Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13651

Search results for: bilinear autoregressive model

13651 Identification of Classes of Bilinear Time Series Models

Authors: Anthony Usoro


In this paper, two classes of bilinear time series model are obtained under certain conditions from the general bilinear autoregressive moving average model. Bilinear Autoregressive (BAR) and Bilinear Moving Average (BMA) Models have been identified. From the general bilinear model, BAR and BMA models have been proved to exist for q = Q = 0, => j = 0, and p = P = 0, => i = 0 respectively. These models are found useful in modelling most of the economic and financial data.

Keywords: autoregressive model, bilinear autoregressive model, bilinear moving average model, moving average model

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13650 Kalman Filter for Bilinear Systems with Application

Authors: Abdullah E. Al-Mazrooei


In this paper, we present a new kind of the bilinear systems in the form of state space model. The evolution of this system depends on the product of state vector by its self. The well known Lotak Volterra and Lorenz models are special cases of this new model. We also present here a generalization of Kalman filter which is suitable to work with the new bilinear model. An application to real measurements is introduced to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: bilinear systems, state space model, Kalman filter, application, models

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13649 An Algorithm to Compute the State Estimation of a Bilinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei


In this paper, we introduce a mathematical algorithm which is used for estimating the states in the bilinear systems. This algorithm uses a special linearization of the second-order term by using the best available information about the state of the system. This technique makes our algorithm generalizes the well-known Kalman estimators. The system which is used here is of the bilinear class, the evolution of this model is linear-bilinear in the state of the system. Our algorithm can be used with linear and bilinear systems. We also here introduced a real application for the new algorithm to prove the feasibility and the efficiency for it.

Keywords: estimation algorithm, bilinear systems, Kakman filter, second order linearization

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
13648 Evaluation of High Damping Rubber Considering Initial History through Dynamic Loading Test and Program Analysis

Authors: Kyeong Hoon Park, Taiji Mazuda


High damping rubber (HDR) bearings are dissipating devices mainly used in seismic isolation systems and have a great damping performance. Although many studies have been conducted on the dynamic model of HDR bearings, few models can reflect phenomena such as dependency of experienced shear strain on initial history. In order to develop a model that can represent the dependency of experienced shear strain of HDR by Mullins effect, dynamic loading test was conducted using HDR specimen. The reaction of HDR was measured by applying a horizontal vibration using a hybrid actuator under a constant vertical load. Dynamic program analysis was also performed after dynamic loading test. The dynamic model applied in program analysis is a bilinear type double-target model. This model is modified from typical bilinear model. This model can express the nonlinear characteristics related to the initial history of HDR bearings. Based on the dynamic loading test and program analysis results, equivalent stiffness and equivalent damping ratio were calculated to evaluate the mechanical properties of HDR and the feasibility of the bilinear type double-target model was examined.

Keywords: base-isolation, bilinear model, high damping rubber, loading test

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13647 The Sustainability of Public Debt in Taiwan

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang


This study examines whether the Taiwan’s public debt is sustainable utilizing an unrestricted two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) model with an autoregressive unit root. The empirical results show that Taiwan’s public debt appears as a nonlinear series and is stationary in regime 1 but not in regime 2. This result implies that while Taiwan’s public debt was mostly sustainable over the 1996 to 2013 period examined in the study, it may no longer be sustainable in the most recent two years as the public debt ratio has increased cumulatively to 3.618%.

Keywords: nonlinearity, public debt, sustainability, threshold autoregressive model

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
13646 A Nonlinear Dynamical System with Application

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei


In this paper, a nonlinear dynamical system is presented. This system is a bilinear class. The bilinear systems are very important kind of nonlinear systems because they have many applications in real life. They are used in biology, chemistry, manufacturing, engineering, and economics where linear models are ineffective or inadequate. They have also been recently used to analyze and forecast weather conditions. Bilinear systems have three advantages: First, they define many problems which have a great applied importance. Second, they give us approximations to nonlinear systems. Thirdly, they have a rich geometric and algebraic structures, which promises to be a fruitful field of research for scientists and applications. The type of nonlinearity that is treated and analyzed consists of bilinear interaction between the states vectors and the system input. By using some properties of the tensor product, these systems can be transformed to linear systems. But, here we discuss the nonlinearity when the state vector is multiplied by itself. So, this model will be able to handle evolutions according to the Lotka-Volterra models or the Lorenz weather models, thus enabling a wider and more flexible application of such models. Here we apply by using an estimator to estimate temperatures. The results prove the efficiency of the proposed system.

