Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30078

Search results for: building performance analysis

30078 Using Building Information Modeling in Green Building Design and Performance Optimization

Authors: Moataz M. Hamed, Khalid S. M. Al Hagla, Zeyad El Sayad


Thinking in design energy-efficiency and high-performance green buildings require a different design mechanism and design approach than conventional buildings to achieve more sustainable result. By reasoning about specific issues at the correct time in the design process, the design team can minimize negative impacts, maximize building performance and keep both first and operation costs low. This paper attempts to investigate and exploit the sustainable dimension of building information modeling (BIM) in designing high-performance green buildings that require less energy for operation, emit less carbon dioxide and provide a conducive indoor environment for occupants through early phases of the design process. This objective was attained by a critical and extensive literature review that covers the following issues: the value of considering green strategies in the early design stage, green design workflow, and BIM-based performance analysis. Then the research proceeds with a case study that provides an in-depth comparative analysis of building performance evaluation between an office building in Alexandria, Egypt that was designed by the conventional design process with the same building if taking into account sustainability consideration and BIM-based sustainable analysis integration early through the design process. Results prove that using sustainable capabilities of building information modeling (BIM) in early stages of the design process side by side with green design workflow promote buildings performance and sustainability outcome.

Keywords: BIM, building performance analysis, BIM-based sustainable analysis, green building design

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30077 Factors Affecting Time Performance in Building Construction Projects

Authors: Ibraheem A. K. Mahameed


The aim of this study is to identify the risks affecting time performance of building construction projects in the West Bank in Palestine from contractors’ viewpoint. 38 risks that might affect time performance of building construction projects were defined through a detailed literature review. These risks have been classified into 6 groups: project, managerial, consultant, financial, external, and construction items. A questionnaire survey was performed to rank the considered risks in terms of severity and frequency. The analysis of the survey indicated that the top five risks affecting time performance of building construction projects in Palestine are: award project to the lowest price, political situation, poor communication and coordination between construction parties, change orders, and financial status of contractor.

Keywords: delay, time performance, construction, building

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
30076 Analysis on the Building Energy Performance of a Retrofitted Residential Building with RETScreen Expert Software

Authors: Abdulhameed Babatunde Owolabi, Benyoh Emmanuel Kigha Nsafon, Jeung-Soo Huh


Energy efficiency measures for residential buildings in South Korea is a national issue because most of the apartments built in the last decades were constructed without proper energy efficiency measures making the energy performance of old buildings to be very poor when compared with new buildings. However, the adoption of advanced building technologies and regulatory building codes are effective energy efficiency strategies for new construction. There is a need to retrofits the existing building using energy conservation measures (ECMs) equipment’s in order to conserve energy and reduce GHGs emissions. To achieve this, the Institute for Global Climate Change and Energy (IGCCE), Kyungpook National University (KNU), Daegu, South Korea employed RETScreen Expert software to carry out measurement and verification (M&V) analysis on an existing building in Korea by using six years gas consumption data collected from Daesung Energy Co., Ltd in order to determine the building energy performance after the introduction of ECM. Through the M&V, energy efficiency is attained, and the resident doubt was reduced. From the analysis, a total of 657 Giga Joules (GJ) of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was consumed at the rate of 0.34 GJ/day having a peak in the year 2015, which cost the occupant the sum of $10,821.

Keywords: energy efficiency, measurement and verification, performance analysis, RETScreen experts

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30075 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Existing Building Using Structural Information Modeling

Authors: Byungmin Cho, Dongchul Lee, Taejin Kim, Minhee Lee


The procedure for the seismic retrofit of existing buildings includes the seismic evaluation. In the evaluation step, it is assessed whether the buildings have satisfactory performance against seismic load. Based on the results of that, the buildings are upgraded. To evaluate seismic performance of the buildings, it usually goes through the model transformation from elastic analysis to inelastic analysis. However, when the data is not delivered through the interwork, engineers should manually input the data. In this process, since it leads to inaccuracy and loss of information, the results of the analysis become less accurate. Therefore, in this study, the process for the seismic evaluation of existing buildings using structural information modeling is suggested. This structural information modeling makes the work economic and accurate. To this end, it is determined which part of the process could be computerized through the investigation of the process for the seismic evaluation based on ASCE 41. The structural information modeling process is developed to apply to the seismic evaluation using Perform 3D program usually used for the nonlinear response history analysis. To validate this process, the seismic performance of an existing building is investigated.

