Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2279

Search results for: battery storage buffer

2279 Renewable Integration Algorithm to Compensate Photovoltaic Power Using Battery Energy Storage System

Authors: Hyung Joo Lee, Jin Young Choi, Gun Soo Park, Kyo Sun Oh, Dong Jun Won


The fluctuation of the output of the renewable generator caused by weather conditions must be mitigated because it imposes strain on the system and adversely affects power quality. In this paper, we focus on mitigating the output fluctuation of the photovoltaic (PV) using battery energy storage system (BESS). To satisfy tight conditions of system, proposed algorithm is developed. This algorithm focuses on adjusting the integrated output curve considering state of capacity (SOC) of the battery. In this paper, the simulation model is PSCAD / EMTDC software. SOC of the battery and the overall output curve are shown using the simulation results. We also considered losses and battery efficiency.

Keywords: photovoltaic generation, battery energy storage system, renewable integration, power smoothing

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
2278 Experimental investigation on the lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Management System Based on Micro Heat Pipe Array in High Temperature Environment

Authors: Ruyang Ren, Yaohua Zhao, Yanhua Diao


The intermittent and unstable characteristics of renewable energy such as solar energy can be effectively solved through battery energy storage system. Lithium-ion battery is widely used in battery energy storage system because of its advantages of high energy density, small internal resistance, low self-discharge rate, no memory effect and long service life. However, the performance and service life of lithium-ion battery is seriously affected by its operating temperature. Thus, the safety operation of the lithium-ion battery module is inseparable from an effective thermal management system (TMS). In this study, a new type of TMS based on micro heat pipe array (MHPA) for lithium-ion battery is established, and the TMS is applied to a battery energy storage box that needs to operate at a high temperature environment of 40 °C all year round. MHPA is a flat shape metal body with high thermal conductivity and excellent temperature uniformity. The battery energy storage box is composed of four battery modules, with a nominal voltage of 51.2 V, a nominal capacity of 400 Ah. Through the excellent heat transfer characteristics of the MHPA, the heat generated by the charge and discharge process can be quickly transferred out of the battery module. In addition, if only the MHPA cannot meet the heat dissipation requirements of the battery module, the TMS can automatically control the opening of the external fan outside the battery module according to the temperature of the battery, so as to further enhance the heat dissipation of the battery module. The thermal management performance of lithium-ion battery TMS based on MHPA is studied experimentally under different ambient temperatures and the condition to turn on the fan or not. Results show that when the ambient temperature is 40 °C and the fan is not turned on in the whole charge and discharge process, the maximum temperature of the battery in the energy storage box is 53.1 °C and the maximum temperature difference in the battery module is 2.4 °C. After the fan is turned on in the whole charge and discharge process, the maximum temperature is reduced to 50.1 °C, and the maximum temperature difference is reduced to 1.7 °C. Obviously, the lithium-ion battery TMS based on MHPA not only could control the maximum temperature of the battery below 55 °C, but also ensure the excellent temperature uniformity of the battery module. In conclusion, the lithium-ion battery TMS based on MHPA can ensure the safe and stable operation of the battery energy storage box in high temperature environment.

Keywords: heat dissipation, lithium-ion battery thermal management, micro heat pipe array, temperature uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
2277 Sizing of Hybrid Source Battery/Supercapacitor for Automotive Applications

Authors: Laid Degaa, Bachir Bendjedia, Nassim Rizoug, Abdelkader Saidane


Energy storage system is a key aspect for the development of clean cars. The work proposed here deals with the modeling of hybrid storage sources composed of a combination of lithium-ion battery and supercapacitors. Simulation results show the performance of the active model for a hybrid source and confirm the feasibility of our approach. In this context, sizing of the electrical energy supply is carried out. The aim of this sizing is to propose an 'optimal' solution that improves the performance of electric vehicles in term of weight, cost and aging.

Keywords: battery, electric vehicles, energy, hybrid storage, supercapacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2276 Battery/Supercapacitor Emulator for Chargers Functionality Testing

Authors: S. Farag, A. Kuperman


In this paper, design of solid-state battery/super capacitor emulator based on dc-dc boost converter is described. The emulator mimics charging behavior of any storage device based on a predefined behavior set by the user. The device is operated by a two-level control structure: high-level emulating controller and low-level input voltage controller. Simulation and experimental results are shown to demonstrate the emulator operation.

