Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6661

Search results for: asymptotic relative efficiency

6661 High Accuracy Analytic Approximations for Modified Bessel Functions I₀(x)

Authors: Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares, Fernando Maass


A method to obtain analytic approximations for special function of interest in engineering and physics is described here. Each approximate function will be valid for every positive value of the variable and accuracy will be high and increasing with the number of parameters to determine. The general technique will be shown through an application to the modified Bessel function of order zero, I₀(x). The form and the calculation of the parameters are performed with the simultaneous use of the power series and asymptotic expansion. As in Padé method rational functions are used, but now they are combined with other elementary functions as; fractional powers, hyperbolic, trigonometric and exponential functions, and others. The elementary function is determined, considering that the approximate function should be a bridge between the power series and the asymptotic expansion. In the case of the I₀(x) function two analytic approximations have been already determined. The simplest one is (1+x²/4)⁻¹/⁴(1+0.24273x²) cosh(x)/(1+0.43023x²). The parameters of I₀(x) were determined using the leading term of the asymptotic expansion and two coefficients of the power series, and the maximum relative error is 0.05. In a second case, two terms of the asymptotic expansion were used and 4 of the power series and the maximum relative error is 0.001 at x≈9.5. Approximations with much higher accuracy will be also shown. In conclusion a new technique is described to obtain analytic approximations to some functions of interest in sciences, such that they have a high accuracy, they are valid for every positive value of the variable, they can be integrated and differentiated as the usual, functions, and furthermore they can be calculated easily even with a regular pocket calculator.

Keywords: analytic approximations, mathematical-physics applications, quasi-rational functions, special functions

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6660 A Generalized Family of Estimators for Estimation of Unknown Population Variance in Simple Random Sampling

Authors: Saba Riaz, Syed A. Hussain


This paper is addressing the estimation method of the unknown population variance of the variable of interest. A new generalized class of estimators of the finite population variance has been suggested using the auxiliary information. To improve the precision of the proposed class, known population variance of the auxiliary variable has been used. Mathematical expressions for the biases and the asymptotic variances of the suggested class are derived under large sample approximation. Theoretical and numerical comparisons are made to investigate the performances of the proposed class of estimators. The empirical study reveals that the suggested class of estimators performs better than the usual estimator, classical ratio estimator, classical product estimator and classical linear regression estimator. It has also been found that the suggested class of estimators is also more efficient than some recently published estimators.

Keywords: study variable, auxiliary variable, finite population variance, bias, asymptotic variance, percent relative efficiency

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6659 Robust Variogram Fitting Using Non-Linear Rank-Based Estimators

Authors: Hazem M. Al-Mofleh, John E. Daniels, Joseph W. McKean


In this paper numerous robust fitting procedures are considered in estimating spatial variograms. In spatial statistics, the conventional variogram fitting procedure (non-linear weighted least squares) suffers from the same outlier problem that has plagued this method from its inception. Even a 3-parameter model, like the variogram, can be adversely affected by a single outlier. This paper uses the Hogg-Type adaptive procedures to select an optimal score function for a rank-based estimator for these non-linear models. Numeric examples and simulation studies will demonstrate the robustness, utility, efficiency, and validity of these estimates.

Keywords: asymptotic relative efficiency, non-linear rank-based, rank estimates, variogram

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6658 Polar Bergman Polynomials on Domain with Corners

Authors: Laskri Yamina, Rehouma Abdel Hamid


In this paper we present a new class named polar of monic orthogonal polynomials with respect to the area measure supported on G, where G is a bounded simply-connected domain in the complex planeℂ. We analyze some open questions and discuss some ideas properties related to solving asymptotic behavior of polar Bergman polynomials over domains with corners and asymptotic behavior of modified Bergman polynomials by affine transforms in variable and polar modified Bergman polynomials by affine transforms in variable. We show that uniform asymptotic of Bergman polynomials over domains with corners and by Pritsker's theorem imply uniform asymptotic for all their derivatives.