Keywords: existing building, nonlinear analysis, seismic performance, structural information modeling

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30074 A Comparative Analysis of Thermal Performance of Building Envelope Types over Time

Authors: Aram Yeretzian, Yaser Abunnasr, Zahraa Makki, Betina Abi Habib


Developments in architectural building typologies that are informed by prevalent construction techniques and socio-cultural practices generate different adaptations in the building envelope. While different building envelope types exhibit different climate responsive passive strategies, the individual and comparative thermal performance analysis resulting from these technologies is yet to be understood. This research aims to develop this analysis by selecting three building envelope types from three distinct building traditions by measuring the heat transmission in the city of Beirut. The three typical residential buildings are selected from the 1920s, 1940s, and 1990s within the same street to ensure similar climatic and urban conditions. Climatic data loggers are installed inside and outside of the three locations to measure indoor and outdoor temperatures, relative humidity, and heat flow. The analysis of the thermal measurements is complemented by site surveys on window opening, lighting, and occupancy in the three selected locations and research on building technology from the three periods. Apart from defining the U-value of the building envelopes, the collected data will help evaluate the indoor environments with respect to the thermal comfort zone. This research, thus, validates and contextualizes the role of building technologies in relation to climate responsive design.

Keywords: architecture, wall construction, envelope performance, thermal comfort

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30073 Digital Transformation: Actionable Insights to Optimize the Building Performance

Authors: Jovian Cheung, Thomas Kwok, Victor Wong


Buildings are entwined with smart city developments. Building performance relies heavily on electrical and mechanical (E&M) systems and services accounting for about 40 percent of global energy use. By cohering the advancement of technology as well as energy and operation-efficient initiatives into the buildings, people are enabled to raise building performance and enhance the sustainability of the built environment in their daily lives. Digital transformation in the buildings is the profound development of the city to leverage the changes and opportunities of digital technologies To optimize the building performance, intelligent power quality and energy management system is developed for transforming data into actions. The system is formed by interfacing and integrating legacy metering and internet of things technologies in the building and applying big data techniques. It provides operation and energy profile and actionable insights of a building, which enables to optimize the building performance through raising people awareness on E&M services and energy consumption, predicting the operation of E&M systems, benchmarking the building performance, and prioritizing assets and energy management opportunities. The intelligent power quality and energy management system comprises four elements, namely the Integrated Building Performance Map, Building Performance Dashboard, Power Quality Analysis, and Energy Performance Analysis. It provides predictive operation sequence of E&M systems response to the built environment and building activities. The system collects the live operating conditions of E&M systems over time to identify abnormal system performance, predict failure trends and alert users before anticipating system failure. The actionable insights collected can also be used for system design enhancement in future. This paper will illustrate how intelligent power quality and energy management system provides operation and energy profile to optimize the building performance and actionable insights to revitalize an existing building into a smart building. The system is driving building performance optimization and supporting in developing Hong Kong into a suitable smart city to be admired.

Keywords: intelligent buildings, internet of things technologies, big data analytics, predictive operation and maintenance, building performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
30072 Nonlinear Analysis of a Building Surmounted by a RC Water Tank under Hydrodynamic Load

Authors: Hocine Hammoum, Karima Bouzelha, Lounis Ziani, Lounis Hamitouche


In this paper, we study a complex structure which is an apartment building surmounted by a reinforced concrete water tank. The tank located on the top floor of the building is a container with capacity of 1000 m3. The building is complex in its design, its calculation and by its behavior under earthquake effect. This structure located in Algiers and aged of 53 years has been subjected to several earthquakes, but the earthquake of May 21st, 2003 with a magnitude of 6.7 on the Richter scale that struck Boumerdes region at 40 Kms East of Algiers was fatal for it. It was downgraded after an investigation study because the central core sustained serious damage. In this paper, to estimate the degree of its damages, the seismic performance of the structure will be evaluated taking into account the hydrodynamic effect, using a static equivalent nonlinear analysis called pushover.

Keywords: performance analysis, building, reinforced concrete tank, seismic analysis, nonlinear analysis, hydrodynamic, pushover

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30071 Architectural Building Safety and Health Performance Model for Stratified Low-Cost Housing: Education and Management Tool for Building Managers

Authors: Zainal Abidin Akasah, Maizam Alias, Azuin Ramli


The safety and health performances aspects of a building are the most challenging aspect of facility management. It requires a deep understanding by the building managers on the factors that contribute to health and safety performances. This study attempted to develop an explanatory architectural safety performance model for stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The proposed Building Safety and Health Performance (BSHP) model was tested empirically through a survey on 308 construction practitioners using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) tool. Statistical analysis results supports the conclusion that architecture, building services, external environment, management approaches and maintenance management have positive influence on safety and health performance of stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The findings provide valuable insights for construction industry to introduce BSHP model in the future where the model could be used as a guideline for training purposes of managers and better planning and implementation of building management.