Keywords: Lorenz models, nonlinear systems, nonlinear estimator, state-space model

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13645 New Estimation in Autoregressive Models with Exponential White Noise by Using Reversible Jump MCMC Algorithm

Authors: Suparman Suparman


A white noise in autoregressive (AR) model is often assumed to be normally distributed. In application, the white noise usually do not follows a normal distribution. This paper aims to estimate a parameter of AR model that has a exponential white noise. A Bayesian method is adopted. A prior distribution of the parameter of AR model is selected and then this prior distribution is combined with a likelihood function of data to get a posterior distribution. Based on this posterior distribution, a Bayesian estimator for the parameter of AR model is estimated. Because the order of AR model is considered a parameter, this Bayesian estimator cannot be explicitly calculated. To resolve this problem, a method of reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is adopted. A result is a estimation of the parameter AR model can be simultaneously calculated.

Keywords: autoregressive (AR) model, exponential white Noise, bayesian, reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)

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13644 Exact and Approximate Controllability of Nuclear Dynamics Using Bilinear Controls

Authors: Ramdas Sonawane, Mahaveer Gadiya


The control problem associated with nuclear dynamics is represented by nonlinear integro-differential equation with additive controls. To control chain reaction, certain amount of neutrons is added into (or withdrawn out of) chamber as and when required. It is not realistic. So, we can think of controlling the reactor dynamics by bilinear control, which enters the system as coefficient of state. In this paper, we study the approximate and exact controllability of parabolic integro-differential equation controlled by bilinear control with non-homogeneous boundary conditions in bounded domain. We prove the existence of control and propose an explicit control strategy.

Keywords: approximate control, exact control, bilinear control, nuclear dynamics, integro-differential equations

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13643 Application of Generalized Autoregressive Score Model to Stock Returns

Authors: Katleho Daniel Makatjane, Diteboho Lawrence Xaba, Ntebogang Dinah Moroke


The current study investigates the behaviour of time-varying parameters that are based on the score function of the predictive model density at time t. The mechanism to update the parameters over time is the scaled score of the likelihood function. The results revealed that there is high persistence of time-varying, as the location parameter is higher and the skewness parameter implied the departure of scale parameter from the normality with the unconditional parameter as 1.5. The results also revealed that there is a perseverance of the leptokurtic behaviour in stock returns which implies the returns are heavily tailed. Prior to model estimation, the White Neural Network test exposed that the stock price can be modelled by a GAS model. Finally, we proposed further researches specifically to model the existence of time-varying parameters with a more detailed model that encounters the heavy tail distribution of the series and computes the risk measure associated with the returns.

Keywords: generalized autoregressive score model, South Africa, stock returns, time-varying

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13642 Spatial Time Series Models for Rice and Cassava Yields Based on Bayesian Linear Mixed Models

Authors: Panudet Saengseedam, Nanthachai Kantanantha


This paper proposes a linear mixed model (LMM) with spatial effects to forecast rice and cassava yields in Thailand at the same time. A multivariate conditional autoregressive (MCAR) model is assumed to present the spatial effects. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation via Gibbs sampling Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The model is applied to the rice and cassava yields monthly data which have been extracted from the Office of Agricultural Economics, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Thailand. The results show that the proposed model has better performance in most provinces in both fitting part and validation part compared to the simple exponential smoothing and conditional auto regressive models (CAR) from our previous study.

Keywords: Bayesian method, linear mixed model, multivariate conditional autoregressive model, spatial time series

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13641 Estimating Lost Digital Video Frames Using Unidirectional and Bidirectional Estimation Based on Autoregressive Time Model

Authors: Navid Daryasafar, Nima Farshidfar


In this article, we make attempt to hide error in video with an emphasis on the time-wise use of autoregressive (AR) models. To resolve this problem, we assume that all information in one or more video frames is lost. Then, lost frames are estimated using analogous Pixels time information in successive frames. Accordingly, after presenting autoregressive models and how they are applied to estimate lost frames, two general methods are presented for using these models. The first method which is the same standard method of autoregressive models estimates lost frame in unidirectional form. Usually, in such condition, previous frames information is used for estimating lost frame. Yet, in the second method, information from the previous and next frames is used for estimating the lost frame. As a result, this method is known as bidirectional estimation. Then, carrying out a series of tests, performance of each method is assessed in different modes. And, results are compared.

