Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2821

Search results for: biogas plant

2581 Effect of Abiotic Factors on Population of Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus Koenigii F. (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) and Its Impact on Cotton Boll Disease

Authors: Haider Karar, Saghir Ahmad, Amjad Ali, Ibrar Ul Haq


The experiment was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Multan to study the impact of weather factors and red cotton bug (RCB) on cotton boll disease yielded yellowish lint during 2012. The population on RCB along with abiotic factors was recorded during three consecutive years i.e. 2012, 2013, and 2014. Along with population of RCB and abiotic factors, the number of unopened/opened cotton bolls (UOB), percent yellowish lint (YL) and whitish lint (WL) were also recorded. The data revealed that the population per plant of RCB remain 0.50 and 0.34 during years 2012, 2013 but increased during 2014 i.e. 3.21 per plant. The number of UOB were more i.e. 13.43% in 2012 with YL 76.30 and WL 23.70% when average maximum temperature 34.73◦C, minimum temperature 22.83◦C, RH 77.43% and 11.08 mm rainfall. Similarly in 2013 the number of UOB were less i.e. 0.34 per plant with YL 1.48 and WL 99.53 per plant when average maximum temperature 34.60◦C, minimum temperature 23.37◦C, RH 73.01% and 9.95 mm rainfall. During 2014 RCB population per plant was 3.22 with no UOB and YL was 0.00% and WL was 100% when average maximum temperature 23.70◦C, minimum temperature 23.18◦C, RH 71.67% and 4.55 mm rainfall. So it is concluded that the cotton bolls disease was more during 2012 due to more rainfall and more percent RH. The RCB may be the carrier of boll rot disease pathogen during more rainfall.

Keywords: red cotton bug, cotton, weather factors, years

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2580 Ethnomedicinal Assets of Plants Collected from Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Enock E. Goler, Emmanuel H. Kwon-Ndung, Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Terna T. Paul, Markus Musa, Joshua I. Waya, James H. Okogbaa


An ethno-medicinal survey of plants used in treating various diseases and ailments was carried out in the study area of Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to obtain information on their uses and potentials. The ethno-medicinal survey was administered through structured questionnaires among local inhabitants from areas with high plant density and diversity within the various Local Government Areas of the State. A total of 84 (Eighty four) plant species belonging to 45 (Forty five) families were found to be useful in treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, measles, fever, asthma, jaundice, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aches, diarrhea, cough, arthritis, yellow fever, typhoid, erectile dysfunction and excessive bleeding. Different parts of the plant such as the roots, leaves and stems are used in preparing herbal remedies which could be from dry or freshly collected plants. The main methods of preparation are decoction or infusion, while in some cases the plant parts used are consumed directly. Residents in the study areas find the herbal remedy cheaper and more accessible and claimed that there are no side effects compared to orthodox medicine. This study has confirmed the need towards the conscious conservation of plant genetic resources in order to ensure sustained access to these ethno-medicinal plant materials.

Keywords: ethno-medicinal, Nasarawa, plants, survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
2579 A Real Time Expert System for Decision Support in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Andressa dos Santos Nicolau, João P. da S.C Algusto, Claudio Márcio do N. A. Pereira, Roberto Schirru


In case of abnormal situations, the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators must follow written procedures to check the condition of the plant and to classify the type of emergency. In this paper, we proposed a Real Time Expert System in order to improve operator’s performance in case of transient or accident with reactor shutdown. The expert system’s knowledge is based on the sequence of events (SoE) of known accident and two emergency procedures of the Brazilian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) NPP and uses two kinds of knowledge representation: rule and logic trees. The results show that the system was able to classify the response of the automatic protection systems, as well as to evaluate the conditions of the plant, diagnosing the type of occurrence, recovery procedure to be followed, indicating the shutdown root cause, and classifying the emergency level.

Keywords: emergence procedure, expert system, operator support, PWR nuclear power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
2578 Impact of Foliar Application of Zinc on Micro and Macro Elements Distribution in Phyllanthus amarus

Authors: Nguyen Cao Nguyen, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova


The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction of foliar applied zinc with other elements in Phyllanthus amarus plants. The plant samples for our experiment were collected from Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Seven suspension solutions of nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) with different Zn concentration were used. Fertilization and irrigation were the same for all variants. The Zn content and the content of selected micro (Cu, Fe, Mn) and macro (Ca, Mg, P and K) nutrients in plant roots, and stems and leaves were determined. It was concluded that the zinc content of plant roots varies narrowly, with no significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The same trend can be seen in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients. The zinc content of plant stems and leaves varies within wide limits, with the significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The trends in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients are kept the same as in the root, whereas the iron trends to increase its content at increasing the zinc content.

Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus, Zinc, Micro and macro elements, foliar fertilizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
2577 Effects of Poultry Manure Rates on Some Growth and Yield Attributes of Cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Pearl Poly-Mbah, Evelyn Obioma, Juliet Amajuoyi


The investigation here reported examined growth and yield responses of Cucumber to manure rates in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Fruit vegetables are widely cultivated and produced in Northern Nigeria but greatly consumed in Southern Nigeria where cucumbers command high demand and price but are minimally cultivated. Unfortunately, farmers in northern Nigeria incur lots of losses because cucumber is a perishable vegetable and is transported all the way from the northern Nigeria where cucumbers are produced to Southern Nigeria where cucumbers are consumed, hence the high cost of cucumber fruits in Southern Nigeria. There is a need, therefore, to evolve packages that will enhance cucumber production in Southern Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of poultry manure rates on the growth and yield of cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. Specifically, this study was designed to assess the effect of poultry manure rates on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length/plant, leaf area per plant and the number of leaves produced per plant. The design used for the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three blocks (replications). Treatment consisted of four rates of well-decomposed poultry manure at the rate of 0 tons/ha, 2 tons/ha, 4 tons/ha and 6 tons/ha. Data were collected on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant at two weeks interval, leaf number per plant at two weeks interval, leaf area per plant at two weeks interval, number of fruits produced per plant, and fresh weight of fruits per plant at harvest. Results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were highly significant effects (P=0.05) of poultry manure on growth and yield parameters studied which include number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant, leaf number per plant, leaf area per plant, fruit number and fruit weight per plant such that increase in poultry manure rates lead to increase in growth and yield parameters studied. Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected, while the alternative hypothesis was accepted. Farmers should be made to know that growing cucumber with poultry manure in southeastern Nigeria agro ecology is a successful enterprise

Keywords: cucumber, effects, growth and yield, manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
2576 In Vitro Propagation in Barleria prionitis L. Via Callus Organogenesis

Authors: Rashmi Ranade, Neelu Joshi


Barleria prionitis L. is a well explored Indian medicinal plant valued for its stem and leaf which forms an important ingredient of many Ayurvedic formulations. It is used for the treatment of various disorders like toothache, bleeding gums, strengthening gums, whooping cough, inflammation, arthritis, enlargement of scrotum and sciatica etc. The plant is propagated vegetatively through stem cuttings. Frequent harvesting of this plant has led to the shortage of planting material, and it has acquired the status of vulnerable plant species. Plant tissue culture technology offers a very good alternative for propagation and conservation of such plant species. The present investigation was undertaken to develop in vitro regeneration protocol for B. prionitis L. via callus organogenesis pathway. Stem and leaf explants were used for this purpose. Different media and plant growth regulators were optimized to develop the protocol. The problem of phenol secretion and browning and in vitro cultures at the establishment phase was successfully curbed with the usage of antibrowning agents such as ascorbic acid and activated charcoal. Optimum shoot multiplication was achieved by the use of liquid media and incorporation of silver nitrate and TIBA (triiodobenzoic acid) into the media. High percent rooting (76%) was observed on WPM media supplemented with IBA (2.0 mg/l), IAA (0.5 mg/l), GA3(0.5) and activated charcoal(500 mg/l). The rooted plantlets were subjected to in vitro hardening on sterile potting mix (soil:farmyard manure:compost; 1:2:1) and acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. Around 85% survival of plantlets was recorded upon acclimatization. This lab scale protocol would be tested for in vitro scaling up production of B. prionitis L.

Keywords: explant browning, liquid culture, micropropagation, shoot multiplication, phenolic secretion

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
2575 Plant Genetic Diversity in Home Gardens and Its Contribution to Household Economy in Western Part of Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse


Home gardens are important social and cultural spaces where knowledge related to agricultural practice is transmitted and through which households may improve their income and livelihood. High levels of inter- and intra-specific plant genetic diversity are preserved in home gardens. Plant diversity is threatened by rapid and unplanned urbanization, which increases environmental problems such as heating, pollution, loss of habitats and ecosystem disruption. Tropical home gardens have played a significant role in conserving plant diversity while providing substantial benefits to households. This research aimed to understand the relationship between household characteristics and plant diversity in western Ethiopia home gardens and the contributions of plants to the household economy. Plant diversity and different uses of plants were studied in a random sample of 111 suburban home gardens in the Ilu Ababora, Jima and Wellega suburban area, western Ethiopia, based on complete garden inventories followed by household surveys on socio-economic status during 2012. A total of 261 species of plants were observed, of which 41% were ornamental plants, 36% food plants, and 22% medicinal plants. Of these 16% were sold commercially to produce income. Avocado, bananas, and other fruits produced in excess. Home gardens contributed the equivalent of 7% of total annual household income in terms of food and commercial sales. Multiple regression analysis showed that education, time spent in gardening, land for cultivation, household expenses, primary conservation practices, and uses of special techniques explained 56% of the total plant diversity. Food, medicinal and commercial plant species had significant positive relationships with time spent gardening and land area for gardening. Education and conservation practices significantly affected food and medicinal plant diversity. Special techniques used in gardening showed significant positive relations with ornamental and commercial plants. Reassessments in different suburban and urban home gardens and proper documentation using same methodology is essential to build a firm policy for enhancing plant diversity and related values to households and surroundings.

