Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 584

Search results for: arterial progression

584 Components of Arterial Pressure and Its Association with Dietary Inflammatory Potential of Older Individuals: The Multinational Medis Study

Authors: Demosthenes Panagiotakos

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to evaluate dietary habits’ inflammatory potential with various components of arterial blood pressure (hypertension, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP)) in a sample of older Mediterranean people without known cardiovascular disease. During 2005-2011, 2,813 older (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled. Standard procedures were used to determine arterial blood pressure, as well as PP and MAP, and for the evaluation of dietary habits, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the participants. A dietary inflammatory index (DII) was assessed based on the participants specific dietary habits, and its calculation was based on a standard procedure. It was reported that the higher the DII level of a diet (adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet) the greater was the likelihood of having an older adult hypertension [OR=3.82 (95% CI): 1.24 to 11.71]. Moreover, the higher the level of DII (more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) the greater were the levels of MAP [b-coefficient (95% CI): 7.23 (+1.86 to +12.59)] and PP, [b-coefficient (95% CI): 10.86 (+2.70 to +19.01)]. Diet’s inflammatory potential is related with various components of arterial pressure. Adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet seems to be associated with increased arterial peripheral resistance and arterial stiffness.

Keywords: dietary inflammatory index, hypertension, mean arterial pressure, elderly

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583 Electron Microscopical Analysis of Arterial Line Filters During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Won-Gon Kim

Abstract:

Introduction: The clinical value of arterial line filters is still a controversial issue. Proponents of arterial line filtration argue that filters remove particulate matter and undissolved gas from circulation, while opponents argue the absence of conclusive clinical data. We conducted scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of arterial line filters used clinically in the CPB circuits during adult cardiac surgery and analyzed the types and characteristics of materials entrapped in the arterial line filters. Material and Methods: Twelve arterial line filters were obtained during routine hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in 12 adult cardiac patients. The arterial line filter was a screen type with a pore size of 40 ㎛ (Baxter Health care corporation Bentley division, Irvine, CA, U.S.A.). After opening the housing, the woven polyester strands were examined with SEM. Results and Conclusion: All segments examined(120 segments, each 2.5 X 2.5 cm in size) contained no embolic particles larger in their cross-sectional area than the pore size of the filter(40 ㎛). The origins of embolic particulates were mostly from environmental foreign bodies. This may suggest a possible need for more aggressive filtration of smaller particulates than is generally carried out at the present time.

Keywords: arterial line filter, tubing wear, scanning electron microscopy, SEM

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582 Arterial Line Use for Acute Type 2 Respiratory Failure

Authors: C. Scurr, J. Jeans, S. Srivastava

Abstract:

Introduction: Acute type two respiratory failure (T2RF) has become a common presentation over the last two decades primarily due to an increase in the prevalence of chronic lung disease. Acute exacerbations can be managed either medically or in combination with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) which should be monitored with regular arterial blood gas samples (ABG). Arterial lines allow more frequent arterial blood sampling with less patient discomfort. We present the experience from a teaching hospital emergency department (ED) and level 2 medical high-dependency unit (HDU) that together form the pathway for management of acute type 2 respiratory failure. Methods: Patients acutely presenting to Charing Cross Hospital, London, with T2RF requiring non-invasive ventilation (NIV) over 14 months (2011 to 2012) were identified from clinical coding. Retrospective data collection included: demographics, co-morbidities, blood gas numbers and timing, if arterial lines were used and who performed this. Analysis was undertaken using Microsoft Excel. Results: Coding identified 107 possible patients. 69 notes were available, of which 41 required NIV for type 2 respiratory failure. 53.6% of patients had an arterial line inserted. Patients with arterial lines had 22.4 ABG in total on average compared to 8.2 for those without. These patients had a similar average time to normalizing pH of (23.7 with arterial line vs 25.6 hours without), and no statistically significant difference in mortality. Arterial lines were inserted by Foundation year doctors, Core trainees, Medical registrars as well as the ICU registrar. 63% of these were performed by the medical registrar rather than ICU, ED or a junior doctor. This is reflected in that the average time until an arterial line was inserted was 462 minutes. The average number of ABGs taken before an arterial line was 2 with a range of 0 – 6. The average number of gases taken if no arterial line was ever used was 7.79 (range of 2-34) – on average 4 times as many arterial punctures for each patient. Discussion: Arterial line use was associated with more frequent arterial blood sampling during each inpatient admission. Additionally, patients with an arterial line have less individual arterial punctures in total and this is likely more comfortable for the patient. Arterial lines are normally sited by medical registrars, however this is normally after some delay. ED clinicians could improve patient comfort and monitoring thus allowing faster titration of NIV if arteral lines were regularly inserted in the ED. We recommend that ED doctors insert arterial lines when indicated in order improve the patient experience and facilitate medical management.

