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Search results for: biogas plant

60 Natural Fibers Design Attributes

Authors: Brayan S. Pabón, R. Ricardo Moreno, Edith Gonzalez


Inside the wide Colombian natural fiber set is the banana stem leaf, known as Calceta de Plátano, which is a material present in several regions of the country and is a fiber extracted from the pseudo stem of the banana plant (Musa paradisiaca) as a regular maintenance process. Colombia had a production of 2.8 million tons in 2007 and 2008 corresponding to 8.2% of the international production, number that is growing. This material was selected to be studied because it is not being used by farmers due to it being perceived as a waste from the banana harvest and a propagation pest agent inside the planting. In addition, the Calceta does not have industrial applications in Colombia since there is not enough concrete knowledge that informs us about the properties of the material and the possible applications it could have. Based on this situation the industrial design is used as a link between the properties of the material and the need to transform it into industrial products for the market. Therefore, the project identifies potential design attributes that the banana stem leaf can have for product development. The methodology was divided into 2 main chapters: Methodology for the material recognition: -Data Collection, inquiring the craftsmen experience and bibliography. -Knowledge in practice, with controlled experiments and validation tests. -Creation of design attributes and material profile according to the knowledge developed. Moreover, the Design methodology: -Application fields selection, exploring the use of the attributes and the relation with product functions. -Evaluating the possible fields and selection of the optimum application. -Design Process with sketching, ideation, and product development. Different protocols were elaborated to qualitatively determine some material properties of the Calceta, and if they could be designated as design attributes. Once defined, performed and analyzed the validation protocols, 25 design attributes were identified and classified into 4 attribute categories (Environmental, Functional, Aesthetics and Technical) forming the material profile. Then, 15 application fields were defined based on the relation between functions of product and the use of the Calceta attributes. Those fields were evaluated to measure how much are being used the functional attributes. After fields evaluation, a final field was defined , influenced by traditional use of the fiber for packing food. As final result, two products were designed for this application field. The first one is the Multiple Container, which works to contain small or large-thin pieces of food, like potatoes chips or small sausages; it allows the consumption of food with sauces or dressings. The second is the Chorizo container, specifically designed for this food due to the long shape and the consumption mode. Natural fiber research allows the generation of a solider and a more complete knowledge about natural fibers. In addition, the research is a way to strengthen the identity through the investigation of the proper and autochthonous, allowing the use of national resources in a sustainable and creative way. Using divergent thinking and the design as a tool, this investigation can achieve advances in the natural fiber handling.

Keywords: banana stem leaf, Calceta de Plátano, design attributes, natural fibers, product design

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59 Optimization of the Jatropha curcas Supply Chain as a Criteria for the Implementation of Future Collection Points in Rural Areas of Manabi-Ecuador

Authors: Boris G. German, Edward Jiménez, Sebastián Espinoza, Andrés G. Chico, Ricardo A. Narváez


The unique flora and fauna of The Galapagos Islands has leveraged a tourism-driven growth in the islands. Nonetheless, such development is energy-intensive and requires thousands of gallons of diesel each year for thermoelectric electricity generation. The needed transport of fossil fuels from the continent has generated oil spillages and affectations to the fragile ecosystem of the islands. The Zero Fossil Fuels initiative for The Galapagos proposed by the Ecuadorian government as an alternative to reduce the use of fossil fuels in the islands, considers the replacement of diesel in thermoelectric generators, by Jatropha curcas vegetable oil. However, the Jatropha oil supply cannot entirely cover yet the demand for electricity generation in Galapagos. Within this context, the present work aims to provide an optimization model that can be used as a selection criterion for approving new Jatropha Curcas collection points in rural areas of Manabi-Ecuador. For this purpose, existing Jatropha collection points in Manabi were grouped under three regions: north (7 collection points), center (4 collection points) and south (9 collection points). Field work was carried out in every region in order to characterize the collection points, to establish local Jatropha supply and to determine transportation costs. Data collection was complemented using GIS software and an objective function was defined in order to determine the profit associated to Jatropha oil production. The market price of both Jatropha oil and residual cake, were considered for the total revenue; whereas Jatropha price, transportation and oil extraction costs were considered for the total cost. The tonnes of Jatropha fruit and seed, transported from collection points to the extraction plant, were considered as variables. The maximum and minimum amount of the collected Jatropha from each region constrained the optimization problem. The supply chain was optimized using linear programming in order to maximize the profits. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to find a profit-based criterion for the acceptance of future collection points in Manabi. The maximum profit reached a value of $ 4,616.93 per year, which represented a total Jatropha collection of 62.3 tonnes Jatropha per year. The northern region of Manabi had the biggest collection share (69%), followed by the southern region (17%). The criteria for accepting new Jatropha collection points in the rural areas of Manabi can be defined by the current maximum profit of the zone and by the variation in the profit when collection points are removed one at a time. The definition of new feasible collection points plays a key role in the supply chain associated to Jatropha oil production. Therefore, a mathematical model that assists decision makers in establishing new collection points while assuring profitability, contributes to guarantee a continued Jatropha oil supply for Galapagos and a sustained economic growth in the rural areas of Ecuador.

Keywords: collection points, Jatropha curcas, linear programming, supply chain

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58 Ruta graveolens Fingerprints Obtained with Reversed-Phase Gradient Thin-Layer Chromatography with Controlled Solvent Velocity

Authors: Adrian Szczyrba, Aneta Halka-Grysinska, Tomasz Baj, Tadeusz H. Dzido


Since prehistory, plants were constituted as an essential source of biologically active substances in folk medicine. One of the examples of medicinal plants is Ruta graveolens L. For a long time, Ruta g. herb has been famous for its spasmolytic, diuretic, or anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. The wide spectrum of secondary metabolites produced by Ruta g. includes flavonoids (eg. rutin, quercetin), coumarins (eg. bergapten, umbelliferone) phenolic acids (eg. rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid), and limonoids. Unfortunately, the presence of produced substances is highly dependent on environmental factors like temperature, humidity, or soil acidity; therefore standardization is necessary. There were many attempts of characterization of various phytochemical groups (eg. coumarins) of Ruta graveolens using the normal – phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC). However, due to the so-called general elution problem, usually, some components remained unseparated near the start or finish line. Therefore Ruta graveolens is a very good model plant. Methanol and petroleum ether extract from its aerial parts were used to demonstrate the capabilities of the new device for gradient thin-layer chromatogram development. The development of gradient thin-layer chromatograms in the reversed-phase system in conventional horizontal chambers can be disrupted by problems associated with an excessive flux of the mobile phase to the surface of the adsorbent layer. This phenomenon is most likely caused by significant differences between the surface tension of the subsequent fractions of the mobile phase. An excessive flux of the mobile phase onto the surface of the adsorbent layer distorts the flow of the mobile phase. The described effect produces unreliable, and unrepeatable results, causing blurring and deformation of the substance zones. In the prototype device, the mobile phase solution is delivered onto the surface of the adsorbent layer with controlled velocity (by moving pipette driven by 3D machine). The delivery of the solvent to the adsorbent layer is equal to or lower than that of conventional development. Therefore chromatograms can be developed with optimal linear mobile phase velocity. Furthermore, under such conditions, there is no excess of eluent solution on the surface of the adsorbent layer so the higher performance of the chromatographic system can be obtained. Directly feeding the adsorbent layer with eluent also enables to perform convenient continuous gradient elution practically without the so-called gradient delay. In the study, unique fingerprints of methanol and petroleum ether extracts of Ruta graveolens aerial parts were obtained with stepwise gradient reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. Obtained fingerprints under different chromatographic conditions will be compared. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed approach to chromatogram development with controlled solvent velocity will be discussed.

Keywords: fingerprints, gradient thin-layer chromatography, reversed-phase TLC, Ruta graveolens

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57 Plasma Chemical Gasification of Solid Fuel with Mineral Mass Processing

Authors: V. E. Messerle, O. A. Lavrichshev, A. B. Ustimenko


Currently and in the foreseeable future (up to 2100), the global economy is oriented to the use of organic fuel, mostly, solid fuels, the share of which constitutes 40% in the generation of electric power. Therefore, the development of technologies for their effective and environmentally friendly application represents a priority problem nowadays. This work presents the results of thermodynamic and experimental investigations of plasma technology for processing of low-grade coals. The use of this technology for producing target products (synthesis gas, hydrogen, technical carbon, and valuable components of mineral mass of coals) meets the modern environmental and economic requirements applied to basic industrial sectors. The plasma technology of coal processing for the production of synthesis gas from the coal organic mass (COM) and valuable components from coal mineral mass (CMM) is highly promising. Its essence is heating the coal dust by reducing electric arc plasma to the complete gasification temperature, when the COM converts into synthesis gas, free from particles of ash, nitrogen oxides and sulfur. At the same time, oxides of the CMM are reduced by the carbon residue, producing valuable components, such as technical silicon, ferrosilicon, aluminum and carbon silicon, as well as microelements of rare metals, such as uranium, molybdenum, vanadium, titanium. Thermodynamic analysis of the process was made using a versatile computation program TERRA. Calculations were carried out in the temperature range 300 - 4000 K and a pressure of 0.1 MPa. Bituminous coal with the ash content of 40% and the heating value 16,632 kJ/kg was taken for the investigation. The gaseous phase of coal processing products includes, basically, a synthesis gas with a concentration of up to 99 vol.% at 1500 K. CMM components completely converts from the condensed phase into the gaseous phase at a temperature above 2600 K. At temperatures above 3000 K, the gaseous phase includes, basically, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Na, and compounds of SiO, SiH, AlH, and SiS. The latter compounds dissociate into relevant elements with increasing temperature. Complex coal conversion for the production of synthesis gas from COM and valuable components from CMM was investigated using a versatile experimental plant the main element of which was plug and flow plasma reactor. The material and thermal balances helped to find the integral indicators for the process. Plasma-steam gasification of the low-grade coal with CMM processing gave the synthesis gas yield 95.2%, the carbon gasification 92.3%, and coal desulfurization 95.2%. The reduced material of the CMM was found in the slag in the form of ferrosilicon as well as silicon and iron carbides. The maximum reduction of the CMM oxides was observed in the slag from the walls of the plasma reactor in the areas with maximum temperatures, reaching 47%. The thusly produced synthesis gas can be used for synthesis of methanol, or as a high-calorific reducing gas instead of blast-furnace coke as well as power gas for thermal power plants. Reduced material of CMM can be used in metallurgy.

