Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3211

Search results for: animal assisted intervention

3211 Other End of the Leash: The Volunteer Handlers Perspective of Animal-Assisted Interventions

Authors: Julie A. Carberry, Victor Maddalena

Abstract:

Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAIs) have existed in various forms for centuries. In the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic increase in popularity. AAIs are now part of the lives of persons of all ages in many types of institutions. Anecdotal evidence of the benefits of AAIs have led to widespread adoption, yet there remains a lack of solid research base for support. The research question was, what are the lived experiences of AAI volunteer handlers are? An interpretive phenomenological methodology was used for this qualitative study. Data were collected from 1 - 2 hour-long semi-structured interviews and 1 observational field visit. All interviews were conducted, transcribed, and coded for themes by the principal investigator. Participants must have been an active St. John Ambulance Therapy Dog Program volunteer for a least one year. In total, 14 volunteer handlers, along with some of their dogs, were included. The St. John Ambulance is a not for profit organization that provides training and community services to Canadians. The Therapy Dog Program is 1 of the 4 nationally recognized core community service programs. The program incorporates dogs in the otherwise traditional therapeutic intervention of friendly visitation with clients. The lack of formal objectives and goals, and a trained therapist defines the program as an Animal-Assisted Activity (AAA), which is a type of AAI. Since the animals incorporated are dogs, the program is specifically a Canine-Assisted Activity (CAA), which is a type of Canine-Assisted Intervention (CAI). Six themes emerged from the analysis of the data: (a) a win-win-win situation for all parties involved – volunteer handlers, clients, and the dogs, (b) being on the other end of the leash: functions of the role of volunteer handler, (c) the importance of socialization: from spreading smiles to creating meaningful connections, (d) the role of the dog: initiating interaction and providing comfort, (e) an opportunity to feel good and destress, and (f) altruism versus personal rewards. Other insights were found regarding the program, clients, and staff. Possible implications from this research include increased organizational recruitment and retention of volunteer handlers and as well as increased support for CAAs and other CAIs that incorporate teams of volunteer handlers and their dogs. This support could, in turn, add overall support for the acceptance and broad implementation of AAIs as an alternative and or complementary non-pharmaceutical therapeutic intervention.

Keywords: animal-assisted activity, animal-assisted intervention, canine-assisted activity, canine-assisted intervention, perspective, qualitative, volunteer handler

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
3210 Drawings as a Methodical Access to Reconstruct Children's Perspective on a Horse-Assisted Intervention

Authors: Annika Barzen

Abstract:

In this article, the collection and analysis of drawings are implemented and discussed as a methodological approach to reconstruct children's perspective on horse-assisted interventions. For this purpose, drawings of three children (8-10 years old) were included in the research process in order to clarify the question of what insights can be derived from the drawings about the child's perspective on the intervention. The children were asked to draw a picture of themselves at the horse stable. Practical implementation considerations are disclosed. The developed analysis steps consider the work of two art historians (Erwin Panofsky and Max Imdahl) to capture the visual sense and to interpret the children's drawings. Relevant topics about the children's perspective can be inferred from the drawings. In the drawings, the following topics are important for the children: Overcoming challenges and fears in handling the horse, support from an adult in handling the horse and feeling self-confident and competent to act after completing tasks with the horse. The drawings show the main topics which are relevant for the children and can be used as a basis for conversation. All in all, the child's drawing offers a useful addition to other survey methods in order to gain further insights into the experiences of children in a horse-assisted setting.

Keywords: children's perspective, interpret children's drawings, equine-assisted-intervention, methodical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3209 Effect of Educational Information with Video Compact Disc on Anxiety Level in Patients Undergoing Bronchoscopy in Ramathibodi Hospital

Authors: Chariya Laohavich, Viboon Bunsrangsuk

Abstract:

Objective: Bronchoscopy is a common outpatient procedure. The authors compared the patient anxiety level before and after received video-assisted procedural information. Method: One hundred and twenty patients who never received bronchoscopy and scheduled for elective bronchoscopy at outpatient Bronchosope unit at Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University were randomized into control and intervention group. Video-assisted procedural information was given in intervention group. Pre and post procedural anxiety score were recorded and compared between two groups. Paired T-test was used for statistical analysis. Result: There was statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) for anxiety score in patients who received video assisted procedural information compare with control group. Conclusion: Video-assisted procedural information should be given to patient who will have bronchoscopy to reduce anxiety.