Keywords: Bergman orthogonal polynomials, polar rthogonal polynomials, asymptotic behavior, Faber polynomials

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6657 Integrating Data Envelopment Analysis and Variance Inflation Factor to Measure the Efficiency of Decision Making Units

Authors: Mostafa Kazemi, Zahra N. Farkhani


This paper proposes an integrated Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) model for measuring the technical efficiency of decision making units. The model is validated using a set of 69% sales representatives’ dairy products. The analysis is done in two stages, in the first stage, VIF technique is used to distinguish independent effective factors of resellers, and in the second stage we used DEA for measuring efficiency for both constant and variable return to scales status. Further DEA is used to examine the utilization of environmental factors on efficiency. Results of this paper indicated an average managerial efficiency of 83% in the whole sales representatives’ dairy products. In addition, technical and scale efficiency were counted 96% and 80% respectively. 38% of sales representative have the technical efficiency of 100% and 72% of the sales representative in terms of managerial efficiency are quite efficient.High levels of relative efficiency indicate a good condition for sales representative efficiency.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis (DEA), relative efficiency, sales representatives’ dairy products, variance inflation factor (VIF)

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6656 An Analysis of Conditions for Efficiency Gains in Large ICEs Using Cycling

Authors: Bauer Peter, Murillo Jenny


This paper investigates the bounds of achievable fuel efficiency improvements in engines due to cycling between two operating points assuming a series hybrid configuration . It is shown that for linear bsfc dependencies (as a function of power), cycling is only beneficial if the average power needs are smaller than the power at the optimal bsfc value. Exact expressions for the fuel efficiency gains relative to the constant output power case are derived. This asymptotic analysis is then extended to the case where transient losses due to a change in the operating point are also considered. The case of the boundary bsfc trajectory where constant power application and cycling yield the same fuel investigated. It is shown that the boundary bsfc locations of the second non-optimal operating points is hyperbolic. The analysis of the boundary case allows to evaluate whether for a particular engine, cycling can be beneficial. The introduced concepts are illustrated through a number of real world examples, i.e. large production Diesel engines in series hybrid configurations.

Keywords: cycling, efficiency, bsfc, series hybrid, diesel, operating point

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6655 Asymptotic Expansion of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers Equation

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu


It is common knowledge that many physical problems (such as non-linear shallow-water waves and wave motion in plasmas) can be described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, which possesses certain special solutions, known as solitary waves or solitons. As a marriage of the KdV equation and the classical Burgers (KdVB) equation, the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation is a mathematical model of waves on shallow water surfaces in the presence of viscous dissipation. Asymptotic analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior and is a key tool for exploring the differential equations which arise in the mathematical modeling of real-world phenomena. By using variable transformations, the asymptotic expansion of the KdVB equation is presented in this paper. The asymptotic expansion may provide a good gauge on the validation of the corresponding numerical scheme.

Keywords: asymptotic expansion, differential equation, Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation, soliton

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6654 High Accuracy Analytic Approximation for Special Functions Applied to Bessel Functions J₀(x) and Its Zeros

Authors: Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares


The Bessel function J₀(x) is very important in Electrodynamics and Physics, as well as its zeros. In this work, a method to obtain high accuracy approximation is presented through an application to that function. In most of the applications of this function, the values of the zeros are very important. In this work, analytic approximations for this function have been obtained valid for all positive values of the variable x, which have high accuracy for the function as well as for the zeros. The approximation is determined by the simultaneous used of the power series and asymptotic expansion. The structure of the approximation is a combination of two rational functions with elementary functions as trigonometric and fractional powers. Here us in Pade method, rational functions are used, but now there combined with elementary functions us fractional powers hyperbolic or trigonometric functions, and others. The reason of this is that now power series of the exact function are used, but together with the asymptotic expansion, which usually includes fractional powers trigonometric functions and other type of elementary functions. The approximation must be a bridge between both expansions, and this can not be accomplished using only with rational functions. In the simplest approximation using 4 parameters the maximum absolute error is less than 0.006 at x ∼ 4.9. In this case also the maximum relative error for the zeros is less than 0.003 which is for the second zero, but that value decreases rapidly for the other zeros. The same kind of behaviour happens for the relative error of the maximum and minimum of the functions. Approximations with higher accuracy and more parameters will be also shown. All the approximations are valid for any positive value of x, and they can be calculated easily.

