Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5881

Search results for: camp life

5881 The Women's Orchestra and Music in Auschwitz-Birkenau: A Qualitative Study on Nazi Manipulation

Authors: K. T. Kohler


Typically in war, force involves physical violence, though those who perpetrated the Holocaust expanded manipulation techniques to include mental violence. This qualitative research study was conducted to understand the effects that the music of the Women’s Orchestra of Auschwitz-Birkenau had on women prisoners during World War II. Over 100 testimonies from the USC Shoah Foundation’s Visual History Archive reveal that the orchestra’s music had a profoundly distressing effect on many of the women in the camp. Led by Gustav Mahler’s granddaughter, Alma Rosé, the orchestra rhythmed the life cycle of the camp, from marching to and from work, Sunday concerts, welcoming transports, to the prisoners’ walk to gas chambers. What surfaced from these testimonies was that the more technical the exposure a woman had to music before camp, the more disturbing its effect. The juxtaposition of beauty with the visible horror of the camp thrust them into an impossible state where suicide became a plausible alternative. By exploiting the Women’s Orchestra, the Nazis made music a critical component of manipulation within Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Keywords: Alma Rosé, Auschwitz-Birkenau, camp life, concert, Holocaust, music, Oświęcim, Poland, women’s orchestra

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5880 Evaluation of a Biodiversity and Wildlife Conservation Education Camp in Thailand

Authors: Ms. Patamasuda Intuprapa , Professor Dr. Nancy Longnecker


This research examines the impact of biodiversity and wildlife conservation messages on school children. It was designed to document science communication activities that relate to biodiversity and wildlife conservation in a residential camp held at Research Station X in Thailand. This research is one of the case studies in a PhD research project. The objectives of this research are to examine environmental program and ultimately develop a model of communicating biodiversity and wildlife conservation issues to Thai children. Observations and report of the surveys were used to examine the residential camp at Research Station X. There were 49 children and five camp leaders agreed to participate in this study. The results of the study show that the children enjoyed their stay at the camp and have positive attitudes toward wildlife and environment but not actually related them with their own well-being. The camp leaders were well prepared and enthusiastic on leading the camp but fail in related contents with the activities.

Keywords: informal education, environmental education, wildlife conservation, residential camp, excursion, Thailand

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5879 A Case Study on English Camp in UNISSA: An Approach towards Interactive Learning Outside the Classroom

Authors: Liza Mariah Hj. Azahari


This paper will look at a case study on English Camp which was an activity coordinated at the Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University in 2011. English Camp is a fun and motivation filled activity which brings students and teachers together outside of the classroom setting into a more diverse environment. It also enables teacher and students to gain proximate time together for a mutual purpose which is to explore the language in a more dynamic and relaxed way. First of all, the study will look into the background of English Camp, and how it was introduced and implemented from different contexts. Thereafter, it will explain the objectives of the English Camp coordinated at our university, UNISSA, and what types of activities were conducted. It will then evaluate the effectiveness of the camp as to what extent it managed to meet its motto, which was to foster dynamic interactive learning of English Language. To conclude, the paper presents a potential for further research on the topic as well as a guideline for educators who wish to coordinate the activity. Proposal for collaboration in this activity is further highlighted and encouraged within the paper for future implementation and endeavor.

Keywords: English camp, UNISSA, interactive learning, outside

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5878 Customers’ Satisfaction of ASEAN Camp: A Camp to Provide Training and Knowledge to Faculty and Staff Members

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee, Atcharapun Daiporn


This research paper was aimed to examine the level of satisfaction of the faculty and staff members who participated in the ASEAN camp. The population of this study included all the faculty and staff members who participated in the activities of the ASEAN camp during January 2014. Based on 106 faculty and staff members who answered the questionnaire, the data were complied by using SPSS. Mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.16, and standard deviation was 0.6634. Moreover, the mean average can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: useful knowledge, technique of explaining knowledge, understanding materials, appropriateness of knowledge, document available, time of activities, service from staff, and public relation.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, customer, satisfaction, faculty and staff members

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5877 The Level of Satisfaction of the Training Program from the ASEAN Camp II: A Camp to Prepare Human Resources for AEC 2015

Authors: Tanakom Potjanapitak, Kevin Wongleedee


The purpose of this research study was to study the level of satisfaction of the faculty members who participated in the ASEAN camp which aimed to prepare them for the readiness of AEC 2015. The population of this study included all the faculty members who participated in the activities of the ASEAN camp during April, 2014. Based on the survey of 120 faculty members who answered the questionnaire, the data was complied by using SPSS. Mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.41, and standard deviation was 0.7188. Moreover, the average mean can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: helpful knowledge, understandable knowledge, proper materials, suitable knowledge, schedule of activities, staff, and advertising.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, training, satisfaction, human resources

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5876 Developing Leadership and Teamwork Skills of Pre-Service Teachers through Learning Camp