Keywords: error steganography, unidirectional estimation, bidirectional estimation, AR linear estimation

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13640 Infinite Impulse Response Digital Filters Design

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen


Infinite impulse response (IIR) filters can be designed from an analogue low pass prototype by using frequency transformation in the s-domain and bilinear z-transformation with pre-warping frequency; this method is known as frequency transformation from the s-domain to the z-domain. This paper will introduce a new method to transform an IIR digital filter to another type of IIR digital filter (low pass, high pass, band pass, band stop or narrow band) using a technique based on inverse bilinear z-transformation and inverse matrices. First, a matrix equation is derived from inverse bilinear z-transformation and Pascal’s triangle. This Low Pass Digital to Digital Filter Pascal Matrix Equation is used to transform a low pass digital filter to other digital filter types. From this equation and the inverse matrix, a Digital to Digital Filter Pascal Matrix Equation can be derived that is able to transform any IIR digital filter. This paper will also introduce some specific matrices to replace the inverse matrix, which is difficult to determine due to the larger size of the matrix in the current method. This will make computing and hand calculation easier when transforming from one IIR digital filter to another in the digital domain.

Keywords: bilinear z-transformation, frequency transformation, inverse bilinear z-transformation, IIR digital filters

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13639 Composite Forecasts Accuracy for Automobile Sales in Thailand

Authors: Watchareeporn Chaimongkol


In this paper, we compare the statistical measures accuracy of composite forecasting model to estimate automobile customer demand in Thailand. A modified simple exponential smoothing and autoregressive integrate moving average (ARIMA) forecasting model is built to estimate customer demand of passenger cars, instead of using information of historical sales data. Our model takes into account special characteristic of the Thai automobile market such as sales promotion, advertising and publicity, petrol price, and interest rate for loan. We evaluate our forecasting model by comparing forecasts with actual data using six accuracy measurements, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), geometric mean absolute error (GMAE), symmetric mean absolute percentage error (sMAPE), mean absolute scaled error (MASE), median relative absolute error (MdRAE), and geometric mean relative absolute error (GMRAE).

Keywords: composite forecasting, simple exponential smoothing model, autoregressive integrate moving average model selection, accuracy measurements

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13638 Alternating Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for a Bilinear Model in Isoform Quantification from RNA-Seq Data

Authors: Wenjiang Deng, Tian Mou, Yudi Pawitan, Trung Nghia Vu


Estimation of isoform-level gene expression from RNA-seq data depends on simplifying assumptions, such as uniform reads distribution, that are easily violated in real data. Such violations typically lead to biased estimates. Most existing methods provide a bias correction step(s), which is based on biological considerations, such as GC content–and applied in single samples separately. The main problem is that not all biases are known. For example, new technologies such as single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) may introduce new sources of bias not seen in bulk-cell data. This study introduces a method called XAEM based on a more flexible and robust statistical model. Existing methods are essentially based on a linear model Xβ, where the design matrix X is known and derived based on the simplifying assumptions. In contrast, XAEM considers Xβ as a bilinear model with both X and β unknown. Joint estimation of X and β is made possible by simultaneous analysis of multi-sample RNA-seq data. Compared to existing methods, XAEM automatically performs empirical correction of potentially unknown biases. XAEM implements an alternating expectation-maximization (AEM) algorithm, alternating between estimation of X and β. For speed XAEM utilizes quasi-mapping for read alignment, thus leading to a fast algorithm. Overall XAEM performs favorably compared to other recent advanced methods. For simulated datasets, XAEM obtains higher accuracy for multiple-isoform genes, particularly for paralogs. In a differential-expression analysis of a real scRNA-seq dataset, XAEM achieves substantially greater rediscovery rates in an independent validation set.

Keywords: alternating EM algorithm, bias correction, bilinear model, gene expression, RNA-seq

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13637 Stock Market Prediction by Regression Model with Social Moods

Authors: Masahiro Ohmura, Koh Kakusho, Takeshi Okadome


This paper presents a regression model with autocorrelated errors in which the inputs are social moods obtained by analyzing the adjectives in Twitter posts using a document topic model. The regression model predicts Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) more precisely than autoregressive moving-average models.

