Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 403

Search results for: beta amyloid 25-35

403 The Interaction between Blood-Brain Barrier and the Cerebral Lymphatics Proposes Therapeutic Method for Alzheimer’S Disease

Authors: M. Klimova, O. Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, J. Kurts, E. Zinchenko, N. Navolokin, A. Shirokov, A. Dubrovsky, A. Abdurashitov, A. Terskov, A. Mamedova, I. Agranovich, T. Antonova, I. Blokhina


The direction for research of Alzheimer's disease is to find an effective non-invasive and non-pharmacological way of treatment. Here we tested our hypothesis that the opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) induces activation of lymphatic drainage and clearing functions that can be used as a method for non-invasive stimulation of clearance of beta-amyloid and therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To test our hypothesis, in this study on healthy male mice we analyzed the interaction between BBB opening by repeated loud music (100-10000 Hz, 100 dB, duration 2 h: 60 sec – sound; 60 sec - pause) and functional changes in the meningeal lymphatic vessels (MLVs). We demonstrate clearance of dextran 70 kDa (i.v. injection), fluorescent beta-amyloid (intrahippocampal injection) and gold nanorods (intracortical injection) via MLV that significantly increased after the opening of BBB. Our studies also demonstrate that the BBB opening was associated with the improvement of neurocognitive status in mice with AD. Thus, we uncover therapeutic effects of BBB opening by loud music, such as non-invasive stimulation of lymphatic clearance of beta-amyloid in mice with AD, accompanied by improvement of their neurocognitive status. Our data are consistent with other results suggesting the therapeutic effect of BBB opening by focused ultrasound without drugs for patients with AD. This research was supported by a grant from RSF 18-75-10033

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid, blood-brain barrier, meningeal lymphatic vessels, repeated loud music

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402 The Effect of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Alkaloids on the Blood Glucose and Amyloid Precursor Protein Metabolic Pathways in Db/Db Mice

Authors: Juan Huang, Nanqu Huang, Jingshan Shi, Yu Qiu


Objectives: There are pathophysiological connections between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and research on drugs with hypoglycemic and beta-amyloid (Aβ)-clearing effects have great therapeutic potential for AD. Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Alkaloids (DNLA) as one of the active compounds of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. In this study, we attempted to verify the hypoglycemic effect and investigate the effects of DNLA on the amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolic pathway of the hippocampus in db/db mice. Methods: 4-weeks-old male C57BL/KsJ mice were the control group. And the same age and sexuality db/db mice were: model, DNLA-L (20 mg/kg), DNLA-M (40 mg/kg), and DNLA-H (80 mg/kg). After, mice were treated with different concentrations of DNLA for 17 weeks. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) was detected by glucose oxidase assay every week from the 4th to last week. The protein expression of β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42), β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and APP were examined by Western blotting. Results: The concentration of FBG and the protein expression of Aβ1-42, BACE1, and APP were increased in the hippocampus of the model group. Moreover, DNLA not only significantly decreased the concentration of FBG but also reduced the protein expressions of Aβ1-42, BACE1 and APP in the hippocampus of db/db mice in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: DNLA can decrease the protein expressions of Aβ1-42 in the hippocampus of db/db mice, and the mechanism may be involved in the APP metabolic pathway.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, traditional Chinese medicines, beta-amyloid

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401 Amyloid-β Fibrils Remodeling by an Organic Molecule: Insight from All-Atomic Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Authors: Nikhil Agrawal, Adam A. Skelton


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia, which is caused by misfolding and aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides into amyloid-β fibrils (Aβ fibrils). To disrupt the remodeling of Aβ fibrils, a number of candidate molecules have been proposed. To study the molecular mechanisms of Aβ fibrils remodeling we performed a series of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, a total time of 3µs, in explicit solvent. Several previously undiscovered candidate molecule-Aβ fibrils binding modes are unraveled; one of which shows the direct conformational change of the Aβ fibril by understanding the physicochemical factors responsible for binding and subsequent remodeling of Aβ fibrils by the candidate molecule, open avenues into structure-based drug design for AD can be opened.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, amyloid, MD simulations, misfolded protein

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400 Mitigating the Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide with Nanomaterials

Authors: Ava Faridi, Pouya Faridi, Aleksandr Kakinen, Ibrahim Javed, Thomas P. Davis, Pu Chun Ke


Human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a hormone associated with glycemic control and type 2 diabetes. Biophysically, the chirality of IAPP fibrils has been little explored with respect to the aggregation and toxicity of the peptide. Biochemically, it remains unclear as for how protein expression in pancreatic beta cells may be altered by cell exposure to the peptide, and how such changes may be mitigated by nanoparticle inhibitors for IAPP aggregation. In this study, we first demonstrated the elimination of the IAPP nucleation phase and shortening of its elongation phase by silica nanoribbons. This accelerated IAPP fibrillization translated to reduced toxicity, especially for the right-handed silica nanoribbons, as revealed by cell viability, helium ion microscopy, as well as zebrafish embryo survival, developmental and behavioral assays. We then examined the proteomes of βTC6 pancreatic beta cells exposed to the three main aggregation states of monomeric, oligomeric and amyloid fibrillar IAPP, and compared that with cellular protein expression modulated by graphene quantum dots (GQDs). A total of 29 proteins were significantly regulated by different forms of IAPP, and the majority of these proteins were nucleotide-binding proteins. A regulatory capacity of GQDs against aberrant protein expression was confirmed. These studies have demonstrated the great potential of employing nanomaterials targeting the mesoscopic enantioselectivity and protein expression dysregulation in pancreatic beta cells.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, IAPP, silica nanoribbons, protein expression, toxicity

