduced porosity. In this project, two types of crystallines have been employed. The hydrophilic nature of crystalline admixtures helps the components to react with water and cement particles in the concrete to form calcium silicate hydrates and pore-blocking precipitates in the existing micro-cracks and capillaries. The underlying mechanism relies on the formation of calcium silicate hydrates and the resulting deposits of these crystals become integrally bound with the hydrated cement paste. The crystalline admixtures continue to activate throughout the life of the composite material when in the presence of moisture entering the concrete through hairline cracks, sealing additional gaps. The resulting concrete exhibits significantly increased resistance to water penetration under stress. Admixtures of calcium aluminates can also contribute to this healing mechanism in the same manner. However, this contribution is negligible compared to the calcium silicate hydrates due to the abundance of the latter. These crystalline deposits occur throughout the concrete volume and are a permanent part of the concrete mass. High-performance fibre reinforced cementitious composite (HPFRCC) were produced in the laboratory. The specimens were exposed in three healing conditions: water immersion until testing at 15 °C, sea water immersion until testing at 15 °C, and wet/dry cycles (immersion in tap water for 3 days and drying for 4 days). Specimens were pre-cracked at 28 days, and the achieved cracks width were in the range of 0.10–0.50 mm. Furthermore, microstructure observations and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity tests have been conducted. Based on the outcomes, self-healing related indicators have also been defined. The results show almost perfect healing capability for specimens healed under seawater, better than for specimens healed in water while inadequate for the wet/dry exposure in both of the crystalline types.

Keywords: autogenous self-healing, concrete, crystalline admixtures, ultrasonic pulse velocity test

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697 Experimental Investigation of The Influence of Cement on Soil-Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly ash Mix Properties

Authors: Gehan Aouf, Diala Tabbal, Abd El Rahim Sabsabi, Rashad Aouf

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to assess the viability of utilizing Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash (MSWIFA) with Ordinary Portland cement as soil reinforcement materials for geotechnical engineering applications. A detailed experimental program is carried out, followed by analysis of results. Soil samples were prepared by adding Cement to MSWIFA-soil mix at different percentages. Then, a series of laboratory tests were performed, namely: Sieve analysis, Atterberg limits tests, Unconfined compression test, and Proctor tests. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of adding the cement at different percentages on the unconfined compression strength, maximum dry density, and optimum moisture content of clayey soil-MSWIFA The variation of contents of admixtures were 10%, 20%, and 30% for MSWIFA by dry total weight of soil and 10%, 15%, and 20% for Portland cement by dry total weight of the mix. The test results reveal that adding MSWIFA to the soil up to 20% increased the MDD of the mixture and decreased the OMC, then an opposite trend for results were found when the percentage of MSWIFA exceeds 20%. This is due to the low specific gravity of MSWIFA and to the greater water absorption of MSWIFA. The laboratory tests also indicate that the UCS values were found to be increased for all the mixtures with curing periods of 7, 14, and 28 days. It is also observed that the cement increased the strength of the finished product of the mix of soil and MSWIFA.

Keywords: clayey soil, cement, MSWIFA, unconfined compression strength

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696 Developing a High Performance Cement Based Material: The Influence of Silica Fume and Organosilane

Authors: Andrea Cretu, Calin Cadar, Maria Miclaus, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Siegfried Stapf, Ioan Ardelean

Abstract:

