Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: caecal volvulus

10 Inguinal Hernia Preperitoneal Mesh and Internal Hernia with Caecal Volvulus

Authors: Daniel Tani, Goutham Sivasuthan, Reuben Ndegwa, Omar Mansour

Abstract:

We report a case of a caecal volvulus in a 52-year-old female who had an internal hernia from adhesions originating at the region of a previous inguinal hernia mesh repair. The patient described epigastric and right lower quadrant pain for the preceding two weeks that seemed to worsen with oral intake. She had previous laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia repairs with mesh bilaterally; the left in 2007 and the right in 2012. Further surgical history included an open Spigelian hernia repair with mesh in the left lower quadrant and a laparoscopic cholecystectomy 20 years earlier. In addition to this, she had had a colonoscopy done three months prior, which showed no masses or polyps. The patient was hemodynamically stable on review with a soft abdomen. The right lower quadrant was exquisitely tender with a rebound. There were no palpable masses. Blood tests revealed hemoglobin of 155 g/L, a white cell count of 8 x 109/L, and a C-reactive protein of 37 mg/L. A computed tomography scan with portal venous contrast demonstrated a mechanical small bowel obstruction with the terminal ileum and caecum looped around itself in a whirlpool appearance, and the colon collapsed distally. There was a trace of free fluid in the right paracolic gutter and no abdominal free air. Hernia meshes were visible in the inguinal orifices bilaterally and at the left lower quadrant. The mesh on the right inguinal canal appeared to be displaced intraperitoneally. The patient then underwent emergency diagnostic laparoscopy. Intraoperatively, there was a caecal volvulus caused by internal herniation underneath a thick band adhesion at the right iliac fossa. This band appeared to arise from the anterior abdominal wall just posterior to the right inguinal hernia preperitoneal mesh. There was no mesh or tacks exposed and there was no recurrent hernia. A right hemicolectomy was performed with a stapled side-to-side anastomosis. The postoperative course was uncomplicated, and she was discharged on day 6. At follow-up two weeks later, the patient was well and bowel function had returned to normal. Histopathology was negative for dysplasia or malignancy. Inguinal preperitoneal mesh has not been definitively linked to intraabdominal adhesion formation. There has been a study in 2016 that examined the formation of adhesions after ventral hernia repair as detected by MRI and laparoscopic correlation. However, this included intraperitoneal mesh, and the results were not stratified by mesh location. There was an overall 60% rate of adhesions after ventral hernia mesh. There has also been one case report in the literature that describes an adhesional small bowel obstruction that was attributed to a tack that had been placed during a laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. In our case report, there was clearly a band adhesion from the preperitoneal mesh that had led to an internal hernia and caecal volvulus; however, whether the mesh had initiated the adhesion is uncertain. While inguinal hernia repair with mesh remains the gold standard, the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions may need to be a consideration in fixation techniques.

Keywords: internal hernia, inguinal hernia mesh, caecal volvulus, adhesion

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9 A Rare Case of Endometriosis Lesion in Caecum Causing Acute Small Bowel Obstruction

Authors: Freda Halim

Abstract:

Endometriosis in bowel is rare condition, about 3-37% of endometriosis cases. Most of bowel endometriosis rising in the rectosigmoid (90% of bowel endometriosis). The incidence of caecal endometriosis is very low ( < 5% of bowel endometriosis) and almost never causing acute small bowel obstruction. The aim of this paper is to show that although bowel obstruction caused by caecal endometriosis is difficult to diagnose as it is rare, and may require laparotomy to make definite diagnosis, but it should be considered in infertile female patient. The case is 37 years old woman infertile woman with intestinal obstruction with pre-operative diagnosis total acute small bowel obstruction caused by right colonic mass, with sepsis as the complication. Before the acute small bowel obstruction, she complained of chronic right lower quadrant pain with chronic constipation alternate with chronic diarrhea, symptoms that happened both in bowel endometriosis and colorectal malignancy. She also complained of chronic pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. She was married for 10 years with no child. The patient was never diagnosed with endometriosis and never seek medical attention for infertility and the chronic pelvic pain. The patient underwent Abdominal CT Scan, with results: massive small bowel obstruction, and caecal mass that causing acute small bowel obstruction. Diagnosis of acute small bowel obstruction due to right colonic mass was made, and exploratory laparotomy was performed in the patient. During the laparotomy, mass at caecum and ileocaecal that causing massive small bowel obstruction was found and standard right hemicolectomy and temporary ileostomy were performed. The pathology examination showed ectopic endometriosis lesions in caecum and ileocaecal valve. The histopathology also confirmed with the immunohistochemistry, in which positive ER, PR, CD 10 and CD7 was found the ileocaecal and caecal mass. In the second operation, reanastomosis of the ileum was done 3 months after the first operation. The chronic pelvic pain is decreasing dramatically after the first and second operation. In conclusion, although bowel obstruction caused by caecal endometriosis is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, but it can be considered as a cause in infertile female patient