Authors: Sirimanee Banjong


This study aimed to 1) develop pre-service teachers’ leadership skills through camp-based learning, and 2) develop pre-service teachers’ teamwork skills through camp-based learning. An applied research methodology was used. The target group was derived from a purposive selection. It involved 32 fourth-year students in Early Childhood Education Program enrolling in a course entitled Seminar in Early Childhood Education provided during the second semester of the academic year 2013. The treatment was camp-based learning activities which applied a PDCA process including four stages: 1) plan, 2) do, 3) check, and 4) act. Research instruments were a learning camp program, a camp-based learning management plan, a 5-level assessment form for leadership skills and a 5-level assessment form for assessing teamwork skills. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results were: 1) pre-service teachers’ leadership skills yielded the before treatment average score at ¯("x" )=3.4, S.D.= 0.62 and the after-treatment average score at ¯("x" ) 4.29, S.D.=0.66 pre-service teachers’ teamwork skills yielded the before-treatment average score at ¯("x" )=3.31, S.D.= 0.60 and the after-treatment average score at ¯("x" )=4.42, S.D.= 0.66. Both differences were statistically significant at the .05 level. Thus, the pre-service teachers’ leadership and teamwork skills were significantly improved through the camp-based learning approach.

Keywords: learning camp, leadership skills, teamwork skills, pre-service teachers

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5875 To Improve or Not to Improve Reflections from Jerash Urban Improvement Project, Jordan

Authors: Dina Dahood Dabash


Palestine Refugee Camps have never been settings that can be overlooked; they even became (as physical settings) a cornerstone topic of negotiations whenever Palestinian matters are on the table (specifically in Jordan). Consequently, maintaining the familiar face of the camp with its dilapidated shelters and narrow streets that rarely allowed its residents to extinguish a fire or evacuate a building safely has become a fundamental method to protect the “right of the return” from the perspective of various stakeholders. When the Infrastructure and Camp Improvement Programme (ICIP) was established in 2007 as an additional UNRWA program, some concerns were raised around the newly established section, mainly due to its direct impact on the “image” of the camp through a provision of a relatively nonconventional service that differs from what the Agency used to provide in the past seventy years. By presenting the Urban Improvement Project in Jerash camp (UIP) -Jordan, this paper aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion around enduring the improvement of Palestine refugee camps “programmatically” in UNRWA or not. The UIP as a co-product by UNRWA and the camp’s community within one of the most vulnerable refugee camps in Jordan offers a remarkable opportunity to excerpt lessons that can contribute to the strategic shaping of the ICIP. The paper concludes with five mine uptakes mainly related to community engagement, power structures and UNRWA's role in camps.

Keywords: camp improvement program, Jerash camp, Palestine refugee camps, UNRWA.

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5874 Satisfaction of the Training at ASEAN Camp: E-Learning Knowledge and Application at Chantanaburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Sinchai Poolklai


The purpose of this research paper was aimed to examine the level of satisfaction of the faculty members who participated in the ASEAN camp, Chantaburi, Thailand. The population of this study included all the faculty members of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University who participated in the training and activities of the ASEAN camp during March, 2014. Among a total of 200 faculty members who answered the questionnaire, the data was complied by using SPSS program. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.37, and standard deviation was 0.7810. Moreover, the mean average can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: lower cost, less time consuming, faster delivery, more effective learning, and lower environment impact.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, e-learning, satisfaction, application

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5873 Service Provision in 'the Jungle': Describing Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Offered to Residents of the Calais Camp

Authors: Amy Darwin, Claire Blacklock


Background: Existing literature about delivering evidence-based mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in emergency settings is limited. It is difficult to monitor and evaluate the approach to MHPSS in informal refugee camps such as ‘The Jungle’ in Calais, where there are multiple service providers and where the majority of providers are volunteers. AIM: To identify experiences of MHPSS delivery by service providers in an informal camp environment in Calais, France and describe MHPSS barriers and opportunities in this type of setting. Method: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 individuals from different organisations offering MHPSS in Calais and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results: Unsafe, uncertain and unsanitary conditions in the camp meant MHPSS was difficult to implement, and such conditions contributed to the poor mental health of the residents. The majority of MHPSS was offered by volunteers who lacked resources and training, and there was no overall official camp leadership which meant care was poorly coordinated and monitored. Strong relationships existed between volunteers and camp residents, but volunteers felt frustrated that they could not deliver the kind of MHPSS that they felt residents required. Conclusion: While long-term volunteers had built supportive relationships with camp residents, lack of central coordination and leadership of MHPSS services and limited access to trained professionals made implementation of MHPSS problematic. Similarly, the camp lacked the necessary infrastructure to meet residents’ basic needs. Formal recognition of the camp, and clear central leadership were identified as necessary steps to improving MHPSS delivery.

Keywords: calais, mental health, refugees, the jungle, MHPSS

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5872 Housing and Urban Refugee: An Introspective Study on Bihari Camp of Mirpur, Dhaka

Authors: Fahmida Nusrat, Sumaia Nasrin, Pinak Sarker


Biharis as an urban refugee are a significant urban dweller in Dhaka since their forced migration on the partition of 1947. There are many such refugee settlements in Bangladesh, particularly in Dhaka where they often live in dire conditions, facing discrimination from mainstream society. Their camps have become slums. Housing for urban refugee is still not a strategic concern for overall housing policy of Dhaka. The study has been conducted in a significant refugee settlement located in Mirpur-11, Dhaka, to observe their way of living in these camps to understand the socio-cultural aspects that are shaping their settlement morphology, hence to identify the key issues of their built environment to suggest an inclusive and sustainable housing solution for improving their life in urban environment. The methods included first-hand data collection on their household spaces and community spaces accompanied with the overall spatial organization of the settlement pattern which later on followed by a semi-structured interview with randomly selected samples from the camp dwellers to get users’ feedback on the research aspects. The outcome of the study will help initiating housing strategies as well as formulating design issues for this case specific inhabitants of urban Dhaka.