Additives and mineral admixtures have become an integral part of cement-based materials. It is common practice to add silica fume to cement based mixes in order to produce high-performance concrete. There is still a lack of scientific understanding regarding the effects that silica fume has on the microstructure of hydrated cement paste. The aim of the current study is to develop high-performance materials with low permeability and high resistance to flexural stress using silica fume and an organosilane. Organosilane bonds with cement grains and silica fume, influencing both the workability and the final properties of the mix, especially the pore size distributions and pore connectivity. Silica fume is a known pozzolanic agent which reacts with the calcium hydroxide in hydrated cement paste, producing more C-S-H and improving the mechanical properties of the mix. It is believed that particles of silica fume act as capillary pore fillers and nucleation centers for C-S-H and other hydration products. In order to be able to design cement-based materials with added silica fume and organosilane, it is necessary first to understand the formation of the porous network during hydration and to observe the distribution of pores and their connectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods in low-fields are non-destructive and allow the study of cement-based materials from the standpoint of their porous structure. Other methods, such as XRD and SEM-EDS, help create a comprehensive picture of the samples, along with the classic mechanical tests (compressive and flexural strength measurements). The transverse relaxation time (T₂) was measured during the hydration of 16 samples prepared with two water/cement ratios (0.3 and 0.4) and different concentrations or organosilane (APTES, up to 2% by mass of cement) and silica fume (up to 6%). After their hydration, the pore size distribution was assessed using the same NMR approach on the samples filled with cyclohexane. The SEM-EDS and XRD measurements were applied on pieces and powders prepared from the samples that were used in mechanical testing, which were kept under water for 28 days. Adding silica fume does not influence the hydration dynamics of cement paste, while the addition of organosilane extends the dormancy stage up to 10 hours. The size distribution of the capillary pores is not influenced by the addition of silica fume or organosilane, while the connectivity of capillary pores is decreased only when there is organosilane in the mix. No filling effect is observed even at the highest concentration of silica fume. There is an apparent increase in flexural strength of samples prepared only with silica fume and a decrease for those prepared with organosilane, with a few exceptions. XRD reveals that the pozzolanic reactivity of silica fume can only be observed when there is no organosilane present and the SEM-EDS method reveals the pore distribution, as well as hydration products and the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide. The current work was funded by the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS – UEFISCDI, through project PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2016-0719.

Keywords: cement hydration, concrete admixtures, NMR, organosilane, porosity, silica fume

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695 Effect of Inclusion of Rubber on the Compaction Characteristics of Cement - MSWIFA- Clayey Soil Mixtures

Authors: Gehan Aouf, Diala Tabbal, Abd El Rahim Sabsabi, Rashad Aouf

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The aim of this study is to show the effect of adding cement municipal solid incineration fly ash and rubber as stabilizer materials on weak soil. A detailed experimental study was conducted in order to show the viability of using these admixtures in improving the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content of the composite soil. Soil samples were prepared by adding Rubber and Cement to municipal solid waste incineration fly-ash - oil mix at different percentages. Then, a series of laboratory tests were performed, namely: Sieve analysis, Atterberg limits tests, Unconfined compression test, and Proctor tests. Three different percentages of fly ash (10%, 20%, and 30%) MSWFA by total dry weight of soil and three different percentages of Portland cement (10%, 15%, and 20%) by total dry weight of the mix and 0%, 5%, 10% for Rubber by total dry weight of the mix were used to find the optimum value. The test results reveal that adding MSWIFA to the soil up to 20% increased the MDD of the mixture and decreased the OMC, then an opposite trend for results were found when the percentage of MSWIFA exceeded 20%. This is due to the low specific gravity of MSWIFA and to the greater water absorption of MSWIFA. The laboratory tests also indicate that adding Rubber to the mix Soil-MSWIFA-Cement decreases its MDD due to the low specific gravity of rubber and it affects a slight decrease in OMC because the rubber has low absorption of water.

Keywords: clayey soil, MSWIFA, proctor test, rubber

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694 Experimental Characterization of Flowable Cement Pastes Made with Marble Waste

Authors: F. Messaoudi, O. Haddad, R. Bouras, S. Kaci

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The development of self-compacting concrete (SCC) marks a huge step towards improved efficiency and working conditions on construction sites and in the precast industry. SCC flows easily into more complex shapes and through reinforcement bars, reduces the manpower required for the placement; no vibration is required to ensure correct compaction of concrete. This concrete contains a high volume of binder which is controlled by their rheological behavior. The paste consists of binders (Portland cement with or without supplementary cementitious materials), water, chemical admixtures and fillers. In this study, two series of tests were performed on self-compacting cement pastes made with marble waste additions as the mineral addition. The first series of this investigation was to determine the flow time of paste using Marsh cone, the second series was to determine the rheological parameters of the same paste namely yield stress and plastic viscosity using the rheometer Haake RheoStress 1. The results of this investigation allowed us to study the evolution of the yield stress, viscosity and the flow time Marsh cone paste as a function of the composition of the paste. A correlation between the results obtained on the flow test Marsh cone and those of the plastic viscosity on the mottled different cement pastes is proposed.