Keywords: acute, bowel obstruction, caecum, endometriosis

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8 Closed Loop Large Bowel Obstruction Due to Appendiceal Signet Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Joshua Teo, Leo Phan

Abstract:

Signet cell carcinoma of the appendix is the rarest and the most aggressive subtype of appendiceal malignancy, typically with non-specific presentations. We describe a case of a 62-year-old male with large bowel obstruction and CT demonstrating dilated large bowels from caecum to proximal sigmoid colon with pneumoperitoneum. Intra-operatively, closed-loop obstruction caused by dense adherence of sigmoid colon to caecum was noted, which had resulted in caecal perforation. Histopathology study indicated primary appendiceal malignancy of signet cell morphology with intra-peritoneal spread to the sigmoid colon. Large bowel obstruction from appendiceal malignancy has rarely been reported, and a similar presentation has not been described in the existing literature. When left-sided large bowel obstruction is suspected to be caused by a malignant stricture, it is essential to consider transperitoneal spread of appendiceal malignancy as potential aetiology, particularly in the elderly.

Keywords: appendiceal carcinoma, large bowel obstruction, signet ring cell cancer, caecal perforation

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7 Haematological Changes and Anticoccidial Activities of Kaempferol in Eimeria Tenella Infected Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ya'u Muhammad, Umar Umar A. Mallammadori, Dahiru Mansur

Abstract:

Effect of kaempferol on haematological parameters in two weeks old broiler chickens with experimental Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated in this study. Sixty-day old broilers were randomly allotted into six groups (I-VI) of ten broilers each and brooded for two weeks with commercial broiler feed (vital feed®) and provided water ad libitum. At two weeks of age broilers in group 1 were neither infected nor treated. Broilers in groups II-VI were infected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocyst (104/ml) via oral inoculation. After infection was established, broilers in groups II-IV were treated orally with 1 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg of kaempferol, respectively. Broilers in group V were treated for five days with amprolium, 1.25 g/L in drinking water. Broilers in group VI were administered normal saline, 5 ml/kg per os for five days. Five days post infection; all broilers were sacrificed by severing their jugular veins. Blood sample from each bird was collected in EDTA container for haematology. Caecal contents were harvested and used to determine the lesion score and caecal Oocyst count respectively. Data obtained was analyzed using pad prism version 5.0. Mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and Red Blood Cell (RBC) count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. Similarly, PCV, Hb concentration, and RBC count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV when compared to VI. No significant (P > 0.05) difference in the mean values of PCV, Hb and RBC count were recorded between groups treated with kaempferol and group V. Caecal Oocyst counts and lesion scores reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. It was therefore observed in this study that kaempferol improved haematological parameters and reduced Oocyst count as well as the lesion scores in broilers infected with Eimeria tenella.

Keywords: broilers, Eimeria tenella, kaempferol, lesion scores, oocyst count,

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6 Clinical Signs of River Blindness and the Efficacy of Ivermectin Therapy in Idogun, Ondo State-Nigeria

Authors: Afolabi O.J, Simon-Oke I.A., Oniya M.O., Okaka C.E.

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River blindness is a skin, and an eye disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus and vectored by a female hematophagous blackfly. The study aims to evaluate the distribution of the clinical signs of river blindness and the efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of river blindness in Idogun. Observational studies in epidemiology that involve the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain useful epidemiological information from the respondents, physical assessment via palpation from head to ankle was used to assess clinical signs from the respondents and skin snip test was used to evaluate the prevalence of the disease. The efficacy of the drug was evaluated and expressed in percentages. One hundred and ninety-two (192) out of the 384 respondents examined, showed various signs of river blindness. However, it was only 108 (28.1%) respondents with the clinical signs that demonstrated Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in their skin snips. The clinical signs observed among the respondents include skin depigmentation such as dermatitis, leopard skin, papules, pruritus and self-inflicted injury, while ocular symptoms include cataract, ocular lesion and partial blindness. Among these clinical signs, papules, and pruritus were the most dominant in the community. The prevalence of the clinical signs was observed to vary significantly among the age groups and gender (P<0.05). The efficacy of the drug after 6 and 12 months of treatments shows that the drug is more effective at age groups 10-50 years than the age groups 51-90 years. Ivermectin is observed to be efficacious in the treatment of the disease. However, to achieve eradication of the disease, the drug may be administered at 0.15mg/kg twice a year.