Keywords: Bihari camp, Dhaka, housing strategy, the way of living, urban refugee

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5871 An Extra-Curricular Program to Enhance Student Outcome of a Class

Authors: Dong Jin Kang


Application of single board microcontrollers is an important skill even for non-electronic engineering major students. Arduino board is widely utilized in engineering classes of the Yeungnam University of South Korea. In those classes, students are subjected to learn how to use various sensor components related to motion, sound, light, and so on as well as physical quantities. Students are grouped into several teams, and each team consists of 4~5 students. Many students are not motivated enough to learn those skills. An extracurricular program was planned to improve this problem. The extracurricular program was held as an international boot camp where students from three different countries were invited to participate. 10 students groups were formed, and each team was consisted of students having different nationality. The camp was 4 days long and wrapped up with competitions. During the camp, every student was assigned to design and make a two wheel robot. The competition was carried out in two different areas; individual and group performances. As most skills dealt in the class are used to build the robot, students are much motivated to review the whole subjects of the class. All students were surveyed after the program. The survey shows that the skills studied in the class are greatly improved, and practically understood. Staying at the dormitory and teaming with international students are help students improve communication skills. Competition at the camp was found as a key element to inspire and attract students for voluntary participation.

Keywords: extracurricular program, robot, Arduino board, international camp, competition

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5870 The Lived Experience of People with a Mental Illness of Their Engagement in Therapeutic Recreation

Authors: Caroline Picton, Lorna Moxham, Christopher Patterson, Dana Perlman, Ellie Taylor, Renee Brighton


The purpose of this study was to extrapolate the meaning for people living with a mental illness of their participation in a therapeutic recreation experience. The study’s participants engaged in a five-day adventure camp, known as Recovery Camp, alongside undergraduate health care students. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used as an exploratory method to interview 25 participants (n=25). Van Kaam’s structured analytical framework guided the analysis of the transcribed narratives. The findings provide insight into using therapeutic recreation to enhance personal mental health recovery. Recovery Camp was viewed by participants as having a transformational effect on forming positive social connectedness and improving their self-identity. Participants perceived the Recovery Camp experience as one that gave them a sense of purpose and increased their motivation to undertake further activities. The insights gained of the benefits of therapeutic recreation for people living with a mental illness can be used to promote purposeful community engagement.

Keywords: interpretive phenomenology, lived experience, mental illness, personal mental health recovery

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5869 Sustainable Model of Outreach Eye Camps: A Case Study from Reputed Eye Hospital of Central India

Authors: Subramanyam Devarakonda Hanumantharao, Udayendu Prakash Sharma, Mahesh Garg


Introduction: Gomabai Netralaya a reputed eye hospital is located in Neemuch a small city of Madhya Pradesh, India. The hospital is established in 1992 by Late. G.D Agrawal a renowned educationist, freedom fighter and philanthropist. The eye hospital was established to serve all sections of the society in affordable manner. To provide comprehensive eye care services to the rural poor the hospital started organizing outreach camps since 1994. Purpose: To study the cost effectiveness of outreach eye camps for addressing the sustainability issues of the outreach program. Methods: One year statistics of outreach eye camps were collected from Hospital Management Information System software to analyze the productivity of camps. Income and expenses report was collected from outreach department records to analyze per camp expenses and per patient expenses against the income generated. All current year records were analyzed to have accuracy of information and results. Information was collected in two ways: 1)Actual camp performance records and expenses from book of accounts. 2)Cross verification was done through one to one discussion with outreach staff. Results: Total 17534 outpatients were examined through 52 outreach eye camps. Total 6042 (34% of total outpatients) patients were advised with cataracts and 4651 (77% of advice) operations were performed. The average OPD per camp was 337 and per camp 116 patients was advised for cataract surgery and 89 surgeries were performed per camp. Total 18200 US$ incurred on organizing 52 outreach camps in the radius of 100 Considering the total outpatients screened through camps the screening cost per patient was 1.00 US$ and considering the surgical output the per surgery expenses was 4.00 US$. The cost recovery of the total expenses was through Government grant of US$ 16.00 per surgery (that includes surgical grant). All logistics cost of camps and patients transportation cost was taken care by local donors. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that with people’s participation, successful high volume outreach eye camps can be organized. The cost effectiveness of the outreach camps is totally depended on volume of outpatient’s turn-up at camp site and per camp surgical output. The only solution to sustainability of outreach eye camps is sharing of cost with local donors and increasing productivity.