Keywords: non invasive ventilation, arterial blood gas, acute type, arterial line

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581 Multi-Path Signal Synchronization Model with Phase Length Constraints

Authors: Tzu-Jung Huang, Hsun-Jung Cho, Chien-Chia Liäm Huang

Abstract:

To improve the level of service (LoS) of urban arterial systems containing a series of signalized intersections, a proper design of offsets for all intersections associated is of great importance. The MAXBAND model has been the most common approach for this purpose. In this paper, we propose a MAXBAND model with phase constraints so that the lengths of the phases in a cycle are variable. In other words, the length of a cycle is also variable in our setting. We conduct experiments on a real-world traffic network, having several major paths, in Taiwan for numerical evaluations. Actual traffic data were collected through on-site experiments. Numerical evidences suggest that the improvements are around 32%, on average, in terms of total delay of the entire network.

Keywords: arterial progression, MAXBAND, signal control, offset

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580 Assessing Arterial Blockages Using Animal Model and Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Mohammad Al- Rawi, Ahmad Al- Jumaily

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of developing arterial blockage at the abdominal aorta on the blood pressure waveform at an externally accessible location suitable for invasive measurements such as the brachial and the femoral arteries. Arterial blockages are created surgically within the abdominal aorta of healthy Wistar rats to create narrowing resemblance conditions. Blood pressure waveforms are measured using a catheter inserted into the right femoral artery. Measurements are taken at the baseline healthy condition as well as at four different severities (20%, 50%, 80% and 100%) of arterial blockage. In vivo and in vitro measurements of the lumen diameter and wall thickness are taken using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and microscopic techniques, respectively. These data are used to validate a 3D computational fluid dynamics model (CFD) which is developed to generalize the outcomes of this work and to determine the arterial stress and strain under the blockage conditions. This work indicates that an arterial blockage in excess of 20% of the lumen diameter significantly influences the pulse wave and reduces the systolic blood pressure at the right femoral artery. High wall shear stress and low circumferential strain are also generated at the blockage site.

Keywords: arterial blockage, pulse wave, atherosclerosis, CFD

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579 Gaussian Mixture Model Based Identification of Arterial Wall Movement for Computation of Distension Waveform

Authors: Ravindra B. Patil, P. Krishnamoorthy, Shriram Sethuraman

Abstract:

This work proposes a novel Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based approach for accurate tracking of the arterial wall and subsequent computation of the distension waveform using Radio Frequency (RF) ultrasound signal. The approach was evaluated on ultrasound RF data acquired using a prototype ultrasound system from an artery mimicking flow phantom. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by comparing with existing wall tracking algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides 20% reduction in the error margin compared to the existing approaches in tracking the arterial wall movement. This approach coupled with ultrasound system can be used to estimate the arterial compliance parameters required for screening of cardiovascular related disorders.

Keywords: distension waveform, Gaussian Mixture Model, RF ultrasound, arterial wall movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
578 Empirical Roughness Progression Models of Heavy Duty Rural Pavements

Authors: Nahla H. Alaswadko, Rayya A. Hassan, Bayar N. Mohammed

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Empirical deterministic models have been developed to predict roughness progression of heavy duty spray sealed pavements for a dataset representing rural arterial roads. The dataset provides a good representation of the relevant network and covers a wide range of operating and environmental conditions. A sample with a large size of historical time series data for many pavement sections has been collected and prepared for use in multilevel regression analysis. The modelling parameters include road roughness as performance parameter and traffic loading, time, initial pavement strength, reactivity level of subgrade soil, climate condition, and condition of drainage system as predictor parameters. The purpose of this paper is to report the approaches adopted for models development and validation. The study presents multilevel models that can account for the correlation among time series data of the same section and to capture the effect of unobserved variables. Study results show that the models fit the data very well. The contribution and significance of relevant influencing factors in predicting roughness progression are presented and explained. The paper concludes that the analysis approach used for developing the models confirmed their accuracy and reliability by well-fitting to the validation data.

Keywords: roughness progression, empirical model, pavement performance, heavy duty pavement

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577 Detection of Arterial Stiffness in Diabetes Using Photoplethysmograph

Authors: Neelamshobha Nirala, R. Periyasamy, Awanish Kumar

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Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and with the increase of global prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mortality related to diabetes has also increased. Diabetes causes the increase of arterial stiffness by elusive hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. We used photoplethysmograph (PPG), a simple non-invasive method to study the change in arterial stiffness due to diabetes. Toe PPG signals were taken from 29 diabetic subjects with mean age of (65±8.4) years and 21 non-diabetic subjects of mean age of (49±14) years. Mean duration of diabetes is 12±8 years for diabetic group. Rise-time (RT) and area under rise time (AUR) were calculated from the PPG signal of each subject and Welch’s t-test is used to find the significant difference between two groups. We obtained a significant difference of (p-value) 0.0005 and 0.03 for RT and AUR respectively between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Average value of RT and AUR is 0.298±0.003 msec and 14.4±4.2 arbitrary units respectively for diabetic subject compared to 0.277±0.0005 msec and 13.66±2.3 a.u respectively for non-diabetic subjects. In conclusion, this study support that arterial stiffness is increased in diabetes and can be detected early using PPG.