Keywords: building management, stratified low-cost housing, safety, health model

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30070 Geometric Simplification Method of Building Energy Model Based on Building Performance Simulation

Authors: Yan Lyu, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang


In the design stage of a new building, the energy model of this building is often required for the analysis of the performance on energy efficiency. In practice, a certain degree of geometric simplification should be done in the establishment of building energy models, since the detailed geometric features of a real building are hard to be described perfectly in most energy simulation engine, such as ESP-r, eQuest or EnergyPlus. Actually, the detailed description is not necessary when the result with extremely high accuracy is not demanded. Therefore, this paper analyzed the relationship between the error of the simulation result from building energy models and the geometric simplification of the models. Finally, the following two parameters are selected as the indices to characterize the geometric feature of in building energy simulation: the southward projected area and total side surface area of the building, Based on the parameterization method, the simplification from an arbitrary column building to a typical shape (a cuboid) building can be made for energy modeling. The result in this study indicates that this simplification would only lead to the error that is less than 7% for those buildings with the ratio of southward projection length to total perimeter of the bottom of 0.25~0.35, which can cover most situations.

Keywords: building energy model, simulation, geometric simplification, design, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
30069 The Application of Data Mining Technology in Building Energy Consumption Data Analysis

Authors: Liang Zhao, Jili Zhang, Chongquan Zhong


Energy consumption data, in particular those involving public buildings, are impacted by many factors: the building structure, climate/environmental parameters, construction, system operating condition, and user behavior patterns. Traditional methods for data analysis are insufficient. This paper delves into the data mining technology to determine its application in the analysis of building energy consumption data including energy consumption prediction, fault diagnosis, and optimal operation. Recent literature are reviewed and summarized, the problems faced by data mining technology in the area of energy consumption data analysis are enumerated, and research points for future studies are given.

Keywords: data mining, data analysis, prediction, optimization, building operational performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 747
30068 Applying ASHRAE Standards on the Hospital Buildings of UAE

Authors: Hanan M. Taleb


Energy consumption associated with buildings has a significant impact on the environment. To that end, and as a transaction between the inside and outside and between the building and urban space, the building skin plays an especially important role. It provides protection from the elements; demarcates private property and creates privacy. More importantly, it controls the admission of solar radiation. Therefore, designing the building skin sustainably will help to achieve optimal performance in terms of both energy consumption and thermal comfort. Unfortunately, with accelerating construction expansion, many recent buildings do not pay attention to the importance of the envelope design. This piece of research will highlight the importance of this part of the creation of buildings by providing evidence of a significant reduction in energy consumption if the envelopes are redesigned. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to enhance the performance of the hospital envelope in order to achieve sustainable performance. A hospital building sited in Abu Dhabi, in the UAE, has been chosen to act as a case study. A detailed analysis of the annual energy performance of the case study will be performed with the use of a computerised simulation; this is in order to explore their energy performance shortcomings. The energy consumption of the base case will then be compared with that resulting from the new proposed building skin. The results will inform architects and designers of the savings potential from various strategies.

Keywords: ASHREA, building skin, building envelopes, hospitals, Abu Dhabi, UAE, IES software

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30067 Seismic Assessment of an Existing Dual System RC Buildings in Madinah City

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail


A 15-storey RC building, studied in this paper, is representative of modern building type constructed in Madina City in Saudi Arabia before 10 years ago. These buildings are almost consisting of reinforced concrete skeleton, i. e. columns, beams and flat slab as well as shear walls in the stairs and elevator areas arranged in the way to have a resistance system for lateral loads (wind–earthquake loads). In this study, the dynamic properties of the 15-storey RC building were identified using ambient motions recorded at several spatially-distributed locations within each building. After updating the mathematical models for this building with the experimental results, three dimensional pushover analysis (nonlinear static analysis) was carried out using SAP2000 software incorporating inelastic material properties for concrete, infill and steel. The effect of modeling the building with and without infill walls on the performance point as well as capacity and demand spectra due to EQ design spectrum function in Madina area has been investigated. The response modification factor (R) for the 15 storey RC building is evaluated from capacity and demand spectra (ATC-40). The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the expected performance of structural systems by estimating, strength and deformation demands in design, and comparing these demands to available capacities at the performance levels of interest. The results are summarized and discussed.