Keywords: gasification, mineral mass, organic mass, plasma, processing, solid fuel, synthesis gas, valuable components

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56 Achieving Sustainable Agriculture with Treated Municipal Wastewater

Authors: Reshu Yadav, Himanshu Joshi, S. K. Tripathi


Fresh water is a scarce resource which is essential for humans and ecosystems, but its distribution is uneven. Agricultural production accounts for 70% of all surface water supplies. It is projected that against the expansion in the area equipped for irrigation by 0.6% per year, the global potential irrigation water demand would rise by 9.5% during 2021-25. This would, on one hand, have to compete against the sharply rising urban water demand. On the other, it would also have to face the fear of climate change, as temperatures rise and crop yields could drop from 10-30% in many large areas. The huge demand for irrigation combined with fresh water scarcity encourages to explore the reuse of wastewater as a resource. However, the use of such wastewater is often linked to the safety issues when used non judiciously or with poor safeguards while irrigating food crops. Paddy is one of the major crops globally and amongst the most important in South Asia and Africa. In many parts of the world, use of municipal wastewater has been promoted as a viable option in this regard. In developing and fast growing countries like India, regularly increasing wastewater generation rates may allow this option to be considered quite seriously. In view of this, a pilot field study was conducted at the Jagjeetpur Municipal Sewage treatment plant situated in the Haridwar town of Uttarakhand state, India. The objectives of the present study were to study the effect of treated wastewater on the production of various paddy varieties (Sharbati, PR-114, PB-1, Menaka, PB1121 and PB 1509) and emission of GHG gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) as compared to the same varieties grown in the control plots irrigated with fresh water. Of late, the concept of water footprint assessment has emerged, which explains enumeration of various types of water footprints of an agricultural entity from its production to processing stages. Paddy, the most water demanding staple crop of Uttarakhand state, displayed a high green water footprint value of 2966.538 m3/ton. Most of the wastewater irrigated varieties displayed upto 6% increase in production, except Menaka and PB-1121, which showed a reduction in production (6% and 3% respectively), due to pest and insect infestation. The treated wastewater was observed to be rich in Nitrogen (55.94 mg/ml Nitrate), Phosphorus (54.24 mg/ml) and Potassium (9.78 mg/ml), thus rejuvenating the soil quality and not requiring any external nutritional supplements. Percentage increase of GHG gases on irrigation with treated municipal waste water as compared to control plots was observed as 0.4% - 8.6% (CH4), 1.1% - 9.2% (CO2), and 0.07% - 5.8% (N2O). The variety, Sharbati, displayed maximum production (5.5 ton/ha) and emerged as the most resistant variety against pests and insects. The emission values of CH4 ,CO2 and N2O were 729.31 mg/m2/d, 322.10 mg/m2/d and 400.21 mg/m2/d in water stagnant condition. This study highlighted a successful possibility of reuse of wastewater for non-potable purposes offering the potential for exploiting this resource that can replace or reduce existing use of fresh water sources in agricultural sector.

Keywords: greenhouse gases, nutrients, water footprint, wastewater irrigation

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55 Monitoring and Improving Performance of Soil Aquifer Treatment System and Infiltration Basins Performance: North Gaza Emergency Sewage Treatment Plant as Case Study

Authors: Sadi Ali, Yaser Kishawi


As part of Palestine, Gaza Strip (365 km2 and 1.8 million habitants) is considered a semi-arid zone relies solely on the Coastal Aquifer. The coastal aquifer is only source of water with only 5-10% suitable for human use. This barely cover the domestic and agricultural needs of Gaza Strip. Palestinian Water Authority Strategy is to find non-conventional water resource from treated wastewater to irrigate 1500 hectares and serves over 100,000 inhabitants. A new WWTP project is to replace the old-overloaded Biet Lahia WWTP. The project consists of three parts; phase A (pressure line & 9 infiltration basins - IBs), phase B (a new WWTP) and phase C (Recovery and Reuse Scheme – RRS – to capture the spreading plume). Currently, phase A is functioning since Apr 2009. Since Apr 2009, a monitoring plan is conducted to monitor the infiltration rate (I.R.) of the 9 basins. Nearly 23 million m3 of partially treated wastewater were infiltrated up to Jun 2014. It is important to maintain an acceptable rate to allow the basins to handle the coming quantities (currently 10,000 m3 are pumped an infiltrated daily). The methodology applied was to review and analysis the collected data including the I.R.s, the WW quality and the drying-wetting schedule of the basins. One of the main findings is the relation between the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) at BLWWTP and the I.R. at the basins. Since April 2009, the basins scored an average I.R. of about 2.5 m/day. Since then the records showed a decreasing pattern of the average rate until it reached the lower value of 0.42 m/day in Jun 2013. This was accompanied with an increase of TSS (mg/L) concentration at the source reaching above 200 mg/L. The reducing of TSS concentration directly improved the I.R. (by cleaning the WW source ponds at Biet Lahia WWTP site). This was reflected in an improvement in I.R. in last 6 months from 0.42 m/day to 0.66 m/day then to nearly 1.0 m/day as the average of the last 3 months of 2013. The wetting-drying scheme of the basins was observed (3 days wetting and 7 days drying) besides the rainfall rates. Despite the difficulty to apply this scheme accurately a control of flow to each basin was applied to improve the I.R. The drying-wetting system affected the I.R. of individual basins, thus affected the overall system rate which was recorded and assessed. Also the ploughing activities at the infiltration basins as well were recommended at certain times to retain a certain infiltration level. This breaks the confined clogging layer which prevents the infiltration. It is recommended to maintain proper quality of WW infiltrated to ensure an acceptable performance of IBs. The continual maintenance of settling ponds at BLWWTP, continual ploughing of basins and applying soil treatment techniques at the IBs will improve the I.R.s. When the new WWTP functions a high standard effluent quality (TSS 20mg, BOD 20 mg/l and TN 15 mg/l) will be infiltrated, thus will enhance I.R.s of IBs due to lower organic load.

Keywords: SAT, wastewater quality, soil remediation, North Gaza

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54 Review of the Nutritional Value of Spirulina as a Potential Replacement of Fishmeal in Aquafeed

Authors: Onada Olawale Ahmed


As the intensification of aquaculture production increases on global scale, the growing concern of fish farmers around the world is related to cost of fish production, where cost of feeding takes substantial percentage. Fishmeal (FM) is one of the most expensive ingredients, and its high dependence in aqua-feed production translates to high cost of feeding of stocked fish. However, to reach a sustainable aquaculture, new alternative protein sources including cheaper plant or animal origin proteins are needed to be introduced for stable aqua-feed production. Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has good nutrient profile that could be useful in aquaculture. This review therefore emphasizes on the nutritional value of Spirulina as a potential replacement of FM in aqua-feed. Spirulina is a planktonic photosynthetic filamentous cyanobacterium that forms massive populations in tropical and subtropical bodies of water with high levels of carbonate and bicarbonate. Spirulina grows naturally in nutrient rich alkaline lake with water salinity ( > 30 g/l) and high pH (8.5–11.0). Its artificial production requires luminosity (photo-period 12/12, 4 luxes), temperature (30 °C), inoculum, water stirring device, dissolved solids (10–60 g/litre), pH (8.5– 10.5), good water quality, and macro and micronutrient presence (C, N, P, K, S, Mg, Na, Cl, Ca and Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Se). Spirulina has also been reported to grow on agro-industrial waste such as sugar mill waste effluent, poultry industry waste, fertilizer factory waste, and urban waste and organic matter. Chemical composition of Spirulina indicates that it has high nutritional value due to its content of 55-70% protein, 14-19% soluble carbohydrate, high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), 1.5–2.0 percent of 5–6 percent total lipid, all the essential minerals are available in spirulina which contributes about 7 percent (average range 2.76–3.00 percent of total weight) under laboratory conditions, β-carotene, B-group vitamin, vitamin E, iron, potassium and chlorophyll are also available in spirulina. Spirulina protein has a balanced composition of amino acids with concentration of methionine, tryptophan and other amino acids almost similar to those of casein, although, this depends upon the culture media used. Positive effects of spirulina on growth, feed utilization and stress and disease resistance of cultured fish have been reported in earlier studies. Spirulina was reported to replace up to 40% of fishmeal protein in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) diet and even higher replacement of fishmeal was possible in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), partial replacement of fish meal with spirulina in diets for parrot fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and Tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) has also been conducted. Spirulina have considerable potential for development, especially as a small-scale crop for nutritional enhancement and health improvement of fish. It is important therefore that more research needs to be conducted on its production, inclusion level in aqua-feed and its possible potential use of aquaculture.

Keywords: aquaculture, spirulina, fish nutrition, fish feed

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
53 Monitoring and Improving Performance of Soil Aquifer Treatment System and Infiltration Basins of North Gaza Emergency Sewage Treatment Plant as Case Study

Authors: Sadi Ali, Yaser Kishawi


As part of Palestine, Gaza Strip (365 km2 and 1.8 million habitants) is considered a semi-arid zone relies solely on the Coastal Aquifer. The coastal aquifer is only source of water with only 5-10% suitable for human use. This barely covers the domestic and agricultural needs of Gaza Strip. Palestinian Water Authority Strategy is to find non-conventional water resource from treated wastewater to irrigate 1500 hectares and serves over 100,000 inhabitants. A new WWTP project is to replace the old-overloaded Biet Lahia WWTP. The project consists of three parts; phase A (pressure line & 9 infiltration basins - IBs), phase B (a new WWTP) and phase C (Recovery and Reuse Scheme – RRS – to capture the spreading plume). Currently, phase A is functioning since Apr 2009. Since Apr 2009, a monitoring plan is conducted to monitor the infiltration rate (I.R.) of the 9 basins. Nearly 23 million m3 of partially treated wastewater were infiltrated up to Jun 2014. It is important to maintain an acceptable rate to allow the basins to handle the coming quantities (currently 10,000 m3 are pumped an infiltrated daily). The methodology applied was to review and analysis the collected data including the I.R.s, the WW quality and the drying-wetting schedule of the basins. One of the main findings is the relation between the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) at BLWWTP and the I.R. at the basins. Since April 2009, the basins scored an average I.R. of about 2.5 m/day. Since then the records showed a decreasing pattern of the average rate until it reached the lower value of 0.42 m/day in Jun 2013. This was accompanied with an increase of TSS (mg/L) concentration at the source reaching above 200 mg/L. The reducing of TSS concentration directly improved the I.R. (by cleaning the WW source ponds at Biet Lahia WWTP site). This was reflected in an improvement in I.R. in last 6 months from 0.42 m/day to 0.66 m/day then to nearly 1.0 m/day as the average of the last 3 months of 2013. The wetting-drying scheme of the basins was observed (3 days wetting and 7 days drying) besides the rainfall rates. Despite the difficulty to apply this scheme accurately a control of flow to each basin was applied to improve the I.R. The drying-wetting system affected the I.R. of individual basins, thus affected the overall system rate which was recorded and assessed. Also the ploughing activities at the infiltration basins as well were recommended at certain times to retain a certain infiltration level. This breaks the confined clogging layer which prevents the infiltration. It is recommended to maintain proper quality of WW infiltrated to ensure an acceptable performance of IBs. The continual maintenance of settling ponds at BLWWTP, continual ploughing of basins and applying soil treatment techniques at the IBs will improve the I.R.s. When the new WWTP functions a high standard effluent quality (TSS 20mg, BOD 20 mg/l, and TN 15 mg/l) will be infiltrated, thus will enhance I.R.s of IBs due to lower organic load.