Keywords: analytic approximations, asymptotic approximations, Bessel functions, quasirational approximations

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6653 Boundedness and Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions for Gierer-Meinhardt Systems

Authors: S. Henine, A. Youkana


This work is devoted to study the global existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions for Gierer-Meinhardt systems arising in biological phenomena. We prove that the solutions are global and uniformly bounded by a positive constant independent of the time. Our technique is based on Lyapunov functional argument. Under suitable conditions, we established a result on the asymptotic behavior of solutions. These results are valid for any positive continuous initial data, and improve some recently results established.

Keywords: asymptotic behavior, Gierer-Meinhardt systems, global existence, Lyapunov functional

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6652 A Heteroskedasticity Robust Test for Contemporaneous Correlation in Dynamic Panel Data Models

Authors: Andreea Halunga, Chris D. Orme, Takashi Yamagata


This paper proposes a heteroskedasticity-robust Breusch-Pagan test of the null hypothesis of zero cross-section (or contemporaneous) correlation in linear panel-data models, without necessarily assuming independence of the cross-sections. The procedure allows for either fixed, strictly exogenous and/or lagged dependent regressor variables, as well as quite general forms of both non-normality and heteroskedasticity in the error distribution. The asymptotic validity of the test procedure is predicated on the number of time series observations, T, being large relative to the number of cross-section units, N, in that: (i) either N is fixed as T→∞; or, (ii) N²/T→0, as both T and N diverge, jointly, to infinity. Given this, it is not expected that asymptotic theory would provide an adequate guide to finite sample performance when T/N is "small". Because of this, we also propose and establish asymptotic validity of, a number of wild bootstrap schemes designed to provide improved inference when T/N is small. Across a variety of experimental designs, a Monte Carlo study suggests that the predictions from asymptotic theory do, in fact, provide a good guide to the finite sample behaviour of the test when T is large relative to N. However, when T and N are of similar orders of magnitude, discrepancies between the nominal and empirical significance levels occur as predicted by the first-order asymptotic analysis. On the other hand, for all the experimental designs, the proposed wild bootstrap approximations do improve agreement between nominal and empirical significance levels, when T/N is small, with a recursive-design wild bootstrap scheme performing best, in general, and providing quite close agreement between the nominal and empirical significance levels of the test even when T and N are of similar size. Moreover, in comparison with the wild bootstrap "version" of the original Breusch-Pagan test our experiments indicate that the corresponding version of the heteroskedasticity-robust Breusch-Pagan test appears reliable. As an illustration, the proposed tests are applied to a dynamic growth model for a panel of 20 OECD countries.

Keywords: cross-section correlation, time-series heteroskedasticity, dynamic panel data, heteroskedasticity robust Breusch-Pagan test

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6651 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura


In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Keywords: efficiency, friction, gravitational motor and generator, rolling and sliding, truncated double-cone

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6650 Supersonic Flow around a Dihedral Airfoil: Modeling and Experimentation Investigation