Keywords: area under rise-time, AUR, arterial stiffness, diabetes, photoplethysmograph, PPG, rise-time (RT)

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576 A Study of Common Carotid Artery Behavior from B-Mode Ultrasound Image for Different Gender and BMI Categories

Authors: Nabilah Ibrahim, Khaliza Musa

Abstract:

The increment thickness of intima-media thickness (IMT) which involves the changes of diameter of the carotid artery is one of the early symptoms of the atherosclerosis lesion. The manual measurement of arterial diameter is time consuming and lack of reproducibility. Thus, this study reports the automatic approach to find the arterial diameter behavior for different gender, and body mass index (BMI) categories, focus on tracked region. BMI category is divided into underweight, normal, and overweight categories. Canny edge detection is employed to the B-mode image to extract the important information to be deal as the carotid wall boundary. The result shows the significant difference of arterial diameter between male and female groups which is 2.5% difference. In addition, the significant result of differences of arterial diameter for BMI category is the decreasing of arterial diameter proportional to the BMI.

Keywords: B-mode Ultrasound Image, carotid artery diameter, canny edge detection, body mass index

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575 Analysis of Wall Deformation of the Arterial Plaque Models: Effects of Viscoelasticity

Authors: Eun Kyung Kim, Kyehan Rhee

Abstract:

Viscoelastic wall properties of the arterial plaques change as the disease progresses, and estimation of wall viscoelasticity can provide a valuable assessment tool for plaque rupture prediction. Cross section of the stenotic coronary artery was modeled based on the IVUS image, and the finite element analysis was performed to get wall deformation under pulsatile pressure. The effects of viscoelastic parameters of the plaque on luminal diameter variations were explored. The result showed that decrease of viscous effect reduced the phase angle between the pressure and displacement waveforms, and phase angle was dependent on the viscoelastic properties of the wall. Because viscous effect of tissue components could be identified using the phase angle difference, wall deformation waveform analysis may be applied to predict plaque wall composition change and vascular wall disease progression.

Keywords: atherosclerotic plaque, diameter variation, finite element method, viscoelasticity

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574 Arterial Compliance Measurement Using Split Cylinder Sensor/Actuator

Authors: Swati Swati, Yuhang Chen, Robert Reuben

Abstract:

Coronary stents are devices resembling the shape of a tube which are placed in coronary arteries, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of coronary arterial diseases. Coronary stents are routinely deployed to clear atheromatous plaque. The stent essentially applies an internal pressure to the artery because its structure is cylindrically symmetrical and this may introduce some abnormalities in final arterial shape. The goal of the project is to develop segmented circumferential arterial compliance measuring devices which can be deployed (eventually) in vivo. The segmentation of the device will allow the mechanical asymmetry of any stenosis to be assessed. The purpose will be to assess the quality of arterial tissue for applications in tailored stents and in the assessment of aortic aneurism. Arterial distensibility measurement is of utmost importance to diagnose cardiovascular diseases and for prediction of future cardiac events or coronary artery diseases. In order to arrive at some generic outcomes, a preliminary experimental set-up has been devised to establish the measurement principles for the device at macro-scale. The measurement methodology consists of a strain gauge system monitored by LABVIEW software in a real-time fashion. This virtual instrument employs a balloon within a gelatine model contained in a split cylinder with strain gauges fixed on it. The instrument allows automated measurement of the effect of air-pressure on gelatine and measurement of strain with respect to time and pressure during inflation. Compliance simple creep model has been applied to the results for the purpose of extracting some measures of arterial compliance. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to study the effect of air pressure on strain at varying time intervals. The results clearly demonstrate that with decrease in arterial volume and increase in arterial pressure, arterial strain increases thereby decreasing the arterial compliance. The measurement system could lead to development of portable, inexpensive and small equipment and could prove to be an efficient automated compliance measurement device.