Keywords: soil aquifer treatment, recovery and reuse scheme, infiltration basins, North Gaza

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
52 Alkaloid Levels in Experimental Lines of Ryegrass in Southtern Chile

Authors: Leonardo Parra, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz


One of the most important factors in beef and dairy production in the world as well as also in Chile, is related to the correct choice of cultivars or mixtures of forage grasses and legumes to ensure high yields and quality of grassland. However, a great problem is the persistence of the grasses as a result of the action of different hypogeous as epigean pests. The complex insect pests associated with grassland include white grubs (Hylamorpha elegans, Phytoloema herrmanni), blackworm (Dalaca pallens) and Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis). In Chile, the principal strategy utilized for controlling this pest is chemical control, through the use of synthetic insecticides, however, underground feeding habits of larval and flight activity of adults makes this uneconomic method. Furthermore, due to problems including environmental degradation, development of resistance and chemical residues, there is a worldwide interest in the use of alternative environmentally friendly pest control methods. In this sense, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in determining the role of endophyte fungi in controlling epigean and hypogeous pest. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces a “cocktail of alkaloids” where peramine is the main toxic substance present in endophyte of ryegrass and responsible for damage reduction of L. bonariensis. In the last decade, few studies have been developed on the effectiveness of new ryegrass cultivars carriers of endophyte in controlling insect pests. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide knowledge concerning to evaluate the alkaloid content, such as peramine and Lolitrem B, present in new experimental lines of ryegrass and feasible to be used in grasslands of southern Chile. For this, during 2016, ryegrass plants of six experimental lines and two commercial cultivars sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carrillanca (Vilcún, Chile) were collected and subjected to a process of chemical extraction to identify and quantify the presence of peramine and lolitrem B by the technique of liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results indicated that the experimental lines EL-1 and EL-3 had high content of peramine (0.25 and 0.43 ppm, respectively) than with lolitrem B (0.061 and 0.19 ppm, respectively). Furthermore, the higher contents of lolitrem B were detected in the EL-4 and commercial cultivar Alto (positive control) with 0.08 and 0.17 ppm, respectively. Peramine and lolitrem B were not detected in the cultivar Jumbo (negative control). These results suggest that EL-3 would have potential as future cultivate because it has high content of peramine, alkaloid responsible for controlling insect pest. However, their current role on the complex insects attacking ryegrass grasslands should be evaluated. The information obtained in this research could be used to improve control strategies against hypogeous and epigean pests of grassland in southern Chile and also to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides.

Keywords: HPLC, Lolitrem B, peramine, pest

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51 Reduction of Specific Energy Consumption in Microfiltration of Bacillus velezensis Broth by Air Sparging and Turbulence Promoter

Authors: Jovana Grahovac, Ivana Pajcin, Natasa Lukic, Jelena Dodic, Aleksandar Jokic


To obtain purified biomass to be used in the plant pathogen biocontrol or as soil biofertilizer, it is necessary to eliminate residual broth components at the end of the fermentation process. The main drawback of membrane separation techniques is permeate flux decline due to the membrane fouling. Fouling mitigation measures increase the pressure drop along membrane channel due to the increased resistance to flow of the feed suspension, thus increasing the hydraulic power drop. At the same time, these measures lead to an increase in the permeate flux due to the reduced resistance of the filtration cake on the membrane surface. Because of these opposing effects, the energy efficiency of fouling mitigation measures is limited, and the justification of its application is provided by information on a reducing specific energy consumption compared to a case without any measures employed. In this study, the influence of static mixer (Kenics) and air-sparging (two-phase flow) on reduction of specific energy consumption (ER) was investigated. Cultivation Bacillus velezensis was carried out in the 3-L bioreactor (Biostat® Aplus) containing 2 L working volume with two parallel Rushton turbines and without internal baffles. Cultivation was carried out at 28 °C on at 150 rpm with an aeration rate of 0.75 vvm during 96 h. The experiments were carried out in a conventional cross-flow microfiltration unit. During experiments, permeate and retentate were recycled back to the broth vessel to simulate continuous process. The single channel ceramic membrane (TAMI Deutschland) used had a nominal pore size 200 nm with the length of 250 mm and an inner/external diameter of 6/10 mm. The useful membrane channel surface was 4.33×10⁻³ m². Air sparging was brought by the pressurized air connected by a three-way valve to the feed tube by a simple T-connector without diffusor. The different approaches to flux improvement are compared in terms of energy consumption. Reduction of specific energy consumption compared to microfiltration without fouling mitigation is around 49% and 63%, for use of two-phase flow and a static mixer, respectively. In the case of a combination of these two fouling mitigation methods, ER is 60%, i.e., slightly lower compared to the use of turbulence promoter alone. The reason for this result can be found in the fact that flux increase is more affected by the presence of a Kenics static mixer while sparging results in an increase of energy used during microfiltration. By comparing combined method with turbulence promoter flux enhancement method ER is negative (-7%) which can be explained by increased power consumption for air flow with moderate contribution to the flux increase. Another confirmation for this fact can be found by comparing energy consumption values for combined method with energy consumption in the case of two-phase flow. In this instance energy reduction (ER) is 22% that demonstrates that turbulence promoter is more efficient compared to two phase flow. Antimicrobial activity of Bacillus velezensis biomass against phytopathogenic isolates Xanthomonas campestris was preserved under different fouling reduction methods.

Keywords: Bacillus velezensis, microfiltration, static mixer, two-phase flow

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50 Engineering Economic Analysis of Implementing a Materials Recovery Facility in Jamaica: A Green Industry Approach towards a Sustainable Developing Economy

Authors: Damian Graham, Ashleigh H. Hall, Damani R. Sulph, Michael A. James, Shawn B. Vassell


This paper assesses the design and feasibility of a Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) in Jamaica as a possible green industry approach to the nation’s economic and solid waste management problems. Jamaica is a developing nation that is vulnerable to climate change that can affect its blue economy and tourism on which it is heavily reliant. Jamaica’s National Solid Waste Management Authority (NSWMA) collects only a fraction of all the solid waste produced annually which is then transported to dumpsites. The remainder is either burnt by the population or disposed of illegally. These practices negatively impact the environment, threaten the sustainability of economic growth from blue economy and tourism and its waste management system is predominantly a cost centre. The implementation of an MRF could boost the manufacturing sector, contribute to economic growth, and be a catalyst in creating a green industry with multiple downstream value chains with supply chain linkages. Globally, there is a trend to reuse and recycle that created an international market for recycled solid waste. MRFs enable the efficient sorting of solid waste into desired recoverable materials thus providing a gateway for entrance to the international trading of recycled waste. Research into the current state and effort to improve waste management in Jamaica in contrast with the similar and more advanced territories are outlined. The study explores the concept of green industrialization and its applicability to vulnerable small state economies like Jamaica. The study highlights the possible contributions and benefits derived from MRFs as a seeding factory that can anchor the reverse and forward logistics of other green industries as part of a logistic-cantered economy. Further, the study showcases an engineering economic analysis that assesses the viability of the implementation of an MRF in Jamaica. This research outlines the potential cost of constructing and operating an MRF and provides a realistic cash flow estimate to establish a baseline for profitability. The approach considers quantitative and qualitative data, assumptions, and modelling using industrial engineering tools and techniques that are outlined. Techniques of facility planning, system analysis and operations research with a focus on linear programming techniques are expressed. Approaches to overcome some implementation challenges including policy, technology and public education are detailed. The results of this study present a reasonable judgment of the prospects of incorporating an MRF to improve Jamaica’s solid waste management and contribute to socioeconomic and environmental benefits and an alternate pathway for economic sustainability.

Keywords: engineering-economic analysis, facility design, green industry, MRF, manufacturing, plant layout, solid-waste management, sustainability, waste disposal

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
49 Population Diversity of Dalmatian Pyrethrum Based on Pyrethrin Content and Composition

Authors: Filip Varga, Nina Jeran, Martina Biosic, Zlatko Satovic, Martina Grdisa


Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium /Trevir./ Sch. Bip.), a species endemic to the eastern Adriatic coastline, is the source of natural insecticide pyrethrin. Pyrethrin is a mixture of six compounds (pyrethrin I and II, cinerin I and II, jasmolin I and II) that exhibits high insecticidal activity with no detrimental effects to the environment. A recently optimized matrix-solid phase dispersion method (MSPD), using florisil as the sorbent, acetone-ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) as the elution solvent, and sodium sulfate anhydrous as the drying agent was utilized to extract the pyrethrins from 10 wild populations (20 individuals per population) distributed along the Croatian coast. All six components in the extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Pearson’s correlation index was calculated between pyrethrin compounds, and differences between the populations using the analysis of variance were tested. Additionally, the correlation of each pyrethrin component with spatio-ecological variables (bioclimate, soil properties, elevation, solar radiation, and distance from the coastline) was calculated. Total pyrethrin content ranged from 0.10% to 1.35% of dry flower weight, averaging 0.58% across all individuals. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between populations based on all six pyrethrin compounds and total pyrethrin content. On average, the lowest total pyrethrin content was found in the population from Pelješac peninsula (0.22% of dry flower weight) in which total pyrethrin content lower than 0.18% was detected in 55% of the individuals. The highest average total pyrethrin content was observed in the population from island Zlarin (0.87% of dry flower weight), in which total pyrethrin content higher than 1.00% was recorded in only 30% of the individuals. Pyrethrin I/pyrethrin II ratio as a measure of extract quality ranged from 0.21 (population from the island Čiovo) to 5.88 (population from island Mali Lošinj) with an average of 1.77 across all individuals. By far, the lowest quality of extracts was found in the population from Mt. Biokovo (pyrethrin I/II ratio lower than 0.72 in 40% of individuals) due to the high pyrethrin II content typical for this population. Pearson’s correlation index revealed a highly significant positive correlation between pyrethrin I content and total pyrethrin content and a strong negative correlation between pyrethrin I and pyrethrin II. The results of this research clearly indicate high intra- and interpopulation diversity of Dalmatian pyrethrum with regards to pyrethrin content and composition. The information obtained has potential use in plant genetic resources conservation and biodiversity monitoring. Possibly the largest potential lies in designing breeding programs aimed at increasing pyrethrin content in commercial breeding lines and reintroduction in agriculture in Croatia. Acknowledgment: This work has been fully supported by the Croatian Science Foundation under the project ‘Genetic background of Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium /Trevir/ Sch. Bip.) insecticidal potential’ - (PyrDiv) (IP-06-2016-9034).