Keywords: riverblindness, clinical signs, ivermectin, Idogun

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5 Effect of Supplemental Phytase on the Digestibility of Crude Protein and Phosphorus of Rice Husk in Broiler Chicken

Authors: Ibinabo I. Ilaboya, Eustace A. Iyayi

Abstract:

Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable mineral in broiler diets. Rice husk contains phytate-P and other nutrients like protein, carbohydrates, which are poorly digested in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (BC) lacks sufficient phytase to help hydrolyse phytate-bound P. Hence excess of P is excreted by these chickens into the environment causing environmental pollution. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve the digestibility of these nutrients. The study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and P of rice husk in BC. Six semi-purified diets of three levels of total P (3.46, 4.91 and 6.37g/kg) without and with 1,000 units of phytase per kg were formulated. Titanium dioxide was added to the diets at the rate of 5g/kg as an indigestible marker. At 20dposthatch, 288 broilers (Abor Acre) were weighed and allotted to the diets with 6 replicates of 8 birds each in a randomized complete block design. The birds had free access to the experimental diets until day 26 post-hatch. Phytase supplementation increased (p < 0.05) digestibility of P from 75-93%. Rice husk and its interaction with phytase had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on P digestibility, whereas there was significant (p < 0.01) effect on the interaction of rice husk with phytase on CP digestibility. There were linear increases (p < 0.01) in digested P and CP with phytase supplementation. The P and CP losses from the BC was reduced with the addition of phytase. Results suggest that supplementation of rice husk-based diets with microbial phytase improved pre-caecal digestibility of P and CP in broilers.

Keywords: crude protein, phosphorus, phytase, rice husk

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4 Evaluation of the Spectrum of Cases of Perforation Peritonitis at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University

Authors: Mujahid Ali, Wasif Mohammed Ali, Meraj Ahmad

Abstract:

Background: Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency encountered by surgeons all over the world as well as in India. The etiology of perforation peritonitis in India continues to be different from its western counterparts. The aim of this study is to evaluate the spectrum of cases of perforation peritonitis at our hospital. Methods: A prospective study conducted includes three hundred thirtysix patients of perforation peritonitis at J. N. Medical College from October 2015 to July 2017. The patients were admitted, resuscitated and underwent emergency laparotomy. Data were collected in terms of demographic profile, clinical presentations, site of perforations, causes and surgical outcomes. Results: In this study, the most common cause of perforation peritonitis was peptic ulcer disease (43%), followed by enteric perforation (12.8%), tubercular perforation (12.5%), traumatic perforation (11.9%), appendicular perforation (9.8%), amoebic caecal perforation (3%), malignant perforation (1.5%), etc. The sites of perforations were stomach in majority (38.3%), ileum (31%), appendix (8%), duodenum (5.%), caecum (4.4%) ,colon (3%), jejunum (8.5%) and gall bladder (2%). The overall mortality was 21% in our study. Age >50 years (p= <0.0001, OR= 3.9260, CI= 2.2 to 6.9), organ failure (p= <0.0001, OR= 29.2, CI= 14.8 to 57.6), shock (p=<0.0001, OR=20.20, CI= 10.56 to 38.6), diffuse peritonitis (p<0.0015, OR= 6.8810, CI= 2.09 to 22.57) and faecal exudates (p<0.0001) were found to be significant factors affecting mortality. The most common complication associated was superficial wound infection (40%), followed by burst abdomen seen in 21% cases, intra-abdominal sepsis in 18% cases, electrolyte imbalances in 15% cases, anastomotic leak in 6% cases. Conclusion: In this study, stomach is the most common site of perforation with peptic ulcer disease being the most common etiology. Older age, presence of shock, organ failure and faecal peritonitis were the risk factors affecting the mortality of the patients. Early recognition, adequate resuscitation and referral of patients can influence outcome and reduces mortality as well as morbidity.

Keywords: etiology, mortality, perforation, spectrum

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3 Probiotic Potential and Antimicrobial Activity of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Chicken Caecal and Fecal Samples

Authors: Salma H. Abu Hafsa, A. Mendonca, B. Brehm-Stecher, A. A. Hassan, S. A. Ibrahim

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Enterococci are important inhabitants of the animal intestine and are widely used in probiotic products. A probiotic strain is expected to possess several desirable properties in order to exert beneficial effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to isolate and characterize strains of Enterococcus sp. from chicken cecal and fecal samples to determine potential probiotic properties. Enterococci were isolated from thirty one chicken cecal and fecal samples collected from a local farm. In vitro studies were performed to assess antibacterial activity (using agar well diffusion and cell free supernatant broth technique against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis), susceptibility to antibiotics (amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid), survival in acidic conditions, resistance to bile salts, and their survival during simulated gastric juice conditions at pH 2.5. Isolates were identified using biochemical and molecular assays (API 50 CHL, and API ZYM kits followed by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis). Two strains were identified, of which, Enteroccocus faecium was capable of inhibiting the growth of S. enteritidis and was susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics. In addition, the isolated strain exhibited significant resistance under highly acidic conditions (pH=2.5) for 8 hours and survived well in bile salt at 0.2% for 24 hours and showing ability to survive in the presence of simulated gastric juice at pH 2.5. Based on these results, the E. faecium isolate fulfills some of the criteria to be considered as a probiotic strain and therefore, could be used as a feed additive with good potential for controlling S. enteritidis in chickens. However, in vivo studies are needed to determine the safety of the strain.