Keywords: arterial compliance, atheromatous plaque, mechanical symmetry, strain measurement

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573 Mixed Traffic Speed–Flow Behavior under Influence of Road Side Friction and Non-Motorized Vehicles: A Comparative Study of Arterial Roads in India

Authors: Chetan R. Patel, G. J. Joshi

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The present study is carried out on six lane divided urban arterial road in Patna and Pune city of India. Both the road having distinct differences in terms of the vehicle composition and the road side parking. Arterial road in Patan city has 33% of non-motorized mode, whereas Pune arterial road dominated by 65% of Two wheeler. Also road side parking is observed in Patna city. The field studies using vidiographic techniques are carried out for traffic data collection. Data are extracted for one minute duration for vehicle composition, speed variation and flow rate on selected arterial road of the two cities. Speed flow relationship is developed and capacity is determine. Equivalency factor in terms of dynamic car unit is determine to represent the vehicle is single unit. The variation in the capacity due to side friction, presence of non motorized traffic and effective utilization of lane width is compared at concluding remarks.

Keywords: arterial road, capacity, dynamic equivalency factor, effect of non motorized mode, side friction

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572 Roller Pump-Induced Tubing Rupture during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: W. G. Kim, C. H. Jo

Abstract:

We analyzed the effects of variations in the diameter of silicone rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubings on the likelihood of tubing rupture during modeling of accidental arterial line clamping in cardiopulmonary bypass with a roller pump. A closed CPB circuit constructed with a roller pump was tested with both PVC and silicone rubber tubings of 1/2, 3/8, and 1/4 inch internal diameter. Arterial line pressure was monitored, and an occlusive clamp was placed across the tubing distal to the pressure monitor site to model an accidental arterial line occlusion. A CCD camera with 512(H) x 492(V) pixels was installed above the roller pump to measure tubing diameters at pump outlet, where the maximum deformations (distension) of the tubings occurred. Quantitative measurement of the changes of tubing diameters with the change of arterial line pressure was performed using computerized image processing techniques. A visible change of tubing diameter was generally noticeable by around 250 psi of arterial line pressure, which was already very high. By 1500 psi, the PVC tubings showed an increase of diameter of between 5-10 %, while the silicone rubber tubings showed an increase between 20-25 %. Silicone rubber tubings of all sizes showed greater distensibility than PVC tubings of equivalent size. In conclusion, although roller-pump induced tubing rupture remains a theoretical problem during cardiopulmonary bypass in terms of the inherent mechanism of the pump, in reality such an occurrence is impossible in real clinical conditions.

Keywords: roller pump, tubing rupture, cardiopulmonary bypass, arterial line

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571 Haemodynamics Study in Subject Specific Carotid Bifurcation Using FSI

Authors: S. M. Abdul Khader, Anurag Ayachit, Raghuvir Pai, K. A. Ahmed, V. R. K Rao, S. Ganesh Kamath

Abstract:

The numerical simulation has made tremendous advances in investigating the blood flow phenomenon through elastic arteries. Such study can be useful in demonstrating the disease progression and haemodynamics of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In the present study, patient specific case diagnosed with partially stenosed complete right ICA and normal left carotid bifurcation without any atherosclerotic plaque formation is considered. 3D patient specific carotid bifurcation model is generated based on CT scan data using MIMICS-4.0 and numerical analysis is performed using FSI solver in ANSYS-14.5. The blood flow is assumed to be incompressible, homogenous and Newtonian, while the artery wall is assumed to be linearly elastic. The two-way sequentially-coupled transient FSI analysis is performed using FSI solver for three pulse cycles. The haemodynamic parameters such as flow pattern, Wall Shear Stress, pressure contours and arterial wall deformation are studied at the bifurcation and critical zones such as stenosis. The variation in flow behavior is studied throughout the pulse cycle. Also, the simulation results reveals that there is a considerable increase in the flow behavior in stenosed carotid in contrast to the normal carotid bifurcation system. The investigation also demonstrates the disturbed flow pattern especially at the bifurcation and stenosed zone elevating the haemodynamics, particularly during peak systole and later part of the pulse cycle. The results obtained agree well with the clinical observation and demonstrates the potential of patient specific numerical studies in prognosis of disease progression and plaque rupture.

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, arterial stenosis, wall shear stress, carotid artery bifurcation

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570 Assessment of Arterial Stiffness through Measurement of Magnetic Flux Disturbance and Electrocardiogram Signal

Authors: Jing Niu, Jun X. Wang

Abstract:

Arterial stiffness predicts mortality and morbidity, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. And it is a major risk factor for age-related morbidity and mortality. The non-invasive industry gold standard measurement system of arterial stiffness utilizes pulse wave velocity method. However, the desktop device is expensive and requires trained professional to operate. The main objective of this research is the proof of concept of the proposed non-invasive method which uses measurement of magnetic flux disturbance and electrocardiogram (ECG) signal for measuring arterial stiffness. The method could enable accurate and easy self-assessment of arterial stiffness at home, and to help doctors in research, diagnostic and prescription in hospitals and clinics. A platform for assessing arterial stiffness through acquisition and analysis of radial artery pulse waveform and ECG signal has been developed based on the proposed method. Radial artery pulse waveform is acquired using the magnetic based sensing technology, while ECG signal is acquired using two dry contact single arm ECG electrodes. The measurement only requires the participant to wear a wrist strap and an arm band. Participants were recruited for data collection using both the developed platform and the industry gold standard system. The results from both systems underwent correlation assessment analysis. A strong positive correlation between the results of the two systems is observed. This study presents the possibility of developing an accurate, easy to use and affordable measurement device for arterial stiffness assessment.