Keywords: camps, outreach, productivity, sustainable

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5868 Floating Populations, Rooted Networks Tracing the Evolution of Russeifa City in Relation to Marka Refugee Camp

Authors: Dina Dahood Dabash


Refugee camps are habitually defined as receptive sites, transient spaces of exile and nondescript depoliticized places of exception. However, such arguments form partial sides of reality, especially in countries that are geopolitically challenged and rely immensely on international aid. In Jordan, the dynamics brought with the floating population of refugees (Palestinian amongst others) have resulted in spatial after-effects that cannot be easily overlooked. For instance, Palestine refugee camps have turned by time into socioeconomic centers of gravity and cores of spatial evolution. Yet, such a position is not instantaneous. Amongst various reasons, it can be related, according to this paper, to a distinctive institutional climate that has been co-produced by the refugees, host community and the state. This paper aims to investigate the evolution of urban and spatial regulations in Jordan between 1948 and 1995, more specifically, state regulations, community regulations and refugee-self-regulation that all dynamically interacted that period. The paper aims to unpack the relations between refugee camps and their environs to further explore the agency of such floating populations in establishing rooted networks that extended the time and place boundaries. The paper’s argument stems from the fact that the spatial configuration of urban systems is not only an outcome of a historical evolutionary process but is also a result of interactions between the actors. The research operationalizes Marka camp in Jordan as a case study. Marka Camp is one of the six "emergency" camps erected in 1968 to shelter 15,000 Palestine refugees and displaced persons who left the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Nowadays, camp shelters more than 50,000 refugees in the same area of land. The camp is located in Russeifa, a city in Zarqa Governorate in Jordan. Together with Amman and Zarqa, Russeifa is part of a larger metropolitan area that acts as a home to more than half of Jordan’s businesses. The paper aspires to further understand the post-conflict strategies which were historically applied in Jordan and can be employed to handle more recent geopolitical challenges such as the Syrian refugee crisis. Methodological framework: The paper traces the evolution of the refugee-camp regulating norms in Jordan, parallel with the horizontal and vertical evolution of the Marka camp and its surroundings. Consequently, the main methods employed are historical and mental tracing, Interviews, in addition to using available Aerial and archival photos of the Marka camp and its surrounding.

Keywords: forced migration, Palestine refugee camps, spatial agency, urban regulations

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5867 The Dismantling of the Santa Ana Riverbed Homeless Encampment: A Case Study

Authors: Shasta Bula


This research provides the first case study of the Santa Ana riverbed homeless encampment. It contributes valuable information about the little-studied factors contributing to the formation and dismantling of transient homeless encampments. According to the author’s best knowledge, this is the discussion of three reoccurring characteristics of homeless camps: camps form a self-governing system, camps are viewed by the community as unsavory places, and the campers are viewed as being unable or unwilling to participate in normal society. Three theories are proposed as explanations for these characteristics: the social capital theory as a reason for homeless campers to develop a system of self-government, the aesthetics theory as rationale for camps being viewed as unsavory places, and the theory of vulnerable and inevitable inequality as a reason why campers are seen as being unable or unwilling to participate in normal society. Three hypotheses are introduced to assess these theories: The encampment was created because it provided inhabitants a sense of safety and autonomy. It was dismantled due to its highly visible location and lack of adherence to the Orange County consumption and leisure aesthetic. Most homeless people from this encampment relocated approximately thirty miles east to Riverside County to avoid harassment by police. An extensive review of interviews with camp inhabitants revealed that fifty-one percent resided in the camp because it gave them a sense of safety and autonomy. An examination of Anaheim city council meeting meetings showed that thirty-eight percent of complaints were related to aesthetic concerns. Analysis of population reports from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development indicated that there was a notable increase in homelessness in Orange County the year after the camp was dismantled. These results reflect that the social capital theory is an applicable explanation for the homeless being drawn to set up camp as a collective. The aesthetics theory can be used to explain why a third of residents complained about the encampment. Camp residents did not move East to Riverside after the camp was dismantled. Further investigation into the enforcement of anti-camping ordinances needs to be conducted to evaluate if policing contributed to the vulnerability of the homeless.

Keywords: poverty, social relations, transformation of urban settlements, urban anthropology

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5866 IL-33 Production in Murine Macrophages via PGE2-E Prostanoid Receptor 2/4 Signaling

Authors: Sachin K. Samuchiwal, Barbara Balestrieri, Amanda Paskavitz, Hannah Raff, Joshua A. Boyce


IL-33, a recently discovered member of the IL-1 cytokine family, binds to the TLR/IL1R super family receptor ST2 and induces type 2 immune responses. IL-33 is constitutively expressed in structural cells at barrier sites such as skin, lung, and intestine, and also inducibly expressed by hematopoietic cells including macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce de novo IL-33 expression, and also causes the production of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Because PGE2 can regulate macrophage functions through both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, the potential interplay of endogenous PGE2 on IL-33 production was explored. Bone-marrow derived murine macrophages (bmMF) that lack either mPGES-1 or EP2 receptor expression were stimulated with LPS in the absence or presence of exogenous PGE2 along with pharmacological agonists and antagonists. The study results demonstrate that endogenous PGE2 markedly enhances LPS-induced IL-33 production by bmMFs via EP2 receptors. Moreover, exogenous PGE2 can amplify LPS-induced IL-33 expression dominantly by EP2 and partly by EP4 receptors by a pathway involving cAMP and exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC), but not protein kinase A (PKA). Though both IL-33 production and PGE2 generation in response to LPS require activation of both p38 MAPK and NF-κB, PGE2 did not influence this activation. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that endogenous PGE2 signaling through EP2 and EP4 receptors is a prerequisite for LPS-induced IL-33 production in bmMFs and the underlying cAMP mediated pathway involves EPAC. Since IL-33 is a critical pro-inflammatory cytokine in various pathological disorders, this PGE2-EP2/EP4-cAMP mediated pathway can be exploited to intervene in IL-33 driven pathologies.