Keywords: anxiety, bronchoscopy, video compact disc (VCD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
3208 A Pilot Study Exploring Dog Owners’ Perceptions on Volunteering With Their Dogs in Animal-Assisted Therapy Program in Singapore

Authors: Julia Wong, Hua Beng Lim, Cheryl Ho, Gin Jen Gwee, Rachel Tay

Abstract:

In Singapore, a few hospitals and non-governmental social service agencies have been utilising animal-assisted therapy (AAT) in their practice in recent years, although the animals used (e.g., dogs, cats, and horses) and program modality may differ due to the different practice settings, client profiles, and intervention goals. This pilot study explores dog owners’ perceptions of AAT with a focus on examining the enablers and barriers towards volunteering with their dogs in AAT programs in Singapore. A qualitative, thematic analysis study was conducted using in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 16 dog owners. 3 of the dog owners had previous experience volunteering with their dogs serving elderly patients in a community hospital, while the rest of the dog owners had no previous experience volunteering with their dogs. The former group was recruited with the help of the hospital, while the latter group was recruited via word-of-mouth. Dog owners who had volunteering experiences in AAT program versus those who had none differed in their perceptions towards AAT. Dog owners who had volunteered with their dogs in an AAT program in a hospital felt that their volunteering experience were meaningful to patients and to themselves, as they were intrinsically motivated by the desire to serve the community. Those who had not volunteered were hesitant to volunteer with their dogs as they were not comfortable with strangers touching their dogs. They also felt that it would be a huge commitment in terms of time and money; most of them do not own a car as it is uneconomical, and pets are not allowed on Singapore’s public transport systems. This study is limited by its small sample size, and its findings are not generalisable. However, given that volunteers are an invaluable resource in healthcare settings, future studies can examine more stakeholders’ perceptions towards AAT.

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, dog-assisted therapy, volunteers, complementary therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
3207 The Impact of Animal-Assisted Pedagogy on Social Participation in Heterogenous Classrooms: A Survey Considering the Pupils Perspective on Animal-Assisted Teaching

Authors: Mona Maria Mombeck

Abstract:

Social participation in heterogeneous classrooms is one of the main goals in inclusive education. Children with special educational needs (SEN) and children with learning difficulties, or behavioural problems not diagnosed as SEN, are more likely to be excluded by other children than others. It is proven that the presence of dogs, as well as contact with dogs, increases the likelihood of positive social behaviour between humans. Therefore, animal-assisted pedagogy may be presumed to be a constructive way of inclusive teaching and facing the challenges of social inclusion in school classes. This study investigates the presence of a friendly dog in heterogeneous groups of pupils in order to evaluate the influence of dogs on facets of social participation of children in school. 30 German pupils, aged from 10 to 14, in four classes were questioned about their social participation before and after they were educated for a year in school with animal-assisted-pedagogy, using the problem-concerned interview method. In addition, the post-interview includes some general questions about the putative differences or similarities of being educated with and without a dog. The interviews were analysed with the qualitative-content-analysis using QDA software. The results showed that a dog has a positive impact on the atmosphere, student relationships, and well-being in class. Regarding the atmosphere, the pupils mainly argued that the improvement was caused by taking into account the dog’s well-being, respecting the dog-related rules, and by emotional self-regulation. It can be supposed that children regard the rules concerning the dog as more relevant to them than rules, not concerning the dog even if they require the same behaviour and goal. Furthermore, a dog has a positive impact on emotional self-regulation and, therefore, on pupil’s behaviour in class and the atmosphere. In terms of the statements about relationships, the dog’s presence was mainly seen to provide both a unifying aim and a uniting topic to talk about. The improved well-being was described as a feeling of joy and peace of mind. Moreover, the teacher was evaluated as more friendly and trustworthy after animal-assisted teaching. Nevertheless, animal-assisted pedagogy can, rarely, cause problems as well, such as jealousy, distraction, or concerns about the well-being of the dog. The study could prove the relevance of animal-assisted pedagogy for facing the challenges of social participation in inclusive education.