Keywords: plant genetic diversity, urbanization, suburban home gardens, Ethiopia

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
2574 Regulation of Water Balance of the Plant from the Different Geo-Environmental Locations

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan


Under the drought stress condition, the plants would grow slower. Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors which suppress the germination processes. However, the processes of transpiration are regulated directly by the cell water, which followed to an increase in volume of vacuoles. During stretching under the influence of water pressure, the cell goes into the state of turgor. In our experiments, lines of the semi-dental sweet maize of Armenian population from various zones of growth under mild and severe drought stress were tested. According to results, the value of the water balance of the plant cells may reflect the ability of plants to adapt to drought stress. It can be assumed that the turgor allows evaluating the number of received dissolved substance in cell.

Keywords: turgor, drought stress, plant growth, Armenian Zea Maize Semidentata

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
2573 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Microbes and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Wheat Growth in the Saline Soil

Authors: Ahmed Elgharably, Nivien Nafady


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) can promote plant growth under saline conditions. This study investigated how AMF and PGPM affected the growth and grain yield of wheat at different soil salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl). AMF colonization percentage, grain yield and dry weights and lengths of shoot and root, N, P K, Na, malondialdehyde, chlorophyll and proline contents and shoot relative permeability were determined. Salinity reduced NPK uptake and malondialdehyde and chlorophyll contents, and increased shoot Na concentration, relative permeability, and proline content, and thus declined plant growth. PGPM inoculation enhanced AMF colonization, P uptake, and K/Na ratio, but alone had no significant effect on plant growth and grain yield. AMF inoculation significantly enhanced NPK uptake, increased chlorophyll content and decreased shoot relative permeability, proline and Na contents, and thus promoted the plant growth. The inoculation of PGPM significantly enhanced the positive effects of AMF in controlling Na uptake and in increasing chlorophyll and NPK contents. Compared to AMF inoculation alone, dual inoculation with AMF and PGPM resulted in approximately 10, 25 and 25% higher grain yield at 0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl, respectively. The results provide that PGPM inoculation can maximize the effects of AMF inoculation in alleviating the deleterious effects of NaCl salts on wheat growth.

Keywords: mycorrhizal fungi, salinity, sodium, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2572 The Concentration Analysis of CO2 Using ALOHA Code for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: W. S. Hsu, Y. Chiang, H. C. Chen, J. R. Wang, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, C. Shih


Not only radiation materials, but also the normal chemical material stored in the power plant can cause a risk to the residents. In this research, the ALOHA code was used to perform the concentration analysis under the CO2 storage burst or leakage conditions for Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP). The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and data were used in this study. Additionally, the analysis results of ALOHA code were compared with the R.G. 1.78 failure criteria in order to confirm the control room habitability. The comparison results show that the ALOHA result for burst case was 0.923 g/m3 which was below the criteria. However, the ALOHA results for leakage case was 11.3 g/m3.

Keywords: BWR, ALOHA, habitability, Kuosheng

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2571 Soil-Less Misting System: A Technology for Hybrid Seed Production in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

Authors: K. D. Rajatha, S. Rajendra Prasad, N. Nethra


Aeroponics is one of the advanced techniques to cultivate plants without soil with minimal water and nutrient consumption. This is the technology which could bring the vertical growth in agriculture. It is an eco-friendly approach widely used for commercial cultivation of vegetables to obtain the supreme quality and yield. In this context, to harvest potentiality of the technology, an experiment was designed to evaluate the suitability of the aeroponics method over the conventional method for hybrid seed production of tomato. The experiment was carried out under Completely Randomized Design with Factorial (FCRD) concept with three replications during the year 2017-18 at UAS, GKVK Bengaluru. Nutrients and pH were standardized; among the six different nutrient solutions, the crop performance was better in Hoagland’s solution with pH between 5.5-7. The results of the present study revealed that between TAG1F and TAG2F parental lines, TAG1F performed better in both the methods of seed production. Among the methods, aeroponics showed better performance for the quality parameters except for plant spread, due to better availability of nutrients and aeration, huge root biomass in aeroponics. Aeroponics method showed significantly higher plant length (124.9 cm), plant growth rate (0.669), seedling survival rate (100%), early flowering (27.5 days), highest fruit weight (121.5 g), 100 seed weight (0.373 g) and total seed yield plant⁻¹ (11.68 g) compared to the conventional method. By providing the best environment for plant growth, the genetically best possible plant could be grown, thus complete potentiality of the plant could be harvested. Hence, aeroponics could be a promising tool for quality and healthy hybrid seed production throughout the year within protected cultivation.

Keywords: aeroponics, Hoagland’s solution, hybrid seed production, Lycopersicon esculentum

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2570 LCA of Waste Disposal from Olive Oil Production: Anaerobic Digestion and Conventional Disposal on Soil

Authors: T. Tommasi, E. Batuecas, G. Mancini, G. Saracco, D. Fino


Extra virgin olive-oil (EVO) production is an important economic activity for several countries, especially in the Mediterranean area such as Spain, Italy, Greece and Tunisia. The two major by-products from olive oil production, solid-liquid Olive Pomace (OP) and the Olive Mill Waste Waters (OMWW), are still mainly disposed on soil, in spite of the existence of legislation which already limits this practice. The present study compares the environmental impacts associated with two different scenarios for the management of waste from olive oil production through a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The two alternative scenarios are: (I) Anaerobic Digestion and (II) current Disposal on soil. The analysis was performed through SimaPro software and the assessment of the impact categories was based on International Life Cycle Data and Cumulative Energy Demand methods. Both the scenarios are mostly related to the cultivation and harvesting phase and are highly dependent on the irrigation practice and related energy demand. Results from the present study clearly show that as the waste disposal on soil causes the worst environmental performance of all the impact categories here considered. Important environmental benefits have been identified when anaerobic digestion is instead chosen as the final treatment. It was consequently demonstrated that anaerobic digestion should be considered a feasible alternative for olive mills, to produce biogas from common olive oil residues, reducing the environmental burden and adding value to the olive oil production chain.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, waste management, agro-food waste, biogas