Keywords: seismic assessment, pushover analysis, ambient vibration, modal update

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30066 Uncertainty in Building Energy Performance Analysis at Different Stages of the Building’s Lifecycle

Authors: Elham Delzendeh, Song Wu, Mustafa Al-Adhami, Rima Alaaeddine


Over the last 15 years, prediction of energy consumption has become a common practice and necessity at different stages of the building’s lifecycle, particularly, at the design and post-occupancy stages for planning and maintenance purposes. This is due to the ever-growing response of governments to address sustainability and reduction of CO₂ emission in the building sector. However, there is a level of uncertainty in the estimation of energy consumption in buildings. The accuracy of energy consumption predictions is directly related to the precision of the initial inputs used in the energy assessment process. In this study, multiple cases of large non-residential buildings at design, construction, and post-occupancy stages are investigated. The energy consumption process and inputs, and the actual and predicted energy consumption of the cases are analysed. The findings of this study have pointed out and evidenced various parameters that cause uncertainty in the prediction of energy consumption in buildings such as modelling, location data, and occupant behaviour. In addition, unavailability and insufficiency of energy-consumption-related inputs at different stages of the building’s lifecycle are classified and categorized. Understanding the roots of uncertainty in building energy analysis will help energy modellers and energy simulation software developers reach more accurate energy consumption predictions in buildings.

Keywords: building lifecycle, efficiency, energy analysis, energy performance, uncertainty

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30065 Field Study for Evaluating Winter Thermal Performance of Auckland School Buildings

Authors: Bin Su


Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only needs heating during the winter. The Auckland school building thermal design should more focus on winter thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort for energy efficiency. This field study of testing indoor and outdoor air temperatures, relative humidity and indoor surface temperatures of three classrooms with different envelopes were carried out in the Avondale College during the winter months in 2013. According to the field study data, this study is to compare and evaluate winter thermal performance and indoor thermal conditions of school buildings with different envelopes.

Keywords: building envelope, building mass effect, building thermal comfort, building thermal performance, school building

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30064 Thermal Simulation for Urban Planning in Early Design Phases

Authors: Diego A. Romero Espinosa


Thermal simulations are used to evaluate comfort and energy consumption of buildings. However, the performance of different urban forms cannot be assessed precisely if an environmental control system and user schedules are considered. The outcome of such analysis would lead to conclusions that combine the building use, operation, services, envelope, orientation and density of the urban fabric. The influence of these factors varies during the life cycle of a building. The orientation, as well as the surroundings, can be considered a constant during the lifetime of a building. The structure impacts the thermal inertia and has the largest lifespan of all the building components. On the other hand, the building envelope is the most frequent renovated component of a building since it has a great impact on energy performance and comfort. Building services have a shorter lifespan and are replaced regularly. With the purpose of addressing the performance, an urban form, a specific orientation, and density, a thermal simulation method were developed. The solar irradiation is taken into consideration depending on the outdoor temperature. Incoming irradiation at low temperatures has a positive impact increasing the indoor temperature. Consequently, overheating would be the combination of high outdoor temperature and high irradiation at the façade. On this basis, the indoor temperature is simulated for a specific orientation of the evaluated urban form. Thermal inertia and building envelope performance are considered additionally as the materiality of the building. The results of different thermal zones are summarized using the 'Degree day method' for cooling and heating. During the early phase of a design process for a project, such as Masterplan, conclusions regarding urban form, density and materiality can be drawn by means of this analysis.

Keywords: building envelope, density, masterplanning, urban form

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30063 Effectiveness of Damping Devices on Coupling Beams of 15-story Building Based on Nonlinear Analysis Procedures

Authors: Galih Permana, Yuskar Lase


In recent years, damping device has been experimentally studied to replace diagonally reinforced coupling beams, to mitigate rebar congestion problem. This study focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of various damping devices in a high-rise building. The type of damping devices evaluated is Viscoelastic Damper (VCD) and Rotational Friction Damper (RFD), with study case of a 15-story reinforced concrete apartment building with a dual system (column-beam and shear walls). The analysis used is a nonlinear time history analysis with 11 pairs of ground motions matched to the Indonesian response spectrum based on ASCE 41-17 and ASCE 7-16. In this analysis, each damper will be varied with a different position, namely the first model, the damper will be installed on the entire floor and in the second model, the damper will be installed on the 5th floor to the 9th floor, which is the floor with the largest drift. The results show that the model using both dampers increases the level of structural performance both globally and locally in the building, which will reduce the level of damage to the structural elements. But between the two dampers, the coupling beam that uses RFD is more effective than using VCD in improving building performance. The damper on the coupling beam has a good role in dissipating earthquakes and also in terms of ease of installation.