Keywords: arterial stiffness, electrocardiogram, pulse wave velocity, Magnetic Flux Disturbance

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569 Progression Rate, Prevalence, Incidence of Black Band Disease on Stony (Scleractinia) in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

Authors: Baso Hamdani, Arniati Massinai, Jamaluddin Jompa

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Coral diseases are one of the factors affect reef degradation. This research had analysed the progression rate, incidence, and prevalence of Black Band Disease (BBD) on stony coral (Pachyseris sp.) in relation to the environmental parameters (pH, nitrate, phospate, Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM), and turbidity). The incidence of coral disease was measured weekly for 6 weeks using Belt Transect Method. The progression rate of BBD was measured manually. Furthermore, the prevalence and incidence of BBD were calculated each colonies infected. The relationship between environmental parameters and the progression rate, prevalence and incidence of BBD was analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed the average of progression rate is 0,07 ± 0,02 cm/ hari. The prevalence of BBD increased from 0,92% - 19,73% in 7 weeks observation with the average incidence of new infected colonies coral 0,2 - 0,65 colony/day The environment factors which important were pH, Nitrate, Phospate, DOM, and Turbidity.

Keywords: progression rate, incidence, prevalence, Black Band Disease, Barranglompo

Procedia PDF Downloads 571
568 A Numerical Simulation of Arterial Mass Transport in Presence of Magnetic Field-Links to Atherosclerosis

Authors: H. Aminfar, M. Mohammadpourfard, K. Khajeh

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This paper has focused on the most important parameters in the LSC uptake; inlet Re number and Sc number in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. The magnetic field is arising from the thin wire with electric current placed vertically to the arterial blood vessel. According to the results of this study, applying magnetic field can be a treatment for atherosclerosis by reducing LSC along the vessel wall. Homogeneous porous layer as a arterial wall has been regarded. Blood flow has been considered laminar and incompressible containing Ferro fluid (blood and 4 % vol. Fe₃O₄) under steady state conditions. Numerical solution of governing equations was obtained by using the single-phase model and control volume technique for flow field.

Keywords: LDL surface concentration (LSC), magnetic field, computational fluid dynamics, porous wall

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567 Capacity Loss of Urban Arterial Roads under the Influence of Bus Stop

Authors: Sai Chand, Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra

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Curbside bus stops are provided on urban roads when sufficient land is not available to construct bus bays. The present study demonstrates the effect of curbside bus stops on midblock capacity of an urban arterial road. Data were collected on seven sections of 6-lane urban arterial roads in New Delhi. Three sections were selected without any side friction to estimate the base value of capacity. Remaining four sections were with curbside bus stop. Speed and volume data were collected in field and these data were used to estimate the capacity of a section. The average base midblock capacity of a 6–lane divided urban road was found to be 6314 PCU/hr which was further referred as base capacity. Effect of curbside bus stop on midblock capacity of urban road was evaluated by comparing the capacity of a section with curbside bus stop with that of the base capacity. Finally, a mathematical relation has been developed between bus frequency and capacity loss. Also a relation has been suggested between dwell time and capacity loss. The developed relations would be very useful for practising engineers to estimate capacity loss due to bus stop.

Keywords: bus frequency, bus stops, capacity loss, urban arterial

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566 CanVis: Towards a Web Platform for Cancer Progression Tree Analysis

Authors: Michael Aupetit, Mahmoud Al-ismail, Khaled Mohamed

Abstract:

Cancer is a major public health problem all over the world. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rate over all cancers for women in Qatar making its study a top priority of the country. Human cancer is a dynamic disease that develops over an extended period through the accumulation of a series of genetic alterations. A Darwinian process drives the tumor cells toward higher malignancy growing the branches of a progression tree in the space of genes expression. Although it is not possible to track these genetic alterations dynamically for one patient, it is possible to reconstruct the progression tree from the aggregation of thousands of tumor cells’ genetic profiles from thousands of different patients at different stages of the disease. Analyzing the progression tree is a way to detect pivotal molecular events that drive the malignant evolution and to provide a guide for the development of cancer diagnostics, prognostics and targeted therapeutics. In this work we present the development of a Visual Analytic web platform CanVis enabling users to upload gene-expression data and analyze their progression tree. The server computes the progression tree based on state-of-the-art techniques and allows an interactive visual exploration of this tree and the gene-expression data along its branching structure helping to discover potential driver genes.