Keywords: animal-assisted-pedagogy, inclusive education, human-animal-interactions, social participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
3206 A Pilot Study Based on Online Survey Research Assessing the COVID-19 Impact on the Wellbeing of 15 Dogs Involved in Flemish Animal-Assisted Intervention Projects

Authors: L. Meers, L. Contalbrigo, V. Stevens, O. Ulitina, S. Laufer, W. E. Samuels, S. Normando

Abstract:

Since the COVID-19 pandemic started, there has been concern that domestic animals may help spread SARS-Cov-2. This concern also greatly affected human-animal interaction projects such as animal-assisted interventions (AAI). As a result, institutions and AAI practitioners developed new safety protocols and procedures to control the spread of the SARS-Cov-2 virus during AAI sessions and to guarantee safety for their clients and animals. However, little is known yet about the impact on animals' needs and the possible welfare issues due to these lifestyle adaptions. Fifteen therapists in Flanders, Belgium, who were currently conducting canine-assisted interventions, conducted unstructured observations on how their dogs' (11 mixed breeds, 3 Labradors, 1 terrier aged 2 – 12 years) behaviors changed due to institutional COVID-19 safety protocols. Most (80%) of the respondents reported that their dogs showed sniffing or sneezing after smelling disinfected areas. Two (13%) dogs responded with vomiting and gagging, and three (20%) dogs urinated over disinfected areas. All protocols advise social distancing between participants and animals. When held back, eight (53%) dogs showed self-calming behaviors. Respondents reported that most (73%) dogs responded with flight reactions when seeing humans wearing facial masks. When practitioners threw their used masks in open dustbins, five (33%) dogs tried to take them out with their mouths and play with them; two (13%) Labradors tried to eat them. Taking the dogs' temperatures was the most frequently (53%) used method to supervise their health. However, all dogs showed behaviors as ducking the tail, trying to escape, or biting the animal handler during this procedure. We interpret these results to suggest that dogs tended to react with stress and confusion to the changes in AAI practices they're part of. The health and safety protocols that institutions used were largely borne from recommendations made to protect humans. The participating practitioners appeared to use their knowledge of dog behavior and safety to modify them as best they could—but with more significant concern directed towards the other humans. Given their inter-relatedness and mutual importance for welfare, we advocate for integrated human and animal health and welfare assessments and protocols to provide a framework for "One health" approaches in animal-assisted interventions.

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, COVID-19 protocol, one health, welfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
3205 The Effect of Incorporating Animal Assisted Interventions with Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Authors: Kayla Renteria

Abstract:

This study explored the role animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) can play in treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) when incorporated into Trauma-informed cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). A review of the literature was performed to show how incorporating AAP could benefit TF-CBT since this treatment model often presents difficulties, such as client motivation and avoidance of the exposure element of the intervention. In addition, the fluidity of treatment goals during complex trauma cases was explored, as this issue arose in the case study. This study follows the course of treatment of a 12-year-old female presenting with symptoms of PTSD. Treatment consisted of traditional components of the TF-CBT model, with the added elements of AAP to address typical treatment obstacles in TF-CBT. A registered therapy dog worked with the subject in all sessions throughout her treatment. The therapy dog was incorporated into components such as relaxation and coping techniques, narrative therapy techniques, and psychoeducation on the cognitive triangle. Throughout the study, the client’s situation and clinical needs required the therapist to switch goals to focus on current safety and stability. The therapy dog provided support and neurophysiological benefits to the client through AAP during this shift in treatment. The client was assessed quantitatively using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale Self Report for DSM-5 (CPSS-SR-5) before and after therapy and qualitatively through a feedback form given after treatment. The participant showed improvement in CPSS-SR-V scores, and she reported that the incorporation of the therapy animal improved her therapy. The results of this study show how the use of AAP provided the client a solid, consistent relationship with the therapy dog that supported her through processing various types of traumas. Implications of the results of treatment and for future research are discussed.

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, PTSD in children, trauma treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
3204 Influence of Animal Assisted Activity with Cat on Emotions of People with Intellectual Disabilities: Preliminary Study

Authors: Angelika Magiera, Weronika Penar, Czesław Klocek

Abstract:

Intellectual disability (ID) affects approximately 1.55% of children and adults in the society of developed countries. Depending on the ID degree, the patient is burdened with additional disease entities. Intellectual disability does not only limits a person’s opportunities to participate in social life but also affects whole families. People with ID belong to the group of risk of mental illnesses, they are less emotionally stable, while families are predisposed to depression. The study was held in a day care center for people with intellectual disabilities (of various degrees of disability) on 26 people. Nurses and carers also took part. The age range of study groups ranged from 22 to 67 years. Therapeutic classes were held for four independent mixed groups (sex and intellectual disability degree) from 6 to 7 people each, lasting no more than 30 minutes. They were created by the facility's staff to make sure that a group is stable. The animal assisted activity took place with a 2.5-year-old Ragdoll cat. The animal has passed the exam (certificate entitling her to take part in felinotherapy) and had 1.5 years of work experience. Due to the different degrees of ID, an individual emotional state survey was conducted among the caregivers of those who were involved in the activity, to assess the impact of animal assisted activity with a cat on patients. A positive effect on the emotional state of people with different types of intellectual disability was observed. Caregivers and nurses of those participating in the study express willingness to continue these types of classes and consider them necessary for this group of people.