Keywords: building, coupling beam, damper, nonlinear time history analysis

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30062 Nearly Zero Energy Building: Analysis on How End-Users Affect Energy Savings Targets

Authors: Margarida Plana


One of the most important energy challenge of the European policies is the transition to a Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) model. A NZEB is a new concept of building that has the aim of reducing both the energy consumption and the carbon emissions to nearly zero of the course of a year. To achieve this nearly zero consumption, apart from being buildings with high efficiency levels, the energy consumed by the building has to be produced on-site. This paper is focused on presenting the results of the analysis developed on basis of real projects’ data in order to quantify the impact of end-users behavior. The analysis is focused on how the behavior of building’s occupants can vary the achievement of the energy savings targets and how they can be limited. The results obtained show that on this kind of project, with very high energy performance, is required to limit the end-users interaction with the system operation to be able to reach the targets fixed.

Keywords: end-users impacts, energy efficiency, energy savings, NZEB model

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30061 CO2 Emission and Cost Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Frame Designed by Performance Based Design Approach

Authors: Jin Woo Hwang, Byung Kwan Oh, Yousok Kim, Hyo Seon Park


As greenhouse effect has been recognized as serious environmental problem of the world, interests in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission which comprises major part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been increased recently. Since construction industry takes a relatively large portion of total CO2 emissions of the world, extensive studies about reducing CO2 emissions in construction and operation of building have been carried out after the 2000s. Also, performance based design (PBD) methodology based on nonlinear analysis has been robustly developed after Northridge Earthquake in 1994 to assure and assess seismic performance of building more exactly because structural engineers recognized that prescriptive code based design approach cannot address inelastic earthquake responses directly and assure performance of building exactly. Although CO2 emissions and PBD approach are recent rising issues on construction industry and structural engineering, there were few or no researches considering these two issues simultaneously. Thus, the objective of this study is to minimize the CO2 emissions and cost of building designed by PBD approach in structural design stage considering structural materials. 4 story and 4 span reinforced concrete building optimally designed to minimize CO2 emissions and cost of building and to satisfy specific seismic performance (collapse prevention in maximum considered earthquake) of building satisfying prescriptive code regulations using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Optimized design result showed that minimized CO2 emissions and cost of building were acquired satisfying specific seismic performance. Therefore, the methodology proposed in this paper can be used to reduce both CO2 emissions and cost of building designed by PBD approach.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, performance based design, optimization, sustainable design

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30060 Sensitivity and Reliability Analysis of Masonry Infilled Frames

Authors: Avadhoot Bhosale, Robin Davis P., Pradip Sarkar


The seismic performance of buildings with irregular distribution of mass, stiffness and strength along the height may be significantly different from that of regular buildings with masonry infill. Masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames are very common structural forms used for multi-storey building construction. These structures are found to perform better in past earthquakes owing to additional strength, stiffness and energy dissipation in the infill walls. The seismic performance of a building depends on the variation of material, structural and geometrical properties. The sensitivity of these properties affects the seismic response of the building. The main objective of the sensitivity analysis is to found out the most sensitive parameter that affects the response of the building. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis by considering 5% and 95% probability value of random variable in the infills characteristics, trying to obtain a reasonable range of results representing a wide number of possible situations that can be met in practice by using pushover analysis. The results show that the strength-related variation values of concrete and masonry, with the exception of tensile strength of the concrete, have shown a significant effect on the structural performance and that this effect increases with the progress of damage condition for the concrete. The seismic risk assessments of the selected frames are expressed in terms of reliability index.

Keywords: fragility curve, sensitivity analysis, reliability index, RC frames

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30059 Optimal Retrofit Design of Reinforced Concrete Frame with Infill Wall Using Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials

Authors: Sang Wook Park, Se Woon Choi, Yousok Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park


Various retrofit techniques for reinforced concrete frame with infill wall have been steadily developed. Among those techniques, strengthening methodology based on diagonal FRP strips (FRP bracings) has numerous advantages such as feasibility of implementing without interrupting the building under operation, reduction of cost and time, and easy application. Considering the safety of structure and retrofit cost, the most appropriate retrofit solution is needed. Thus, the objective of this study is to suggest pareto-optimal solution for existing building using FRP bracings. To find pareto-optimal solution analysis, NSGA-II is applied. Moreover, the seismic performance of retrofit building is evaluated. The example building is 5-storey, 3-bay RC frames with infill wall. Nonlinear static pushover analyses are performed with FEMA 356. The criterion of performance evaluation is inter-story drift ratio at the performance level IO, LS, CP. Optimal retrofit solutions is obtained for 32 individuals and 200 generations. Through the proposed optimal solutions, we confirm the improvement of seismic performance of the example building.