Keywords: acid tolerance, antimicrobial activity, Enterococcus faecium, probiotic

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2 The Source of Fibre and Roxazyme® G2 Interacted to Influence the Length of Villi in the Ileal Epithelium of Growing Pigs Fed Fibrous Maize-Soybean Diets

Authors: F. Fushai, M.Tekere, M. Masafu, F. Siebrits, A. Kanengoni, F. Nherera

Abstract:

The effects of dietary fibre source on the histomorphology of the ileal epithelium were examined in growing pigs fed high fibre (242-250 g total dietary fibre kg-1 dry matter) diets fortified with Roxazyme® G2. The control was a standard, low fibre (141 g total dietary fibre kg-1 dry matter) diet formulated from dehulled soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea Mays) meal and hominy chop. Five fibrous diets were evaluated in which fibre was increased by partial substitution of the grains in the control diet with maize cobs, soybean hulls, barley (Hordeum vulgare L) brewer’s grains, Lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay or wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran. Each diet was duplicated and 220 mg Roxazyme® G2 kg-1 dry mater was added to one of the mixtures. Seventy-two intact Large White X Landrace male pigs of weight 32 ± 5.6 kg pigs were randomly allocated to the diets in a complete randomised design with a 2 (fibre source) X (enzyme) factorial arrangement of treatments. The pigs were fed ad libitum for 10 weeks. Ileal tissue samples were taken at slaughter, at a point 50cm above the ileal-caecal valve. Villi length and area, and crypt depth were measured by computerised image analyses. The villi length: crypt ratio was calculated. The diet and the supplemental enzyme cocktail did not affect (p>0.05) any of the measured parameters. Significant (p=0.016) diet X enzyme interaction was observed for villi length whereby the enzyme reduced the villi length of pigs on the soy-hulls, standard and wheat bran diets, with an opposite effect on pigs on the maize cob, brewer’s grain, Lucerne diets. The results suggested fibre-source dependent changes in the morphology of the ileal epithelium of pigs fed high fibre, maize-soybean diets fortified with Roxazyme® G2.

Keywords: fibre, growing pigs, histomorphology, ileum, Roxazyme® G2

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1 The Influence of Newest Generation Butyrate Combined with Acids, Medium Chain Fatty Acids and Plant Extract on the Performance and Physiological State of Laying Hens

Authors: Vilma Sasyte, Vilma Viliene, Asta Raceviciute-Stupeliene, Agila Dauksiene, Romas Gruzauskas, Virginijus Slausgalvis, Jamal Al-Saifi

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of butyrate, acids, medium-chain fatty acids and plant extract mixture on performance, blood and gastrointestinal tract characteristics of laying hens’. For the period of 8 weeks, 24 Hisex Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments: 1) control wheat-corn-soybean meal based diet (Control group), 2) control diet supplemented with the mixture of butyrate, acids, medium chain fatty acids and plant extract (Lumance®) at the level of 1.5 g/kg of feed (Experimental group). Hens were fed with a crumbled diet at 125 g per day. Housing and feeding conditions were the same for all groups and met the requirements of growth for laying hens of Hisex Brown strain. In the blood serum total protein, bilirubin, cholesterol, DTL- and MTL- cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, GGT, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, alpha amylase, contents of c-reactive protein, uric acid, and lipase were analyzed. Development of intestines and internal organs (intestinal length, intestinal weight, the weight of glandular and muscular stomach, pancreas, heart, and liver) were determined. The concentration of short chain fatty acids in caecal content was measured using the method of HPLC. The results of the present study showed that 1.5 g/kg supplementation of feed additive affected egg production and feed conversion ratio for the production of 1 kg of egg mass. Dietary supplementation of analyzed additive in the diets increased the concentration of triglycerides, GOT, alkaline phosphatase and decreased uric acid content compared with the control group (P<0.05). No significant difference for others blood indices in comparison to the control was observed. The addition of feed additives in laying hens’ diets increased intestinal weight by 11% and liver weight by 14% compared with the control group (P<0.05). The short chain fatty acids (propionic, acetic and butyric acids) in the caecum of laying hens in experimental groups decreased compared with the control group. The supplementation of the mixture of butyrate, acids, medium-chain fatty acids and plant extract at the level of 1.5 g/kg in the laying hens’ diets had the effect on the performance, some gastrointestinal tract function and blood parameters of laying hens.

Keywords: acids, butyrate, laying hens, MCFA, performance, plant extract, psysiological state

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