Keywords: bone marrow macrophages, EPAC, IL-33, PGE2

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5865 Multilingual and Ideological Graffiti in Palestine

Authors: Olivia Martina Dalla Torre


The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse some urban writings that emerge in politically disputed areas, namely the Occupied Palestinian Territories, and more specifically in Deheishe refugee camp. These graffiti are visible on the walls of houses, all around the camp, and they convey messages of protest but also of hope or claim about the complex political situation in the occupied territories. These graffiti can be then interpreted as political and politicized semiotic resources. In this paper, after having introduced the political situation of the Palestinian Territories in a historical perspective, we will question a specific dimension of these writings, i.e., their multilingual and ideological aspect. To do this, we will focus on ethnographic fieldwork on Deheishe refugee camp and we will draw on the theoretical framework of the critical communication studies which assert that language practices are not neutral and that they need to be understood through the lens of the historical context of production, crossing space and time. By analysing the relationship between the discursive constructions of the messages and the languages used, we will point out some of the possible reasons and functions of the presence of these multilingual discursive productions. We will show that if, on the one hand, these graffiti confirm the huge presence of Western actors in the region, on the other hand, they attest the presence of an international movement against the Israeli occupation and against other struggles as well. Concluding, we will argue that multilingualism certainly represents a diversification of the linguistic landscape and that it gives a transnational and political dimension to the graffiti.

Keywords: communication, graffiti, multilingualism, Palestine, transnationalism

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5864 Velma-ARC’s Rehabilitation of Repentant Cybercriminals in Nigeria

Authors: Umukoro Omonigho Simon, Ashaolu David ‘Diya, Aroyewun-Olaleye Temitope Folashade


The VELMA Action to Reduce Cybercrime (ARC) is an initiative, the first of its kind in Nigeria, designed to identify, rehabilitate and empower repentant cybercrime offenders popularly known as ‘yahoo boys’ in Nigerian parlance. Velma ARC provides social inclusion boot camps with the goal of rehabilitating cybercriminals via psychotherapeutic interventions, improving their IT skills, and empowering them to make constructive contributions to society. This report highlights the psychological interventions provided for participants of the maiden edition of the Velma ARC boot camp and presents the outcomes of these interventions. The boot camp was set up in a hotel premises which was booked solely for the 1 month event. The participants were selected and invited via the Velma online recruitment portal based on an objective double-blind selection process from a pool of potential participants who signified interest via the registration portal. The participants were first taken through psychological profiling (personality, symptomology and psychopathology) before the individual and group sessions began. They were profiled using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2- Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), the latest version of its series. Individual psychotherapy sessions were conducted for all participants based on what was interpreted on their profiles. Focus group discussion was held later to discuss a movie titled ‘catch me if you can’ directed by Steven Spielberg, featuring Leonardo De Caprio and Tom Hanks. The movie was based on the true life story of Frank Abagnale, who was a notorious scammer and con artist in his youthful years. Emergent themes from the movie were discussed as psycho-educative parameters for the participants. The overall evaluation of outcomes from the VELMA ARC rehabilitation boot camp stemmed from a disaggregated assessment of observed changes which are summarized in the final report of the clinical psychologist and was detailed enough to infer genuine repentance and positive change in attitude towards cybercrime among the participants. Follow up services were incorporated to validate initial observations. This gives credence to the potency of the psycho-educative intervention provided during the Velma ARC boot camp. It was recommended that support and collaborations from the government and other agencies/individuals would assist the VELMA foundation in expanding the scope and quality of the Velma ARC initiative as an additional requirement for cybercrime offenders following incarceration.

Keywords: Velma-ARC, cybercrime offenders, rehabilitation, Nigeria

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5863 Chloride Ion Channels Play a Role in Mediating Immune Response during Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Hani M. Alothaid, Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo


Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease that affects respiratory function and in EU it affects about 1 in 2,500 live births with an average 40-year life expectancy. This disease caused by mutations within the gene encoding the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) chloride channel leading to dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport and chronic lung inflammation, suggesting functional alterations of immune cells. In airways, CFTR been found to form a functional complex with S100A10 and AnxA2 in a cAMP/PKA dependent manner. The multiprotein complex of AnxA2-S100A10 and CFTR is also regulated by calcineurin. The aim of this study was i) to investigate whether chloride ion (Cl−) channels are activated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS from PA), ii) if this activation is regulated by cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway and iii) to investigate the role of LPS-activated Cl− channels in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Human peripheral blood monocytes were used in the study. Whole-cell patch records showed that LPS from PA can activate Cl− channels, including CFTR and outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel (ORCC). This activation appears to require an intact PKA/calcineurin signalling pathway. The Gout in the presence of LPS was significantly inhibited by diisothiocyanatostilbene-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an ORCC blocker (p<0.001). The Gout was further suppressed by CFTR(inh)-172, a specific inhibitor for CFTR channels (p<0.001). Monocytes pre-incubated with PKA inhibitor or calcineurin inhibitor before stimulated with LPS from PA that were resulted in DIDS and CFTR(inh)-172 insensitive currents. Activation of both ORCC and CFTR was however, observed in response to monocytes exposure to LPS. Additionally, ELISA showed that the CFTR and ORCC play a role in mediating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β upon exposure of monocytes to LPS. However, this secretion was significantly inhibited due to CFTR and ORCC inhibition. However, Cl− may play a role in IL-1β release independent of cAMP/PKA/calcineurin signalling due to the enhancement of IL-1β secretion even when cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway was inhibited. In conclusion, our data confirmed that LPS from PA activates Cl− channels in human peripheral blood monocytes. Our data also confirmed that Cl− channels were involved in IL-1β release in monocytes upon exposure to LPS. However, it has been found that PKA and calcineurin does not seem to influence the Cl− dependent cytokine release.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, CFTR, Annexin A2, S100A10, PP2B, PKA, outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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5862 The “Functional Participation” Theory and Its Application in the Trials of Temporally Distant Crimes: German Practice and the Possible Application in the Bangladeshi Context