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399 Amyloid Deposition in Granuloma of Tuberculosis Patients: A Pilot Study

Authors: Shreya Ghosh, Akansha Garg, Chayanika Kala, Ashwani Kumar Thakur


Background: Granuloma formation is one of the characteristic features of tuberculosis. Besides, chronic inflammation underlying tuberculosis is often indicated by an increase in the concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein. The connection between tuberculosis and SAA-driven secondary amyloidosis is well documented. However, SAA-derived amyloid deposition start sites are not well understood in tuberculosis and other chronic inflammatory conditions. It was hypothesized that granuloma could be a potential site for an amyloid deposition because both SAA protein and proteases that cleave SAA into aggregation-prone fragments are reported to be present in the granuloma. Here the authors have shown the presence of SAA-derived amyloid deposits in the granuloma of tuberculosis patients. Methodology: Over a period of two years, tuberculosis patients were screened, and biopsies were collected from the affected organs of the patients. The gold standard, Congo red dye staining, was used to identify amyloid deposits in the tissue sections of tuberculosis patients containing granulomatous structure. Results: 11 out of 150 FFPE biopsy specimens of tuberculosis patients showed eosinophilic hyaline-rich deposits surrounding granuloma. Upon Congo red staining, these deposits exhibited characteristic apple-green birefringence under polarized light, confirming amyloid deposits. Further, upon immunohistochemical staining with anti-SAA, the amyloid enriched areas showed positive immunoreactivity. Conclusion: In this pilot study, we have shown that granuloma can be a potential site for serum amyloid A-derived amyloid formation in tuberculosis patients. Moreover, the presence of amyloid gave significant cues that granuloma might be a probable amyloid deposition start in tuberculosis patients. This study will set a stage to expand the clinical and fundamental research in the understanding of amyloid formation in granuloma underlying tuberculosis and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: amyloid, granuloma, periphery, serum amyloid A, tuberculosis

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398 Attenuation of Amyloid beta (Aβ) (1-42)-Induced Neurotoxicity by Luteolin

Authors: Dona Pamoda W. Jayatunga, Veer Bala Gupta, Eugene Hone, Ralph N. Martins


Being a neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects a majority of the elderly demented worldwide. The key risk factors for AD are age, metabolic syndrome, allele status of APOE gene, head injuries and lifestyle. The progressive nature of AD is characterized by symptoms of multiple cognitive deficits exacerbated over time, leading to death within a decade from clinical diagnosis. However, it is revealed that AD originates via a prodromal phase that spans from one to few decades before symptoms first manifest. The key pathological hallmarks of AD brains are deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). However, the yet unknown etiology of the disease fails to distinguish mitochondrial dysfunction between a cause or an outcome. The absence of early diagnosis tools and definite therapies for AD have permitted recruits of nutraceutical-based approaches aimed at reducing the risk of AD by modulating lifestyle or be used as preventive tools during AD prodromal state before widespread neurodegeneration begins. The objective of the present study was to investigate beneficial effects of luteolin, a plant-based flavone compound, against AD. The neuroprotective effects of luteolin on amyloid beta (Aβ) (1-42)-induced neurotoxicity was measured using cultured human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cells. After exposure to 20μM Aβ (1-42) for 48 h, the neuroblastoma cells exhibited marked apoptotic death. Co-treatment of 20μM Aβ (1-42) with luteolin (0.5-5μM) significantly protected the cells against Aβ (1-42)-induced toxicity, as assessed by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2(4sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] reduction assay and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cell death assay. The results suggest that luteolin prevents Aβ (1-42)-induced apoptotic neuronal death. However, further studies are underway to determine its protective mechanisms in AD including the activity against tau hyperphosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction.

Keywords: Aβ (1-42)-induced toxicity, Alzheimer’s disease, luteolin, neuroblastoma cells

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397 Tripeptide Inhibitor: The Simplest Aminogenic PEGylated Drug against Amyloid Beta Peptide Fibrillation

Authors: Sutapa Som Chaudhury, Chitrangada Das Mukhopadhyay


Alzheimer’s disease is a well-known form of dementia since its discovery in 1906. Current Food and Drug Administration approved medications e.g. cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine offer modest symptomatic relief but do not play any role in disease modification or recovery. In last three decades many small molecules, chaperons, synthetic peptides, partial β-secretase enzyme blocker have been tested for the development of a drug against Alzheimer though did not pass the 3rd clinical phase trials. Here in this study, we designed a PEGylated, aminogenic, tripeptidic polymer with two different molecular weights based on the aggregation prone amino acid sequence 17-20 in amyloid beta (Aβ) 1-42. Being conjugated with poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) which self-assembles into hydrophilic nanoparticles, these PEGylated tripeptides constitute a very good drug delivery system crossing the blood brain barrier while the peptide remains protected from proteolytic degradation and non-specific protein interactions. Moreover, being completely aminogenic they would not raise any side effects. These peptide inhibitors were evaluated for their effectiveness against Aβ42 fibrillation at an early stage of oligomer to fibril formation as well as preformed fibril clearance via Thioflavin T (ThT) assay, dynamic light scattering analyses, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The inhibitors were proved to be safe at a higher concentration of 20µM by the reduction assay of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. Moreover, SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells have shown a greater survivability when treated with the inhibitors following Aβ42 fibril and oligomer treatment as compared with the control Aβ42 fibril and/or oligomer treated neuroblastoma cells. These make the peptidic inhibitors a promising compound in the aspect of the discovery of alternative medication for Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, alternative medication, amyloid beta, PEGylated peptide