Keywords: Dalmatian pyrethrum, HPLC, MSPD, pyrethrin

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48 Isoflavonoid Dynamic Variation in Red Clover Genotypes

Authors: Andrés Quiroz, Emilio Hormazábal, Ana Mutis, Fernando Ortega, Loreto Méndez, Leonardo Parra


Red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the main insect pest associated to red clover, Trifolium pratense L. An average of 1.5 H. obscurus per plant can cause 5.5% reduction in forage yield in pastures of two to three years old. Moreover, insect attack can reach 70% to 100% of the plants. To our knowledge, there is no a chemical strategy for controlling this pest. Therefore alternative strategies for controlling H. obscurus are a high priority for red clover producers. One of this alternative is related to the study of secondary metabolites involved in intrinsic chemical defenses developed by plants, such as isoflavonoids. The isoflavonoids formononetin and daidzein have elicited an antifeedant and phagostimult effect on H. obscurus respectively. However, we do not know how is the dynamic variation of these isoflavonoids under field conditions. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the variation of the antifeedant isoflavonoids formononetin, the phagostimulant isoflavonoids daidzein, and their respective glycosides over time in different ecotypes of red clover. Fourteen red clover ecotypes (8 cultivars and 6 experimental lines), were collected at INIA-Carillanca (La Araucanía, Chile). These plants were established in October 2015 under irrigated conditions. The cultivars were distributed in a randomized complete block with three replicates. The whole plants were sampled in four times: 15th October 2016, 12th December 2016, 27th January 2017 and 16th March 2017 with sufficient amount of soil to avoid root damage. A polar fraction of isoflavonoid was obtained from 20 mg of lyophilized root tissue extracted with 2 mL of 80% MeOH for 16 h using an orbital shaker in the dark at room temperature. After, an aliquot of 1.4 mL of the supernatant was evaporated, and the residue was resuspended in 300 µL of 45% MeOH. The identification and quantification of isoflavonoid root extracts were performed by the injection of 20 µL into a Shimadzu HPLC equipped with a C-18 column. The sample was eluted with a mobile phase composed of AcOH: H₂O (1:9 v/v) as solvent A and CH₃CN as solvent B. The detection was performed at 260 nm. The results showed that the amount of aglycones was higher than the respective glycosides. This result is according to the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids, where the formation of glycoside is further to the glycosides biosynthesis. The amount of formononetin was higher than daidzein. In roots, where H. obscurus spent the most part of its live cycle, the highest content of formononetin was found in G 27, Pawera, Sabtoron High, Redqueli-INIA and Superqueli-INIA cvs. (2.1, 1.8, 1.8, 1.6 and 1.0 mg g⁻¹ respectively); and the lowest amount of daidzein were found Superqueli-INIA (0.32 mg g⁻¹) and in the experimental line Sel Syn Int4 (0.24 mg g⁻¹). This ecotype showed a high content of formononetin (0.9 mg g⁻¹). This information, associated with cultural practices, could help farmers and breeders to reduce H. obscurus in grassland, selecting ecotypes with high content of formononetin and low amount of daidzein in the roots of red clover plants. Acknowledgements: FONDECYT 1141245 and 11130715.

Keywords: daidzein, formononetin, isoflavonoid glycosides, trifolium pratense

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47 Nanocomplexes on the Base of Triterpene Saponins Isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Saponaria officinalis Plants as an Efficient Adjuvants for Influenza Vaccine Use

Authors: Vladimir Berezin, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Pavel Alexyuk, Madina Alexyuk, Aizhan Turmagambetova, Irina Zaitseva, Nadezhda Sokolova, Elmira Omirtaeva


Introduction: Triterpene saponins of plant origin are one of the most promising candidates for elaboration of novel adjuvants. Due to the combination of immunostimulating activity and the capacity interact with amphipathic molecules with formation of highly immunogenic nanocomplexes, triterpene saponins could serve as a good adjuvant/delivery system for vaccine use. In the research presented adjuvants on the base of nanocomplexes contained triterpene saponins isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Saponaria officinalis plants indigenous to Kazakhstan were elaborated for influenza vaccine use. Methods: Purified triterpene saponins 'Glabilox' and 'SO1' with low toxicity and high immunostimulatory activity were isolated from plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Saponaria officinalis L. by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Influenza virus A/St-Petersburg/5/09 (H1N1) propagated in 9-days old chicken embryos was concentrated and purified by centrifugation in sucrose gradient. Nanocomplexes contained lipids, and triterpene saponins Glabilox or SO1 were prepared by dialysis technique. Immunostimulating activity of experimental vaccine preparations was studied in vaccination/challenge experiments in mice. Results: Humoral and cellular immune responses and protection against influenza virus infection were examined after single subcutaneous and intranasal immunization. Mice were immunized subunit influenza vaccine (HA+NA) or whole virus inactivated influenza vaccine in doses 3.0/5.0/10.0 µg antigen/animal mixed with adjuvant in dose 15.0 µg/animal. Sera were taken 14-21 days following single immunization and mice challenged by A/St-Petersburg/5/09 influenza virus in dose 100 EID₅₀. Study of experimental influenza vaccine preparations in animal immunization experiments has shown that subcutaneous and intranasal immunization with subunit influenza vaccine mixed with nanocomplexes contained Glabilox or SO1 saponins stimulated high levels of humoral immune response (IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody) and cellular immune response (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ cytokines) and resulted 80-90% protection against lethal influenza infection. Also, single intranasal and single subcutaneous immunization with whole virus inactivated influenza vaccine mixed with nanoparticulated adjuvants stimulated high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses and provided 100% protection against lethal influenza infection. Conclusion: The results of study have shown that nanocomplexes contained purified triterpene saponins Glabilox and SO1 isolated from plants indigenous to Kazakhstan can stimulate a broad spectrum of humoral and cellular immune responses and induce protection against lethal influenza infection. Both elaborated adjuvants are promising for incorporation to influenza vaccine intended for subcutaneous and intranasal routes of immunization.

Keywords: influenza vaccine, adjuvants, triterpene saponins, immunostimulating activity

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46 Biological Monitoring: Vegetation Cover, Bird Assemblages, Rodents, Terrestrial and Aquatic Invertebrates from a Closed Landfill

Authors: A. Cittadino, P. Gantes, C. Coviella, M. Casset, A. Sanchez Caro


Three currently active landfills receive the waste from Buenos Aires city and the Great Buenos Aires suburbs. One of the first landfills to receive solid waste from this area was located in Villa Dominico, some 7 km south from Buenos Aires City. With an area of some 750 ha, including riparian habitats, divided into 14 cells, it received solid wastes from June 1979 through February 2004. In December 2010, a biological monitoring program was set up by CEAMSE and Universidad Nacional de Lujan, still operational to date. The aim of the monitoring program is to assess the state of several biological groups within the landfill and to follow their dynamics overtime in order to identify if any, early signs of damage the landfill activities might have over the biota present. Bird and rodent populations, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates’ populations, cells vegetation coverage, and surrounding areas vegetation coverage and main composition are followed by quarterly samplings. Bird species richness and abundance were estimated by observation over walk transects on each environment. A total of 74 different species of birds were identified. Species richness and diversity were high for both riparian surrounding areas and within the landfill. Several grassland -typical of the 'Pampa'- bird species were found within the landfill, as well as some migratory and endangered bird species. Sherman and Tomahawk traps are set overnight for small mammal sampling. Rodent populations are just above detection limits, and the few specimens captured belong mainly to species common to rural areas, instead of city-dwelling species. The two marsupial species present in the region were captured on occasions. Aquatic macroinvertebrates were sampled on a watercourse upstream and downstream the outlet of the landfill’s wastewater treatment plant and are used to follow water quality using biological indices. Water quality ranged between weak and severe pollution; benthic invertebrates sampled before and after the landfill, show no significant differences in water quality using the IBMWP index. Insect biota from yellow sticky cards and pitfall traps showed over 90 different morphospecies, with Shannon diversity index running from 1.9 to 3.9, strongly affected by the season. An easy-to-perform non-expert demandant method was used to assess vegetation coverage. Two scales of determination are utilized: field observation (1 m resolution), and Google Earth images (that allow for a better than 5 m resolution). Over the eight year period of the study, vegetation coverage over the landfill cells run from a low 83% to 100% on different cells, with an average between 95 to 99% for the entire landfill depending on seasonality. Surrounding area vegetation showed almost 100% coverage during the entire period, with an average density from 2 to 6 species per sq meter and no signs of leachate damaged vegetation.