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2569 Energy Recovery Potential from Food Waste and Yard Waste in New York and Montréal

Authors: T. Malmir, U. Eicker


Landfilling of organic waste is still the predominant waste management method in the USA and Canada. Strategic plans for waste diversion from landfills are needed to increase material recovery and energy generation from waste. In this paper, we carried out a statistical survey on waste flow in the two cities New York and Montréal and estimated the energy recovery potential for each case. Data collection and analysis of the organic waste (food waste, yard waste, etc.), paper and cardboard, metal, glass, plastic, carton, textile, electronic products and other materials were done based on the reports published by the Department of Sanitation in New York and Service de l'Environnement in Montréal. In order to calculate the gas generation potential of organic waste, Buswell equation was used in which the molar mass of the elements was calculated based on their atomic weight and the amount of organic waste in New York and Montréal. Also, the higher and lower calorific value of the organic waste (solid base) and biogas (gas base) were calculated. According to the results, only 19% (598 kt) and 45% (415 kt) of New York and Montréal waste were diverted from landfills in 2017, respectively. The biogas generation potential of the generated food waste and yard waste amounted to 631 million m3 in New York and 173 million m3 in Montréal. The higher and lower calorific value of food waste were 3482 and 2792 GWh in New York and 441 and 354 GWh in Montréal, respectively. In case of yard waste, they were 816 and 681 GWh in New York and 636 and 531 GWh in Montréal, respectively. Considering the higher calorific value, this amount would mean a contribution of around 2.5% energy in these cities.

Keywords: energy recovery, organic waste, urban energy modelling with INSEL, waste flow

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2568 Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on in vitro Adventitious Shoot Regeneration of Water Hyssop (Bacopa monnieri L. Wettst.)

Authors: Muhammad Aasim, Mehmet Karataş, Fatih Erci, Şeyma Bakırcı, Ecenur Korkmaz, Burak Kahveci


Water hyssop (Bacopa monnieri L. Wettst.) is an important medicinal aquatic/semi aquatic plant native to India where it is used in traditional medicinal system. The plant contains bioactive compounds mainly Bacosides which are the main ingridient of commercial drug available as memory enhancer tonic. The local name of water hyssop is Brahmi and brahmi based drugs are available against for curing chronic diseases and disorders Alzheimer’s disease, anxiety, asthma, cancer, mental illness, respiratory ailments, and stomach ulcers. The plant is not a cultivated plant and collection of plant from nature make palnt threatened to endangered. On the other hand, low seed viability and availability make it difficult to propagate plant through traditional techniques. In recent years, plant tissue culture techniques have been employed to propagate plant for its conservation and production for continuous availability of secondary metabolites. On the other hand, application of nanoparticles has been reported for increasing biomass, in vitro regeneration and secondary metabolites production. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were applied at the rate of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ppm to Murashihe and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 3.0% sucrose and 0.7% agar. Leaf explants of water hyssop were cultured on AgNPs containing medium. Shoot induction from leaf explants were relatively slow compared to medium without AgNPs. Multiple shoot induction was recorded after 3-4 weeks of culture comapred to control that occured within 10 days. Regenerated shoots were rooted successfully on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA and acclimatized in the aquariums for further studies.

Keywords: Water hyssop, Silver nanoparticles, In vitro, Regeneration, Secondary metabolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
2567 Technical Evaluation of Upgrading a Simple Gas Turbine Fired by Diesel to a Combined Cycle Power Plant in Kingdom of Suadi Arabistan Using WinSim Design II Software

Authors: Salman Obaidoon, Mohamed Hassan, Omer Bakather


As environmental regulations increase, the need for a clean and inexpensive energy is becoming necessary these days using an available raw material with high efficiency and low emissions of toxic gases. This paper presents a study on modifying a gas turbine power plant fired by diesel, which is located in Saudi Arabia in order to increase the efficiency and capacity of the station as well as decrease the rate of emissions. The studied power plant consists of 30 units with different capacities and total net power is 1470 MW. The study was conducted on unit number 25 (GT-25) which produces 72.3 MW with 29.5% efficiency. In the beginning, the unit was modeled and simulated by using WinSim Design II software. In this step, actual unit data were used in order to test the validity of the model. The net power and efficiency obtained from software were 76.4 MW and 32.2% respectively. A difference of about 6% was found in the simulated power plant compared to the actual station which means that the model is valid. After the validation of the model, the simple gas turbine power plant was converted to a combined cycle power plant (CCPP). In this case, the exhausted gas released from the gas turbine was introduced to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), which consists of three heat exchangers: an economizer, an evaporator and a superheater. In this proposed model, many scenarios were conducted in order to get the optimal operating conditions. The net power of CCPP was increased to 116.4 MW while the overall efficiency of the unit was reached to 49.02%, consuming the same amount of fuel for the gas turbine power plant. For the purpose of comparing the rate of emissions of carbon dioxide on each model. It was found that the rate of CO₂ emissions was decreased from 15.94 kg/s to 9.22 kg/s by using the combined cycle power model as a result of reducing of the amount of diesel from 5.08 kg/s to 2.94 kg/s needed to produce 76.5 MW. The results indicate that the rate of emissions of carbon dioxide was decreased by 42.133% in CCPP compared to the simple gas turbine power plant.