Keywords: stock market prediction, social moods, regression model, DJIA

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
13636 Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control of Bilinear-Systems: Application to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems in Multi-Zone Buildings

Authors: Abderrhamane Jarou, Dominique Sauter, Christophe Aubrun


Over the past decade, the growing demand for energy efficiency in buildings has attracted the attention of the control community. Failures in HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems in buildings can have a significant impact on the desired and expected energy performance of buildings and on the user's comfort as well. FTC is a recent technology area that studies the adaptation of control algorithms to faulty operating conditions of a system. The application of Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC) in HVAC systems has gained attention in the last two decades. The objective is to maintain the variations in system performance due to faults within an acceptable range with respect to the desired nominal behavior. This paper considers the so-called active approach, which is based on fault and identification scheme combined with a control reconfiguration algorithm that consists in determining a new set of control parameters so that the reconfigured performance is "as close as possible, "in some sense, to the nominal performance. Thermal models of buildings and their HVAC systems are described by non-linear (usually bi-linear) equations. Most of the works carried out so far in FDI (fault diagnosis and isolation) or FTC consider a linearized model of the studied system. However, this model is only valid in a reduced range of variation. This study presents a new fault diagnosis (FD) algorithm based on a bilinear observer for the detection and accurate estimation of the magnitude of the HVAC system failure. The main contribution of the proposed FD algorithm is that instead of using specific linearized models, the algorithm inherits the structure of the actual bilinear model of the building thermal dynamics. As an immediate consequence, the algorithm is applicable to a wide range of unpredictable operating conditions, i.e., weather dynamics, outdoor air temperature, zone occupancy profile. A bilinear fault detection observer is proposed for a bilinear system with unknown inputs. The residual vector in the observer design is decoupled from the unknown inputs and, under certain conditions, is made sensitive to all faults. Sufficient conditions are given for the existence of the observer and results are given for the explicit computation of observer design matrices. Dedicated observer schemes (DOS) are considered for sensor FDI while unknown input bilinear observers are considered for actuator or system components FDI. The proposed strategy for FTC works as follows: At a first level, FDI algorithms are implemented, making it also possible to estimate the magnitude of the fault. Once the fault is detected, the fault estimation is then used to feed the second level and reconfigure the control low so that that expected performances are recovered. This paper is organized as follows. A general structure for fault-tolerant control of buildings is first presented and the building model under consideration is introduced. Then, the observer-based design for Fault Diagnosis of bilinear systems is studied. The FTC approach is developed in Section IV. Finally, a simulation example is given in Section V to illustrate the proposed method.

Keywords: bilinear systems, fault diagnosis, fault-tolerant control, multi-zones building

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13635 Bayesian Flexibility Modelling of the Conditional Autoregressive Prior in a Disease Mapping Model

Authors: Davies Obaromi, Qin Yongsong, James Ndege, Azeez Adeboye, Akinwumi Odeyemi


The basic model usually used in disease mapping, is the Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) model and which combines the spatially structured and spatially unstructured priors as random effects. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) model is a disease mapping method that is commonly used for smoothening the relative risk of any disease as used in the Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) model. This model (CAR), which is also usually assigned as a prior to one of the spatial random effects in the BYM model, successfully uses information from adjacent sites to improve estimates for individual sites. To our knowledge, there are some unrealistic or counter-intuitive consequences on the posterior covariance matrix of the CAR prior for the spatial random effects. In the conventional BYM (Besag, York and Mollie) model, the spatially structured and the unstructured random components cannot be seen independently, and which challenges the prior definitions for the hyperparameters of the two random effects. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to construct and utilize an extended Bayesian spatial CAR model for studying tuberculosis patterns in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and then compare for flexibility with some existing CAR models. The results of the study revealed the flexibility and robustness of this alternative extended CAR to the commonly used CAR models by comparison, using the deviance information criteria. The extended Bayesian spatial CAR model is proved to be a useful and robust tool for disease modeling and as a prior for the structured spatial random effects because of the inclusion of an extra hyperparameter.