Authors: A. Naamane, M. Hasnaoui


Numerical modeling of fluid flows, whether compressible or incompressible, laminar or turbulent presents a considerable contribution in the scientific and industrial fields. However, the development of an approximate model of a supersonic flow requires the introduction of specific and more precise techniques and methods. For this purpose, the object of this paper is modeling a supersonic flow of inviscid fluid around a dihedral airfoil. Based on the thin airfoils theory and the non-dimensional stationary Steichen equation of a two-dimensional supersonic flow in isentropic evolution, we obtained a solution for the downstream velocity potential of the oblique shock at the second order of relative thickness that characterizes a perturbation parameter. This result has been dealt with by the asymptotic analysis and characteristics method. In order to validate our model, the results are discussed in comparison with theoretical and experimental results. Indeed, firstly, the comparison of the results of our model has shown that they are quantitatively acceptable compared to the existing theoretical results. Finally, an experimental study was conducted using the AF300 supersonic wind tunnel. In this experiment, we have considered the incident upstream Mach number over a symmetrical dihedral airfoil wing. The comparison of the different Mach number downstream results of our model with those of the existing theoretical data (relative margin between 0.07% and 4%) and with experimental results (concordance for a deflection angle between 1° and 11°) support the validation of our model with accuracy.

Keywords: asymptotic modelling, dihedral airfoil, supersonic flow, supersonic wind tunnel

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6649 A Variant of Newton's Method with Free Second-Order Derivative

Authors: Young Hee Geum


In this paper, we present the iterative method and determine the control parameters to converge cubically for solving nonlinear equations. In addition, we derive the asymptotic error constant.

Keywords: asymptotic error constant, iterative method, multiple root, root-finding, order of convergent

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6648 Organizational Efficiency in the Age of the Current Financial Crisis Strategies and Tracks Progress

Authors: Aharouay Soumaya


Efficiency is a relative concept. It is measured by comparing the productivity obtained in what is intended as standard or objective criteria. The quantity and quality of output achieved and the level of service are also compared to targets or standards, to determine to what extent they could cause changes in efficiency. Efficiency improves when more outputs of a specified quality are produced with the same resource inputs or less, or when the same amount of output is produced with fewer resources. This article proposes a review of the literature on strategies adopted by firms in the age of the financial crisis to overcome these negative effects, and tracks progress chosen by the organization to remain successful despite the plight of firms.

Keywords: effectiveness, efficiency, organizational capacity, strategy, management tool, progress, performance

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6647 Lyapunov and Input-to-State Stability of Stochastic Differential Equations

Authors: Arcady Ponosov, Ramazan Kadiev


Input-to-State Stability (ISS) is widely used in deterministic control theory but less known in the stochastic case. Roughly speaking, the theory explains when small perturbations of the right-hand sides of the system on the entire semiaxis cause only small changes in the solutions of the system, again on the entire semiaxis. This property is crucial in many applications. In the report, we explain how to define and study ISS for systems of linear stochastic differential equations with or without delays. The central result connects ISS with the property of Lyapunov stability. This relationship is well-known in the deterministic setting, but its stochastic version is new. As an application, a method of studying asymptotic Lyapunov stability for stochastic delay equations is described and justified. Several examples are provided that confirm the efficiency and simplicity of the framework.

Keywords: asymptotic stability, delay equations, operator methods, stochastic perturbations

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6646 Analysis of an Error Estimate for the Asymptotic Solution of the Heat Conduction Problem in a Dilated Pipe

Authors: E. Marušić-Paloka, I. Pažanin, M. Prša


Subject of this study is the stationary heat conduction problem through a pipe filled with incompressible viscous fluid. In previous work, we observed the existence and uniqueness theorems for the corresponding boundary-value problem and within we have taken into account the effects of the pipe's dilatation due to the temperature of the fluid inside of the pipe. The main difficulty comes from the fact that flow domain changes depending on the solution of the observed heat equation leading to a non-standard coupled governing problem. The goal of this work is to find solution estimate since the exact solution of the studied problem is not possible to determine. We use an asymptotic expansion in order of a small parameter which is presented as a heat expansion coefficient of the pipe's material. Furthermore, an error estimate is provided for the mentioned asymptotic approximation of the solution for inner area of the pipe. Close to the boundary, problem becomes more complex so different approaches are observed, mainly Theory of Perturbations and Separations of Variables. In view of that, error estimate for the whole approximation will be provided with additional software simulations of gotten situation.