Keywords: adjuvant, rheological parameter, self-compacting cement pastes, waste marble

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693 Compatibility of Sulphate Resisting Cement with Super and Hyper-Plasticizer

Authors: Alper Cumhur, Hasan Baylavlı, Eren Gödek

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Use of superplasticity chemical admixtures in concrete production is widespread all over the world and has become almost inevitable. Super-plasticizers (SPA), extend the setting time of concrete by adsorbing onto cement particles and provide concrete to preserve its fresh state workability properties. Hyper-plasticizers (HPA), as a special type of superplasticizer, provide the production of qualified concretes by increasing the workability properties of concrete, effectively. However, compatibility of cement with super and hyper-plasticizers is quite important for achieving efficient workability in order to produce qualified concretes. In 2011, the EN 197-1 standard is edited and cement classifications were updated. In this study, the compatibility of hyper-plasticizer and CEM I SR0 type sulphate resisting cement (SRC) that firstly classified in EN 197-1 is investigated. Within the scope of the experimental studies, a reference cement mortar was designed with a water/cement ratio of 0.50 confirming to EN 196-1. Fresh unit density of mortar was measured and spread diameters (at 0, 60, 120 min after mix preparation) and setting time of reference mortar were determined with flow table and Vicat tests, respectively. Three mortars are being re-prepared with using both super and hyper-plasticizer confirming to ASTM C494 by 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% of cement weight. Fresh unit densities, spread diameters and setting times of super and hyper plasticizer added mortars (SPM, HPM) will be determined. Theoretical air-entrainment values of both SPMs and HPMs will be calculated by taking the differences between the densities of plasticizer added mortars and reference mortar. The flow table and Vicat tests are going to be repeated to these mortars and results will be compared. In conclusion, compatibility of SRC with SPA and HPA will be investigated. It is expected that optimum dosages of SPA and HPA will be determined for providing the required workability and setting conditions of SRC mortars, and the advantages/disadvantages of both SPA and HPA will be discussed.

Keywords: CEM I SR0, hyper-plasticizer, setting time, sulphate resisting cement, super-plasticizer, workability

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692 Influence of Alccofine on Semi-Light Weight Concrete under Accelerated Curing and Conventional Curing Regimes

Authors: P. Parthiban, J. Karthikeyan

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This paper deals with the performance of semi-light weight concrete, prepared by using wood ash pellets as coarse aggregates which were improved by partial replacement of cement with alccofine. Alccofine is a mineral admixture which contains high glass content obtained through the process of controlled granulation. This is finer than cement which carries its own pozzolanic property. Therefore, cement could be replaced by alccofine as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, and 70% to enhance the strength and durability properties of concrete. High range water reducing admixtures (HRWA) were used in these mixes which were dosed up to 1.5% weight of the total cementitious content (alccofine & cement). It also develops the weaker transition zone into more impermeable layer. Specimens were subjected in both the accelerated curing method as well as conventional curing method. Experimental results were compared and reported, in that the maximum compressive strength of 32.6 MPa was achieved on 28th day with 30% replacement level in a density of 2200 kg/m3 to a conventional curing, while in the accelerated curing, maximum compressive strength was achieved at 40% replacement level. Rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT) output results for the conventional curing method at 0% and 70% give 3296.7 and 545.6 coulombs.

Keywords: Alccofine, compressive strength, RCPT, wood ash pellets

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691 Temperature and Admixtures Effects on the Maturity of Normal and Super Fine Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Mortars for the Precast Concrete Industry