Keywords: combined cycle power plant, efficiency, heat recovery steam generator, simulation, validation, WinSim design II software

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
2566 Study on Butterfly Visitation Patterns of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis as a Beneficial Plant for Butterfly Conservation

Authors: P. U. S. Peiris


The butterflies are ecologically very important insects. The adults generally feed on nectar and are important as pollinators of flowering plants. However, these pollinators are under threat with their habitat loss. One reason for habitat loss is spread of invasive plants. However, there are even beneficial exotic plants which can directly support for Butterfly Conservation Action Plan of Sri Lanka by attracting butterflies for nectar. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) is an important nectar plant which attracts a diverse set of butterflies in higher number. It comprises a violet color inflorescence which last for about 37 hours where it attracted a peak of butterflies around 9.00am having around average of 15 butterflies. There were no butterflies in early and late hours where the number goes to very low values as 2 at 1.00pm. it was found that a diverse group of butterflies were attracted from around 15 species including 01 endemic species, 02 endemic subspecies and 02 vulnerable species. Therefore, this is a beneficial exotic plant that could be used in butterfly attraction and conservation however with adequate monitoring of the plant population.

Keywords: butterflies, exotic plants, pollinators, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.)

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2565 Effect of Cadmium and Zinc on Initial Insect Food Chain in Wheat Agroecosystem

Authors: Muhammad Xaaceph Khan, Abida Butt, Farah Kausar


Due to geogenic and anthropogenic factors, heavy metals concentrations increased throughout the world and deposit into soil. Thus available to different plants and travel in different food chains. The present study was designed to achieve bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn in the wheat-aphid-beetle food chain. For this purpose, wheat plants were grown in three different treatments: Cd, Zn, Cd+Zn. Data showed that Cd content in soil and wheat plant increases with increase in Cd concentration while plant weighs, panicle weight, seed number per panicle and seed weight per panicle decreases with increase in Cd content in the soil. Zn content in soil and wheat plant increases with increase in Cd concentration while plant weighs, panicle weight, seed number per panicle, and seed weight per panicle increase with an increase in Zn content in the soil. With the addition of Zn in Cd-treated soil, the uptake of Cd decreases in all parts of wheat plants. Bioaccumulation from wheat plant to aphids and then its predators were also studied. Cd concentration increases from low to high concentration in all arthropods. Same was observed in Zn concentrations, while in Cd+Zn, Cd accumulation decreases but Zn accumulates increases. Health risk index (HRI) also showed that in the presence of Zn, the HRI improves and can help to reduce health risks associated with Cd.

Keywords: aphid, beetle, bioaccumulation, cadmium, wheat, zinc

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2564 Secondary Metabolite Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem

Authors: Richa Bhardwaj


Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem is a monotypic genus belonging to family Bignoniaceae. The plant holds tremendous potential of medicinal value and has been traditionally used in various ailments like syphilis, leukoderma, blood disorders to name a few. The plant has gained prominence due to the presence of some prominent secondary metabolites. The present study focuses on the GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts of T. undulata which revealed the presence of certain bioactive compounds like stigmasterol, sitosterol, thiazoline, phytol, pthalic acid, methyl alpha ketopalmitate and so forth. A total of about 20 bioactive compounds were identified from the leaf extract spectra. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract was assayed against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The alkaloids from leaf extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis. The flavonoids from leaves showed positive activity against Penicillium species and Candida albicans. The study thus infers that the presence of bioactive components may be the principle behind the antimicrobial property of different plant parts and therefore Tecomella forms a potential plant for herbal drug formulation.

Keywords: Tecomella undulata, bioactive compounds, GC-MS, antimicrobial activity

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2563 Effect Of Tephrosia purpurea (Family: Fabaceae) Formulations On Oviposition By The Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus chinensis Linn.

Authors: Priyanka Jain, Meera Srivastava


Among important insect pests of stored grains, the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is one such pest causing considerable damage to stored pulses. An effort was made to screen plant Tephrosia purpurea (Family: Fabaceae) for its efficacy against the said pest. The pulse beetle C. chinensis was raised on green gram Vigna radiata in incubators maintained at 28 ± 2°C and 70% RH. Different formulations using plant parts (root, stem, leaf and fruit) were employed in the form of aqueous suspension, aqueous extract and ether extract and the treatments were made using different dose concentrations, namely 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%, besides normal and control. Specific number of adult insects were released in muslin cloth covered beakers containing weighed green gram grains and treated with different dose concentrations (w/v). Observations for the number of eggs laid by the pest insect C. chinensis was recorded after three days of treatment and it was observed that in general all the treatments of the plant resulted in significant decrease in the eggs laid (no/pair) by the insect, suggesting that the selected plant has a potential to be used against C. chinensis.