Keywords: retrofit, FRP bracings, reinforced concrete frame with infill wall, seismic performance evaluation, NSGA-II

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30058 Methodological Approach for Historical Building Retrofit Based on Energy and Cost Analysis in the Different Climatic Zones

Authors: Selin Guleroglu, Ilker Kahraman, E. Selahattin Umdu


In today’s world, the building sector has a significant impact on primary energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. While new buildings must have high energy performance as indicated by the Energy Performance Directive in Buildings (EPBD), published by the European Union (EU), the energy performance of the existing buildings must also be enhanced with cost-efficient methods. Turkey has a high historical building density similar to south European countries, and the high energy consumption is the main contributor in the energy consumptioın of Turkey, which is rather higher than European counterparts. Historic buildings spread around Turkey for four main climate zones covering very similar climate characteristics to both the north and south European countries. The case study building is determined as the most common building type in Turkey. This study aims to investigate energy retrofit measures covering but not limited to passive and active measures to improve the energy performance of the historical buildings located in different climatic zones within the limits of preservation of the historical value of the building as a crucial constraint. Passive measures include wall, window, and roof construction elements, and active measures HVAC systems in retrofit scenarios. The proposed methodology can help to reach up to 30% energy saving based on primary energy consumption. DesignBuilder, an energy simulation tool, is used to determine the energy performance of buildings with suggested retrofit measures, and the Net Present Value (NPV) method is used for cost analysis of them. Finally, the most efficient energy retrofit measures for all buildings are determined by analyzing primary energy consumption and the cost performance of them. Results show that heat insulation, glazing type, and HVAC system has an important role in energy saving. Also, it found that these parameters have a different positive or negative effect on building energy consumption in different climate zones. For instance, low e glazing has a positive impact on the energy performance of the building in the first zone, while it has a negative effect on the building in the forth zone. Another important result is applying heat insulation has minimum impact on building energy performance compared to other zones.

Keywords: energy performance, climatic zones, historic building, energy retrofit measures, NPV

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30057 Performance Analysis of Air-Tunnel Heat Exchanger Integrated into Raft Foundation

Authors: Chien-Yeh Hsu, Yuan-Ching Chiang, Zi-Jie Chien, Sih-Li Chen


In this study, a field experiment and performance analysis of air-tunnel heat exchanger integrated with water-filled raft foundation of residential building were performed. In order to obtain better performance, conventional applications of air-tunnel inevitably have high initial cost or issues about insufficient installation space. To improve the feasibility of air tunnel heat exchanger in high-density housing, an integrated system consisting of air pipes immersed in the water-filled raft foundation was presented, taking advantage of immense amount of water and relatively stable temperature in raft foundation of building. The foundation-integrated air tunnel was applied to a residential building located in Yilan, Taiwan, and its thermal performance was measured in the field experiment. The results indicated that the cooling potential of integrated system was close to the potential of soil-based EAHE at 2 m depth or deeper. An analytical model based on thermal resistance method was validated by measurement results, and was used to carry out the dimensioning of foundation-integrated air tunnel. The discrepancies between calculated value and measured data were less than 2.7%. In addition, the return-on-investment with regard to thermal performance and economics of the application was evaluated. Because the installation for air tunnel is scheduled in the building foundation construction, the utilization of integrated system spends less construction cost compare to the conventional earth-air tunnel.

Keywords: air tunnel, ground heat exchanger, raft foundation, residential building

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30056 Analysis of a Strengthening of a Building Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Nassereddine Attari


Each operation to strengthen or repair requires special consideration and requires the use of methods, tools and techniques appropriate to the situation and specific problems of each of the constructs. The aim of this paper is to study the pathology of building of reinforced concrete towards the earthquake and the vulnerability assessment using a non-linear Pushover analysis and to develop curves for a medium capacity building in order to estimate the damaged condition of the building.