Keywords: Besag2, CAR models, disease mapping, INLA, spatial models

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13634 Combined Odd Pair Autoregressive Coefficients for Epileptic EEG Signals Classification by Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: Boukari Nassim


This paper describes the use of odd pair autoregressive coefficients (Yule _Walker and Burg) for the feature extraction of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In the classification: the radial basis function neural network neural network (RBFNN) is employed. The RBFNN is described by his architecture and his characteristics: as the RBF is defined by the spread which is modified for improving the results of the classification. Five types of EEG signals are defined for this work: Set A, Set B for normal signals, Set C, Set D for interictal signals, set E for ictal signal (we can found that in Bonn university). In outputs, two classes are given (AC, AD, AE, BC, BD, BE, CE, DE), the best accuracy is calculated at 99% for the combined odd pair autoregressive coefficients. Our method is very effective for the diagnosis of epileptic EEG signals.

Keywords: epilepsy, EEG signals classification, combined odd pair autoregressive coefficients, radial basis function neural network

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13633 Combined Effect of Heat Stimulation and Delay Addition of Superplasticizer with Slag on Fresh and Hardened Property of Mortar

Authors: Antoni Wibowo, Harry Pujianto, Dewi Retno Sari Saputro


The stock market can provide huge profits in a relatively short time in financial sector; however, it also has a high risk for investors and traders if they are not careful to look the factors that affect the stock market. Therefore, they should give attention to the dynamic fluctuations and movements of the stock market to optimize profits from their investment. In this paper, we present a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous model (NARX) to predict the movements of stock market; especially, the movements of the closing price index. As case study, we consider to predict the movement of the closing price in Indonesia composite index (IHSG) and choose the best structures of NARX for IHSG’s prediction.

Keywords: NARX (Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous Model), prediction, stock market, time series

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13632 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen


Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.

Keywords: frequency transformation, bilinear z-transformation, pre-warping frequency, digital filters, analog filters, pascal’s triangle

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13631 Application of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model for Forecasting Monthly Flows in Waterval River, South Africa

Authors: Kassahun Birhanu Tadesse, Megersa Olumana Dinka


Reliable future river flow information is basic for planning and management of any river systems. For data scarce river system having only a river flow records like the Waterval River, a univariate time series models are appropriate for river flow forecasting. In this study, a univariate Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model was applied for forecasting Waterval River flow using GRETL statistical software. Mean monthly river flows from 1960 to 2016 were used for modeling. Different unit root tests and Mann-Kendall trend analysis were performed to test the stationarity of the observed flow time series. The time series was differenced to remove the seasonality. Using the correlogram of seasonally differenced time series, different SARIMA models were identified, their parameters were estimated, and diagnostic check-up of model forecasts was performed using white noise and heteroscedasticity tests. Finally, based on minimum Akaike Information (AIc) and Hannan-Quinn (HQc) criteria, SARIMA (3, 0, 2) x (3, 1, 3)12 was selected as the best model for Waterval River flow forecasting. Therefore, this model can be used to generate future river information for water resources development and management in Waterval River system. SARIMA model can also be used for forecasting other similar univariate time series with seasonality characteristics.

Keywords: heteroscedasticity, stationarity test, trend analysis, validation, white noise

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13630 In and Out-Of-Sample Performance of Non Simmetric Models in International Price Differential Forecasting in a Commodity Country Framework

Authors: Nicola Rubino


This paper presents an analysis of a group of commodity exporting countries' nominal exchange rate movements in relationship to the US dollar. Using a series of Unrestricted Self-exciting Threshold Autoregressive models (SETAR), we model and evaluate sixteen national CPI price differentials relative to the US dollar CPI. Out-of-sample forecast accuracy is evaluated through calculation of mean absolute error measures on the basis of two-hundred and fifty-three months rolling window forecasts and extended to three additional models, namely a logistic smooth transition regression (LSTAR), an additive non linear autoregressive model (AAR) and a simple linear Neural Network model (NNET). Our preliminary results confirm presence of some form of TAR non linearity in the majority of the countries analyzed, with a relatively higher goodness of fit, with respect to the linear AR(1) benchmark, in five countries out of sixteen considered. Although no model appears to statistically prevail over the other, our final out-of-sample forecast exercise shows that SETAR models tend to have quite poor relative forecasting performance, especially when compared to alternative non-linear specifications. Finally, by analyzing the implied half-lives of the > coefficients, our results confirms the presence, in the spirit of arbitrage band adjustment, of band convergence with an inner unit root behaviour in five of the sixteen countries analyzed.