Authors: MD Mustakimur Rahman


Prosecuting temporally distant international crimes is always challenging due to numerous challenges. Because these crimes are often prosecuted many years or decades after they were committed, old evidence is particularlyrelevant to prosecutors and investigators. While it is true that managing eyewitnesses become more difficult when acrime is committed decades ago, can a suspect of a decades-old crime be convicted even if there is no direct evidence ofkilling any specific victim In Germany, John Demjanjuk was convicted of distant atrocity crimes based on anidentification card showing his service status at Sobibór extermination camp, the nature of the military operation, including mass killing at the camp, and the daily tasks of a camp guard. The prosecutor applied the “functional participation” approach for jointly committed crimes since individualguilt was challenging to establish due to a lack of eyewitnesses. Regarding the “functional perpetration” theory, theMunich court states that burden follows the function of the perpetrator rather than individual activities. Without aquestion, the Munich decision has established a watershed moment in international criminal law and provides us hope indealing with a decades-old crime in a challenging situation where there are no witnesses. While applying the “functionalparticipation” theory is limited to the Second World War suspects, the question is whether this doctrine applies to otherold crimes committed elsewhere. In Bangladesh, for example, the Pakistani Army and local Bengali perpetrators carriedout a massacre in 1971. Although Bangladesh has begun prosecuting local suspects, Pakistan has yet to take actionagainst its military. The purpose of this research is to see if the “functional perpetration” theory applies to any PakistaniArmy officer engaged in the 1971 massacre.

Keywords: international criminal law, international criminal punishment, international crimes tribunal, temporally distant international crimes

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5861 Shadows and Symbols: The Tri-Level Importance of Memory in Jane Yolen's 'the Devil's Arithmetic' and Soon-To-Be-Published 'Mapping the Bones'

Authors: Kirsten A. Bartels


'Never again' and 'Lest we forget' have long been messages associated with the events of the Shoah. Yet as we attempt to learn from the past, we must find new ways to engage with its memories. The preservation of the culture and the value of tradition are critical factors in Jane Yolen's works of Holocaust fiction, The Devil's Arithmetic and Mapping the Bones, emphasized through the importance of remembering. That word, in its multitude of forms (remember, remembering, memories), occurs no less than ten times in the first four pages and over one hundred times in the one hundred and sixty-four-page narrative The Devil’s Arithmetic. While Yolen takes a different approach to showcasing the importance of memory in Mapping the Bones, it is of equal import in this work and arguably to the future of Holocaust knowing. The idea of remembering, the desire to remember, and the ability to remember, are explored in three divergent ways in The Devil’s Arithmetic. First, in the importance to remember a past which is not her own – to understand history or acquired memories. Second, in the protagonist's actual or initial memories, those of her life in modern-day New York. Third, in a reverse mode of forgetting and trying to reacquire that which has been lost -- as Hannah is processed in the camp and she forgets everything, all worlds prior to the camp are lost to her. As numbers replace names, Yolen stresses the importance of self-identity or owned memories. In addition, the importance of relaying memory, the transitions of memory from perspective, and the ideas of reflective telling are explored in Mapping the Bones -- through the telling of the story through the lens of one of the twins as the events are unfolding; and then the through the reflective telling from the lens of the other twin. Parallel to the exploration of the intersemiosis of memory is the discussion of literary shadows (foreshadowing, backshadowing, and side-shadowing) and their impact on the reader's experience with Yolen's narrative. For in this type of exploration, one cannot look at the events described in Yolen's work and not also contemplate the figurative shadows cast.

Keywords: holocaust literature, memory, narrative, Yolen

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5860 Effect of Positive Psychology (PP) Interventions on College Students’ Well-Being, Career Stress and Coronavirus Anxiety

Authors: Erva Kaygun


The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of positive psychology interventions on college students' positive-negative emotions, coronavirus anxiety, and career stress. 4 groups of college students are compared in terms of the level of exposure to PP constructs ( Non-Psychology, Psychology, Positive Psychology Course, and Positive Psychology Boot Camp). In this research, Pearson Correlation, independent t-tests, ANOVA, and Post-Hoc tests are conducted. Without being significant, the groups exposed to PP constructs showed higher positive emotions and total PERMA scores, whereas negative emotions, career stress, and coronavirus stress remained similar. It is crucial to indicate that career stress is higher among all psychology students when compared to non-psychology students. The results showed that the highest exposure group (PP Boot Camp) showed no difference in negative emotions, whereas higher PERMA scores and positive emotion scores were on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scale.