Keywords: battery, charger, energy, storage, super capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
2275 Internet of Things Based Battery Management System

Authors: Pakhil Singh, Rahul Singh, Mohammad Saad Alam, Yasser Rafat


The battery management system is an essential package/system which ensures optimum performance and safety of a battery by monitoring the key essential parameters of the battery like the voltage, current, temperature, state of charge, state of health during charging and discharging. This can be accomplished using outputs of various sensors employed to serve the purpose. The increasing demand for electricity generation from renewable energy sources requires proper storage and hence a proper monitoring system as well. A battery management system is required in wide applications ranging from renewable energy storage systems, off-grid solar PV applications to electric vehicles. The aim of this paper is to study the parameters used in monitoring various battery operating conditions and proposes the usage of the internet of things (IoT) to implement a reliable battery management system.

Keywords: electric vehicles, internet of things, sensors, state of charge, state of health

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2274 Experimental Analysis of Control in Electric Vehicle Charging Station Based Grid Tied Photovoltaic-Battery System

Authors: A. Hassoune, M. Khafallah, A. Mesbahi, T. Bouragba


This work presents an improved strategy of control for charging a lithium-ion battery in an electric vehicle charging station using two charger topologies i.e. single ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) and forward converter. In terms of rapidity and accuracy, the power system consists of a topology/control diagram that would overcome the performance constraints, for instance the power instability, the battery overloading and how the energy conversion blocks would react efficiently to any kind of perturbations. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed topologies operated with a power management algorithm based on voltage/peak current mode controls. In order to provide credible findings, a low power prototype is developed to test the control strategy via experimental evaluations of the converter topology and its controls.

Keywords: battery storage buffer, charging station, electric vehicle, experimental analysis, management algorithm, switches control

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2273 System Analysis on Compact Heat Storage in the Built Environment

Authors: Wilko Planje, Remco Pollé, Frank van Buuren


An increased share of renewable energy sources in the built environment implies the usage of energy buffers to match supply and demand and to prevent overloads of existing grids. Compact heat storage systems based on thermochemical materials (TCM) are promising to be incorporated in future installations as an alternative for regular thermal buffers. This is due to the high energy density (1 – 2 GJ/m3). In order to determine the feasibility of TCM-based systems on building level several installation configurations are simulated and analyzed for different mixes of renewable energy sources (solar thermal, PV, wind, underground, air) for apartments/multistore-buildings for the Dutch situation. Thereby capacity, volume and financial costs are calculated. The simulation consists of options to include the current and future wind power (sea and land) and local roof-attached PV or solar-thermal systems. Thereby, the compact thermal buffer and optionally an electric battery (typically 10 kWhe) form the local storage elements for energy matching and shaving purposes. Besides, electric-driven heat pumps (air / ground) can be included for efficient heat generation in case of power-to-heat. The total local installation provides both space heating, domestic hot water as well as electricity for a specific case with low-energy apartments (annually 9 GJth + 8 GJe) in the year 2025. The energy balance is completed with grid-supplied non-renewable electricity. Taking into account the grid capacities (permanent 1 kWe/household), spatial requirements for the thermal buffer (< 2.5 m3/household) and a desired minimum of 90% share of renewable energy per household on the total consumption the wind-powered scenario results in acceptable sizes of compact thermal buffers with an energy-capacity of 4 - 5 GJth per household. This buffer is combined with a 10 kWhe battery and air source heat pump system. Compact thermal buffers of less than 1 GJ (typically volumes 0.5 - 1 m3) are possible when the installed wind-power is increased with a factor 5. In case of 15-fold of installed wind power compact heat storage devices compete with 1000 L water buffers. The conclusion is that compact heat storage systems can be of interest in the coming decades in combination with well-retrofitted low energy residences based on the current trends of installed renewable energy power.

Keywords: compact thermal storage, thermochemical material, built environment, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
2272 FACTS Based Stabilization for Smart Grid Applications

Authors: Adel. M. Sharaf, Foad H. Gandoman


Nowadays, Photovoltaic-PV Farms/ Parks and large PV-Smart Grid Interface Schemes are emerging and commonly utilized in Renewable Energy distributed generation. However, PV-hybrid-Dc-Ac Schemes using interface power electronic converters usually has negative impact on power quality and stabilization of modern electrical network under load excursions and network fault conditions in smart grid. Consequently, robust FACTS based interface schemes are required to ensure efficient energy utilization and stabilization of bus voltages as well as limiting switching/fault onrush current condition. FACTS devices are also used in smart grid-Battery Interface and Storage Schemes with PV-Battery Storage hybrid systems as an elegant alternative to renewable energy utilization with backup battery storage for electric utility energy and demand side management to provide needed energy and power capacity under heavy load conditions. The paper presents a robust interface PV-Li-Ion Battery Storage Interface Scheme for Distribution/Utilization Low Voltage Interface using FACTS stabilization enhancement and dynamic maximum PV power tracking controllers. Digital simulation and validation of the proposed scheme is done using MATLAB/Simulink software environment for Low Voltage- Distribution/Utilization system feeding a hybrid Linear-Motorized inrush and nonlinear type loads from a DC-AC Interface VSC-6-pulse Inverter Fed from the PV Park/Farm with a back-up Li-Ion Storage Battery.