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396 Molecular Basis for Amyloid Inhibition by L-Dopa: Implication towards Systemic Amyloidosis

Authors: Rizwan H. Khan, Saima Nusrat


Despite the fact that amyloid associated neurodegenerative diseases and non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis have allured the research endeavors, as no curative drugs have been proclaimed up till now except for symptomatic cure. Therapeutic compounds which can diminish or disaggregate such toxic oligomers and fibrillar species have been examined and more are on its way. In the present study, we had reported an extensive biophysical, microscopic and computational study, revealing that L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) possess undeniable potency to inhibit heat induced human lysozyme (HL) amyloid fibrillation and also retain the fibril disaggregating potential. L-Dopa interferes in the amyloid fibrillogenesis process by interacting hydrophobically and also by forming hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues found in amyloid fibril forming prone region of HL as elucidated by molecular docking results. L-Dopa also disaggregates the mature amyloid fibrils into some unorganised species. Thus, L-Dopa and related compounds can work as a promising inhibitor for the therapeutic advancement prospective against systemic amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloids, disaggregation, human lysozyme, molecular docking

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395 Inhibitory Impacts of Fulvic Acid-Coated Iron Oxide Nano Particles on the Amyloid Fibril Aggregations

Authors: Dalia Jomehpour, Sara Sheikhlary, Esmaeil Heydari, Mohammad Hossien Majles Ara


In this study, we report fulvic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of 10.7 ± 2.7 nm size, which serve to inhibit amyloid fibrillation formation. Although the effect of fulvic acid on tau fibrils was investigated, to our best knowledge, its inhibitory impacts on amyloid aggregation formation have been assessed neither in-vitro nor in-vivo. On the other hand, iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit anti-amyloid activity on their own. This study investigates the inhibitory effect of fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles on amyloid aggregations formed from the commonly used in-vitro model, lysozyme from chicken egg white. FESEM, XRD, and FTIR characterization confirmed that fulvic acid was coated onto the surface of the nanoparticles. The inhibitory effects of the fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles were verified by Thioflavin T assay, circular dichroism (CD), and FESEM analysis. Furthermore, the toxicity of the nanoparticles on the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y human cell line was assessed through an MTT assay. Our results indicate that fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles can efficiently inhibit the formation of amyloid aggregations while exhibiting negligible in-vitro toxicity; thus, they can be used as anti-amyloid agents in the development of the potential drug for neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles, fulvic acid, amyloid inhibitor, polyphenols

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394 Potential of Polyphenols from Tamarix Gallica towards Common Pathological Features of Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Diseases

Authors: Asma Ben Hmidene, Mizuho Hanaki, Kazuma Murakami, Kazuhiro Irie, Hiroko Isoda, Hideyuki Shigemori


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized as a peripheral metabolic disorder and a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, respectively. It is now widely recognized that T2DM and AD share many pathophysiological features including glucose metabolism, increased oxidative stress and amyloid aggregation. Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the components of the amyloid deposits in the AD brain and while the component of the amyloidogenic peptide deposit in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans is identified as human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). These two proteins are originated from the amyloid precursor protein and have a high sequence similarity. Although the amino acid sequences of amyloidogenic proteins are diverse, they all adopt a similar structure in aggregates called cross-beta-spine. Add at that, extensive studies in the past years have found that like Aβ1-42, IAPP forms early intermediate assemblies as spherical oligomers, implicating that these oligomers possess a common folding pattern or conformation. These similarities can be used in the search for effective pharmacotherapy for DM, since potent therapeutic agents such as antioxidants with a catechol moiety, proved to inhibit Aβ aggregation, may play a key role in the inhibit the aggregation of hIAPP treatment of patients with DM. Tamarix gallica is one of the halophyte species having a powerful antioxidant system. Although it was traditionally used for the treatment of various liver metabolic disorders, there is no report about the use of this plant for the treatment or prevention of T2DM and AD. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate their protective effect towards T2DM and AD by isolation and identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors, with antioxidant potential, that play an important role in the glucose metabolism in diabetic patient, as well as, the polymerization of hIAPP and Aβ aggregation inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship study was conducted for both assays. And as for α-glucosidase inhibitors, their mechanism of action and their synergistic potential when applied with a very low concentration of acarbose were also suggesting that they can be used not only as α-glucosidase inhibitors but also be combined with established α-glucosidase inhibitors to reduce their adverse effect. The antioxidant potential of the purified substances was evaluated by DPPH and SOD assays. Th-T assay using 42-mer amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) for AD and hIAPP which is a 37-residue peptide secreted by the pancreatic β –cells for T2DM and Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) were conducted to evaluate the amyloid aggragation of the actives substances. For α-glucosidase, p-NPG and glucose oxidase assays were performed for determining the inhibition potential and structure-activity relationship study. The Enzyme kinetic protocol was used to study the mechanism of action. From this research, it was concluded that polyphenols playing a role in the glucose metabolism and oxidative stress can also inhibit the amyloid aggregation, and that substances with a catechol and glucuronide moieties inhibiting amyloid-β aggregation, might be used to inhibit the aggregation of hIAPP.