Keywords: positive psychology, college students, well being, anxiety

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5859 Provisional Settlements and Urban Resilience: The Transformation of Refugee Camps into Cities

Authors: Hind Alshoubaki


The world is now confronting a widespread urban phenomenon: refugee camps, which have mostly been established in ‘rushing mode,’ pointing toward affording temporary settlements for refugees that provide them with minimum levels of safety, security and protection from harsh weather conditions within a very short time period. In fact, those emergency settlements are transforming into permanent ones since time is a decisive factor in terms of construction and camps’ age. These play an essential role in transforming their temporary character into a permanent one that generates deep modifications to the city’s territorial structure, shaping a new identity and creating a contentious change in the city’s form and history. To achieve a better understanding for the transformation of refugee camps, this study is based on a mixed-methods approach: the qualitative approach explores different refugee camps and analyzes their transformation process in terms of population density and the changes to the city’s territorial structure and urban features. The quantitative approach employs a statistical regression analysis as a reliable prediction of refugees’ satisfaction within the Zaatari camp in order to predict its future transformation. Obviously, refugees’ perceptions of their current conditions will affect their satisfaction, which plays an essential role in transforming emergency settlements into permanent cities over time. The test basically discusses five main themes: the access and readiness of schools, the dispersion of clinics and shopping centers; the camp infrastructure, the construction materials, and the street networks. The statistical analysis showed that Syrian refugees were not satisfied with their current conditions inside the Zaatari refugee camp and that they had started implementing changes according to their needs, desires, and aspirations because they are conscious about the fact of their prolonged stay in this settlement. Also, the case study analyses showed that neglecting the fact that construction takes time leads settlements being created with below-minimum standards that are deteriorating and creating ‘slums,’ which lead to increased crime rates, suicide, drug use and diseases and deeply affect cities’ urban tissues. For this reason, recognizing the ‘temporary-eternal’ character of those settlements is the fundamental concept to consider refugee camps from the beginning as definite permanent cities. This is the key factor to minimize the trauma of displacement on both refugees and the hosting countries. Since providing emergency settlements within a short time period does not mean using temporary materials, having a provisional character or creating ‘makeshift cities.’

Keywords: refugee, refugee camp, temporary, Zaatari

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5858 Exploring Coping Mechanisms in Sudanese and Congolese Refugee Women Through Life Story Interviews

Authors: Gwyneth Bernier


An authoritative literature review of peer-reviewed journals and edited books on East African refugees' coping strategies identifies the four most common coping skills among this group as the following: (1) relying on faith, religion, or another belief system, (2) turning to communities or social supports, (3) cognitive reframing--in other words, finding meaning in one's traumas or hardships--and (4) finding hope for the future, especially through education. However, this review recognizes that there are gaps in knowledge in this field and that the validity of these general findings must be further investigated in East African refugees who are women, have not been resettled in Western countries, and belong to specific nationality groups. This review also suggests studies that build on the current body of research begin to use qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. This paper aims to bridge part of that gap in understanding using a qualitative methodology. Specifically, it provides a more holistic view of East African refugees' psychological coping mechanisms through its analysis of trends observed across life story interviews from two participant groups: Sudanese refugee women in Cairo's informal settlements, Egypt and Congolese refugee women in Rwanda's Mahama camp.

Keywords: Congolese refugees, coping mechanisms, refugee women, Sudanese refugees

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5857 Modeling of CREB Pathway Induced Gene Induction: From Stimulation to Repression

Authors: K. Julia Rose Mary, Victor Arokia Doss


Electrical and chemical stimulations up-regulate phosphorylaion of CREB, a transcriptional factor that induces its target gene production for memory consolidation and Late Long-Term Potentiation (L-LTP) in CA1 region of the hippocampus. L-LTP requires complex interactions among second-messenger signaling cascade molecules such as cAMP, CAMKII, CAMKIV, MAPK, RSK, PKA, all of which converge to phosphorylate CREB which along with CBP induces the transcription of target genes involved in memory consolidation. A differential equation based model for L-LTP representing stimulus-mediated activation of downstream mediators which confirms the steep, supralinear stimulus-response effects of activation and inhibition was used. The same was extended to accommodate the inhibitory effect of the Inducible cAMP Early Repressor (ICER). ICER is the natural inducible CREB antagonist represses CRE-Mediated gene transcription involved in long-term plasticity for learning and memory. After verifying the sensitivity and robustness of the model, we had simulated it with various empirical levels of repressor concentration to analyse their effect on the gene induction. The model appears to predict the regulatory dynamics of repression on the L-LTP and agrees with the experimental values. The flux data obtained in the simulations demonstrate various aspects of equilibrium between the gene induction and repression.