Keywords: AC FACTS, smart grid, stabilization, PV-battery storage, Switched Filter-Compensation (SFC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
2271 Optimal MPPT Charging Battery System for Photovoltaic Standalone Applications

Authors: Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine, Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia samia


The photovoltaic panel produces green power, and because of its availability across the globe, it can supply isolated loads (site away of the electrical network or difficult of access). Unfortunately this energy remains very expensive. The most application of these types of power needs storage devices, the Lithium batteries are commonly used because of its powerful storage capability. Using a solar panel or an array of panels without a controller that can perform MPPT will often result in wasted power, which results in the need to install more panels for the same power requirement. For devices that have the battery connected directly to the panel, this will also result in premature battery failure or capacity loss. In this paper it is proposed a modified P&O algorithm for the MPPT which takes in account the battery’s internal resistance vs temperature and stage of charging. Of course the temperature variation and irradiation of the PV panel are also introduced.

Keywords: modeling, battery, MPPT, charging, PV Panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
2270 Unbalanced Mean-Time and Buffer Effects in Lines Suffering Breakdown

Authors: Sabry Shaaban, Tom McNamara, Sarah Hudson


This article studies the performance of unpaced serial production lines that are subject to breakdown and are imbalanced in terms of both of their processing time means (MTs) and buffer storage capacities (BCs). Simulation results show that the best pattern in terms of throughput is a balanced line with respect to average buffer level; the best configuration is a monotone decreasing MT order, together with an ascending BC arrangement. Statistical analysis shows that BC, patterns of MT and BC imbalance, line length and degree of imbalance all contribute significantly to performance. Results show that unbalanced lines cope well with unreliability.

Keywords: unreliable unpaced serial lines, simulation, unequal mean operation times, uneven buffer capacities, patterns of imbalance, throughput, average buffer level

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
2269 Fused Salt Electrolysis of Rare-Earth Materials from the Domestic Ore and Preparation of Rare-Earth Hydrogen Storage Alloys

Authors: Jeong-Hyun Yoo, Hanjung Kwon, Sung-Wook Cho


Fused salt electrolysis was studied to make the high purity rare-earth metals using domestic rare-earth ore. The target metals of the fused salt electrolysis were Mm (Misch metal), La, Ce, Nd, etc. Fused salt electrolysis was performed with the supporting salt such as chloride and fluoride at the various temperatures and ampere. The metals made by fused salt electrolysis were analyzed to identify the phase and composition using the methods of XRD and ICP. As a result, the acquired rare-earth metals were the high purity ones which had more than 99% purity. Also, VIM (vacuum induction melting) was studied to make the kg level rare-earth alloy for the use of secondary battery and hydrogen storage. In order to indentify the physicochemical properties such as phase, impurity gas, alloy composition and hydrogen storage, the alloys were investigated. The battery characteristics were also analyzed through the various tests in the real production line of a battery company.

Keywords: domestic rare-earth ore, fused salt electrolysis, rare-earth materials, hydrogen storage alloy, secondary battery

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2268 Usage of Cyanobacteria in Battery: Saving Money, Enhancing the Storage Capacity, Making Portable, and Supporting the Ecology