Keywords: α-glucosidase inhibitors, amyloid aggregation inhibition, mechanism of action, polyphenols, structure activity relationship, synergistic potential, tamarix gallica

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393 Wet Polymeric Precipitation Synthesis for Monophasic Tricalcium Phosphate

Authors: I. Grigoraviciute-Puroniene, K. Tsuru, E. Garskaite, Z. Stankeviciute, A. Beganskiene, K. Ishikawa, A. Kareiva


Tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP) powders were synthesized using wet polymeric precipitation method for the first time to our best knowledge. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of almost single a Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) phase of a poor crystallinity already at room temperature. With continuously increasing the calcination temperature up to 800 °C, the crystalline β-TCP was obtained as the main phase. It was demonstrated that infrared spectroscopy is very effective method to characterize the formation of β-TCP. The SEM results showed that β-TCP solids were homogeneous having a small particle size distribution. The β-TCP powders consisted of spherical particles varying in size from 100 to 300 nm. Fabricated β-TCP specimens were placed to the bones of the rats and maintained for 1-2 months.

Keywords: Tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, bone regeneration, wet chemical processing, polymeric precipitation

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392 Synergistic Effect of Eugenol Acetate with Betalactam Antibiotic on Betalactamase and Its Bioinformatics Analysis

Authors: Vinod Nair, C. Sadasivan


Beta-lactam antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed medications in modern medicine. The antibiotic resistance by the production of enzyme beta-lactamase is an important mechanism seen in microorganisms. Resistance to beta-lactams mediated by beta-lactamases can be overcome successfully with the use of beta-lactamase inhibitors. New generations of the antibiotics contain mostly synthetic compounds, and many side effects have been reported for them. Combinations of beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitors have become one of the most successful antimicrobial strategies in the current scenario of bacterial infections. Plant-based drugs are very cheap and having lesser adverse effect than synthetic compounds. The synergistic effect of eugenol acetate with beta-lactams restores the activity of beta-lactams, allowing their continued clinical use. It is reported here the enhanced inhibitory effect of phytochemical, eugenol acetate, isolated from the plant Syzygium aromaticum with beta-lactams on beta-lactamase. The compound was found to have synergistic effect with the antibiotic amoxicillin against antibiotic-resistant strain of S.aureus. The enzyme was purified from the organism and incubated with the compound. The assay showed that the compound could inhibit the enzymatic activity of beta-lactamase. Modeling and molecular docking studies indicated that the compound can fit into the active site of beta-lactamase and can mask the important residue for hydrolysis of beta-lactams. The synergistic effects of eugenol acetate with beta-lactam antibiotics may justify, the use of these plant compounds for the preparation of β-lactamase inhibitors against β-lactam resistant S.aureus.

Keywords: betalactamase, eugenol acetate, synergistic effect, molecular modeling

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391 β-Lactamase Inhibitory Effects of Anchusa azurea Extracts

Authors: Naoual Boussoualim, Hayat Trabsa, Iman Krache, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani


Resistance to antibiotics has emerged following their widespread use; the important mechanism of beta-lactam resistance in bacteria is the production of beta-lactamase. In order to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated the inhibition effect of the extracts of Anchusa azurea (AA) on a beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus. The extracts exerted inhibitory effects on beta-lactamase in a dose-dependent manner, the results showed that the crude extract (BrE) and the ethyl acetate extract (AcE) of Anchusa azurea showed a very high inhibitory activity at a concentration of 10 mg, the percentage of inhibition was between 58% and 68%. Not all extracts were as potent as the original inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, the isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents in these extracts will provide useful means in the development of beta -lactamase inhibitors.

Keywords: Anchusa azurea, natural product, resistance, antibiotics, beta-lactamase, inhibitors

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390 Design Manufacture and Testing of a Combined Alpha-Beta Double Piston Stirling Engine

Authors: A. Calvin Antony, Sakthi Kumar Arul Prakash, V. R. Sanal Kumar


In this paper a unique alpha-beta double piston 'stirling engine' is designed, manufactured and conducted laboratory test to ameliorate the efficiency of the stirling engine. The paper focuses on alpha and beta type engines, capturing their benefits and eradicating their short comings; along with the output observed from the flywheel. In this model alpha engine is kinematically with a piston cylinder arrangement which works quite like a beta engine. The piston of the new cylinder is so designed that it replicates a glued displacer and power piston as similar to that of beta engine. The bigger part of the piston is the power piston, which has a gap around it, while the smaller part of the piston is tightly fit in the cylinder and acts like the displacer piston. We observed that the alpha-beta double piston stirling engine produces 25% increase in power compare to a conventional alpha stirling engine. This working model is a pointer towards for the design and development of an alpha-beta double piston Stirling engine for industrial applications for producing electricity from the heat producing exhaust gases.