Keywords: Callosobruchus chinensis, egg laying, Tephrosia purpurea, Fabaceae, plant formulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
2562 Plant as an Alternative for Anti Depressant Drugs St John's Wort

Authors: Mahdi Akhbardeh


St John's wort plant can help to treat depression disease through decreasing this disease symptom, due to having some similar features of Prozac (Fluoxetine Hcl) pill. People suffering from slight depression who have fear of using antidepressants side effects can use St John's wort drops under doctor observation. This method of treatment is proposed specially to those women who are spending menopause or depression resulted from this period. St John's wort plant have proposed traditional and plant medicine as newest researches in treating mood disorders compared to Prozac (Fluoxetine Hcl) drug in treating depression disease which is being administrated in clinic research center of Washington. Objective: the aim of this study is to find an alternative treatment method in people suffering from depression which are treated with Prozac (Fluoxetine Hcl). Almost 70 percent of treatment failures with Prozac (Fluoxetine Hcl) drug in patients suffering from slight to normal depression is due to intensive side effects including: decrease in blood pressure, reduce in sexual desire and 30 percent of it is due to this drug affectless in treatment procedure which leads to leaving treatment. Results of Hypercuim plant function are exactly similar to antidepressants. Increase in serotonin amount in brain synopsis terminal end causes increase in existence time of this material in this part. In fact these two drugs have similar function. Though side effects of Hypercuim plant(St John's wort) including headache and slight nausea tolerable. Results: St John's wort plant can be used lonely in slight to normal depressions in which patients are avoiding Prozac (Fluoxetine Hcl) drug due to it's side effects. In intensive depressions through which general patients don’t indicate positive response to drug, it is probably expected relative or even complete treatment through combining antidepressants drugs with this plant. This treatment method has been investigated and confirmed in clinical tests and researches.

Keywords: depression, St John's wort, Prozac, antidepressant

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
2561 Phytochemical and Proximate Composition Analysis of Aspillia kotschyi

Authors: A. U. Adamu, E. D Paul, C. E. Gimba, I. G. Ndukwe


The phytochemical and proximate composition of Aspillia kotschyi belonging to Compositae family which is commonly used as medicinal plant in Nigeria was determined on both the Methanolic and Petroleum sprit extract of the plant. The Methanolic extract of the plant revealed the presence of carbohydrates, cardiac glyscosides, flavonoids, triterpene, and alkaloids. The Petroleum sprit extract showed the presence of only carbohydrates and alkaloid. Proximate composition analysis shows moisture content of 5.7%, total ash of 4.03%, crude protein 10.94%, fibre 9.06%, fat value 0.83%, and nitrogen free extract of 70.19%. The results of this study suggest some merit in the popular use of Aspillia kotschi in herbal medicine.

Keywords: Aspillia kotschyi, herbal medicine, phytochemical, proximate composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
2560 The Performance Improvement of Solar Aided Power Generation System by Introducing the Second Solar Field

Authors: Junjie Wu, Hongjuan Hou, Eric Hu, Yongping Yang


Solar aided power generation (SAPG) technology has been proven as an efficient way to make use of solar energy for power generation purpose. In an SAPG plant, a solar field consisting of parabolic solar collectors is normally used to supply the solar heat in order to displace the high pressure/temperature extraction steam. To understand the performance of such a SAPG plant, a new simulation model was developed by the authors recently, in which the boiler was treated, as a series of heat exchangers unlike other previous models. Through the simulations using the new model, it was found the outlet properties of reheated steam, e.g. temperature, would decrease due to the introduction of the solar heat. The changes make the (lower stage) turbines work under off-design condition. As a result, the whole plant’s performance may not be optimal. In this paper, the second solar filed was proposed to increase the inlet temperature of steam to be reheated, in order to bring the outlet temperature of reheated steam back to the designed condition. A 600MW SAPG plant was simulated as a case study using the new model to understand the impact of the second solar field on the plant performance. It was found in the study, the 2nd solar field would improve the plant’s performance in terms of cycle efficiency and solar-to-electricity efficiency by 1.91% and 6.01%. The solar-generated electricity produced by per aperture area under the design condition was 187.96W/m2, which was 26.14% higher than the previous design.