Authors: Matthew Cruickshank, Chaaruchandra Korde, Roger P. West, John Reddy

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Precast concrete element exports are growing in importance in Ireland’s concrete industry and with the increased global focus on reducing carbon emissions, the industry is exploring more sustainable alternatives such as using ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) as a partial replacement of Portland cement. It is well established that GGBS, with low early age strength development, has limited use in precast manufacturing due to the need for early de-moulding, cutting of pre-stressed strands and lifting. In this dichotomy, the effects of temperature, admixture, are explored to try to achieve the required very early age strength. Testing of the strength of mortars is mandated in the European cement standard, so here with 50% GGBS and Super Fine GGBS, with three admixture conditions (none, conventional accelerator, novel accelerator) and two early age curing temperature conditions (20°C and 35°C), standard mortar strengths are measured at six ages (16 hours, 1, 2, 3, 7, 28 days). The present paper will describe the effort towards developing maturity curves to aid in understanding the effect of these accelerating admixtures and GGBS fineness on slag cement mortars, allowing prediction of their strength with time and temperature. This study is of particular importance to the precast industry where concrete temperature can be controlled. For the climatic conditions in Ireland, heating of precast beds for long hours will amount to an additional cost and also contribute to the carbon footprint of the products. When transitioned from mortar to concrete, these maturity curves are expected to play a vital role in predicting the strength of the GGBS concrete at a very early age prior to demoulding.

Keywords: accelerating admixture, early age strength, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, GGBS, maturity, precast concrete

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690 A Statistical Model for the Geotechnical Parameters of Cement-Stabilised Hightown’s Soft Soil: A Case Stufy of Liverpool, UK

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, Khalid S. Hashim, W. Atherton, Ali W. Alattabi

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This study investigates the effect of two important parameters (length of curing period and percentage of the added binder) on the strength of soil treated with OPC. An intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic content was used in this study. This soft soil was treated with different percentages of a commercially available cement type 32.5-N. laboratory experiments were carried out on the soil treated with 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12% OPC by the dry weight to determine the effect of OPC on the compaction parameters, consistency limits, and the compressive strength. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test was carried out on cement-treated specimens after exposing them to different curing periods (1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 90 days). The results of UCS test were used to develop a non-linear multi-regression model to find the relationship between the predicted and the measured maximum compressive strength of the treated soil (qu). The results indicated that there was a significant improvement in the index of plasticity (IP) by treating with OPC; IP was decreased from 20.2 to 14.1 by using 12% of OPC; this percentage was enough to increase the UCS of the treated soil up to 1362 kPa after 90 days of curing. With respect to the statistical model of the predicted qu, the results showed that the regression coefficients (R2) was equal to 0.8534 which indicates a good reproducibility for the constructed model.

Keywords: cement admixtures, soft soil stabilisation, geotechnical parameters, multi-regression model

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689 An Experimental Study on the Influence of Mineral Admixtures on the Fire Resistance of High-Strength Concrete

Authors: Ki-seok Kwon, Dong-woo Ryu, Heung-Youl Kim

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Although high-strength concrete has many advantages over generic concrete at normal temperatures (around 20℃), it undergoes spalling at high temperatures, which constitutes its structurally fatal drawback. In this study, fire resistance tests were conducted for 3 hours in accordance with ASTM E119 on bearing wall specimens which were 3,000mm x 3,000mm x 300mm in dimensions to investigate the influence the type of admixtures would exert on the fire resistance performance of high-strength concrete. Portland cement, blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume were used as admixtures, among which 2 or 3 components were combined to make 7 types of mixtures. In 56MPa specimens, the severity of spalling was in order of SF5 > F25 > S65SF5 > S50. Specimen S50 where an admixture consisting of 2 components was added did not undergo spalling. In 70MPa specimens, the severity of spalling was in order of SF5 > F25SF5 > S45SF5 and the result was similar to that observed in 56MPa specimens. Acknowledgements— This study was conducted by the support of the project, “Development of performance-based fire safety design of the building and improvement of fire safety” (18AUDP-B100356-04) which is under the management of Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement as part of the urban architecture research project for the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, for which we extend our deep thanks.