Keywords: intellectual disabilities, animal-assisted activity, cat, feline, emotions

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
3203 Analyzing Initial Efficacy of Animal Assisted Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case Study

Authors: Georgitta Joseph Valiyamattam

Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a growing phenomenon in India with over 10 million cases being recorded. Children with various levels and forms of ASD can be a major challenge both within the context of regular or special schooling. According to statistics by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one in every 88 children today is born with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) against a ratio of one in 110 few years back. The growing number of children with autism spectrum disorders places greater demands on health services and necessitates the roping in of non-traditional modes of treatment to complement or even substitute traditional health care methods when possible. Research evidence, particularly from Western countries, as also some parts of Asia, suggests that animal-assisted therapy, or zootherapy, may be used as an effective individual or complementary therapeutic tool for increasing overall wellbeing and quality of life among children with Autism spectrum disorders. The paper through a case-study format seeks to evaluate the efficacy (initial stage) of animal assisted therapy (canine-therapy with visiting dog: breed-Golden retriever), as a non-conventional treatment modality for improving cognitive functioning and managing the behavioral and psychological symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. As a pilot study forming the basis for subsequent larger application of AAT, it analyses areas of efficacy as also the challenges faced, both with regard to the mode of therapy, as also particular to the Indian setting.

Keywords: animal assisted therapy, autism, canine therapy, analyzing initial efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
3202 The Impact of Animal Assisted Interventions in Primary Schools: A Mixed Method Intervention Study Examining the Influence of Reading to Dogs on Children's Reading Outcomes and Emotional Wellbeing

Authors: Jill Steel

Abstract:

The interlinked issues of emotional wellbeing and attainment continue to dominate international educational discourse. Reading skills are particularly important to attainment in all areas of the curriculum, and illiteracy is associated with reduced wellbeing and life prospects, with serious ramifications for the wider economy and society. Research shows that reading attainment is influenced by reading motivation and frequency. Reading to Dogs (RTD) is increasingly applied to promote reading motivation and frequency in schools despite a paucity of empirical evidence, specifically examining the influence of RTD on emotional wellbeing and engagement with reading. This research aims to examine whether RTD is effective in promoting these positive outcomes among children aged eight to nine years. This study also aims to inform much needed regulation of the field and standards of practice, including both child and dog welfare. Therefore, ethical matters such as children’s inclusion and safety, as well as the rights and wellbeing of dogs infuse the study throughout. The methodological design is a mixed method longitudinal study. A UK wide questionnaire will be distributed to teachers between January and June 2020 to understand their perceptions of RTD. Following this, a randomised controlled trial (N = 100) will begin in August 2020 in two schools of a comparable demographic, with N= 50 in the intervention school, and N= 50 in a waiting list control school. Reading and wellbeing assessments will be conducted prior to and immediately post RTD, and four weeks after RTD to measure sustained changes. The reading assessments include New Group Reading Test, Motivation to Read Profile (Gambrell et al., 1995), as well as reading frequency and reading anxiety assessments specifically designed for the study. Wellbeing assessments include Goodman’s SDQ, (1997) and pupil self-reporting questionnaires specifically designed for the study. Child, class teacher, and parent questionnaires and interviews prior to, during and post RTD will be conducted to measure perceptions of the impact of RTD on mood and motivation towards reading. This study will make a substantial contribution to our understanding of the effectiveness of RTD and thus have consequences for the fields of education and anthrozoology.