Keywords: pushover analysis, earthquake, damage, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
30055 A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of LEED-Certified Residential Communities Using Structural Equation Modeling

Authors: Mohsen Goodarzi, George Berghorn


Despite the rapid growth in the number of green building and community development projects, the long-term performance of these projects has not yet been sufficiently evaluated from the users’ points of view. This is partially due to the lack of post-occupancy evaluation tools available for this type of project. In this study, a post-construction evaluation model is developed to evaluate the relationship between the perceived performance and satisfaction of residents in LEED-certified residential buildings and communities. To develop this evaluation model, a primary five-factor model was developed based on the existing models and residential satisfaction theories. Each factor of the model included several measures that were adopted from LEED certification systems such as LEED-BD+C New Construction, LEED-BD+C Multifamily Midrise, LEED-ND, as well as the UC Berkeley’s Center for the Built Environment survey tool. The model included four predictor variables (factors), including perceived building performance (8 measures), perceived infrastructure performance (9 measures), perceived neighborhood design (6 measures), and perceived economic performance (4 measures), and one dependent variable (factor), which was residential satisfaction (6 measures). An online survey was then conducted to collect the data from the residents of LEED-certified residential communities (n=192) and the validity of the model was tested through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). After modifying the CFA model, 26 measures, out of the initial 33 measures, were retained to enter into a Structural Equation Model (SEM) and to find the relationships between the perceived buildings performance, infrastructure performance, neighborhood design, economic performance and residential Satisfaction. The results of the SEM showed that the perceived building performance was the most influential factor in determining residential satisfaction in LEED-certified communities, followed by the perceived neighborhood design. On the other hand, perceived infrastructure performance and perceived economic performance did not show any significant relationship with residential satisfaction in these communities. This study can benefit green building researchers by providing a model for the evaluation of the long-term performance of these projects. It can also provide opportunities for green building practitioners to determine priorities for future residential development projects.

Keywords: green building, residential satisfaction, perceived performance, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
30054 Studying the Effect of Shading by Rooftop PV Panels on Dwellings’ Thermal Performance

Authors: Saad Odeh


Thermal performance is considered to be a key measure in building sustainability. One of the technologies used in the current building sustainable design is the rooftop solar PV power generators. The application of this type of technology has expanded vastly during the last five years in many countries. This paper studies the effect of roof shading developed by the solar PV panels on dwellings’ thermal performance. The analysis in this work is performed by using two types of packages: “AccuRate Sustainability” for rating the energy efficiency of residential building design, and “PVSYST” for the solar PV power system design. The former package is used to calculate the annual heating and cooling load, and the later package is used to evaluate the power production from the roof top PV system. The analysis correlates the electrical energy generated from the PV panels to the change in the heating and cooling load due to roof shading. Different roof orientation, roof inclination, roof insulation, as well as PV panel area are considered in this study. The analysis shows that the drop in energy efficiency due to the shaded area of the roof by PV panels is negligible compared to the energy generated by these panels.

Keywords: PV panel, thermal performance, roof shading, energy efficiency

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30053 Multi-Factor Optimization Method through Machine Learning in Building Envelope Design: Focusing on Perforated Metal Façade

Authors: Jinwooung Kim, Jae-Hwan Jung, Seong-Jun Kim, Sung-Ah Kim


Because the building envelope has a significant impact on the operation and maintenance stage of the building, designing the facade considering the performance can improve the performance of the building and lower the maintenance cost of the building. In general, however, optimizing two or more performance factors confronts the limits of time and computational tools. The optimization phase typically repeats infinitely until a series of processes that generate alternatives and analyze the generated alternatives achieve the desired performance. In particular, as complex geometry or precision increases, computational resources and time are prohibitive to find the required performance, so an optimization methodology is needed to deal with this. Instead of directly analyzing all the alternatives in the optimization process, applying experimental techniques (heuristic method) learned through experimentation and experience can reduce resource waste. This study proposes and verifies a method to optimize the double envelope of a building composed of a perforated panel using machine learning to the design geometry and quantitative performance. The proposed method is to achieve the required performance with fewer resources by supplementing the existing method which cannot calculate the complex shape of the perforated panel.

Keywords: building envelope, machine learning, perforated metal, multi-factor optimization, façade

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30052 A Case Study on Post-Occupancy Evaluation of User Satisfaction in Higher Educational Buildings

Authors: Yuanhong Zhao, Qingping Yang, Andrew Fox, Tao Zhang


Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is a systematic approach to assess the actual building performance after the building has been occupied for some time. In this paper, a structured POE assessment was conducted using the building use survey (BUS) methodology in two higher educational buildings in the United Kingdom. This study aims to help close the building performance gap, provide optimized building operation suggestions, and to improve occupants’ satisfaction level. In this research, the questionnaire survey investigated the influences of environmental factors on user satisfaction from the main aspects of building overall design, thermal comfort, perceived control, indoor environment quality for noise, lighting, ventilation, and other non-environmental factors, such as the background information about age, sex, time in buildings, workgroup size, and so on. The results indicate that the occupant satisfaction level with the main aspects of building overall design, indoor environment quality, and thermal comfort in summer and winter on both two buildings, which is lower than the benchmark data. The feedback of this POE assessment has been reported to the building management team to allow managers to develop high-performance building operation plans. Finally, this research provided improvement suggestions to the building operation system to narrow down the performance gap and improve the user work experience satisfaction and productivity level.