Keywords: high strength concrete, mineral admixture, fire resistance, social disaster

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688 Effect of Nano-CaCO₃ Addition on the Nano-Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Muzeyyen Balcikanli, Selma Ozaslan, Osman Sahin, Burak Uzal, Erdogan Ozbay

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In this study, the effect of nano-CaCO3 replacement with cement on the nano-mechanical properties of cement paste was investigated. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics Two types of nano CaCO3 were replaced with Portland cement at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Water to (cement+nano-CaCO3) ratio was kept constant at 0.5 for all mixtures. 36 indentations were applied on each cement paste, and the values of nano-hardness and elastic modulus of cement pastes were determined from the indentation depth-load graphs. Then, by getting the average of them, nano-hardness and elastic modulus were identified for each mixture. Test results illustrate that replacement of hydrophilic n-CaCO3 with cement lead to a significant increase in nano-mechanical properties, however, replacement of hydrophobic n-CaCO3 with cement worsened the nano-mechanical properties considerably.

Keywords: nanoindenter, CaCO3, nano-hardness, nano-mechanical properties

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687 Influence of Pulverized Granite on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete

Authors: Kwabena A. Boakye, Eugene Atiemo, Trinity A. Tagbor, Delali Adjei

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The use of mineral admixtures such as metakaolin, GGBS, fly ash, etc., in concrete is a common practice in the world. However, the only admixture available for use in the Ghanaian construction industry is calcined clay pozzolan. This research, therefore, studies the alternate use of granite dust, a by-product from stone quarrying, as a mineral admixture in concrete. Granite dust, which is usually damped as waste or as an erosion control material, was collected and pulverized to about 75µm. Some physical, chemical, and mineralogical tests were conducted on the granite dust. 5%-25% ordinary Portland cement of Class 42.5N was replaced with granite dust which was used as the main binder in the preparation of 150mm×150mm×150mm concrete cubes according to methods prescribed by BS EN 12390-2:2000. Properties such as workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption, and durability were determined. Compressive and flexural strength results indicate that granite dust could be used to replace ordinary Portland cement up to an optimum of 15% to achieve C25. Water permeability increased as the granite dust admixture content increased from 5% - 25%. Durability studies after 90 days proved that even though strength decreased as granite dust content increased, the concrete containing granite dust had better resistance to sulphate attack comparable to the reference cement. Pulverized granite can be used to partially replace ordinary Portland cement in concrete.

Keywords: admixture, granite dust, permeability, pozzolans

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686 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek

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The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate

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685 The Effect of Soil Fractal Dimension on the Performance of Cement Stabilized Soil

Authors: Nkiru I. Ibeakuzie, Paul D. J. Watson, John F. Pescatore

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In roadway construction, the cost of soil-cement stabilization per unit area is significantly influenced by the binder content, hence the need to optimise cement usage. This research work will characterize the influence of soil fractal geometry on properties of cement-stabilized soil, and strive to determine a correlation between mechanical proprieties of cement-stabilized soil and the mass fractal dimension Dₘ indicated by particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregate mixtures. Since strength development in cemented soil relies not only on cement content but also on soil PSD, this study will investigate the possibility of reducing cement content by changing the PSD of soil, without compromising on strength, reduced permeability, and compressibility. A series of soil aggregate mixes will be prepared in the laboratory. The mass fractal dimension Dₘ of each mix will be determined from sieve analysis data prior to stabilization with cement. Stabilized soil samples will be tested for strength, permeability, and compressibility.

Keywords: fractal dimension, particle size distribution, cement stabilization, cement content

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684 Evaluating Cement Brands in Southwestern Nigeria for Local Construction Industries

Authors: Olonade, K. A., Jaji, M. B., Rasak, S. A., Ojo, B. A., Adefuye, O. E.

Abstract:

Different brands of cement are used in Nigeria by local contractors for various works without prior knowledge of their performance. Qualities of common cement brands in Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Elephant, Dangote, Gateway, Purechem, Burham and Five Star cements were selected for the study. Fineness, setting times, chemical composition, compressive and flexural strengths of each of the cement brands were determined. The results showed that all the cement brands contained major oxides in amount within the acceptable values except that the sulphite content of Gateway fell outside the range. Strength comparison indicated that Burham had highest flexural and compressive strength, followed by Elephant and then Dangote while Gateway had the lowest strength at 28 days. It was observed that Dangote cement set earlier than other cement brands. The study has shown that there were differences in performance of the selected cement brands and concluded that the choice of cement brand should be based on the expected performance.