Keywords: alpha-beta double piston stirling engine , alpha stirling engine , beta double piston stirling engine , electricity from stirling engine

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389 Use of Beta Blockers in Patients with Reactive Airway Disease and Concomitant Hypertension or Ischemic Heart Disease

Authors: Bharti Chogtu Magazine, Dhanya Soodana Mohan, Shruti Nair, Tanwi Trushna


The study was undertaken to analyse the cardiovascular drugs being prescribed in patients with concomitant reactive airway disease and hypertension or ischemic heart diseases (IHD). Also, the effect of beta-blockers on respiratory symptoms in these patients was recorded. Data was collected from medical records of patients with reactive airway disease and concomitant hypertension and IHD. It included demographic details of the patients, diagnosis, drugs prescribed and the patient outcome regarding the exacerbation of asthma symptoms with intake of beta blockers. Medical records of 250 patients were analysed.13% of patients were prescribed beta-blockers. 12% of hypertensive patients, 16.6% of IHD patients and 20% of patients with concomitant hypertension and IHD were prescribed beta blockers. Of the 33 (13%) patients who were on beta-blockers, only 3 patients had an exacerbation of bronchial asthma symptoms. Cardioselective beta-blockers under supervision appear to be safe in patients with reactive airway disease and concomitant hypertension and IHD.

Keywords: beta blockers, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, asthma

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388 Effects of Sn and Al on Phase Stability and Mechanical Properties of Metastable Beta Ti Alloys

Authors: Yonosuke Murayama


We have developed and studied a metastable beta Ti alloy, which shows super-elasticity and low Young’s modulus according to the phase stability of its beta phase. The super-elasticity and low Young’s modulus are required in a wide range of applications in various industrial fields. For example, the metallic implant with low Young’s modulus and non-toxicity is desirable because the large difference of Young’s modulus between the human bone and the implant material may cause a stress-shielding phenomenon. We have investigated the role of Sn and Al in metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys. The metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys form during quenching from the beta field at high temperature. While Cr and V act as beta stabilizers, Sn and Al are considered as elements to suppress the athermal omega phase produced during quenching. The athermal omega phase degrades the properties of super-elasticity and Young’s modulus. Although Al and Sn as single elements are considered as an alpha stabilizer and neutral, respectively, Sn and Al acted also as beta stabilizers when added simultaneously with beta stabilized element of Cr or V in this experiment. The quenched microstructure of Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys shifts from martensitic structure to beta single-phase structure with increasing Cr or V. The Young’s modulus of Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys decreased and then increased with increasing Cr or V, each showing its own minimum value of Young's modulus respectively. The composition of the alloy with the minimum Young’s modulus is a near border composition where the quenched microstructure shifts from martensite to beta. The border composition of Ti-Cr-Sn and Ti-V-Sn alloys required only less amount of each beta stabilizer, Cr or V, than Ti-Cr-Al and Ti-V-Al alloys. This indicates that the effect of Sn as a beta stabilizer is stronger than Al. Sn and Al influenced the competitive relation between stress-induced martensitic transformation and slip deformation. Thus, super-elastic properties of metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys varied depending on the alloyed element, Sn or Al.

Keywords: metastable beta Ti alloy, super-elasticity, low Young’s modulus, stress-induced martensitic transformation, beta stabilized element

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387 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Beta-Glucosidase of Streptomyces

Authors: Adam Abate, Elham Rasti, Philip Romero


Beta-glucosidase is the key enzyme component present in cellulase and completes the final step during cellulose hydrolysis by converting the cellobiose to glucose. The regulatory properties of beta-glucosidases are most commonly found for the retaining and inverting enzymes. Hydrolysis of a glycoside typically occurs with general acid and general base assistance from two amino acid side chains, normally glutamic or aspartic acids. In order to obtain more detailed information on the dynamic events origination from the interaction with enzyme active site, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations of beta-glycosidase in protonated state (Glu-H178) and deprotonated state (Glu178). The theoretical models generated from our molecular dynamics simulations complement and advance the structural information currently available, leading to a more detailed understanding of Beta-glycosidase structure and function. This article presents the important role of Asn307 in enzyme activity of beta-glucosidase

Keywords: Beta-glucosidase, GROMACS, molecular dynamics simulation, structural parameters

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386 Smart Beta Portfolio Optimization

Authors: Saud Al Mahdi


Traditionally,portfolio managers have been discouraged from timing the market. This means, for example, that equity managers have been forced to adhere strictly to a benchmark with static or relatively stable components, such as the SP 500 or the Russell 3000. This means that the portfolio’s exposures to all risk factors should mimic as closely as possible the corresponding exposures of the benchmark. The main risk factor, of course, is the market itself. Effectively, a long-only portfolio would be constrained to have a beta 1. More recently, however, managers have been given greater discretion to adjust their portfolio’s risk exposures (in particular, the beta of their portfolio) dynamically to match the manager’s beliefs about future performance of the risk factors themselves. This freedom translates into the manager’s ability to adjust the portfolio’s beta dynamically. These strategies have come to be known as smart beta strategies. Adjusting beta dynamically amounts to attempting to "time" the market; that is, to increase exposure when one anticipates that the market will rise, and to decrease it when one anticipates that the market will fall. Traditionally, market timing has been believed to be impossible to perform effectively and consistently. Moreover, if a majority of market participants do it, their combined actions could destabilize the market. The aim of this project is to investigate so-called smart beta strategies to determine if they really can add value, or if they are merely marketing gimmicks used to sell dubious investment strategies.

Keywords: beta, alpha, active portfolio management, trading strategies

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385 Investigations of Protein Aggregation Using Sequence and Structure Based Features

Authors: M. Michael Gromiha, A. Mary Thangakani, Sandeep Kumar, D. Velmurugan


The main cause of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzhemier, Parkinson, and spongiform encephalopathies is formation of amyloid fibrils and plaques in proteins. We have analyzed different sets of proteins and peptides to understand the influence of sequence-based features on protein aggregation process. The comparison of 373 pairs of homologous mesophilic and thermophilic proteins showed that aggregation-prone regions (APRs) are present in both. But, the thermophilic protein monomers show greater ability to ‘stow away’ the APRs in their hydrophobic cores and protect them from solvent exposure. The comparison of amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating hexapeptides suggested distinct preferences for specific residues at the six positions as well as all possible combinations of nine residue pairs. The compositions of residues at different positions and residue pairs have been converted into energy potentials and utilized for distinguishing between amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating peptides. Our method could correctly identify the amyloid forming peptides at an accuracy of 95-100% in different datasets of peptides.