Keywords: biological indicators, biota monitoring, landfill species diversity, waste management

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45 Enzymatic Determination of Limonene in Red Clover Genotypes

Authors: Andrés Quiroz, Emilio Hormazabal, Ana Mutis, Fernando Ortega, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Leonardo Parra


Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage species in temperate regions of the world. The main limitation of this species worldwide is a lack of persistence related to the high mortality of plants due to a complex of biotic and abiotic factors, determining a life span of two or three seasons. Because of the importance of red clover in Chile, a red clover breeding program was started at INIA Carillanca Research Center in 1989, with the main objective of improving the survival of plants, forage yield, and persistence. The main selection criteria for selecting new varieties have been based on agronomical parameters and biotic factors. The main biotic factor associated with red clover mortality in Chile is Hylastinus obscurus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Both larval and adults feed on the roots, causing weakening and subsequent death of clover plants. Pesticides have not been successful for controlling infestations of this root borer. Therefore, alternative strategies for controlling this pest are a high priority for red clover producers. Currently, the role of semiochemical in the interaction between H. obscurus and red clover plants has been widely studied for our group. Specifically, from the red clover foliage has been identified limonene is eliciting repellency from the root borer. Limonene is generated in the plant from two independent biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonic acid, and deoxyxylulose pathway. Mevalonate pathway enzymes are localized in the cytosol, whereas the deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway enzymes are found in plastids. In summary, limonene can be determinated by enzymatic bioassay using GPP as substrate and by limonene synthase expression. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study genetic variation of limonene in material provided by INIA´s Red Clover breeding program. Protein extraction was carried out homogenizing 250 mg of leave tissue and suspended in 6 mL of extraction buffer (PEG 1500, PVP-30, 20 mM MgCl2 and antioxidants) and stirred on ice for 20 min. After centrifugation, aliquots of 2.5 mL were desalted on PD-10 columns, resulting in a final volume of 3.5 mL. Protein determination was performed according to Bradford with BSA as a standard. Monoterpene synthase assays were performed with 50 µL of protein extracts transferred into gas-tight 2 mL crimp seal vials after addition of 4 µL MgCl₂ and 41 µL assay buffer. The assay was started by adding 5 µL of a GPP solution. The mixture was incubated for 30 min at 40 °C. Biosynthesized limonene was quantified in a GC equipped with a chiral column and using synthetic R and S-limonene standards. The enzymatic the production of R and S-limonene from different Superqueli-Carillanca genotypes is shown in this work. Preliminary results showed significant differences in limonene content among the genotypes analyzed. These results constitute an important base for selecting genotypes with a high content of this repellent monoterpene towards H. obscurus.

Keywords: head space, limonene enzymatic determination, red clover, Hylastinus obscurus

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44 Characterization of Bio-Inspired Thermoelastoplastic Composites Filled with Modified Cellulose Fibers

Authors: S. Cichosz, A. Masek


A new cellulose hybrid modification approach, which is undoubtedly a scientific novelty, is introduced. The study reports the properties of cellulose (Arbocel UFC100 – Ultra Fine Cellulose) and characterizes cellulose filled polymer composites based on an ethylene-norbornene copolymer (TOPAS Elastomer E-140). Moreover, the approach of physicochemical two-stage cellulose treatment is introduced: solvent exchange (to ethanol or hexane) and further chemical modification with maleic anhydride (MA). Furthermore, the impact of the drying process on cellulose properties was investigated. Suitable measurements were carried out to characterize cellulose fibers: spectroscopic investigation (Fourier Transform Infrared Spektrofotometer-FTIR, Near InfraRed spectroscopy-NIR), thermal analysis (Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermal gravimetric analysis ) and Karl Fischer titration. It should be emphasized that for all UFC100 treatments carried out, a decrease in moisture content was evidenced. FT-IR reveals a drop in absorption band intensity at 3334 cm-1, the peak is associated with both –OH moieties and water. Similar results were obtained with Karl Fischer titration. Based on the results obtained, it may be claimed that the employment of ethanol contributes greatly to the lowering of cellulose water absorption ability (decrease of moisture content to approximately 1.65%). Additionally, regarding polymer composite properties, crucial data has been obtained from the mechanical and thermal analysis. The highest material performance was noted in the case of the composite sample that contained cellulose modified with MA after a solvent exchange with ethanol. This specimen exhibited sufficient tensile strength, which is almost the same as that of the neat polymer matrix – in the region of 40 MPa. Moreover, both the Payne effect and filler efficiency factor, calculated based on dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), reveal the possibility of the filler having a reinforcing nature. What is also interesting is that, according to the Payne effect results, fibers dried before the further chemical modification are assumed to allow more regular filler structure development in the polymer matrix (Payne effect maximum at 1.60 MPa), compared with those not dried (Payne effect in the range 0.84-1.26 MPa). Furthermore, taking into consideration the data gathered from DSC and TGA, higher thermal stability is obtained in case of the materials filled with fibers that were dried before the carried out treatments (degradation activation energy in the region of 195 kJ/mol) in comparison with the polymer composite samples filled with unmodified cellulose (degradation activation energy of approximately 180 kJ/mol). To author’s best knowledge this work results in the introduction of a novel, new filler hybrid treatment approach. Moreover, valuable data regarding the properties of composites filled with cellulose fibers of various moisture contents have been provided. It should be emphasized that plant fiber-based polymer bio-materials described in this research might contribute significantly to polymer waste minimization because they are more readily degraded.

Keywords: cellulose fibers, solvent exchange, moisture content, ethylene-norbornene copolymer

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43 Augmented Reality to Support the Design of Innovative Agroforestry Systems

Authors: Laetitia Lemiere, Marie Gosme, Gerard Subsol, Marc Jaeger


Agroforestry is recognized as a way of developing sustainable and resilient agriculture that can fight against climate change. However, the number of species combinations, spatial configurations, and management options for trees and crops is vast. These choices must be adapted to the pedoclimatic and socio-economic contexts and to the objectives of the farmer, who therefore needs support in designing his system. Participative design workshops are a good way to integrate the knowledge of several experts in order to design such complex systems. The design of agroforestry systems should take into account both spatial aspects (e.g., spacing of trees within the lines and between lines, tree line orientation, tree-crop distance, species spatial patterns) and temporal aspects (e.g., crop rotations, tree thinning and pruning, tree planting in the case of successional agroforestry). Furthermore, the interactions between trees and crops evolve as the trees grow. However, agroforestry design workshops generally emphasize the spatial aspect only through the use of static tokens to represent the different species when designing the spatial configuration of the system. Augmented reality (AR) may overcome this limitation, allowing to visualize dynamic representations of trees and crops, and also their interactions, while at the same time retaining the possibility to physically interact with the system being designed (i.e., move trees, add or remove species, etc.). We propose an ergonomic digital solution capable of assisting a group of agroforestry experts to design an agroforestry system and to represent it. We investigated the use of web-based marker-based AR that does not require specific hardware and does not require specific installation so that all users could use their own smartphones right out of the pocket. We developed a prototype mobilizing the AR.js, ArToolKit.js, and Three.js open source libraries. In our implementation, we gradually build a virtual agroforestry system pattern scene from the users' interactions. A specific set of markers initialize the scene properties, and the various plant species are added and located during the workshop design session. The full virtual scene, including the trees positions with their neighborhood, are saved for further uses, such as virtual, augmented instantiation in the farmer fields. The number of tree species available in the application is gradually increasing; we mobilize 3D digital models for walnut, poplar, wild cherry, and other popular species used in agroforestry systems. The prototype allows shadow computations and the representation of trees at various growth stages, as well as different tree generations, and is thus able to visualize the dynamics of the system over time. Future work will focus on i) the design of complex patterns mobilizing several tree/shrub organizations, not restricted to lines; ii) the design of interfaces related to cultural practices, such as clearing or pruning; iii) the representation of tree-crop interactions. Beside tree shade (light competition), our objective is to represent also below-ground competitions (water, nitrogen) or other variables of interest for the design of agroforestry systems (e.g., predicted crop yield).

Keywords: agroforestry system design, augmented reality, marker-based AR, participative design, web-based AR

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42 Inventory and Pollinating Role of Bees (Hymenoptera: apoidea) on Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (Brassicaceae) in Constantine Area (Algeria)

Authors: Benachour Karima


Pollination is a key factor in crop production and the presence of insect pollinators, mainly wild bees, is essential for improving yields. In this work, visiting apoids of two vegetable crops, the turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (Brassicaceae) were recorded during flowering times of 2003 and 2004 in Constantine area (36°22’N 06°37’E, 660 m). The observations were conducted in a plot of approximately 308 m2 of the Institute of Nutrition, Food and Food Technology (University of Mentouri Brothers). To estimate the density of bees (per 100 flowers or m2), 07 plots (01m2 for each one) are defined from the edge of the culture and in the first two rows. From flowering and every two days, foraging insects are recorded from 09 am until 17 pm (Gmt+1).The purpose of visit (collecting nectar, pollen or both) and pollinating efficiency (estimated by the number of flowers visited per minute and the number of positive visits) were noted for the most abundant bees on flowers. The action of pollinating insects is measured by comparing seed yields of 07 plots covered with tulle with 07 other accessible to pollinators. 04 families of Apoidea: Apidae, Halictidae, Andrenidae and Megachilidae were observed on the two plants. On turnip, the honeybee is the most common visitor (on average 214visites/ m2), it is followed by the Halictidae Lasioglossum mediterraneum whose visits are less intense (20 individuals/m2). Visits by Andrenidae, represented by several species such as Andrena lagopus, A.flavipes, A.agilissima and A.rhypara were episodic. The honeybee collected mainly nectar, its visits were all potentially fertilizing (contact with stigma) and more frequent (on average 14 flowers/min. L.mediterraneum visited only 05 flrs/min, it collected mostly the two products together and all its visits were also positive. On radish, the wild bee Ceratina cucurbitina recorded the highest number of visits (on average 06 individuals/100flo wers), the Halictidae represented mainly by L.mediterraneum, and L.malachurum, L.pauxillum were less abundant. C.cucurbitina visited on average 10 flowers /min and all its visits are positive. Visits of Halictidae were less frequent (05-06 flowers/min) and not all fertilizing. Seed yield of Brassica rapa (average number of pods /plant, seeds/ pods and average weight of 1000 seeds) was significantly higher in the presence of pollinators. Similarly, the pods of caged plants gave a percentage of aborted seeds (10.3%) significantly higher than that obtained on free plants (4.12%), the pods of caged plants also gave a percentage of malformed seeds (1.9%) significantly higher than that of the free plants (0.9%). For radish, the seed yield in the presence and absence of insects are almost similar. Only the percentage of malformed seeds (3.8%) obtained from the pods of caged plants was significantly higher in comparison with pods of free plants (1.9%). Following these results, it is clear that pollinators especially bees are essential for the production and improvement of crop yields and therefore it is necessary to protect this fauna increasingly threatened.