Keywords: cement brand, compressive strength, flexural strength, local construction industries

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683 The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.

Keywords: cement sorel, photothermal deflection technique, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity

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682 Effects of Potential Chloride-Free Admixtures on Selected Mechanical Properties of Kenya Clay-Based Cement Mortars

Authors: Joseph Mwiti Marangu, Joseph Karanja Thiong'o, Jackson Muthengia Wachira

Abstract:

The mechanical performance of hydrated cements mortars mainly depends on its compressive strength and setting time. These properties are crucial in the construction industry. Pozzolana based cements are mostly characterized by low 28 day compressive strength and long setting times. These are some of the major impediments to their production and diverse uses despite numerous technological and environmental benefits associated with them. The study investigated the effects of potential chemical activators on calcined clay- Portland cement blends with an aim to achieve high early compressive strength and shorter setting times in cement mortar. In addition, standard consistency, soundness and insoluble residue of all cement categories was determined. The test cement was made by blending calcined clays with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) at replacement levels from 35 to 50 percent by mass of the OPC to make test cement labeled PCC for the purposes of this study. Mortar prisms measuring 40mmx40mmx160mm were prepared and cured in accordance with KS EAS 148-3:2000 standard. Solutions of Na2SO4, NaOH, Na2SiO3 and Na2CO3 containing 0.5- 2.5M were separately added during casting. Compressive strength was determined at 2rd, 7th, 28th and 90th day of curing. For comparison purposes, commercial Portland Pozzolana cement (PPC) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were also investigated without activators under similar conditions. X-Ray Florescence (XRF) was used for chemical analysis while X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for mineralogical analysis of the test samples. The results indicated that addition of activators significantly increased the 2nd and 7th day compressive strength but minimal increase on the 28th and 90th day compressive strength. A relatively linear relationship was observed between compressive strength and concentration of activator solutions up to 28th of curing. Addition of the said activators significantly reduced both initial and final setting time. Standard consistency and soundness varied with increased amount of clay in the test cement and concentration of activators. Amount of insoluble residues increased with increased replacement of OPC with calcined clays. Mineralogical studies showed that N-A-S-H is formed in addition to C-S-H. In conclusion, the concentration of 2 molar for all activator solutions produced the optimum compressive strength and greatly reduced the setting times for all cement mortars.

Keywords: activators, admixture, cement, clay, pozzolana

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681 Oil Palm Shell Ash: Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya

Abstract:

The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of seven days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.

Keywords: minerals, additive, flexural strength, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity

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680 Understanding the Role of Alkali-Free Accelerators in Wet-Mix Shotcrete

Authors: Ezgi Yurdakul, Klaus-Alexander Rieder, Richard Sibbick

Abstract:

Most of the shotcrete projects require compliance with meeting a specified early-age strength target (e.g., reaching 1 MPa in 1 hour) that is selected based on the underground conditions. To meet the desired early-age performance characteristics, accelerators are commonly used as they increase early-age strength development rate and accelerate the setting thereby reducing sagging and rebound. The selection of accelerator type and its dosage is made by the setting time and strength required for the shotcrete application. While alkaline and alkali-free accelerators are the two main types used in wet-mix shotcrete; alkali-free admixtures increasingly substitute the alkaline accelerators to improve the performance and working safety. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of alkali-free accelerators in wet-mix on various tests including set time, early and later-age compressive strength, boiled absorption, and electrical resistivity. Furthermore, the comparison between accelerated and non-accelerated samples will be made to demonstrate the interaction between cement and accelerators. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescent resin impregnated thin section and cut and polished surface images will be used to understand the microstructure characterization of mixes in the presence of accelerators.