Keywords: animal assisted intervention, reading to dogs, welfare, wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3201 Research on Control Strategy of Differential Drive Assisted Steering of Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

Authors: J. Liu, Z. P. Yu, L. Xiong, Y. Feng, J. He

Abstract:

According to the independence, accuracy and controllability of the driving/braking torque of the distributed drive electric vehicle, a control strategy of differential drive assisted steering was designed. Firstly, the assisted curve under different speed and steering wheel torque was developed and the differential torques were distributed to the right and left front wheels. Then the steering return ability assisted control algorithm was designed. At last, the joint simulation was conducted by CarSim/Simulink. The result indicated: the differential drive assisted steering algorithm could provide enough steering drive-assisted under low speed and improve the steering portability. Along with the increase of the speed, the provided steering drive-assisted decreased. With the control algorithm, the steering stiffness of the steering system increased along with the increase of the speed, which ensures the driver’s road feeling. The control algorithm of differential drive assisted steering could avoid the understeer under low speed effectively.

Keywords: differential assisted steering, control strategy, distributed drive electric vehicle, driving/braking torque

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
3200 Cross Professional Team-Assisted Teaching Effectiveness

Authors: Shan-Yu Hsu, Hsin-Shu Huang

Abstract:

The main purpose of this teaching research is to design an interdisciplinary team-assisted teaching method for trainees and interns and review the effectiveness of this teaching method on trainees' understanding of peritoneal dialysis. The teaching research object is the fifth and sixth-grade trainees in a medical center's medical school. The teaching methods include media teaching, demonstration of technical operation, face-to-face communication with patients, special case discussions, and field visits to the peritoneal dialysis room. Evaluate learning effectiveness before, after, and verbally. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS paired-sample t-test to analyze whether there is a difference in peritoneal dialysis professional cognition before and after teaching intervention. Descriptive statistics show that the average score of the previous test is 74.44, the standard deviation is 9.34, the average score of the post-test is 95.56, and the standard deviation is 5.06. The results of the t-test of the paired samples are shown as p-value = 0.006, showing the peritoneal dialysis professional cognitive test. Significant differences were observed before and after. The interdisciplinary team-assisted teaching method helps trainees and interns to improve their professional awareness of peritoneal dialysis. At the same time, trainee physicians have positive feedback on the inter-professional team-assisted teaching method. This teaching research finds that the clinical ability development education of trainees and interns can provide cross-professional team-assisted teaching methods to assist clinical teaching guidance.

Keywords: monitor quality, patient safety, health promotion objective, cross-professional team-assisted teaching methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
3199 Robot-Assisted Learning for Communication-Care in Autism Intervention

Authors: Syamimi Shamsuddin, Hanafiah Yussof, Fazah Akhtar Hanapiah, Salina Mohamed, Nur Farah Farhan Jamil, Farhana Wan Yunus

Abstract:

Robot-based intervention for children with autism is an evolving research niche in human-robot interaction (HRI). Recent studies in this area mostly covered the role of robots in the clinical and experimental setting. Our previous work had shown that interaction with a robot pose no adverse effects on the children. Also, the presence of the robot, together with specific modules of interaction was associated with less autistic behavior. Extending this impact on school-going children, interactions that are in-tune with special education lessons are needed. This methodological paper focuses on how a robot can be incorporated in a current learning environment for autistic children. Six interaction scenarios had been designed based on the existing syllabus to teach communication skills, using the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) technique as the framework. Development of the robotic experience in class also covers the required set-up involving participation from teachers. The actual research conduct involving autistic children, teachers and robot shall take place in the next phase.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, ASD, humanoid robot, communication skills, robot-assisted learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
3198 Animal-Assisted Therapy: A Perspective From Singapore

Authors: Julia Wong, Hua Beng Lim, Petrina Goh, Johanna Foo, Caleb Ng, Nurul ‘Aqilah Bte Mohd Taufek

Abstract:

Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) utilizes human-animal interaction to achieve specific therapeutic goals, and its efficacy has been demonstrated across various settings overseas. The use of AAT in Singapore, however, is still limited. Ang Mo Kio-Thye Hua Kwan (AMKH) is one of the first community hospitals in Singapore to use AAT to complement its occupational therapy services with elderly patients. This study explored the perspectives of AMKH’s occupational therapists (OTs) in relation to AAT to understand barriers and enablers in implementing and practising AAT. We also examined how OTs at-large across practice settings perceive AAT. A mixed method design was used. 64 OTs at-large participated in on online survey, and 7 AMKH OTs were interviewed individually via Zoom. Survey results were analysed with descriptive and Mann-Whitney U tests. Interviews were thematically analysed. AMKH OTs perceived various benefits of AAT articulated in overseas studies in domains such as motivation and participation, emotional, social interaction, sensory tactile stimulation, and cognition. Interestingly, this perception was also supported by 67% of OTs who had responded to the survey, even though most of the OTs who had participated in the survey had no experience in AAT. Despite the perceived benefits of AAT, both OTs from AMKH and those at-large articulated concerns on risks pertaining to AAT (e.g., allergies, unexpected animal behaviour, infections, etc). However, AMKH OTs shared several ways to mitigate these risks, demonstrating their ability to develop a safe program. For e.g., volunteers and their dogs must meet specific recruitment criteria, stringent protocols are used to screen and match dogs with patients, and there are strict exclusion criteria for patients participating in AAT. AMKH OTs’ experience suggests that additional skills and knowledge are required to implement AAT, therefore, healthcare institutions should first consider improving their staff training and risk mitigation knowledge before implementing AAT. They can also refer to AMKH’s AAT protocols and those found in overseas studies, but institutions must adapt the protocols to fit their institutional settings and patients’ profiles.