Keywords: transition regression model, real exchange rate, nonlinearities, price differentials, PPP, commodity points

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13629 Nowcasting Indonesian Economy

Authors: Ferry Kurniawan


In this paper, we nowcast quarterly output growth in Indonesia by exploiting higher frequency data (monthly indicators) using a mixed-frequency factor model and exploiting both quarterly and monthly data. Nowcasting quarterly GDP in Indonesia is particularly relevant for the central bank of Indonesia which set the policy rate in the monthly Board of Governors Meeting; whereby one of the important step is the assessment of the current state of the economy. Thus, having an accurate and up-to-date quarterly GDP nowcast every time new monthly information becomes available would clearly be of interest for central bank of Indonesia, for example, as the initial assessment of the current state of the economy -including nowcast- will be used as input for longer term forecast. We consider a small scale mixed-frequency factor model to produce nowcasts. In particular, we specify variables as year-on-year growth rates thus the relation between quarterly and monthly data is expressed in year-on-year growth rates. To assess the performance of the model, we compare the nowcasts with two other approaches: autoregressive model –which is often difficult when forecasting output growth- and Mixed Data Sampling (MIDAS) regression. In particular, both mixed frequency factor model and MIDAS nowcasts are produced by exploiting the same set of monthly indicators. Hence, we compare the nowcasts performance of the two approaches directly. To preview the results, we find that by exploiting monthly indicators using mixed-frequency factor model and MIDAS regression we improve the nowcast accuracy over a benchmark simple autoregressive model that uses only quarterly frequency data. However, it is not clear whether the MIDAS or mixed-frequency factor model is better. Neither set of nowcasts encompasses the other; suggesting that both nowcasts are valuable in nowcasting GDP but neither is sufficient. By combining the two individual nowcasts, we find that the nowcast combination not only increases the accuracy - relative to individual nowcasts- but also lowers the risk of the worst performance of the individual nowcasts.

Keywords: nowcasting, mixed-frequency data, factor model, nowcasts combination

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13628 Sub-Pixel Mapping Based on New Mixed Interpolation

Authors: Zeyu Zhou, Xiaojun Bi


Due to the limited environmental parameters and the limited resolution of the sensor, the universal existence of the mixed pixels in the process of remote sensing images restricts the spatial resolution of the remote sensing images. Sub-pixel mapping technology can effectively improve the spatial resolution. As the bilinear interpolation algorithm inevitably produces the edge blur effect, which leads to the inaccurate sub-pixel mapping results. In order to avoid the edge blur effect that affects the sub-pixel mapping results in the interpolation process, this paper presents a new edge-directed interpolation algorithm which uses the covariance adaptive interpolation algorithm on the edge of the low-resolution image and uses bilinear interpolation algorithm in the low-resolution image smooth area. By using the edge-directed interpolation algorithm, the super-resolution of the image with low resolution is obtained, and we get the percentage of each sub-pixel under a certain type of high-resolution image. Then we rely on the probability value as a soft attribute estimate and carry out sub-pixel scale under the ‘hard classification’. Finally, we get the result of sub-pixel mapping. Through the experiment, we compare the algorithm and the bilinear algorithm given in this paper to the results of the sub-pixel mapping method. It is found that the sub-pixel mapping method based on the edge-directed interpolation algorithm has better edge effect and higher mapping accuracy. The results of the paper meet our original intention of the question. At the same time, the method does not require iterative computation and training of samples, making it easier to implement.

Keywords: remote sensing images, sub-pixel mapping, bilinear interpolation, edge-directed interpolation

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13627 Symbolic Computation on Variable-Coefficient Non-Linear Dispersive Wave Equations

Authors: Edris Rawashdeh, I. Abu-Falahah, H. M. Jaradat


The variable-coefficient non-linear dispersive wave equation is investigated with the aid of symbolic computation. By virtue of a newly developed simplified bilinear method, multi-soliton solutions for such an equation have been derived. Effects of the inhomogeneities of media and nonuniformities of boundaries, depicted by the variable coefficients, on the soliton behavior are discussed with the aid of the characteristic curve method and graphical analysis.

Keywords: dispersive wave equations, multiple soliton solution, Hirota Bilinear Method, symbolic computation

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13626 Relationship between Food Inflation and Agriculture Lending Rate in Ghana: A Vector Autoregressive Approach

Authors: Raymond K. Dziwornu


Lending rate of agriculture loan has persistently been high and attributed to risk in the sector. This study examined how food inflation and agriculture lending rate react to each other in Ghana using vector autoregressive approach. Quarterly data from 2006 to 2018 was obtained from the Bank of Ghana quarterly bulletin and the Ghana Statistical Service reports. The study found that a positive standard deviation shock to food inflation causes lending rate of agriculture loan to react negatively in the short run, but positively and steadily in the long run. This suggests the need to direct appropriate policy measures to reduce food inflation and consequently, the cost of credit to the agricultural sector for its growth.