Keywords: foraging behavior, honey bee, radish, seed yield, turnip, wild bee

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41 On the Lithology of Paleocene-Lower Eocene Deposits of the Achara-Trialeti Fold Zone: The Lesser Caucasus

Authors: Nino Kobakhidze, Endi Varsimashvili, Davit Makadze


The Caucasus is a link of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belt and involves the Greater Caucasus and the Lesser Caucasus fold systems and the Intermountain area. The study object is located within the northernmost part of the Lesser Caucasus orogen, in the eastern part of Achara-Trialeti fold -thrust belt. This area was rather well surveyed in 70th of the twentieth century in terms of oil-and-gas potential, but to our best knowledge, detailed sedimentological studies have not been conducted so far. In order to fill this gap, the authors of the present thesis started research in this direction. One of the objects selected for the research was the deposits of the Kavtura river valley situated on the northern slope of the Trialeti ridge. Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits known in scientific literature as ‘Borjomi Flysch’ (Turbidites) are exposed in the mentioned area. During the research, the following methodologies were applied: selection of key cross sections, a collection of rock samples, microscopic description of thin sections, mineralogical and petrological analysis of material and identification of trace fossils. The study of Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits starts with Kavtura river valley in the east, where they are well characterized by microfauna. The cross-section of the deposits starts with Danian variegated marlstone conformably overlain by the alternation of thick and thin-bedded sandstones (thickness 40-50 cm). They are continued with interbedded of thin-bedded sandstones and shales(thickness 4-5 m). On the sole surface of sandstones ichnogenera ‘Helmintopsis’ and ‘Scolicia’ are recorded and within the bed –‘Chondrites’ is found. Towards the Riverhead, there is a 1-2 m gap in sedimentation; then again the Paleocene-Lower Eocene sediments crop out. They starting with alternation of grey-green medium-grained sandstones and shales enclosing dark color plant detritus. They are overlain by the interbedded of calcareous sandstones and marls, where the thickness of sandstones is variable (20-70 cm). Ichnogenus – ‘Scolicia’ is found here. Upwards the above-mentioned deposits pass into Middle Eocenian volcanogenic-sedimentary suits. In the Kavtura river valley, the thickness of the Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits is 300-400 m. In the process of research, the following activities are conducted: the facial analysis of host rocks, correlation of the study section with other cross sections and interpretation of depositional environment of the area. In the area the authors have found and described ichnogenera; their preliminary determination have shown that they belong to pre-depositional (‘Helmintopsis’) and post-depositional (‘Chondrites’) forms. As known, during the Cretaceous-Paleogene time, the Achara-Trialeti fold-thrust belt extensional basin was the accumulation area with great thicknesses (from shallow to deep marine sediments). It is confirmed once more by the authors investigations preliminary results of paleoichnological studies inclusive.

Keywords: flysh deposits, lithology, The Lesser Caucasus, trace fossils

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40 European Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive Applied to Astronomical Observatories

Authors: Oibar Martinez, Clara Oliver


The Cherenkov Telescope Array Project (CTA) aims to build two different observatories of Cherenkov Telescopes, located in Cerro del Paranal, Chile, and La Palma, Spain. These facilities are used in this paper as a case study to investigate how to apply standard Directives on Electromagnetic Compatibility to astronomical observatories. Cherenkov Telescopes are able to provide valuable information from both Galactic and Extragalactic sources by measuring Cherenkov radiation, which is produced by particles which travel faster than light in the atmosphere. The construction requirements demand compliance with the European Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive. The largest telescopes of these observatories, called Large Scale Telescopes (LSTs), are high precision instruments with advanced photomultipliers able to detect the faint sub-nanosecond blue light pulses produced by Cherenkov Radiation. They have a 23-meter parabolic reflective surface. This surface focuses the radiation on a camera composed of an array of high-speed photosensors which are highly sensitive to the radio spectrum pollution. The camera has a field of view of about 4.5 degrees and has been designed for maximum compactness and lowest weight, cost and power consumption. Each pixel incorporates a photo-sensor able to discriminate single photons and the corresponding readout electronics. The first LST is already commissioned and intends to be operated as a service to Scientific Community. Because of this, it must comply with a series of reliability and functional requirements and must have a Conformité Européen (CE) marking. This demands compliance with Directive 2014/30/EU on electromagnetic compatibility. The main difficulty of accomplishing this goal resides on the fact that Conformité Européen marking setups and procedures were implemented for industrial products, whereas no clear protocols have been defined for scientific installations. In this paper, we aim to give an answer to the question on how the directive should be applied to our installation to guarantee the fulfillment of all the requirements and the proper functioning of the telescope itself. Experts in Optics and Electromagnetism were both needed to make these kinds of decisions and match tests which were designed to be made over the equipment of limited dimensions on large scientific plants. An analysis of the elements and configurations most likely to be affected by external interferences and those that are most likely to cause the maximum disturbances was also performed. Obtaining the Conformité Européen mark requires knowing what the harmonized standards are and how the elaboration of the specific requirement is defined. For this type of large installations, one needs to adapt and develop the tests to be carried out. In addition, throughout this process, certification entities and notified bodies play a key role in preparing and agreeing the required technical documentation. We have focused our attention mostly on the technical aspects of each point. We believe that this contribution will be of interest for other scientists involved in applying industrial quality assurance standards to large scientific plant.

Keywords: CE marking, electromagnetic compatibility, european directive, scientific installations

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39 Phycoremiadation of Heavy Metals by Marine Macroalgae Collected from Olaikuda, Rameswaram, Southeast Coast of India

Authors: Suparna Roy, Anatharaman Perumal


The industrial effluent with high amount of heavy metals is known to have adverse effects on the environment. For the removal of heavy metals from aqueous environment, different conventional treatment technologies had been applied gradually which are not economically beneficial and also produce huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. So, bio-sorption of heavy metals by marine plant is an eco-friendly innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the capacity of heavy metals accumulation and removal by some selected marine macroalgae (seaweeds) from marine environment. Methods: Seaweeds Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl.) Boergesen, Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Halimeda gracilis Harvey ex. J. Agardh, Gracilaria opuntia Durairatnam.nom. inval. Valoniopsis pachynema (Martens) Boergesen, Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (Sonder ex Kutzing) W. R. Taylor and Hydroclathrus clathratus (C. Agardh) Howe were collected from Olaikuda (09°17.526'N-079°19.662'E), Rameshwaram, south east coast of India during post monsoon period (April’2016). Seaweeds were washed with sterilized and filtered in-situ seawater repeatedly to remove all the epiphytes and debris and clean seaweeds were kept for shade drying for one week. The dried seaweeds were grinded to powder, and one gm powder seaweeds were taken in a 250ml conical flask, and 8 ml of 10 % HNO3 (70 % pure) was added to each sample and kept in room temperature (28 ̊C) for 24 hours and then samples were heated in hotplate at 120 ̊C, boiled to evaporate up to dryness and 20 ml of Nitric acid: Percholoric acid in 4:1 were added to it and again heated to hotplate at 90 ̊C up to evaporate to dryness, then samples were kept in room temperature for few minutes to cool and 10ml 10 % HNO3 were added to it and kept for 24 hours in cool and dark place and filtered with Whatman (589/2) filter paper and the filtrates were collected in 250ml clean conical flask and diluted accurately to 25 ml volume with double deionised water and triplicate of each sample were analysed with Inductively-Coupled plasma analysis (ICP-OES) to analyse total eleven heavy metals (Ag, Cd, B, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Al content of the specified species and data were statistically evaluated for standard deviation. Results: Acanthophora spicifera contains highest amount of Ag (0.1± 0.2 mg/mg) followed by Cu (0.16±0.01 mg/mg), Mn (1.86±0.02 mg/mg), B (3.59±0.2 mg/mg), Halimeda gracilis showed highest accumulation of Al (384.75±0.12mg/mg), Valoniopsis pachynema accumulates maximum amount of Co (0.12±0.01 mg/mg), Zn (0.64±0.02 mg/mg), Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa contains Zn (0.63±0.01), Cr (0.26±0.01 mg/mg ), Ni (0.21±0.05), Pb (0.16±0.03 ) and Cd ( 0.02±00 ). Hydroclathrus clathratus, Codium tomentosum and Gracilaria opuntia also contain adequate amount of heavy metals. Conclusions: The mentioned species of seaweeds are contributing important role for decreasing the heavy metals pollution in marine environment by bioaccumulation. So, we can utilise this species to remove excess amount of heavy metals from polluted area.

Keywords: heavy metals pollution, seaweeds, bioaccumulation, eco-friendly, phyco-remediation

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38 The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi (Thripinae: Thysanoptera): Vector for Tospoviruses

Authors: Kaomud Tyagi, Rajasree Chakraborty, Shantanu Kundu, Devkant Singha, Kailash Chandra, Vikas Kumar


The melon thrips, Thrips palmi is a serious pest of a wide range of agriculture crops and also act as vectors for plant viruses (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae). More molecular data on this species is required to understand the cryptic speciation and evolutionary affiliations. Mitochondrial genomes have been widely used in phylogenetic and evolutionary studies in insect. So far, mitogenomes of five thrips species (Anaphothrips obscurus, Frankliniella intonsa, Frankliniella occidentalis, Scirtothrips dorsalis and Thrips imaginis) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we sequenced the first complete mitogenome T. palmi and compared it with available thrips mitogenomes. We assembled the mitogenome from the whole genome sequencing data generated using Illumina Hiseq2500. Annotation was performed using MITOS web-server to estimate the location of protein coding genes (PCGs), transfer RNA (tRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and their secondary structures. The boundaries of PCGs and rRNAs was confirmed manually in NCBI. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the 13 PCGs data using maximum likelihood (ML) in PAUP, and Bayesian inference (BI) in MrBayes 3.2. The complete mitogenome of T. palmi was 15,333 base pairs (bp), which was greater than the genomes of A. obscurus (14,890bp), F. intonsa (15,215 bp), F. occidentalis (14,889 bp) and S. dorsalis South Asia strain (SA1) (14,283 bp), but smaller than the genomes of T. imaginis (15,407 bp) and S. dorsalis East Asia strain (EA1) (15,343bp). Like in other thrips species, the mitochondrial genome of T. palmi was represented by 37 genes, including 13 PCGs, large and small ribosomal RNA (rrnL and rrnS) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes (with one extra gene for trn-Serine) and two A+T-rich control regions (CR1 and CR2). Thirty one genes were observed on heavy (H) strand and six genes on the light (L) strand. The six tRNA genes (trnG,trnK, trnY, trnW, trnF, and trnH) were found to be conserved in all thrips species mitogenomes in their locations relative to a protein-coding or rRNA gene upstream or downstream. The gene arrangements of T. palmi is very close to T. imaginis except the rearrangements in tRNAs genes: trnR (arginine), and trnE (glutamic acid) were found to be located between cox3 and CR2 in T. imaginis which were translocated between atp6 and CR1 in T. palmi; trnL1 (Leucine) and trnS1(Serine) were located between atp6 and CR1 in T. imaginis which were translocated between cox3 and CR2 in T. palmi. The location of CR1 upstream of nad5 gene was suggested to be ancestral condition of the thrips species in subfamily Thripinae, was also observed in T. palmi. Both the Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) phylogenetic trees generated resulted in similar topologies. The T. palmi was clustered with T. imaginis. We concluded that more molecular data on the diverse thrips species from different hierarchical level is needed, to understand the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships among them.