Keywords: breast cancer, progression tree, visual analytics, web platform

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565 Propranalol is Not Effective in Preventing the Progression to Severe Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy in Cirrhotic Patients who Had Undergone Variceal Eradication: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Jeffey George, Varghese Thomas

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Background and Objectives: PHG is an important source of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. Aim: To assess the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy(PHG) in patients with cirrhosis who were treated with maximum tolerated dose of propranalol, after variceal eradication to grade II or below. Methods: Cirrhotic patients(child A and B) presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with endoscopic findings of mild or no PHG were followed up over 6 months after variceal eradication to assess the progression to severe PHG. Included patients were randomised to either maximum tolerated doses of propranalol (group A) or to no treatment (group B). Primary end point of the study were the development of gastrointestinal bleed, evidence of hepatic decompensation and death. Progression to severe PHG were compared between the two groups. Results: 56 patients (49 males) were enrolled (group A = 28, group B = 28). 8 patients were excluded from final analysis (gi bleed=5, encephalopathy=2,HCC=1 including 4 deaths).3 patients were lost to follow-up, and 1 developed intolerance to propranalol. Mean dose of propranalol used was 60 mg per day. Progression to severe PHG in the fundus over 6 months was 23.8% in group A versus 15.8 % in group B (p = 0.52). Severe PHG was noted in body in 14.3% in group A versus 21.1% in group B (p = 0.57). 23.8 % in group A had progression to severe PHG compared with 15.8 % in group B (p =0.52). There was no statistically significant difference in the progression of PHG between the two groups(p=0.43). Conclusion: In this short term study propranalol was found not to prevent the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy in cirrhotic patients who had undergone endotherapy for esophageal varices.

Keywords: propranalol, portal hypertensive gastropathy, cirrhotic patients, gastroenterology

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564 Coordination of Traffic Signals on Arterial Streets in Duhok City

Authors: Dilshad Ali Mohammed, Ziyad Nayef Shamsulddin Aldoski, Millet Salim Mohammed

Abstract:

The increase in levels of traffic congestion along urban signalized arterials needs efficient traffic management. The application of traffic signal coordination can improve the traffic operation and safety for a series of signalized intersection along the arterials. The objective of this study is to evaluate the benefits achievable through actuated traffic signal coordination and make a comparison in control delay against the same signalized intersection in case of being isolated. To accomplish this purpose, a series of eight signalized intersections located on two major arterials in Duhok City was chosen for conducting the study. Traffic data (traffic volumes, link and approach speeds, and passenger car equivalent) were collected at peak hours. Various methods had been used for collecting data such as video recording technique, moving vehicle method and manual methods. Geometric and signalization data were also collected for the purpose of the study. The coupling index had been calculated to check the coordination attainability, and then time space diagrams were constructed representing one-way coordination for the intersections on Barzani and Zakho Streets, and others represented two-way coordination for the intersections on Zakho Street with accepted progression bandwidth efficiency. The results of this study show great progression bandwidth of 54 seconds for east direction coordination and 17 seconds for west direction coordination on Barzani Street under suggested controlled speed of 60 kph agreeable with the present data. For Zakho Street, the progression bandwidth is 19 seconds for east direction coordination and 18 seconds for west direction coordination under suggested controlled speed of 40 kph. The results show that traffic signal coordination had led to high reduction in intersection control delays on both arterials.

Keywords: bandwidth, congestion, coordination, traffic, signals, streets

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563 LncRNA NEAT1 Promotes NSCLC Progression through Acting as a ceRNA of miR-377-3p

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Shujun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, Dejia Li

Abstract:

Recently, the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 has been identified as an oncogenic gene in multiple cancer types and elevated expression of NEAT1 was tightly linked to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecular basis for this observation has not been characterized in progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our studies, we identified NEAT1 was highly expressed in NSCLC patients and was a novel regulator of NSCLC progression. Patients whose tumors had high NEAT1 expression had a shorter overall survival than patients whose tumors had low NEAT1 expression. Further, NEAT1 significantly accelerates NSCLC cell growth and metastasis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Additionally, by using bioinformatics study and RNA pull down combined with luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that NEAT1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for has-miR-377-3p, antagonized its functions and led to the de-repression of its endogenous targets E2F3, which was a core oncogene in promoting NSCLC progression. Taken together, these observations imply that the NEAT1 modulated the expression of E2F3 gene by acting as a competing endogenous RNA, which may build up the missing link between the regulatory miRNA network and NSCLC progression.