Keywords: solar-aided power generation system, off-design performance, coal-saving performance, boiler modelling, integration schemes

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2559 Spatial Distribution of Virus-Transmitting Aphids of Plants in Al Bahah Province, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Sabir Hussain, Muhammad Naeem, Yousif Aldryhim, Susan E. Halbert, Qingjun Wu


Plant viruses annually cause severe economic losses in crop production and globally, different aphid species are responsible for the transmission of such viruses. Additionally, aphids are also serious pests of trees, and agricultural crops. Al Bahah Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a high native and introduced plant species with a temperate climate that provides ample habitats for aphids. In this study, we surveyed virus-transmitting aphids from the Province to highlight their spatial distributions and hot spot areas for their target control strategies. During our fifteen month's survey in Al Bahah Province, three hundred and seventy samples of aphids were collected using both beating sheets and yellow water pan traps. Consequently, fifty-four aphid species representing 30 genera belonging to four families were recorded from Al Bahah Province. Alarmingly, 35 aphid species from our records are virus transmitting species. The most common virus transmitting aphid species based on number of collecting samples, were Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878), Brachycaudus rumexicolens (Patch, 1917), Uroleucon sonchi (Linnaeus, 1767), Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach, 1843), and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776). The numbers of samples for the forementioned species were 66, 24, 23, 22, and 20, respectively. The widest range of plant hosts were found for M. euphorbiae (39 plant species), B. helichrysi (12 plant species), M. persicae (12 plant species), B. rumexicolens (10 plant species), and U. sonchi (9 plant species). The hottest spot areas were found in Al-Baha, Al Mekhwah and Biljarashi cities of the province on the basis of their abundance. This study indicated that Al Bahah Province has relatively rich aphid diversity due to the relatively high plant diversity in a favorable climatic condition. ArcGIS tools can be helpful for biologists to implement the target control strategies against these pests in the integrated pest management, and ultimately to save money and time.

Keywords: Al Bahah province, aphid-virus interaction, biodiversity, global information system

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2558 Study on Meristem Culture of Purwoceng (Pimpinella pruatjan Molk.) and Its Stigmasterol Detected by Thin Layer Chromatography

Authors: Totik Sri Mariani, Sukrasno Isna, Tet Fatt Chia


Purwoceng (Pimpinella pruatjan Molk) is a legend plant used for increasing stamina by Kings in Java Island, Indonesia. Purpose of this study was to perform meristem culture and detected its stigmasterol by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Our result show that meristem culture could be propagated and grew into plantlet. After extracting intact acclimatized plant derived from meristem culture by hexane, we could detected stigmasterol by TLC. For suggestion, our extraction and TLC method could be used for detecting stigmasterol in others plant.

Keywords: purwoceng (pimpinella pruatjan), meristem culture, extraction, thin layer chromatography

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2557 Productivity and Profitability of Field Pea as Influenced by Different Levels of Fertility and Bio-Fertilizers under Irrigated Condition

Authors: Akhilesh Mishra, Geeta Rai, Arvind Srivastava, Nalini Tiwari


A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive Rabi seasons of 2007 and 2008 to study the economics of different bio-fertilizer’s inoculations in fieldpea (cv. Jai) at Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (India). Results indicated that the seed inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR improved all the growth; yield attributes and yields of field pea. Fresh and dry weight plant-1, nodules number and dry weight plant-1 were found significantly maximum. Number of grains pod-1, number and weight of pods plant-1 at maturity attributed significantly in increasing the grain yield as well as net return. On pooled basis, maximum net income (Rs.22169 ha-1) was obtained with the use of Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR which was improved by a margin of Rs.1502 (6.77%), 2972 (13.40%), 2672 (12.05%), 5212 (23.51%), 6176 (27.85%), 4666 (21.04%) and 8842/ha (39.88%) over the inoculation of PSB + PGPR, Rhizobium + PGPR, Rhizobium + PSB, PGPR, PSB, Rhizobium and control, respectively. Thus, it can be recommended that to earn the maximum net profit from dwarf field pea, seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR.

Keywords: rhizobium, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, field pea

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2556 Climate Impact on Spider Mite (Tetranychus Sp. Koch) Infesting Som Plant Leaves (Machilus Bombycina King) and Their Sustainable Management

Authors: Sunil Kumar Ghosh


Som plant (Machilus bombycina King) is an important plant in agroforestry system. It is cultivated in north -east part of India. It is cultivated in agricultural land by the marginal farmers for multi-storeyed cultivation with intercropping. Localized cottage industries are involved with this plant like sericulture industry (muga silk worm cultivation). Clothes are produced from this sericulture industry. Leaves of som plants are major food of muga silk worm ( Antherea assama ). Nutritional value of leaves plays an important role in the larval growth and silk productivity. The plant also has timber value. The plant is susceptible to mite pest (Tetranychus sp.) causes heavy damage to tender leaves. Lower population was recorded during 7th to 38th standard week, during 3rd week of February to 4th week of September and higher population was during 46th to 51st standard week, during 3rd week of November to 3rd week of December and peak population (6.06/3 leaves) was recorded on 46th standard week that is on 3rd week of November. Correlation studies revealed that mite population had a significant negative correlation with temperature and non-significant positive correlation with relative humidity. This indicates that activity of mites population increase with the rise of relative humidity and decrease with the rise of temperature. Tobacco leaf extracts was found most effective against mite providing 40.51% suppression, closely followed by extracts of Spilanthes (39.06% suppression). Extracts of Garlic and extracts of Polygonum plant gave moderate results, recording about 38.10% and 37.78% mite suppression respectively. The polygonum (Polygonum hydropiper) plant (floral parts), pongamia (Pongamia pinnata) leaves, garlic (Allium sativum), spilanthes (Spilanthes paniculata) (floral parts) were extracted in methanol. Synthetic insecticides contaminate plant leaves with the toxic chemicals. Plant extracts are of biological origin having low or no hazardous effect on health and environment and so can be incorporated in organic cultivation.