Keywords: asymptotic analysis, dilated pipe, error estimate, heat conduction

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6645 Validation of Asymptotic Techniques to Predict Bistatic Radar Cross Section

Authors: M. Pienaar, J. W. Odendaal, J. C. Smit, J. Joubert


Simulations are commonly used to predict the bistatic radar cross section (RCS) of military targets since characterization measurements can be expensive and time consuming. It is thus important to accurately predict the bistatic RCS of targets. Computational electromagnetic (CEM) methods can be used for bistatic RCS prediction. CEM methods are divided into full-wave and asymptotic methods. Full-wave methods are numerical approximations to the exact solution of Maxwell’s equations. These methods are very accurate but are computationally very intensive and time consuming. Asymptotic techniques make simplifying assumptions in solving Maxwell's equations and are thus less accurate but require less computational resources and time. Asymptotic techniques can thus be very valuable for the prediction of bistatic RCS of electrically large targets, due to the decreased computational requirements. This study extends previous work by validating the accuracy of asymptotic techniques to predict bistatic RCS through comparison with full-wave simulations as well as measurements. Validation is done with canonical structures as well as complex realistic aircraft models instead of only looking at a complex slicy structure. The slicy structure is a combination of canonical structures, including cylinders, corner reflectors and cubes. Validation is done over large bistatic angles and at different polarizations. Bistatic RCS measurements were conducted in a compact range, at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. The measurements were performed at different polarizations from 2 GHz to 6 GHz. Fixed bistatic angles of β = 30.8°, 45° and 90° were used. The measurements were calibrated with an active calibration target. The EM simulation tool FEKO was used to generate simulated results. The full-wave multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) simulated results together with the measured data were used as reference for validation. The accuracy of physical optics (PO) and geometrical optics (GO) was investigated. Differences relating to amplitude, lobing structure and null positions were observed between the asymptotic, full-wave and measured data. PO and GO were more accurate at angles close to the specular scattering directions and the accuracy seemed to decrease as the bistatic angle increased. At large bistatic angles PO did not perform well due to the shadow regions not being treated appropriately. PO also did not perform well for canonical structures where multi-bounce was the main scattering mechanism. PO and GO do not account for diffraction but these inaccuracies tended to decrease as the electrical size of objects increased. It was evident that both asymptotic techniques do not properly account for bistatic structural shadowing. Specular scattering was calculated accurately even if targets did not meet the electrically large criteria. It was evident that the bistatic RCS prediction performance of PO and GO depends on incident angle, frequency, target shape and observation angle. The improved computational efficiency of the asymptotic solvers yields a major advantage over full-wave solvers and measurements; however, there is still much room for improvement of the accuracy of these asymptotic techniques.

Keywords: asymptotic techniques, bistatic RCS, geometrical optics, physical optics

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6644 Asymptotic Expansion of Double Oscillatory Integrals: Contribution of Non Stationary Critical Points of the Second Kind

Authors: Abdallah Benaissa


In this paper, we consider the problem of asymptotics of double oscillatory integrals in the case of critical points of the second kind, the order of contact between the boundary and a level curve of the phase being even, the situation when the order of contact is odd will be studied in other occasions. Complete asymptotic expansions will be derived and the coefficient of the leading term will be computed in terms of the original data of the problem. A multitude of people have studied this problem using a variety of methods, but only in a special case when the order of contact is minimal: the more cited papers are a paper of Jones and Kline and an other one of Chako. These integrals are encountered in many areas of science, especially in problems of diffraction of optics.

Keywords: asymptotic expansion, double oscillatory integral, critical point of the second kind, optics diffraction

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6643 Asymptotic Spectral Theory for Nonlinear Random Fields

Authors: Karima Kimouche


In this paper, we consider the asymptotic problems in spectral analysis of stationary causal random fields. We impose conditions only involving (conditional) moments, which are easily verifiable for a variety of nonlinear random fields. Limiting distributions of periodograms and smoothed periodogram spectral density estimates are obtained and applications to the spectral domain bootstrap are given.