Keywords: thrips, comparative mitogenomics, gene rearrangements, phylogenetic analysis

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37 In Vitro Studies on Antimicrobial Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fresh Fruits for Biocontrol of Pathogens

Authors: Okolie Pius Ifeanyi, Emerenini Emilymary Chima


Aims: The study investigated the diversity and identities of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from different fresh fruits using Molecular Nested PCR analysis and the efficacy of cell free supernatants from Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from fresh fruits for in vitro control of some tomato pathogens. Study Design: Nested PCR approach was used in this study employing universal 16S rRNA gene primers in the first round PCR and LAB specific Primers in the second round PCR with the view of generating specific Nested PCR products for the LAB diversity present in the samples. The inhibitory potentials of supernatant obtained from LAB isolates of fruits origin that were molecularly characterized were investigated against some tomato phytopathogens using agar-well method with the view to develop biological agents for some tomato disease causing organisms. Methodology: Gram positive, catalase negative strains of LAB were isolated from fresh fruits on Man Rogosa and Sharpe agar (Lab M) using streaking method. Isolates obtained were molecularly characterized by means of genomic DNA extraction kit (Norgen Biotek, Canada) method. Standard methods were used for Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification targeting the 16S rRNA gene using universal 16S rRNA gene and LAB specific primers, agarose gel electrophoresis, purification and sequencing of generated Nested PCR products (Macrogen Inc., USA). The partial sequences obtained were identified by blasting in the non-redundant nucleotide database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The antimicrobial activities of characterized LAB against some tomato phytopathogenic bacteria which include (Xanthomonas campestries, Erwinia caratovora, and Pseudomonas syringae) were obtained by using the agar well diffusion method. Results: The partial sequences obtained were deposited in the database of National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Isolates were identified based upon the sequences as Weissella cibaria (4, 18.18%), Weissella confusa (3, 13.64%), Leuconostoc paramensenteroides (1, 4.55%), Lactobacillus plantarum (8, 36.36%), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (1, 4.55%) and Lactobacillus pentosus (1, 4.55%). The cell free supernatants of LAB from fresh fruits origin (Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, Leuconostoc paramensenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus) can inhibits these bacteria by creating clear zones of inhibition around the wells containing cell free supernatants of the above mentioned strains of lactic acid bacteria. Conclusion: This study shows that potentially LAB can be quickly characterized by molecular methods to specie level by nested PCR analysis of the bacteria isolate genomic DNA using universal 16S rRNA primers and LAB specific primer. Tomato disease causing organisms can be most likely biologically controlled by using extracts from LAB. This finding will reduce the potential hazard from the use of chemical herbicides on plant.

Keywords: nested pcr, molecular characterization, 16s rRNA gene, lactic acid bacteria

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36 Understanding the Origins of Pesticides Metabolites in Natural Waters through the Land Use, Hydroclimatic Conditions and Water Quality

Authors: Alexis Grandcoin, Stephanie Piel, Estelle Baures


Brittany (France) is an agricultural region, where emerging pollutants are highly at risk to reach water bodies. Among them, pesticides metabolites are frequently detected in surface waters. The Vilaine watershed (11 000 km²) is of great interest, as a large drinking water treatment plant (100 000 m³/day) is located at the extreme downstream of it. This study aims to provide an evaluation of the pesticides metabolites pollution in the Vilaine watershed, and an understanding of their availability, in order to protect the water resource. Hydroclimatic conditions, land use, and water quality parameters controlling metabolites availability are emphasized. Later this knowledge will be used to understand the favoring conditions resulting in metabolites export towards surface water. 19 sampling points have been strategically chosen along the 220 km of the Vilaine river and its 3 main influents. Furthermore, the intakes of two drinking water plants have been sampled, one is located at the extreme downstream of the Vilaine river and the other is the riparian groundwater under the Vilaine river. 5 sampling campaigns with various hydroclimatic conditions have been carried out. Water quality parameters and hydroclimatic conditions have been measured. 15 environmentally relevant pesticides and metabolites have been analyzed. Also, these compounds are recalcitrant to classic water treatment that is why they have been selected. An evaluation of the watershed contamination has been done in 2016-2017. First observations showed that aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (MESA) are the most detected compounds in surface waters samples with 100 % and 98 % frequency of detection respectively. They are the main pollutants of the watershed regardless of the hydroclimatic conditions. AMPA concentration in the river strongly increases downstream of Rennes agglomeration (220k inhabitants) and reaches a maximum of 2.3 µg/l in low waters conditions. Groundwater contains mainly MESA, Diuron and metazachlor ESA at concentrations close to limits of quantification (LOQ) (0.02 µg/L). Metolachlor, metazachlor and alachlor due to their fast degradation in soils were found in small amounts (LOQ – 0.2 µg/L). Conversely glyphosate was regularly found during warm and sunny periods up to 0.6 µg/L. Soil uses (agricultural cultures types, urban areas, forests, wastewater treatment plants implementation), water quality parameters, and hydroclimatic conditions have been correlated to pesticides and metabolites concentration in waters. Statistical treatments showed that chloroacetamides metabolites and AMPA behave differently regardless of the hydroclimatic conditions. Chloroacetamides are correlated to each other, to agricultural areas and to typical agricultural tracers as nitrates. They are present in waters the whole year, especially during rainy periods, suggesting important stocks in soils. Also Chloroacetamides are negatively correlated with AMPA, the different forms of phosphorus, and organic matter. AMPA is ubiquitous but strongly correlated with urban areas despite the recent French regulation, restricting glyphosate to agricultural and private uses. This work helps to predict and understand metabolites present in the water resource used to craft drinking water. As the studied metabolites are difficult to remove, this project will be completed by a water treatment part.

Keywords: agricultural watershed, AMPA, metolachlor-ESA, water resource

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35 Gas Chromatographic: Mass Spectroscopic Analysis of Citrus reticulata Fruit Peel, Zingiber officinale Rhizome, and Sesamum indicum Seed Ethanolic Extracts Possessing Antioxidant Activity and Lipid Profile Effects

Authors: Samar Saadeldin Abdelmotalab Omer, Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Saad Mohammed Hussein Ayoub


A variety of herbal medicinal plants are known to confer beneficial effects in regards to modification of cardiovascular ri’=sk factors. The anti-hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of Citrus reticulate fruit peel, Zingiber officinale rhizome and Sesamum indicum seed extracts have been demonstrated. These plants are assumed to possess biologically active principles, which impart their pharmacologic activities. GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extracts was carried out to identify the active principles and their percentages of occurrence in the analytes. Analysis of the extracts was carried out using (GS-MS QP) type Schimadzu 2010 equipped with a capillary column RTX-50 (restec), (length 30mm, diameter 0.25mm, and thickness 0.25mm). Helium was used as a carrier gas, the temperature was programmed at 200°C for 5 minutes at a rate of 15ml/minute, and the extracts were injected using split injection mode. The identification of different components was achieved from their Mass Spectra and Retention time, compared with those in the NIST library. The results revealed the presence of 80 compounds in Sudanese locally grown C. reticulata fruit peel extract, most of which were monoterpenoid compounds including Limonene (3.03%), Alpha & Gamma - terpinenes (2.61%), Linalool (1.38%), Citral (1.72%) which are known to have profound antioxidant effects. The Sesquiterpenoids Humulene (0.26%) and Caryophyllene (1.97%) were also identified, the latter known to have profound anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activity in addition to the beneficiary effects in lipid regulation. The analysis of the locally grown S. indicum oily and water soluble portions of seed extract revealed the presence of a total of 64 compounds with considerably high percentage of the mono-unsaturated fatty acid ester methyl oleate (66.99%) in addition to methyl stearate (9.35%) and palmitate (15.71%) of oil portion, whereas, plant sterols including Gamma-sitosterol (13.5%), fucosterol (2.11%) and stigmasterol (1.95%) in addition to gamma-tocopherol (1.16%) were detected in extract water-soluble portion. The latter indicate various principles known to have valuable pharmacological benefits including antioxidant activities and beneficiary effects on intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulation of serum cholesterol levels. Z. officinale rhizome extract analysis revealed the presence of 93 compounds, the most abundant were alpha-zingeberine (16.5%), gingerol (9.25%), alpha-sesquiphellandrene (8.3%), zingerone (6.78%), beta-bisabolene (4.19%), alpha-farnesene (3.56%), ar-curcumene (3.29%), gamma-elemene (1.25%) and a variety of other compounds. The presence of these active principles reflected on the activity of the extract. Activity could be assigned to a single or a combination of two or more extract components. GC-MS analysis concluded the occurrence of compounds known to possess antioxidant activity and lipid profile effects.