Authors: Saddam Husain Dhobi, Bikrant Karki


The main objective of this paper is save money, balance ecosystem of the terrestrial organism, control global warming, and enhancing the storage capacity of the battery with requiring weight and thinness by using Cyanobacteria in the battery. To fulfill this purpose of paper we can use different methods: Analysis, Biological, Chemistry, theoretical and Physics with some engineering design. Using this different method, we can produce the special type of battery that has the long life, high storage capacity, and clean environment, save money so on and by using the byproduct of Cyanobacteria i.e. glucose. Cyanobacteria are a special type of bacteria that produces different types of extracellular glucoses and oxygen with the help of little sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide and can survive in freshwater, marine and in the land as well. In this process, O₂ is more in the comparison to plant due to rapid growth rate of Cyanobacteria. The required materials are easily available in this process to produce glucose with the help of Cyanobacteria. Since CO₂, is greenhouse gas that causes the global warming? We can utilize this gas and save our ecological balance and the byproduct (glucose) C₆H₁₂O₆ can be utilized for raw material for the battery where as O₂ escape is utilized by living organism. The glucose produce by Cyanobateria goes on Krebs's Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle, in which glucose is complete, oxidizes and all the available energy from glucose molecule has been release in the form of electron and proton as energy. If we use a suitable anodes and cathodes, we can capture these electrons and protons to produce require electricity current with the help of byproduct of Cyanobacteria. According to "Virginia Tech Bio-battery" and "Sony" 13 enzymes and the air is used to produce nearly 24 electrons from a single glucose unit. In this output power of 0.8 mW/cm, current density of 6 mA/cm, and energy storage density of 596 Ah/kg. This last figure is impressive, at roughly 10 times the energy density of the lithium-ion batteries in your mobile devices. When we use Cyanobacteria in battery, we are able to reduce Carbon dioxide, Stop global warming, and enhancing the storage capacity of battery more than 10 times that of lithium battery, saving money, balancing ecology. In this way, we can produce energy from the Cyanobacteria and use it in battery for different benefits. In addition, due to the mass, size and easy cultivation, they are better to maintain the size of battery. Hence, we can use Cyanobacteria for the battery having suitable size, enhancing the storing capacity of battery, helping the environment, portability and so on.

Keywords: anode, byproduct, cathode, cyanobacteri, glucose, storage capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2267 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud


Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: electric vehicle, redox flow battery, packaging, vanadium

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
2266 An Equivalent Circuit Model Approach for Battery Pack Simulation in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Powertrain

Authors: Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka


The progressing need for powertrain electrification calls for more accurate and reliable simulation models. A battery pack serves as the most vital component for energy storage in an electrified powertrain. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) do not behave the same way as they age, and there are several environmental factors that account for the degradation of the battery on a system level. Therefore, in this work, a battery model was proposed to study the state of charge (SOC) variation and the internal dynamic changes that contribute to aging and performance degradation in HEV batteries. An equivalent circuit battery model (ECM) is built using MATLAB Simulink to investigate the output characteristics of the lithium-ion battery. The ECM comprises of circuit elements like a voltage source, a series resistor and a parallel RC network connected in series. A parameter estimation study is conducted on the ECM to study the dependencies of the circuit elements with the state of charge (SOC) and the terminal voltage of the battery. The battery model is extended to simulate the temperature dependence of the individual battery cell and the battery pack with the environment. The temperature dependence model accounts for the heat loss due to internal resistance build up in the battery pack during charging, discharging, and due to atmospheric temperature. The model was validated for a lithium-ion battery pack with an independent drive cycle showing a voltage accuracy of 4% and SOC accuracy of about 2%.

Keywords: battery model, hybrid electric vehicle, lithium-ion battery, thermal model

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
2265 Energy Management System with Temperature Rise Prevention on Hybrid Ships

Authors: Asser S. Abdelwahab, Nabil H. Abbasy, Ragi A. Hamdy


Marine shipping has now become one of the major worldwide contributors to pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hybrid ships technology based on multiple energy sources has taken a great scope of research to get rid of ship emissions and cut down fuel expenses. Insufficiency between power generated and the demand load to withstand the transient behavior on ships during severe climate conditions will lead to a blackout. Thus, an efficient energy management system (EMS) is a mandatory scope for achieving higher system efficiency while enhancing the lifetime of the onboard storage systems is another salient EMS scope. Considering energy storage system conditions, both the battery state of charge (SOC) and temperature represent important parameters to prevent any malfunction of the storage system that eventually degrades the whole system. In this paper, a two battery packs ratio fuzzy logic control model is proposed. The overall aim is to control the charging/discharging current while including both the battery SOC and temperature in the energy management system. The full designs of the proposed controllers are described and simulated using Matlab. The results prove the successfulness of the proposed controller in stabilizing the system voltage during both loading and unloading while keeping the energy storage system in a healthy condition.