Keywords: accelerators, chemical admixtures, shotcrete, sprayed concrete

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679 Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Transport Properties of SCCs Composites: Influence of Mechanical Damage

Authors: Davood Niknezhad, Siham Kamali-Bernard

Abstract:

Concrete durability is one of the most important considerations in the design of new structures in aggressive environments. It is now common knowledge that the transport properties of a concrete, i.e; permeability and chloride diffusion coefficient are important indicators of its durability. The development of microcracking in concrete structures leads to significant permeability and to durability problems as a result. The main objective of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the influence of mineral admixtures and impact of compressive cracks by mechanical uniaxial compression up to 80% of the ultimate strength on transport properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) manufactured with the eco-materials (metakaolin, fly ash, slag HF). The chloride resistance and binding capacity of the different SCCs produced with the different admixtures in damaged and undamaged state are measured using a chloride migration test accelerated by an external applied electrical field. Intrinsic permeability is measured using the helium gas and one permeameter at constant load. Klinkenberg approach is used for the determination of the intrinsic permeability. Based on the findings of this study, the use of mineral admixtures increases the resistance of SCC to chloride ingress and reduces their permeability. From the impact of mechanical damage, we show that the Gas permeability is more sensitive of concrete damaged than chloride diffusion. A correlation is obtained between the intrinsic permeability and chloride migration coefficient according to the damage variable for the four studied mixtures.

Keywords: SCC, concrete durability, transport properties, gas permeability, chloride diffusion, mechanical damage, mineral admixtures

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
678 The Increasing of Unconfined Compression Strength of Clay Soils Stabilized with Cement

Authors: Ali̇ Si̇nan Soğanci

Abstract:

The cement stabilization is one of the ground improvement method applied worldwide to increase the strength of clayey soils. The using of cement has got lots of advantages compared to other stabilization methods. Cement stabilization can be done quickly, the cost is low and creates a more durable structure with the soil. Cement can be used in the treatment of a wide variety of soils. The best results of the cement stabilization were seen on silts as well as coarse-grained soils. In this study, blocks of clay were taken from the Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel route which is 125km long will be built in Konya that take the water with 70m3/sec from Mavi tunnel to Hotamış storage. Firstly, the index properties of clay samples were determined according to the Unified Soil Classification System. The experimental program was carried out on compacted soil specimens with 0%, 7 %, 15% and 30 % cement additives and the results of unconfined compression strength were discussed. The results of unconfined compression tests indicated an increase in strength with increasing cement content.

Keywords: cement stabilization, unconfined compression test, clayey soils, unified soil classification system.

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677 Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

Authors: Fazeera Ujin, Kamran Shavarebi Ali, Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith

Abstract:

This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement. Chemical properties of both eggshells ash and cement are compared. From the results obtained, both eggshells ash and cement have the same chemical composition and primary composition which is the calcium compounds. Results from the setting time show that by adding the eggshells ash to the cement, the setting time of the cement decreases. In short, the higher amount of eggshells ash, the faster the rate of setting and apply to all percentage of eggshells ash that were used in this investigation. Both initial and final setting times fulfill the setting time requirements by Malaysian Standard. Hence, it is suggested that eggshells ash can be used as an admixture in concrete mix.

Keywords: construction materials, eggshells ash, solid waste, setting time

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
676 Strength Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks with Fly Ash and Glass Powder

Authors: Joel Santhosh, N. Bhavani Shankar Rao

Abstract:

Problems associated with construction site have been known for many years. Construction industry has to support a world of continuing population growth and economic development. The rising costs of construction materials and the need to adhere to sustainability, alternative construction techniques and materials are being sought. To increase the applications of concrete paving blocks, greater understanding of products produced with locally available materials and indigenously produced mineral admixtures is essential. In the present investigation, concrete paving blocks may be produced with locally available aggregates, cement, fly ash and waste glass powder as the mineral admixture. The ultimate aim of this work is to ascertain the performance of concrete paving blocks containing fly ash and glass powder and compare it with the performance of conventional concrete paving blocks. Mix design is carried out to form M40 grade of concrete by using IS: 10262: 2009 and specification given by IRC: SP: 63: 2004. The paving blocks are tested in accordance to IS: 15658: 2006. It showed that the partial replacement of cement by fly ash and waste glass powder satisfies the minimum requirement as specified by the Indian standard IS: 15658: 2006 for concrete paving blocks to be used in non traffic, light traffic and medium-heavy traffic areas. The study indicated that fly ash and waste glass powder can effectively be used as cement replacement without substantial change in strength.

Keywords: paving block, fly ash, glass powder, strength, abrasion resistance, durability

Procedia PDF Downloads 227