Keywords: aggregation, amyloids, thermophilic proteins, amino acid residues, machine learning techniques

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384 IgA/λ Plasma Cell Myeloma with λ Light Chain Amyloidosis: A Case Report

Authors: Kai Pei Huang, Ting Chung Hung, Li Ching Wu


Amyloidosis refers to a variety of conditions wherein amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organ or tissues and cause harm. Among the several forms of amyloidosis, the principal types of that in inpatient medical services are the AL amyloidosis (primary) and AA amyloidois (secondary). AL Amyloidois is due to deposition of protein derived from overproduction of immunoglobulin light chain in plasma cell myeloma. Furthermore, it is a systemic disorder that can present with a variety of symptoms, including heavy proteinemia and edema, heptosplenomegaly, otherwise unexplained heart failure. We reported a 78-year-old female presenting dysuria, oliguria and leg edema for several months. Laboratory data showed proteinuria (UPCR:1679.8), leukocytosis (WBC:16.2 x 10^3/uL), results of serum urea nitrogen (39mg/dL), creatinine (0.76 mg/dL), IgG (748 mg/dL.), IgA (635 mg/dL), IgM (63 mg/dL), kappa light chain(18.8 mg/dL), lambda light chain (110.0 mg/dL) and kappa/lambda ratio (0.17). Renal biopsy found amyloid fibrils in glomerular mesangial area, and Congo red stain highlights amyloid deposition in glomeruli. Additional lab studies included serum protein electrophoresis, which shows a major monoclonal peak in β region and minor small peak in gamma region, and the immunotyping studies for serum showed two IgA/λ type. We treated sample with beta-mercaptoethanol which reducing the polymerized immunoglobulin to clarify two IgA/λ are secreted from the same plasma cell clone in bone marrow. Later examination confirmed it existed plasma cell infiltration in bone marrow, and the immunohistochemical staining showed monotypic for λ light chain and are positive for IgA. All findings mentioned above reveal it is a case of plasma cell myeloma with λ Light Chain Amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, immunoglobulin light chain, plasma cell myeloma, serum protein electrophoresis

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383 Towards the Inhibition Mechanism of Lysozyme Fibrillation by Hydrogen Sulfide

Authors: Indra Gonzalez Ojeda, Tatiana Quinones, Manuel Rosario, Igor Lednev, Juan Lopez Garriga


Amyloid fibrils are stable aggregates of misfolded protein associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. It has been shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), inhibits the fibrillation of lysozyme through the formation of trisulfide (S-S-S) bonds. However, the overall mechanism remains elusive. Here, the concentration dependence of H2S effect was investigated using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), non-resonance Raman spectroscopy, Deep-UV Raman spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). It was found that small spherical aggregates with trisulfide bonds and a unique secondary structure were formed instead of amyloid fibrils when adding concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM of H2S. This could indicate that H2S might serve as a protecting agent for the protein. However, further characterization of these aggregates and their trisulfide bonds is needed to fully unravel the function H2S has on protein fibrillation.

Keywords: amyloid fibrils, hydrogen sulfide, protein folding, raman spectroscopy

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382 Prenatal Diagnosis of Beta Thalassemia Intermedia in Vietnamese Family: Case Report

Authors: Ha T. T. Ly, Truc B. Truc, Hai N. Truong, Mai P. T. Nguyen, Ngoc D. Ngo, Khanh V. Tran, Hai T. Le


Beta thalassemia is one of the most common inherited blood disorders, which is characterized by decreased or absent in beta globin expression. Patients with Beta thalassemia whose anemia is not so severe as to necessitate transfusions are said to have thalassemia intermedia. Objective: The goal of this study is prenatal diagnosis for pregnancy woman with Beta thalassemia intermedia and her husband with Beta thalassemia carrier at high risk of Beta thalassemia major in Northern of Vietnam. Material and method: The family has a 6 years-old compound heterozygous thalassemia major for CD71/72(+A) and Hbb:c. -78A>G/nt-28(A>G) male child. The father was heterozygous for CD71/72(+A) mutation which is Beta plus type and the mother was compound heterozygosity of two different variants, namely, Hbb: c. -78A>G/nt-28(A>G) and CD26(A-G) HbE. Prenatal Beta thalassemia mutation detection in fetal DNA was carried out using multiplex Amplification-refractory mutation system ARMS-PCR and confirmed by direct Sanger-sequencing Hbb gene. Prenatal diagnoses were perfomed by amniotic fluid sampling from pregnant woman in the 16-18th week of pregnancy after the genotypes of parents of the probands were identified. Result: When amniotic fluid sample was analyzed for Beta globin gene (Hbb), we found that the genotype is heterozygous for CD71/72(+A) and CD26(A-G) HbE. This genotype is different from the 1st child of this family. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis helps the parents to know the genotype and the thalassemia status of the fetus, so they can have early decision on their pregnancy. Genetic diagnosis provided a useful method in diagnosis for familial members in pedigree, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

Keywords: beta thalassemia intermedia, Hbb gene, pedigree, prenatal diagnosis

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381 Investigating the Relationship between Growth, Beta and Liquidity

Authors: Zahra Amirhosseini, Mahtab Nameni


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between growth, beta, and Company's cash. We calculate cash as dependent variable and growth opportunity and beta as independent variables. This study was based on an analysis of panel data. Population of the study is the companies which listed in Tehran Stock exchange and a financial data of 215 companies during the period 2010 to 2015 have been selected as the sample through systematic sampling. The results of the first hypothesis showed there is a significant relationship between growth opportunities cash holdings. Also according to the analysis done in the second hypothesis, we determined that there is an inverse relation between company risk and cash holdings.