Keywords: energy storage system, power shipboard, hybrid ship, thermal runaway

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2264 Review of Strategies for Hybrid Energy Storage Management System in Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Adeola A. Ogunleye, Tola M. Osifeko


Electric Vehicles (EV) appear to be gaining increasing patronage as a feasible alternative to Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) for having low emission and high operation efficiency. The EV energy storage systems are required to handle high energy and power density capacity constrained by limited space, operating temperature, weight and cost. The choice of strategies for energy storage evaluation, monitoring and control remains a challenging task. This paper presents review of various energy storage technologies and recent researches in battery evaluation techniques used in EV applications. It also underscores strategies for the hybrid energy storage management and control schemes for the improvement of EV stability and reliability. The study reveals that despite the advances recorded in battery technologies there is still no cell which possess both the optimum power and energy densities among other requirements, for EV application. However combination of two or more energy storages as hybrid and allowing the advantageous attributes from each device to be utilized is a promising solution. The review also reveals that State-of-Charge (SoC) is the most crucial method for battery estimation. The conventional method of SoC measurement is however questioned in the literature and adaptive algorithms that include all model of disturbances are being proposed. The review further suggests that heuristic-based approach is commonly adopted in the development of strategies for hybrid energy storage system management. The alternative approach which is optimization-based is found to be more accurate but is memory and computational intensive and as such not recommended in most real-time applications.

Keywords: battery state estimation, hybrid electric vehicle, hybrid energy storage, state of charge, state of health

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
2263 Comparative Studies of Distributed and Aggregated Energy Storage Configurations in Direct Current Microgrids

Authors: Frimpong Kyeremeh, Albert Y. Appiah, Ben B. K. Ayawli


Energy storage system (ESS) is an essential part of a microgrid (MG) because of its immense benefits to the economics and the stability of MG. For a direct current (DC) MG (DCMG) in which the generating units are mostly variable renewable energy generators, DC bus voltage fluctuation is inevitable; hence ESS is vital in managing the mismatch between load demand and generation. Besides, to accrue the maximum benefits of ESS in the microgrid, there is the need for proper sizing and location of the ESSs. In this paper, a performance comparison is made between two configurations of ESS; distributed battery energy storage system (D-BESS) and an aggregated (centralized) battery energy storage system (A-BESS), on the basis of stability and operational cost for a DCMG. The configuration consists of four households with rooftop PV panels and a wind turbine. The objective is to evaluate and analyze the technical efficiencies, cost effectiveness as well as controllability of each configuration. The MG is first modelled with MATLAB Simulink then, a mathematical model is used to determine the optimal size of the BESS that minimizes the total operational cost of the MG. The performance of the two configurations would be tested with simulations. The two configurations are expected to reduce DC bus voltage fluctuations, but in the cases of voltage stability and optimal cost, the best configuration performance will be determined at the end of the research. The work is in progress, and the result would help MG designers and operators to make the best decision on the use of BESS for DCMG configurations.

Keywords: aggregated energy storage system, DC bus voltage, DC microgrid, distributed battery energy storage, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
2262 Battery Energy Storage System Economic Benefits Assessment on a Network Frequency Control

Authors: Kréhi Serge Agbli, Samuel Portebos, Michaël Salomon


Here a methodology is considered aiming at evaluating the economic benefit of the provision of a primary frequency control unit using a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). In this methodology, two control types (basic and hysteresis) are implemented and the corresponding minimum energy storage system power allowing to maintain the frequency drop inside a given threshold under a given contingency is identified and compared using DigSilent’s PowerFactory software. Following this step, the corresponding energy storage capacity (in MWh) is calculated. As PowerFactory is dedicated to dynamic simulation for transient analysis, a first order model related to the IEEE 9 bus grid used for the analysis under PowerFactory is characterized and implemented on MATLAB-Simulink. Primary frequency control is simulated using the two control types over one-month grid's frequency deviation data on this Simulink model. This simulation results in the energy throughput both basic and hysteresis BESSs. It emerges that the 15 minutes operation band of the battery capacity allocated to frequency control is sufficient under the considered disturbances. A sensitivity analysis on the width of the control deadband is then performed for the two control types. The deadband width variation leads to an identical sizing with the hysteresis control showing a better frequency control at the cost of a higher delivered throughput compared to the basic control. An economic analysis comparing the cost of the sized BESS to the potential revenues is then performed.