Keywords: food inflation, agriculture, lending rate, vector autoregressive, Ghana

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13625 Analysis of a Generalized Sharma-Tasso-Olver Equation with Variable Coefficients

Authors: Fadi Awawdeh, O. Alsayyed, S. Al-Shará


Considering the inhomogeneities of media, the variable-coefficient Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation is hereby investigated with the aid of symbolic computation. A newly developed simplified bilinear method is described for the solution of considered equation. Without any constraints on the coefficient functions, multiple kink solutions are obtained. Parametric analysis is carried out in order to analyze the effects of the coefficient functions on the stabilities and propagation characteristics of the solitonic waves.

Keywords: Hirota bilinear method, multiple kink solution, Sharma-Tasso-Olver equation, inhomogeneity of media

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13624 Assessing Functional Structure in European Marine Ecosystems Using a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal Model

Authors: Katyana A. Vert-Pre, James T. Thorson, Thomas Trancart, Eric Feunteun


In marine ecosystems, spatial and temporal species structure is an important component of ecosystems’ response to anthropological and environmental factors. Although spatial distribution patterns and fish temporal series of abundance have been studied in the past, little research has been allocated to the joint dynamic spatio-temporal functional patterns in marine ecosystems and their use in multispecies management and conservation. Each species represents a function to the ecosystem, and the distribution of these species might not be random. A heterogeneous functional distribution will lead to a more resilient ecosystem to external factors. Applying a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal (VAST) model for count data, we estimate the spatio-temporal distribution, shift in time, and abundance of 140 species of the Eastern English Chanel, Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean Sea. From the model outputs, we determined spatio-temporal clusters, calculating p-values for hierarchical clustering via multiscale bootstrap resampling. Then, we designed a functional map given the defined cluster. We found that the species distribution within the ecosystem was not random. Indeed, species evolved in space and time in clusters. Moreover, these clusters remained similar over time deriving from the fact that species of a same cluster often shifted in sync, keeping the overall structure of the ecosystem similar overtime. Knowing the co-existing species within these clusters could help with predicting data-poor species distribution and abundance. Further analysis is being performed to assess the ecological functions represented in each cluster.

Keywords: cluster distribution shift, European marine ecosystems, functional distribution, spatio-temporal model

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13623 Speech Enhancement Using Kalman Filter in Communication

Authors: Eng. Alaa K. Satti Salih


Revolutions Applications such as telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, etc. which need at least one microphone, the signal is usually infected by noise and echo. The important application is the speech enhancement, which is done to remove suppressed noises and echoes taken by a microphone, beside preferred speech. Accordingly, the microphone signal has to be cleaned using digital signal processing DSP tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored. Engineers have so far tried different approaches to improving the speech by get back the desired speech signal from the noisy observations. Especially Mobile communication, so in this paper will do reconstruction of the speech signal, observed in additive background noise, using the Kalman filter technique to estimate the parameters of the Autoregressive Process (AR) in the state space model and the output speech signal obtained by the MATLAB. The accurate estimation by Kalman filter on speech would enhance and reduce the noise then compare and discuss the results between actual values and estimated values which produce the reconstructed signals.

Keywords: autoregressive process, Kalman filter, Matlab, noise speech

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13622 Multiple-Lump-Type Solutions of the 2D Toda Equation

Authors: Jian-Ping Yu, Wen-Xiu Ma, Yong-Li Sun, Chaudry Masood Khalique


In this paper, a 2d Toda equation is studied, which is a classical integrable system and plays a vital role in mathematics, physics and other areas. New lump-type solution is constructed by using the Hirota bilinear method. One interesting feature of this research is that this lump-type solutions possesses two types of multiple-lump-type waves, which are one- and two-lump-type waves. Moreover, the corresponding 3d plots, density plots and contour plots are given to show the dynamical features of the obtained multiple-lump-type solutions.

Keywords: 2d Toda equation, Hirota bilinear method, Lump-type solution, multiple-lump-type solution

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