Keywords: growth, beta, liquidity, company

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380 Functionalized Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles for Targeting and Disrupting Amyloid Fibrils

Authors: Elad Arad, Raz Jelinek, Hanna Rapaport


Amyloidoses are a family of diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding that leads to aggregation. They accumulate to form fibrillar plaques which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer, prion, diabetes type II and other diseases. To the best of our knowledge, despite extensive research efforts devoted to plaque aggregates inhibition, there is yet no cure for this phenomenon. Titanium and its alloys are found in growing interest for biomedical applications. Variety of surface modifications enable porous, adhesive, bioactive coatings for its surface. Titanium oxides (titania) are also being developed for photothermal and photodynamic treatments. Inspired by this, we set to explore the effect of functionalized titania nanoparticles in combination with external stimuli, as potential photothermal ablating agents against amyloids. Titania nanoparticles were coated with bi-functional catechol derivatives (dihydroxy-phenylalanine propanoic acid, noted DPA) to gain targeting properties. In conjunction with UV-radiation, these nanoparticles may selectively destroy the vicinity of their target. Titania modified 5 nm nanoparticles coated with DPA were further conjugated to the amyloid-targeting Congo Red (CR). These Titania-DPA-CR nanoparticles were found to target mature amyloid fibril of both amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 a.a). Moreover, irradiation of the peptides in presence of the modified nanoparticles decreased the aggregate content and oligomer fraction. This work provides insights into the use of modified titania nanoparticles for amyloid plaque targeting and photothermal destruction. It may shed light on future modifications and functionalization of titania nanoparticles for different applications.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, amyloids, photothermal treatment, catechol, Congo-red

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379 Role of Pro-Inflammatory and Regulatory Cytokines in Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease in Association with Autoantibody Thyroid and Regulatory FoxP3 T-Cells

Authors: Dwitya Elvira, Eryati Darwin


Background: Graves’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease. Imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells and T-regulatory (Treg)/Th17 cells was thought to play pivotal role in the pathogenesis of GD. Treg FoxP3 produced TGF-β to maintain regulatory function, and Th17 cells produced IL-17 as cytokines that were thought in mediating several autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the role of IL-17 and TGF-β in the pathogenesis of GD and to investigate its correlation with Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody (TRAb) and Treg FoxP3 expression. Method: 30 GD patients and 27 age and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of GD was based on clinical and biochemical of GD. Serum IL-17, TGF-β, TRAb, and FoxP3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 (SPSS Inc.). Spearman rank correlation test was used for assessment of correlation. The statistical significance was accepted as P<0.05. Result: There was no significant correlation between IL-17 and TGF-β serum with expression of FoxP3 level in GD, but there was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb serum level (P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-17 and TGF-β were found to be elevated in patient group compared to control, where mean values of IL-17 were 14.43±2.15 pg/mL and TGF-β were 10.44±3.19 pg/mL in patients group; and in control group, level of IL-17 were 7.1±1.45 pg/mL and TGF-β were 4.95±1.35 pg/mL. Conclusion: Serum Il-17 and TGF-β were elevated in GD patients that reflect the role of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines activation in pathogenesis of GD. There was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb, revealing that Treg cytokines may play a role in pathogenesis of GD.

Keywords: IL-17, TGF-B, FoxP3, TRAb, Graves’ disease

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378 Study on Beta-Ray Detection System in Water Using a MCNP Simulation

Authors: Ki Hyun Park, Hye Min Park, Jeong Ho Kim, Chan Jong Park, Koan Sik Joo


In the modern days, the use of radioactive substances is on the rise in the areas like chemical weaponry, industrial usage, and power plants. Although there are various technologies available to detect and monitor radioactive substances in the air, the technologies to detect underwater radioactive substances are scarce. In this study, computer simulation of the underwater detection system measuring beta-ray, a radioactive substance, has been done through MCNP. CaF₂, YAP(Ce) and YAG(Ce) have been used in the computer simulation to detect beta-ray as scintillator. Also, the source used in the computer simulation is Sr-90 and Y-90, both of them emitting only pure beta-ray. The distance between the source and the detector was shifted from 1mm to 10mm by 1 mm in the computer simulation. The result indicated that Sr-90 was impossible to measure below 1 mm since its emission energy is low while Y-90 was able to be measured up to 10mm underwater. In addition, the detector designed with CaF₂ had the highest efficiency among 3 scintillators used in the computer simulation. Since it was possible to verify the detectable range and the detection efficiency according to modeling through MCNP simulation, it is expected that such result will reduce the time and cost in building the actual beta-ray detector and evaluating its performances, thereby contributing the research and development.