Keywords: long non-coding RNA NEAT1, hsa-miRNA-377-3p, E2F3, non-small cell lung cancer, tumorigenesis

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562 Correlation between Peripheral Arterial Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in Bangladeshi Population: A Five Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Syed Dawood M. Taimur

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Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is under diagnosed in primary care practices, yet the extent of unrecognized PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of previously unrecognized PAD in patients undergoing coronary angiogram and to determine the relationship between the presence of PAD and severity of CAD. Material & Methods: This five years retrospective study was conducted at an invasive lab of the department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute from January 2010 to December 2014. Total 77 patients were included in this study. Study variables were age, sex, risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking habit and positive family history for ischemic heart disease, coronary artery and peripheral artery profile. Results: Mean age was 56.83±13.64 years, Male mean age was 53.98±15.08 years and female mean age was 54.5±1.73years. Hypertension was detected in 55.8%, diabetes in 87%, dyslipidaemia in 81.8%, smoking habits in 79.2% and 58.4% had a positive family history. After catheterization 88.3% had peripheral arterial disease and 71.4% had coronary artery disease. Out of 77 patients, 52 had both coronary and peripheral arterial disease which was statistically significant (p < .014). Coronary angiogram revealed 28.6% (22) patients had triple vessel disease, 23.3% (18) had single vessel disease, 19.5% (15) had double vessel disease and 28.6% (22) were normal coronary arteries. The peripheral angiogram revealed 54.5% had superficial femoral artery disease, 26% had anterior tibial artery disease, 27.3% had posterior tibial artery disease, 20.8% had common iliac artery disease, 15.6% had common femoral artery disease and 2.6% had renal artery disease. Conclusion: There is a strong and definite correlation between coronary and peripheral arterial disease. We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD.

Keywords: coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease(PVD), risk, factors, correlation, cathetarization

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561 Distribution of Traffic Volume at Fuel Station during Peak Hour Period on Arterial Road

Authors: Surachai Ampawasuvan, Supornchai Utainarumol

Abstract:

Most of fuel station’ customers, who drive on the major arterial road wants to use the stations to fill fuel to their vehicle during their journey to destinations. According to the survey of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, or questionnaires, it was found that most users prefer to use fuel stations on holiday rather than on working day. They also prefer to use fuel stations in the morning rather than in the evening. When comparing the ratio of the distribution pattern of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, there is no significant difference. However, when comparing the ratio of peak hour (peak hour rate) of the results from questionnaires at 13 to 14 percent with the results obtained by using the methods of the Institute of Transportation Engineering (ITE), it is found that the value is similar. However, it is different from a survey by video camera and automatic traffic counting at 6 to 7 percent of about half. So, this study suggests that in order to forecast trip generation of vehicle using fuel stations on major arterial road which is mostly characterized by Though Traffic, it is recommended to use the value of half of peak hour rate, which would make the forecast for trips generation to be more precise and accurate and compatible to surrounding environment.

Keywords: peak rate, trips generation, fuel station, arterial road

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560 Gender Differences in Walking Capacity and Cardiovascular Regulation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

Authors: Gabriel Cucato, Marilia Correia, Wagner Domingues, Aline Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Raphael Ritti-Dias

Abstract:

Women with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) present lower walking capacity in comparison with men. However, whether cardiovascular regulation is also different between genders is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare walking capacity and cardiovascular regulation between men and women with PAD. A total of 23 women (66±7 yrs) and 31 men (64±9 yrs) were recruited. Patients performed a 6-minute test and the onset claudication distance and total walking distance were measured. Additionally, cardiovascular regulation was assessed by arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and heart rate variability (frequency domain). Independent T test or Mann-Whitney U test were performed. In comparison with men, women present lower onset claudication distance (108±66m vs. 143±50m; P=0.032) and total walking distance (286±83m vs. 361±91 m, P=0.007). Regarding cardiovascular regulation, there were no differences in heart rate variability SDNN (72±160ms vs. 32±22ms, P=0.587); RMSSD (75±209 vs. 25±22ms, P=0.726); pNN50 (11±17ms vs. 8±14ms, P=0.836) in women and men, respectively. Moreover, there were no difference in augmentation index (39±10% vs. 34±11%, P=0.103); pulse pressure (59±17mmHg vs. 56±19mmHg, P=0.593) and pulse wave velocity (8.6±2.6m\s vs. 9.0±2.7m/s, P=0.580). In conclusion, women have impaired walking capacity compared to men. However, sex differences were not observed on cardiovascular regulation in patients with PAD.