Keywords: spatial nonlinear processes, spectral estimators, GMC condition, bootstrap method

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6642 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Single and Twin Offshore Rubble Mound Breakwaters under Regular and Random Waves

Authors: M. Alkhalidi, S. Neelamani, Z. Al-Zaqah


This paper investigates the interaction of single and twin offshore rubble mound breakwaters with regular and random water waves through physical modeling to assess their reflection, transmission and energy dissipation characteristics. Various combinations of wave heights and wave periods were utilized in a series of experiments, along with three different water depths. The single and twin permeable breakwater models were both constructed with one layer of rubbles. Both models had the same total volume; however, the single breakwater was of trapezoidal type while the twin breakwaters were of triangular type. Physical modeling experiments were carried out in the wave flume of the coastal engineering laboratory of Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). Measurements of the six wave probes which were fixed in the two-dimensional wave flume were collected and used to determine the generated incident wave heights, as well as the reflected and transmitted wave heights resulting from the wave-breakwater interaction. The possible factors affecting the wave attenuation efficiency of the breakwater models are the relative water depth (d/L), wave steepness (H/L), relative wave height ((h-d)/Hi), relative height of the breakwater (h/d), and relative clear spacing between the twin breakwaters (S/h). The results indicated that the single and double breakwaters show different responds to the change in their relative height as well as the relative wave height which demonstrates that the effect of the relative water depth on wave reflection, transmission, and energy dissipation is highly influenced by the change in the relative breakwater height, the relative wave height and the relative breakwater spacing. In general, within the range of the relative water depth tested in this study, and under both regular and random waves, it is found that the single breakwater allows for lower wave transmission and shows higher energy dissipation effect than both of the tested twin breakwaters, and hence has the best overall performance.

Keywords: random waves, regular waves, relative water depth, relative wave height, single breakwater, twin breakwater, wave steepness

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6641 Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of the Annular Fin under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Malika Fekih, Mohamed Saighi


A numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of an annular fin under dehumidification has been presented in this paper. The non-homogeneous second order differential equation that describes the temperature distribution from the fin base to the fin tip has been solved using the central finite difference method. The effects of variations in parameters including relative humidity, air temperature, air face velocity on temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated and compared with those under fully dry fin conditions. Also, the effect of fin pitch on the dimensionless temperature has been studied.

Keywords: annular fin, dehumidification, fin efficiency, heat and mass transfer, wet fin

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6640 On Constructing a Cubically Convergent Numerical Method for Multiple Roots

Authors: Young Hee Geum


We propose the numerical method defined by xn+1 = xn − λ[f(xn − μh(xn))/]f'(xn) , n ∈ N, and determine the control parameter λ and μ to converge cubically. In addition, we derive the asymptotic error constant. Applying this proposed scheme to various test functions, numerical results show a good agreement with the theory analyzed in this paper and are proven using Mathematica with its high-precision computability.

Keywords: asymptotic error constant, iterative method, multiple root, root-finding

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6639 Portfolio Optimization under a Hybrid Stochastic Volatility and Constant Elasticity of Variance Model

Authors: Jai Heui Kim, Sotheara Veng


This paper studies the portfolio optimization problem for a pension fund under a hybrid model of stochastic volatility and constant elasticity of variance (CEV) using asymptotic analysis method. When the volatility component is fast mean-reverting, it is able to derive asymptotic approximations for the value function and the optimal strategy for general utility functions. Explicit solutions are given for the exponential and hyperbolic absolute risk aversion (HARA) utility functions. The study also shows that using the leading order optimal strategy results in the value function, not only up to the leading order, but also up to first order correction term. A practical strategy that does not depend on the unobservable volatility level is suggested. The result is an extension of the Merton's solution when stochastic volatility and elasticity of variance are considered simultaneously.

Keywords: asymptotic analysis, constant elasticity of variance, portfolio optimization, stochastic optimal control, stochastic volatility

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6638 Relative Navigation with Laser-Based Intermittent Measurement for Formation Flying Satellites

Authors: Jongwoo Lee, Dae-Eun Kang, Sang-Young Park


This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation using laser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consist of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.