Keywords: battery energy storage system, electrical network frequency stability, frequency control unit, PowerFactor

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2261 Reactive Power Control with Plug-In Electric Vehicles

Authors: Mostafa Dastori, Sirus Mohammadi


While plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) potentially have the capability to fulfill the energy storage needs of the electric grid, the degradation on the battery during this operation makes it less preferable by the auto manufacturers and consumers. On the other hand, the on-board chargers can also supply energy storage system applications such as reactive power compensation, voltage regulation, and power factor correction without the need of engaging the battery with the grid and thereby preserving its lifetime. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac–dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suit- ability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and in- creased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

Keywords: energy storage system, battery unit, cost, optimal sizing, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2260 The Proton Flow Battery for Storing Renewable Energy: Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Selected Activated Carbon Electrodes Made from Brown Coal

Authors: Amandeep Singh Oberoi, John Andrews, Alan L. Chaffee, Lachlan Ciddor


Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in activated carbon electrodes as part of a reversible fuel cell offers a potentially attractive option for storing surplus electrical energy from inherently variable solar and wind energy resources. Such a system – which we have called a proton flow battery – promises to have roundtrip energy efficiency comparable to lithium ion batteries, while having higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. Activated carbons with high internal surface area, high pore volume, light weight and easy availability have attracted considerable research interest as a solid-state hydrogen storage medium. This paper compares the physical characteristics and hydrogen storage capacities of four activated carbon electrodes made by different methods from brown coal. The fabrication methods for these samples are explained. Their proton conductivity was measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their hydrogen storage capacity by galvanostatic charging and discharging in a three-electrode electrolytic cell with 1 mol sulphuric acid as electrolyte. The highest hydrogen storage capacity obtained was 1.29 wt%, which compares favourably with metal hydrides used in commercially available solid-state hydrogen storages. The hydrogen storage capacity of the samples increased monotonically with increasing BET surface area (calculated from CO2 adsorption method). The results point the way towards selecting high-performing electrodes for proton flow batteries that the competitiveness of this energy storage technology.

Keywords: activated carbon, electrochemical hydrogen storage, proton flow battery, proton conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
2259 Network Coding with Buffer Scheme in Multicast for Broadband Wireless Network

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy


Broadband Wireless Network (BWN) is the promising technology nowadays due to the increased number of smartphones. Buffering scheme using network coding considers the reliability and proper degree distribution in Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) multi-hop network. Using network coding, a secure way of transmission is performed which helps in improving throughput and reduces the packet loss in the multicast network. At the outset, improved network coding is proposed in multicast wireless mesh network. Considering the problem of performance overhead, degree distribution makes a decision while performing buffer in the encoding / decoding process. Consequently, BuS (Buffer Scheme) based on network coding is proposed in the multi-hop network. Here the encoding process introduces buffer for temporary storage to transmit packets with proper degree distribution. The simulation results depend on the number of packets received in the encoding/decoding with proper degree distribution using buffering scheme.

Keywords: encoding and decoding, buffer, network coding, degree distribution, broadband wireless networks, multicast

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
2258 Small Scale Solar-Photovoltaic and Wind Pump-Storage Hydroelectric System for Remote Residential Applications

Authors: Seshi Reddy Kasu, Florian Misoc


The use of hydroelectric pump-storage system at large scale, MW-size systems, is already widespread around the world. Designed for large scale applications, pump-storage station can be scaled-down for small, remote residential applications. Given the cost and complexity associated with installing a substation further than 100 miles from the main transmission lines, a remote, independent and self-sufficient system is by far the most feasible solution. This article is aiming at the design of wind and solar power generating system, by means of pumped-storage to replace the wind and/or solar power systems with a battery bank energy storage. Wind and solar pumped-storage power generating system can reduce the cost of power generation system, according to the user's electricity load and resource condition and also can ensure system reliability of power supply. Wind and solar pumped-storage power generation system is well suited for remote residential applications with intermittent wind and/or solar energy. This type of power systems, installed in these locations, could be a very good alternative, with economic benefits and positive social effects. The advantage of pumped storage power system, where wind power regulation is calculated, shows that a significant smoothing of the produced power is obtained, resulting in a power-on-demand system’s capability, concomitant to extra economic benefits.

Keywords: battery bank, photo-voltaic, pump-storage, wind energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 518
2257 Battery Grading Algorithm in 2nd-Life Repurposing LI-Ion Battery System

Authors: Ya L. V., Benjamin Ong Wei Lin, Wanli Niu, Benjamin Seah Chin Tat


This article introduces a methodology that improves reliability and cyclability of 2nd-life Li-ion battery system repurposed as an energy storage system (ESS). Most of the 2nd-life retired battery systems in the market have module/pack-level state-of-health (SOH) indicator, which is utilized for guiding appropriate depth-of-discharge (DOD) in the application of ESS. Due to the lack of cell-level SOH indication, the different degrading behaviors among various cells cannot be identified upon reaching retired status; in the end, considering end-of-life (EOL) loss and pack-level DOD, the repurposed ESS has to be oversized by > 1.5 times to complement the application requirement of reliability and cyclability. This proposed battery grading algorithm, using non-invasive methodology, is able to detect outlier cells based on historical voltage data and calculate cell-level historical maximum temperature data using semi-analytic methodology. In this way, the individual battery cell in the 2nd-life battery system can be graded in terms of SOH on basis of the historical voltage fluctuation and estimated historical maximum temperature variation. These grades will have corresponding DOD grades in the application of the repurposed ESS to enhance system reliability and cyclability. In all, this introduced battery grading algorithm is non-invasive, compatible with all kinds of retired Li-ion battery systems which lack of cell-level SOH indication, as well as potentially being embedded into battery management software for preventive maintenance and real-time cyclability optimization.