Keywords: CREB, L-LTP, mathematical modeling, simulation

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5856 Domestic Solar Hot Water Systems in Order to Reduce the Electricity Peak Demand in Assalouyeh

Authors: Roya Moradifar, Bijan Honarvar, Masoumeh Zabihi


The personal residential camps of South Pars gas complex are one of the few places where electric energy is used for the bath water heating. The widespread use of these devices is mainly responsible for the high peak of the electricity demand in the residential sector. In an attempt to deal with this issue, to reduce the electricity usage of the hot water, as an option, solar hot water systems have been proposed. However, despite the high incidence of solar radiation on the Assaloyeh about 20 MJ/m²/day, currently, there is no technical assessment quantifying the economic benefits on the region. The present study estimates the economic impacts resulting by the deployment of solar hot water systems in residential camp. Hence, the feasibility study allows assessing the potential of solar water heating as an alternative to reduce the peak on the electricity demand. In order to examine the potential of using solar energy in Bidkhoon residential camp two solar water heater packages as pilots were installed for restaurant and building. Restaurant package was damaged due to maintenance problems, but for the building package, we achieved the result of the solar fraction total 83percent and max energy saving 2895 kWh, the maximum reduction in CO₂ emissions calculated as 1634.5 kg. The results of this study can be used as a support tool to spread the use solar water heaters and create policies for South Pars Gas Complex.

Keywords: electrical energy, hot water, solar, South Pars Gas complex

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5855 Assessing the Sheltering Response in the Middle East: Studying Syrian Camps in Jordan

Authors: Lara A. Alshawawreh, R. Sean Smith, John B. Wood


This study focuses on the sheltering response in the Middle East, specifically through reviewing two Syrian refugee camps in Jordan, involving Zaatari and Azraq. Zaatari camp involved the rapid deployment of tents and shelters over a very short period of time and Azraq was purpose built and pre-planned over a longer period. At present, both camps collectively host more than 133,000 occupants. Field visits were taken to both camps and the main issues and problems in the sheltering response were highlighted through focus group discussions with camp occupants and inspection of shelter habitats. This provided both subjective and objective research data sources. While every case has its own significance and deployment to meet humanitarian needs, there are some common requirements irrespective of geographical region. The results suggest that there is a gap in the suitability of the required habitat needs and what has been provided. It is recommended that the global international response and support could be improved in relation to the habitat form, construction type, layout, function and critically the cultural aspects. Services, health and hygiene are key elements to the shelter habitat provision. The study also identified the amendments to shelters undertaken by the beneficiaries providing insight into their key main requirements. The outcomes from this study could provide an important learning opportunity to develop improved habitat response for future shelters.

Keywords: culture, post-disaster, refugees, shelters

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5854 Proteome-Wide Convergent Evolution on Vocal Learning Birds Reveals Insight into cAMP-Based Learning Pathway

Authors: Chul Lee, Seoae Cho, Erich D. Jarvis, Heebal Kim


Vocal learning, the ability to imitate vocalizations based on auditory experience, is a homoplastic character state observed in different independent lineages of animals such as songbirds, parrots, hummingbirds and human. It has now become possible to perform genome-wide molecular analyses across vocal learners and vocal non-learners with the recent expansion of avian genome data. It was analyzed the whole genomes of human and 48 avian species including those belonging to the three avian vocal learning lineages, to determine if behavior and neural convergence are associated with molecular convergence in divergent species of vocal learners. Analyses of 8295 orthologous genes across bird species revealed 141 genes with amino acid substitutions specific to vocal learners. Out of these, 25 genes have vocal learner specific genetic homoplasies, and their functions were enriched for learning. Several sites in these genes are estimated under convergent evolution and positive selection. A potential role for a subset of these genes in vocal learning was supported by associations with gene expression profiles in vocal learning brain regions of songbirds and human disease that cause language dysfunctions. The key candidate gene with multiple independent lines of the evidences specific to vocal learners was DRD5. Our findings suggest cAMP-based learning pathway in avian vocal learners, indicating molecular homoplastic changes associated with a complex behavioral trait, vocal learning.

Keywords: amino acid substitutions, convergent evolution, positive selection, vocal learning

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5853 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee


Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test

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5852 Physiological Roles of Relaxin on Prefertilizing Activities of Spermatozoa

Authors: A. G. Miah, U. Salma, K. Schellander


Relaxin was first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw. Previously it was considered as only the hormone of pregnant mammals due to its important roles in pregnancy and parturition. From the last decade, the physiological role of relaxin in male reproduction has been given experimental attention, and the results have made it clear that relaxin can no longer be considered strictly as only the hormone of female reproduction. The accessory glands (specially, the prostate glands) of the male reproductive system are the source of seminal relaxin, which is secreted into the seminal plasma and saturated with spermatozoa just after ejaculation. Several studies have reported that relaxin has important roles in improving motility in human sperm. Thereafter, the growing interest on relaxin has intensified efforts to investigate the role of relaxin in other sperm physiological phenomena like, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and their mediating factors associated with successful fertilization. Therefore, this review aims to provide up-to-date information about the physiological roles of relaxin in sperm motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and their mediating factors, such as, utilization of glucose, cholesterol efflux, Ca2+-influx, intracellular cAMP and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Some studies have shown relaxin to increase the percentage of progressive motility and induce capacitation and acrosome reaction through increasing the utilization of glucose and mediating the cholesterol efflux, Ca2+-influx, intracellular cAMP and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, the review suggests that the supplementation of relaxin into the capacitating medium may contribute the possible beneficial roles in fresh and cryopreserved spermatozoal prefertilization events.

Keywords: relaxin, physiological roles, prefertilizing activities, spermatozoa

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