Keywords: Beta-ray, CaF₂, detector, MCNP simulation, scintillator

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377 Beta Titanium Alloys: The Lowest Elastic Modulus for Biomedical Applications: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee


Biometallic materials are the most important materials for use in biomedical applications especially in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern worlds, e.g. hip, knee or shoulder joints, due to their advanced characteristics. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are used extensively in biomedical applications based on their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Beta-Ti alloys containing completely biocompatible elements are exceptionally prospective materials for manufacturing of bioimplants. They have superior mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties for use as biomaterials. These biomaterials have the ability to introduce the most important property of biochemical compatibility which is low elastic modulus. This review examines current information on the recent developments in alloying elements leading to improvements of beta Ti alloys for use as biomaterials. Moreover, this paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of the modulus of elasticity as an effective factor on the performance of beta alloys.

Keywords: beta alloys, biomedical applications, titanium alloys, Young's modulus

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376 Role of GM1 in the Interaction between Amyloid Prefibrillar Oligomers of Salmon Calcitonin and Model Membranes

Authors: Cristiano Giordani, Marco Diociaiuti, Cecilia Bombelli, Laura Zanetti-Polzi, Marcello Belfiore, Raoul Fioravanti, Gianfranco Macchia


We investigated induced functional effects by evaluating Ca2+-influx in liposomes and cell viability in HT22-DIFF neurons. Only solutions rich in unstructured Prefibrillar-Oligomers (PFOs) were able, in the presence of Monosialoganglioside-GM1 (GM1), to induce Ca2+-influx and were also neurotoxic, suggesting a correlation between the two phenomena. Thus, in the presence of GM1, we investigated the protein conformation and liposome modification due to the interaction. Circular Dichroism showed that GM1 fostered the formation of β-structures and Energy Filtered-Transmission Electron Microscopy that PFOs formed “amyloid-channels” as reported for Aβ. We speculate that electrostatic forces occurring between the positive PFOs and negative GM1 drive the initial binding, while the hydrophobic profile of the flexible PFO is responsible for the subsequent pore formation. Conversely, the rigid β-structured mature/fibers (MFs) and proto-fibers (PFs) were unable to induce membrane damage and Ca2+- influx.

Keywords: amyloid proteins, neurotoxicity, lipid-rafts, GM1

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375 Identification of Potential Small Molecule Regulators of PERK Kinase

Authors: Ireneusz Majsterek, Dariusz Pytel, J. Alan Diehl


PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) is serine/threonie endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane kinase activated during ER-stress. PERK can activate signaling pathways known as unfolded protein response (UPR). Attenuation of translation is mediated by PERK via phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), which is necessary for translation initiation. PERK activation also directly contributes to activation of Nrf2 which regulates expression of anti-oxidant enzymes. An increased phosphorylation of eIF2α has been reported in Alzheimer disease (AD) patient hippocampus, indicating that PERK is activated in this disease. Recent data have revealed activation of PERK signaling in non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Results also revealed that loss of PERK limits mammary tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with these observations, activation of UPR in vitro increases levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the peptide from which beta-amyloid plaques (AB) fragments are derived. Finally, proteolytic processing of APP, including the cleavages that produce AB, largely occurs in the ER, and localization coincident with PERK activity. Thus, we expect that PERK-dependent signaling is critical for progression of many types of diseases (human cancer, neurodegenerative disease and other). Therefore, modulation of PERK activity may be a useful therapeutic target in the treatment of different diseases that fail to respond to traditional chemotherapeutic strategies, including Alzheimer’s disease. Our goal will be to developed therapeutic modalities targeting PERK activity.

Keywords: PERK kinase, small molecule inhibitor, neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer’s disease

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374 Effects of Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073 β-Glucan as a Prebiotic on the in vitro Growth of Probiotic and Pathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Wai Prathumpai, Pranee Rachtawee, Sutamat Khajeeram, Pariya Na Nakorn


The  β-glucan produced by Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073 is a (1, 3)-β-D-glucan with highly branching O-6-linkedside chains that is resistant to acid hydrolysis (by hydrochloric acid and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase). This β-glucan can be utilized as a prebiotic due to its advantageous structural and biological properties. The effects of using this β-glucan as the sole carbon source for the in vitro growth of two probiotic bacteria (L. acidophilus BCC 13938 and B. animalis ATCC 25527) were investigated. Compared with the effect of using 1% glucose or fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as the sole carbon source, using 1% β-glucan for this purpose showed that this prebiotic supported and stimulated the growth of both types of probiotic bacteria and induced them to produce the highest levels of metabolites during their growth. The highest levels of lactic and acetic acid, 10.04 g·L-1 and 2.82 g·L-1, respectively, were observed at 2 h of cultivation using glucose as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, the fermentation broth obtained using 1% β-glucan as the sole carbon source had greater antibacterial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria (B. subtilis TISTR 008, E. coli TISTR 780, and S. typhimurium TISTR 292) than did the broths prepared using glucose or FOS as the sole carbon source. The fermentation broth obtained by growing L. acidophilus BCC 13938 in the presence of β-glucan inhibited the growth of B. subtilis TISTR 008 by more than 70% and inhibited the growth of both S. typhimurium TISTR 292 and E. coli TISTR 780 by more than 90%. In conclusion, O. dipterigena BCC 2073 is a potential source of a β-glucan prebiotic that could be used for commercial production in the near future.

Keywords: beta-glucan, Ophiocordyceps dipterigena, prebiotic, probiotic, antimicrobial

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