Keywords: battery grading algorithm, 2nd-life repurposing battery system, semi-analytic methodology, reliability and cyclability

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
2256 A 3kW Grid Connected Residential Energy Storage System with PV and Li-Ion Battery

Authors: Moiz Masood Syed, Seong-Jun Hong, Geun-Hie Rim, Kyung-Ae Cho, Hyoung-Suk Kim


In the near future, energy storage will play a vital role to enhance the present changing technology. Energy storage with power generation becomes necessary when renewable energy sources are connected to the grid which consequently adjoins to the total energy in the system since utilities require more power when peak demand occurs. This paper describes the operational function of a 3 kW grid-connected residential Energy Storage System (ESS) which is connected with Photovoltaic (PV) at its input side. The system can perform bidirectional functions of charging from the grid and discharging to the grid when power demand becomes high and low respectively. It consists of PV module, Power Conditioning System (PCS) containing a bidirectional DC/DC Converter and bidirectional DC/AC inverter and a Lithium-ion battery pack. ESS Configuration, specifications, and control are described. The bidirectional DC/DC converter tracks the maximum power point (MPPT) and maintains the stability of PV array in case of power deficiency to fulfill the load requirements. The bidirectional DC/AC inverter has good voltage regulation properties like low total harmonic distortion (THD), low electromagnetic interference (EMI), faster response and anti-islanding characteristics. Experimental results satisfy the effectiveness of the proposed system.

Keywords: energy storage system, photovoltaic, DC/DC converter, DC/AC inverter

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2255 Wind Diesel Hybrid System without Battery Energy Storage Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: H. Rezvani, H. Monsef, A. Hekmati


Nowadays, the use of renewable energy sources has been increasingly great because of the cost increase and public demand for clean energy sources. One of the fastest growing sources is wind energy. In this paper, Wind Diesel Hybrid System (WDHS) comprising a Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), the Consumer Load, a Battery-based Energy Storage System (BESS), and a Dump Load (DL) is used. Voltage is controlled by Diesel Generator; the frequency is controlled by BESS and DL. The BESS elimination is an efficient way to reduce maintenance cost and increase the dynamic response. Simulation results with graphs for the frequency of Power System, active power, and the battery power are presented for load changes. The controlling parameters are optimized by using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA). The simulation results for the BESS/no BESS cases are compared. Results show that in no BESS case, the frequency control is more optimal than the BESS case by using ICA.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind diesel system, induction generator, energy storage, imperialist competitive algorithm

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2254 ZigBee Wireless Sensor Nodes with Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Li-Ion Battery and Solar Energy Supply

Authors: Chia-Chi Chang, Chuan-Bi Lin, Chia-Min Chan


Most ZigBee sensor networks to date make use of nodes with limited processing, communication, and energy capabilities. Energy consumption is of great importance in wireless sensor applications as their nodes are commonly battery-driven. Once ZigBee nodes are deployed outdoors, limited power may make a sensor network useless before its purpose is complete. At present, there are two strategies for long node and network lifetime. The first strategy is saving energy as much as possible. The energy consumption will be minimized through switching the node from active mode to sleep mode and routing protocol with ultra-low energy consumption. The second strategy is to evaluate the energy consumption of sensor applications as accurately as possible. Erroneous energy model may render a ZigBee sensor network useless before changing batteries. In this paper, we present a ZigBee wireless sensor node with four key modules: a processing and radio unit, an energy harvesting unit, an energy storage unit, and a sensor unit. The processing unit uses CC2530 for controlling the sensor, carrying out routing protocol, and performing wireless communication with other nodes. The harvesting unit uses a 2W solar panel to provide lasting energy for the node. The storage unit consists of a rechargeable 1200 mAh Li-ion battery and a battery charger using a constant-current/constant-voltage algorithm. Our solution to extend node lifetime is implemented. Finally, a long-term sensor network test is used to exhibit the functionality of the solar powered system.