Keywords: building performance assessment systems, higher educational buildings, post-occupancy evaluation, user satisfaction

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30051 Seismic Performance of Concrete Moment Resisting Frames in Western Canada

Authors: Ali Naghshineh, Ashutosh Bagchi


Performance-based seismic design concepts are increasingly being adopted in various jurisdictions. While the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) is not fully performance-based, it provides some features of a performance-based code, such as displacement control and objective-based solutions. Performance evaluation is an important part of a performance-based design. In this paper, the seismic performance of a set of code-designed 4, 8 and 12 story moment resisting concrete frames located in Victoria, BC, in the western part of Canada at different hazard levels namely, SLE (Service Level Event), DLE (Design Level Event) and MCE (Maximum Considered Event) has been studied. The seismic performance of these buildings has been evaluated based on FEMA 356 and ATC 72 procedures, and the nonlinear time history analysis. Pushover analysis has been used to investigate the different performance levels of these buildings and adjust their design based on the corresponding target displacements. Since pushover analysis ignores the higher mode effects, nonlinear dynamic time history using a set of ground motion records has been performed. Different types of ground motion records, such as crustal and subduction earthquake records have been used for the dynamic analysis to determine their effects. Results obtained from push over analysis on inter-story drift, displacement, shear and overturning moment are compared to those from the dynamic analysis.

Keywords: seismic performance., performance-based design, concrete moment resisting frame, crustal earthquakes, subduction earthquakes

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30050 Effect of Masonry Infill in R.C. Framed Buildings

Authors: Pallab Das, Nabam Zomleen


Effective dissipation of lateral loads that are coming due to seismic force determines the strength, durability and safety concern of the structure. Masonry infill has high stiffness and strength capabilities which can be put into an effective utilization for lateral load dissipation by incorporating it into building construction, but masonry behaves in highly nonlinear manner, so it is highly important to find out generalized, yet a rational approach to determine its nonlinear behavior and failure mode and it’s response when it is incorporated into building. But most of the countries do not specify the procedure for design of masonry infill wall. Whereas, there are many analytical modeling method available in literature, e.g. equivalent diagonal strut method, finite element modeling etc. In this paper the masonry infill is modeled and 6-storey bare framed building and building with masonry infill is analyzed using SAP-200014 in order to find out inter-storey drift by time-history analysis and capacity curve by Pushover analysis. The analysis shows that, while, the structure is well within CP performance level for both the case, whereas, there is considerable reduction of inter-storey drift of about 28%, when the building is analyzed with masonry infill wall.

Keywords: capacity curve, masonry infill, nonlinear analysis, time history analysis

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30049 Uncertainty Assessment in Building Energy Performance

Authors: Fally Titikpina, Abderafi Charki, Antoine Caucheteux, David Bigaud


The building sector is one of the largest energy consumer with about 40% of the final energy consumption in the European Union. Ensuring building energy performance is of scientific, technological and sociological matter. To assess a building energy performance, the consumption being predicted or estimated during the design stage is compared with the measured consumption when the building is operational. When valuing this performance, many buildings show significant differences between the calculated and measured consumption. In order to assess the performance accurately and ensure the thermal efficiency of the building, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties involved not only in measurement but also those induced by the propagation of dynamic and static input data in the model being used. The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is based on both the knowledge about the measurement process and the input quantities which influence the result of measurement. Measurement uncertainty can be evaluated within the framework of conventional statistics presented in the \textit{Guide to the Expression of Measurement Uncertainty (GUM)} as well as by Bayesian Statistical Theory (BST). Another choice is the use of numerical methods like Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). In this paper, we proposed to evaluate the uncertainty associated to the use of a simplified model for the estimation of the energy consumption of a given building. A detailed review and discussion of these three approaches (GUM, MCS and BST) is given. Therefore, an office building has been monitored and multiple sensors have been mounted on candidate locations to get required data. The monitored zone is composed of six offices and has an overall surface of 102 $m^2$. Temperature data, electrical and heating consumption, windows opening and occupancy rate are the features for our research work.

Keywords: building energy performance, uncertainty evaluation, GUM, bayesian approach, monte carlo method

Procedia PDF Downloads 377