Keywords: satellite relative navigation, laser-based measurement, intermittent measurement, unscented Kalman filter

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6637 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke


The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production

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6636 The Sequential Estimation of the Seismoacoustic Source Energy in C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Dmitry V. Egorov


The practical efficient approach is suggested for estimation of the seismoacoustic sources energy in C-OTDR monitoring systems. This approach represents the sequential plan for confidence estimation both the seismoacoustic sources energy, as well the absorption coefficient of the soil. The sequential plan delivers the non-asymptotic guaranteed accuracy of obtained estimates in the form of non-asymptotic confidence regions with prescribed sizes. These confidence regions are valid for a finite sample size when the distributions of the observations are unknown. Thus, suggested estimates are non-asymptotic and nonparametric, and also these estimates guarantee the prescribed estimation accuracy in the form of the prior prescribed size of confidence regions, and prescribed confidence coefficient value.

Keywords: nonparametric estimation, sequential confidence estimation, multichannel monitoring systems, C-OTDR-system, non-lineary regression

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6635 Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability of Immiscible Fluids in Sand

Authors: Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma


Relative permeability is the important parameter controlling the immiscible displacement of multiphase fluids flow in porous medium. The relative permeability for immiscible displacement of two-phase fluids flow (oil and water) in porous medium has been measured in this paper. As a result of the experiment, irreducible water saturation, Swi, residual oil saturation, Sor, and relative permeability curves for Kerosene, Heavy oil and Lubricant oil were determined successfully.

Keywords: relative permeability, two-phase flow, immiscible displacement, porous medium

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6634 Correlation between Fuel Consumption and Voyage Related Ship Operational Energy Efficiency Measures: An Analysis from Noon Data

Authors: E. Bal Beşikçi, O. Arslan


Fuel saving has become one of the most important issue for shipping in terms of fuel economy and environmental impact. Lowering fuel consumption is possible for both new ships and existing ships through enhanced energy efficiency measures, technical and operational respectively. The limitations of applying technical measures due to the long payback duration raise the potential of operational changes for energy efficient ship operations. This study identifies operational energy efficiency measures related voyage performance management. We use ‘noon’ data to examine the correlation between fuel consumption and operational parameters- revolutions per minute (RPM), draft, trim, (beaufort number) BN and relative wind direction, which are used as measures of ship energy efficiency. The results of this study reveal that speed optimization is the most efficient method as fuel consumption depends heavily on RPM. In conclusion, this study will provide ship operators with the strategic approach for evaluating the priority of the operational energy efficiency measures against high fuel prices and carbon emissions.

Keywords: ship, voyage related operational energy Efficiency measures, fuel consumption, pearson's correlation coefficient

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6633 Analysis of the Secondary Stationary Flow Around an Oscillating Circular Cylinder

Authors: Artem Nuriev, Olga Zaitseva


This paper is devoted to the study of a viscous incompressible flow around a circular cylinder performing harmonic oscillations, especially the steady streaming phenomenon. The research methodology is based on the asymptotic explanation method combined with the computational bifurcation analysis. Present studies allow to identify several regimes of the secondary streaming with different flow structures. The results of the research are in good agreement with experimental and numerical simulation data.

Keywords: oscillating cylinder, secondary streaming, flow regimes, asymptotic and bifurcation analysis

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6632 Processing and Characterization of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3 Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Shalini Bahel, Maalti Puri, Sukhleen Bindra Narang


Ceramic samples of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 were synthesized by columbite precursor method and characterized for structural and dielectric properties. Both the synthesized samples have perovskite structure with tetragonal symmetry. The variations in relative permittivity and loss tangent were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Both the relative permittivity and loss tangent decreased with increase in frequency. A reasonably high value of relative permittivity of 63.46, loss tangent of 0.0067 at 15 MHz and temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of -82 ppm/˚C was obtained for (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3.

Keywords: loss tangent, perovskite, relative permittivity, X-ray diffraction

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