Keywords: ZigBee, Li-ion battery, solar panel, CC2530

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2253 Voltage Stabilization of Hybrid PV and Battery Systems by Considering Temperature and Irradiance Changes in Standalone Operation

Authors: S. Jalilzadeh, S. M. Mohseni Bonab


Solar and battery energy storage systems are very useful for consumers who live in deprived areas and do not have access to electricity distribution networks. Nowadays one of the problems that photo voltaic systems (PV) have changing of output power in temperature and irradiance variations, which directly affects the load that is connected to photo voltaic systems. In this paper, with considering the fact that the solar array varies with change in temperature and solar power radiation, a voltage stabilizer system of a load connected to photo voltaic array is designed to stabilize the load voltage and to transfer surplus power of the battery. Also, in proposed hybrid system, the needed load power amount is supplemented considering the voltage stabilization in standalone operation for supplying unbalanced AC load. Electrical energy storage system for voltage control and improvement of the performance of PV by a DC/DC converter is connected to the DC bus. The load is also feed by an AC/DC converter. In this paper, when the voltage increases in its reference limit, the battery gets charged by the photo voltaic array and when it decreases in its defined limit, the power gets injected to the DC bus by this battery. The constant of DC bus Voltage is the cause for the reduced harmonics generated by the inverter. In addition, a series of filters are provided in the inverter output in to reduced harmonics. The inverter control circuit is designed that the voltage and frequency of the load remain almost constant at different load conditions. This paper has focused on controlling strategies of converters to improve their performance.

Keywords: photovoltaic array (PV), DC/DC Boost converter, battery converter, inverters control

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2252 Multi Cloud Storage Systems for Resource Constrained Mobile Devices: Comparison and Analysis

Authors: Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta


Cloud storage is a model of online data storage where data is stored in virtualized pool of servers hosted by third parties (CSPs) and located in different geographical locations. Cloud storage revolutionized the way how users access their data online anywhere, anytime and using any device as a tablet, mobile, laptop, etc. A lot of issues as vendor lock-in, frequent service outage, data loss and performance related issues exist in single cloud storage systems. So to evade these issues, the concept of multi cloud storage introduced. There are a lot of multi cloud storage systems exists in the market for mobile devices. In this article, we are providing comparison of four multi cloud storage systems for mobile devices Otixo, Unclouded, Cloud Fuze, and Clouds and evaluate their performance on the basis of CPU usage, battery consumption, time consumption and data usage parameters on three mobile phones Nexus 5, Moto G and Nexus 7 tablet and using Wi-Fi network. Finally, open research challenges and future scope are discussed.

Keywords: cloud storage, multi cloud storage, vendor lock-in, mobile devices, mobile cloud computing

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2251 Optimal Scheduling for Energy Storage System Considering Reliability Constraints

Authors: Wook-Won Kim, Je-Seok Shin, Jin-O Kim


This paper propose the method for optimal scheduling for battery energy storage system with reliability constraint of energy storage system in reliability aspect. The optimal scheduling problem is solved by dynamic programming with proposed transition matrix. Proposed optimal scheduling method guarantees the minimum fuel cost within specific reliability constraint. For evaluating proposed method, the timely capacity outage probability table (COPT) is used that is calculated by convolution of probability mass function of each generator. This study shows the result of optimal schedule of energy storage system.

Keywords: energy storage system (ESS), optimal scheduling, dynamic programming, reliability constraints

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2250 Optimal Sizes of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Economic Operation in Microgrid

Authors: Sirus Mohammadi, Sara Ansari, Darush dehghan, Habib Hoshyari


Batteries for storage of electricity from solar and wind generation farms are a key element in the success of sustainability. In recent years, due to large integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) like wind turbine and photovoltaic unit into the Micro-Grid (MG), the necessity of Battery Energy Storage (BES) has increased dramatically. The BES has several benefits and advantages in the MG-based applications such as short term power supply, power quality improvement, facilitating integration of RES, ancillary service and arbitrage. This paper presents the cost-based formulation to determine the optimal size of the BES in the operation management of MG. Also, some restrictions, i.e. power capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs), power and energy capacity of BES, charge/discharge efficiency of BES, operating reserve and load demand satisfaction should be considered as well. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the optimal allocation and economic analysis of ESS in MGs on the basis of net present value (NPV). As the optimal operation of an MG strongly depends on the arrangement and allocation of its ESS, economic operation strategies and optimal allocation methods of the ESS devices are required for the MG.

Keywords: microgrid, energy storage system, optimal sizing, net present value

Procedia PDF Downloads 416