Keywords: gas chromatography, indicum, officinale, reticulata

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34 Effect of Spermidine on Physicochemical Properties of Protein Based Films

Authors: Mohammed Sabbah, Prospero Di Pierro, Raffaele Porta


Protein-based edible films and coatings have attracted an increasing interest in recent years since they might be used to protect pharmaceuticals or improve the shelf life of different food products. Among them, several plant proteins represent an abundant, inexpensive and renewable raw source. These natural biopolymers are used as film forming agents, being able to form intermolecular linkages by various interactions. However, without the addition of a plasticizing agent, many biomaterials are brittle and, consequently, very difficult to be manipulated. Plasticizers are generally small and non-volatile organic additives used to increase film extensibility and reduce its crystallinity, brittleness and water vapor permeability. Plasticizers normally act by decreasing the intermolecular forces along the polymer chains, thus reducing the relative number of polymer-polymer contacts, producing a decrease in cohesion and tensile strength and thereby increasing film flexibility allowing its deformation without rupture. The most commonly studied plasticizers are polyols, like glycerol (GLY) and some mono or oligosaccharides. In particular, GLY not only increases film extensibility but also migrates inside the film network often causing the loss of desirable mechanical properties of the material. Therefore, replacing GLY with a different plasticizer might help to improve film characteristics allowing potential industrial applications. To improve film properties, it seemed of interest to test as plasticizers some cationic small molecules like polyamines (PAs). Putrescine, spermidine (SPD), and spermine are PAs widely distributed in nature and of particular interest for their biological activities that may have some beneficial health effects. Since PAs contains amino instead of hydroxyl functional groups, they are able to trigger ionic interactions with negatively charged proteins. Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia; BV) is an ancient grain legume crop, originated in the Mediterranean region, which can be found today in many countries around the world. This annual Vicia genus shows several favorable features, being their seeds a cheap and abundant protein source. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different concentrations of SPD on the mechanical and permeability properties of films prepared with native or heat denatured BV proteins in the presence of different concentrations of SPD and/or GLY. Therefore, a BV seed protein concentrate (BVPC), containing about 77% proteins, was used to prepare film forming solutions (FFSs), whereas GLY and SPD were added as film plasticizers, either singly or in combination, at various concentrations. Since a primary plasticizer is generally defined as a molecule that when added to a material makes it softer, more flexible and easier to be processed, our findings lead to consider SPD as a possible primary plasticizer of protein-based films. In fact, the addition of millimolar concentrations of SPD to BVPC FFS allowed obtaining handleable biomaterials with improved properties. Moreover, SPD can be also considered as a secondary plasticizer, namely an 'extender', because of its ability even to enhance the plasticizing performance of GLY. In conclusion, our studies indicate that innovative edible protein-based films and coatings can be obtained by using PAs as new plasticizers.

Keywords: edible films, glycerol, plasticizers, polyamines, spermidine

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33 A Patient-Centered Approach to Clinical Trial Development: Real-World Evidence from a Canadian Medical Cannabis Clinic

Authors: Lucile Rapin, Cynthia El Hage, Rihab Gamaoun, Maria-Fernanda Arboleda, Erin Prosk


Introduction: Sante Cannabis (SC), a Canadian group of clinics dedicated to medical cannabis, based in Montreal and in the province of Quebec, has served more than 8000 patients seeking cannabis-based treatment over the past five years. As randomized clinical trials with natural medical cannabis are scarce, real-world evidence offers the opportunity to fill research gaps between scientific evidence and clinical practice. Data on the use of medical cannabis products from SC patients were prospectively collected, leading to a large real-world database on the use of medical cannabis. The aim of this study was to report information on the profiles of both patients and prescribed medical cannabis products at SC clinics, and to assess the safety of medical cannabis among Canadian patients. Methods: This is an observational retrospective study of 1342 adult patients who were authorized with medical cannabis products between October 2017 and September 2019. Information regarding demographic characteristics, therapeutic indications for medical cannabis use, patterns in dosing and dosage form of medical cannabis and adverse effects over one-year follow-up (initial and 4 follow-up (FUP) visits) were collected. Results: 59% of SC patients were female, with a mean age of 56.7 (SD= 15.6, range= (19-97)). Cannabis products were authorized mainly for patients with a diagnosis of chronic pain (68.8% of patients), cancer (6.7%), neurological disorders (5.6%), and mood disorders (5.4 %). At initial visit, a large majority (70%) of patients were authorized exclusively medical cannabis products, 27% were authorized a combination of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and medical cannabis and 3% were prescribed only pharmaceutical cannabinoids. This pattern was recurrent over the one-year follow-up. Overall, oil was the preferred formulation (average over visits 72.5%) followed by a combination of oil and dry (average 19%), other routes of administration accounted for less than 4%. Patients were predominantly prescribed products with a balanced THC:CBD ratio (59%-75% across visits). 28% of patients reported at least one adverse effect (AE) at the 3-month follow-up visit and 12% at the six-month FUP visit. 84.8% of total AEs were mild and transient. No serious AE was reported. Overall, the most common side effects reported were dizziness (11.95% of total AEs), drowsiness (11.4%), dry mouth (5.5%), nausea (4.8%), headaches (4.6%), cough (4.4%), anxiety (4.1%) and euphoria (3.5%). Other adverse effects accounted for less than 3% of total AE. Conclusion: Our results confirm that the primary area of clinical use for medical cannabis is in pain management. Patients in this cohort are largely utilizing plant-based cannabis oil products with a balanced ratio of THC:CBD. Reported adverse effects were mild and included dizziness and drowsiness. This real-world data confirms the tolerable safety profile of medical cannabis and suggests medical indications not yet validated in controlled clinical trials. Such data offers an important opportunity for the investigation of the long-term effects of cannabinoid exposure in real-life conditions. Real-world evidence can be used to direct clinical trial research efforts on specific indications and dosing patterns for product development.

Keywords: medical cannabis, safety, real-world data, Canada

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32 Dietary Exposure Assessment of Potentially Toxic Trace Elements in Fruits and Vegetables Grown in Akhtala, Armenia

Authors: Davit Pipoyan, Meline Beglaryan, Nicolò Merendino


Mining industry is one of the priority sectors of Armenian economy. Along with the solution of some socio-economic development, it brings about numerous environmental problems, especially toxic element pollution, which largely influences the safety of agricultural products. In addition, accumulation of toxic elements in agricultural products, mainly in edible parts of plants represents a direct pathway for their penetration into the human food chain. In Armenia, the share of plant origin food in overall diet is significantly high, so estimation of dietary intakes of toxic trace elements via consumption of selected fruits and vegetables are of great importance for observing the underlying health risks. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess dietary exposure of potentially toxic trace elements through the intake of locally grown fruits and vegetables in Akhtala community (Armenia), where not only mining industry is developed, but also cultivation of fruits and vegetables. Moreover, this investigation represents one of the very first attempts to estimate human dietary exposure of potentially toxic trace elements in the study area. Samples of some commonly grown fruits and vegetables (fig, cornel, raspberry, grape, apple, plum, maize, bean, potato, cucumber, onion, greens) were randomly collected from several home gardens located near mining areas in Akhtala community. The concentration of Cu, Mo, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg, As and Cd in samples were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Precision and accuracy of analyses were guaranteed by repeated analysis of samples against NIST Standard Reference Materials. For a diet study, individual-based approach was used, so the consumption of selected fruits and vegetables was investigated through food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Combining concentration data with contamination data, the estimated daily intakes (EDI) and cumulative daily intakes were assessed and compared with health-based guidance values (HBGVs). According to the determined concentrations of the studied trace elements in fruits and vegetables, it can be stressed that some trace elements (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) among the majority of samples exceeded maximum allowable limits set by international organizations. Meanwhile, others (Cr, Hg, As, Cd, Mo) either did not exceed these limits or still do not have established allowable limits. The obtained results indicated that only for Cu the EDI values exceeded dietary reference intake (0.01 mg/kg/Bw/day) for some investigated fruits and vegetables in decreasing order of potato > grape > bean > raspberry > fig > greens. In contrast to this, for combined consumption of selected fruits and vegetables estimated cumulative daily intakes exceeded reference doses in the following sequence: Zn > Cu > Ni > Mo > Pb. It may be concluded that habitual and combined consumption of the above mentioned fruits and vegetables can pose a health risk to the local population. Hence, further detailed studies are needed for the overall assessment of potential health implications taking into consideration adverse health effects posed by more than one toxic trace element.

Keywords: daily intake, dietary exposure, fruits, trace elements, vegetables

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31 Experimental and Modelling Performances of a Sustainable Integrated System of Conditioning for Bee-Pollen

Authors: Andrés Durán, Brian Castellanos, Marta Quicazán, Carlos Zuluaga-Domínguez


Bee-pollen is an apicultural-derived food product, with a growing appreciation among consumers given the remarkable nutritional and functional composition, in particular, protein (24%), dietary fiber (15%), phenols (15 – 20 GAE/g) and carotenoids (600 – 900 µg/g). These properties are given by the geographical and climatic characteristics of the region where it is collected. There are several countries recognized by their pollen production, e.g. China, United States, Japan, Spain, among others. Beekeepers use traps in the entrance of the hive where bee-pollen is collected. After the removal of foreign particles and drying, this product is ready to be marketed. However, in countries located along the equator, the absence of seasons and a constant tropical climate throughout the year favors a more rapid spoilage condition for foods with elevated water activity. The climatic conditions also trigger the proliferation of microorganisms and insects. This, added to the factor that beekeepers usually do not have adequate processing systems for bee-pollen, leads to deficiencies in the quality and safety of the product. In contrast, the Andean region of South America, lying on equator, typically has a high production of bee-pollen of up to 36 kg/year/hive, being four times higher than in countries with marked seasons. This region is also located in altitudes superior to 2500 meters above sea level, having extremes sun ultraviolet radiation all year long. As a mechanism of defense of radiation, plants produce more secondary metabolites acting as antioxidant agents, hence, plant products such as bee-pollen contain remarkable more phenolics and carotenoids than collected in other places. Considering this, the improvement of bee-pollen processing facilities by technical modifications and the implementation of an integrated cleaning and drying system for the product in an apiary in the area was proposed. The beehives were modified through the installation of alternative bee-pollen traps to avoid sources of contamination. The processing facility was modified according to considerations of Good Manufacturing Practices, implementing the combined use of a cabin dryer with temperature control and forced airflow and a greenhouse-type solar drying system. Additionally, for the separation of impurities, a cyclone type system was implemented, complementary to a screening equipment. With these modifications, a decrease in the content of impurities and the microbiological load of bee-pollen was seen from the first stages, principally with a reduction of the presence of molds and yeasts and in the number of foreign animal origin impurities. The use of the greenhouse solar dryer integrated to the cabin dryer allowed the processing of larger quantities of product with shorter waiting times in storage, reaching a moisture content of about 6% and a water activity lower than 0.6, being appropriate for the conservation of bee-pollen. Additionally, the contents of functional or nutritional compounds were not affected, even observing an increase of up to 25% in phenols content and a non-significant decrease in carotenoids content and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: beekeeping, drying, food processing, food safety

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