Keywords: exercise, intermittent claudication, cardiovascular load, arterial stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
559 Effect of Radiation on Magnetohydrodynamic Two Phase Stenosed Arterial Blood Flow with Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: Bhavya Tripathi, Bhupendra Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

In blood, the concentration of red blood cell varies with the arterial diameter. In the case of narrow arteries, red blood cells concentrate around the center of the artery and there exists a cell-free plasma layer near the arterial wall due to Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. Due to non- uniformity of the fluid in the narrow arteries, it is preferable to consider the two-phase model of the blood flow. In the present article, coupled nonlinear differential equations have been developed for momentum, energy and concentration of two phase model of the blood flow assuming the Newtonian fluid in both central core and cell free plasma layer and the exact solutions have been found for the problem. For having an adequate insight into the stenosed arterial two-phase blood flow, major components of the flow as flow resistance, total flow rate, and wall shear stress have been estimated for different values of magnetic and radiation parameter. Results show that the increase in the effects of magnetic field decreases the velocity of both cores as well as plasma regions. This result can be helpful to control the blood flow in narrow arteries during surgical process. Temperature of core as well plasma regions decrease as value of radiation parameter increases. The present result is implemented in the form of radiation therapy which is very helpful for cancer patients.

Keywords: two phase blood flow, radiation, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), stenosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
558 Prolonged Ileus in Traumatic Pelvic Ring Injury Patients Who Underwent Arterial Angio-Embolization: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Suk Kyoon Song, Myung-Rae Cho

Abstract:

Purpose: Paralytic ileus occurs in up to 18% of patients with pelvic bone fractures. The aim of this study is to determine if massive bleeding requiring arterial angioembolization is related to the duration of ileus in patients with traumatic pelvic ring injuries. Methods: This retrospective study included 25 patients who underwent arterial angioembolization for traumatic pelvic ring injuries. Data were collected from prospectively maintained databases of two independent hospitals. Results: Demographic characteristics (such as age, sex, body mass index, and Charlson Comorbidity Index), cause of trauma, and severity of pelvic injuries were similar in the non-prolonged and prolonged ileus groups. As expected, the prolonged ileus group had a significantly longer duration of ileus than the non-prolonged ileus group (8.0 ± 4.2 days vs. 1.2 ± 0.4 days, respectively, P < 0.001). The mortality rate was higher in the prolonged ileus group (20% vs. 0%), but it was not significantly different (P = 0.13). Interestingly, the prolonged ileus group received significantly higher amounts of packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions (6.1 ± 2.1 units vs. 3.8 ± 2.5 units; P = 0.02). The amount of PRBC transfusions was associated with a greater risk of prolonged ileus development (P = 0.03, OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.08-3.88). Conclusion: This study supports the idea that the duration of the ileus is related to the amount of bleeding caused by the traumatic pelvic ring injury. In order to prevent further complications, conservative treatments of the ileus should be considered.

Keywords: pelvic ring injury, bleeding, ileus, arterial angioembolization

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557 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
556 Multilevel Modeling of the Progression of HIV/AIDS Disease among Patients under HAART Treatment

Authors: Awol Seid Ebrie

Abstract:

HIV results as an incurable disease, AIDS. After a person is infected with virus, the virus gradually destroys all the infection fighting cells called CD4 cells and makes the individual susceptible to opportunistic infections which cause severe or fatal health problems. Several studies show that the CD4 cells count is the most determinant indicator of the effectiveness of the treatment or progression of the disease. The objective of this paper is to investigate the progression of the disease over time among patient under HAART treatment. Two main approaches of the generalized multilevel ordinal models; namely the proportional odds model and the nonproportional odds model have been applied to the HAART data. Also, the multilevel part of both models includes random intercepts and random coefficients. In general, four models are explored in the analysis and then the models are compared using the deviance information criteria. Of these models, the random coefficients nonproportional odds model is selected as the best model for the HAART data used as it has the smallest DIC value. The selected model shows that the progression of the disease increases as the time under the treatment increases. In addition, it reveals that gender, baseline clinical stage and functional status of the patient have a significant association with the progression of the disease.

Keywords: nonproportional odds model, proportional odds model, random coefficients model, random intercepts model

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
555 Effects of Acute Exposure to WIFI Signals (2,45 GHz) on Heart Variability and Blood Pressure in Albinos Rabbit

Authors: Linda Saili, Amel Hanini, Chiraz Smirani, Iness Azzouz, Amina Azzouz, Hafedh Abdemelek, Zihad Bouslama

Abstract:

Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45 GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25 cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+ 22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter the maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that WIFI alter catecholamines(dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radio frequency can act directly and/or indirectly on the cardiovascular system.

Keywords: heart rate (HR), arterial pressure (PA), electrocardiogram (ECG), the efficacy of catecholamines, dopamine, epinephrine

Procedia PDF Downloads 361