Keywords: Abiotic factors, incidence, botanical extracts, organic cultivation, silk industry

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2555 Woody Plant Encroachment Effects on the Physical Properties of Vertic Soils in Bela-Bela, Limpopo Province

Authors: Rebone E. Mashapa, Phesheya E. Dlamini, Sandile S. Mthimkhulu


Woody plant encroachment, a land cover transformation that reduces grassland productivity may influence soil physical properties. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of woody plant encroachment on physical properties of vertic soils in a savanna grassland. In this study, we quantified and compared soil bulk density, aggregate stability and porosity in the top and subsoil of an open and woody encroached savanna grassland. The results revealed that soil bulk density increases, while porosity and mean weight diameter decreases with depth in both open and woody encroached grassland soil. Compared to open grassland, soil bulk density was 11% and 10% greater in the topsoil and subsoil, while porosity was 6% and 9% lower in the topsoil and subsoil of woody encroached grassland. Mean weight diameter, an indicator of soil aggregation increased by 38% only in the subsoil of encroached grasslands due to increasing clay content with depth. These results suggest that woody plant encroachment leads to compaction of vertic soils, which in turn reduces pore size distribution.

Keywords: soil depth, soil physical properties, vertic soils, woody plant encroachment

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2554 Phytochemical Study and Biological Activity of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

Authors: Mekhaldi Abdelkader, Bouzned Ahcen, Djibaoui Rachid, Hamoum Hakim


This study presents an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract and essential oils prepared from the leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The content of polyphenols in the methanolic extract of the leaves from Salvia officinalis extract was determined by spectrophoto- metrically, calculated as gallic acid and catechin equivalent. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenylpicryl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The plant essential oil and methanol extract were also subjected to screenings for the evaluation of their antioxidant activities using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. While the plant essential oil showed only weak antioxidant activities, its methanol extract was considerably active in DPPH (IC50= 37.29µg/ml) test. Appreciable total phenolic content (31.25mg/g) was also detected for the plant methanol extract as gallic acid equivalent in the Folin–Ciocalteu test. The plant was also screened for its antimicrobial activity and good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for its essential oil and methanol extract against most of the tested microorganisms. The present investigation revealed that this plant has rich source of antioxidant properties. It is for this reason that sage has found increasing application in food formulations.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, flavonoid, polyphenol, salvia officinalis

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2553 Bioproduction of Phytohormones by Liquid Fermentation Using a Mexican Strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae

Authors: Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Hernandez Castillo Daniel, Martinez Hernandez José Luis, Arredondo Valdes Roberto, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Anguiano Cabello Julia Cecilia


Plant hormones are a group of molecules that control different processes ranging from the growth and development of the plant until their response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the capacity of production of various phytohormones was evaluated from a strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae by liquid fermentation system using the modified Mierch medium added with a hydrolyzate compound of mead all in a reactor without agitation at 28 °C for 15 days. Quantification of the metabolites was performed using high performance liquid chromatography techniques. The results showed that a microbial broth with at least five different types of plant hormones was obtained: gibberellic acid, zeatin, kinetin, indoleacetic acid and jasmonic acid, the last one was higher than the others metabolites produced. The production of such hormones using a single type of microorganism could be in the future a great alternative to reduce production costs and similarly reduce the use of synthetic chemicals.

Keywords: biosystem, plant hormones, Botryodiplodia theobromae, fermentation

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2552 Programmed Cell Death in Datura and Defensive Plant Response toward Tomato Mosaic Virus

Authors: Asma Alhuqail, Nagwa Aref


Programmed cell death resembles a real nature active defense in Datura metel against TMV after three days of virus infection. Physiological plant response was assessed for asymptomatic healthy and symptomatic infected detached leaves. The results indicated H2O2 and Chlorophyll-a as the most potential parameters. Chlorophyll-a was considered the only significant predictor variant for the H2O2 dependent variant with a P value of 0.001 and R-square of 0.900. The plant immune response was measured within three days of virus infection using the cutoff value of H2O2 (61.095 lmol/100 mg) and (63.201 units) for the tail moment in the Comet Assay. Their percentage changes were 255.12% and 522.40% respectively which reflects the stress of virus infection in the plant. Moreover, H2O2 showed 100% specificity and sensitivity in the symptomatic infected group using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). All tested parameters in the symptomatic infected group had significant correlations with twenty-five positive and thirty-one negative correlations where the P value was <0.05 and 0.01. Chlorophyll-a parameter had a crucial role of highly significant correlation between total protein and salicylic acid. Contrarily, this correlation with tail moment unit was (r = _0.930, P <0.01) where the P value was < 0.01. The strongest significant negative correlation was between Chlorophyll-a and H2O2 at P < 0.01, while moderate negative significant correlation was seen for Chlorophyll-b where the P value < 0.05. The present study discloses the secret of the three days of rapid transient production of activated oxygen species (AOS) that was enough for having potential quantitative physiological parameters for defensive plant response toward the virus.

Keywords: programmed cell death, plant–adaptive immune response, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), physiological parameters

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