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, dog-assisted therapy, occupational therapy, complementary therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
3197 The Impact of Animal-Assisted Learning on Emotional Wellbeing and Engagement with Reading

Authors: Jill Steel

Abstract:

Introduction: Animal-assisted learning (AAL) interventions are increasing exponentially, yet a paucity of quality research in the field exists. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the promotion of emotional wellbeing, through AAL, in this case, a dog, may support children’s engagement with reading in a Primary 1 classroom. Research indicates that dogs can provide emotional support to children; by forming a trusting attachment with a non-critical ‘friend’ who confers unconditional positive regard on the child, confidence may be boosted and anxiety reduced. By promoting emotional wellbeing through interactions with the dog, it is hoped that children begin to associate reading with feelings of wellbeing, which then results in increased engagement with reading. Methodology: A review of the literature was conducted. The relationship between emotional wellbeing and learning was explored, followed by an examination of the literature relating to Animal-Assisted Therapy and AAL. Scottish educational policy and legislation were analysed to establish the extent to which AAL might be suitable for the Scottish pedagogical context. An empirical study was conducted in a mainstream Primary 1 classroom over a four-week period. An inclusive approach was adopted whereby all children that wanted to interact with the dog were given the opportunity to do so, and all 25 children subsequently chose to participate. Children were not withdrawn from the classroom. Primary methods included interviews, observations, and questionnaires. Three focus children were selected for closer study. Main Results: Results were remarkably close to previous research and literature. Children’s emotional wellbeing was boosted, and engagement in reading improved. Principal Conclusions and Implications for Field: It was concluded that AAL could support emotional wellbeing and, in turn, promote children’s engagement with reading. The main limitation of the study was its short-term nature, and a longer randomised controlled trial with a larger sample, currently being undertaken by the author, would provide a fuller answer to the research question. Barriers to AAL include health and safety concerns and steps to ensure the welfare of the dog.

Keywords: animal-assisted learning, emotional wellbeing, reading, reading to dogs

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
3196 The Effect of a Computer-Assisted Glycemic Surveillance Protocol on Nursing Workload

Authors: Özlem Canbolat, Sevgisun Kapucu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol on nursing workload in intensive care unit. The study is completed in an Education and Research Hospital in Ankara with the attendance of volunteered 19 nurse who had been worked in reanimation unit. Nurses used the written protocol and computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol for glycemic follow-up approach of the intensive care patients. Nurses used the written protocol first in the glycemic follow-up of the patient, then used the computer-assisted protocol. (Nurses used the written protocol first, then the computer-assisted protocol in the glycemic follow-up of the patient). Less time was spent in glycemic control with computerized protocol than written protocol and this difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was determined that the computerized protocol application was completed in about 10 seconds (25% shorter) than the written protocol implementation. The computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol was found to be more easy and appropriate by nurses and the satisfaction level of the users was higher than with written protocol. While 79% of the nurses find it confusing to implement the written protocol, 79% were satisfied with the use of computerized protocol.

Keywords: computer-assisted protocol, glycemic control, insulin infusion protocol, intensive care, nursing workload

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
3195 The Effect of Diet Intervention for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Bok Yae Chung, Eun Hee Oh

Abstract:

Breast cancer patients require more nutritional interventions than others. However, a few studies have attempted to assess the overall nutritional status, to reduce body weight and BMI by improving diet, and to improve the prognosis of cancer for breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet intervention in the breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. For the study purpose, 16 studies were selected by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and CINAHL. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and the effect size on outcome variables in breast cancer was calculated. The effect size for outcome variables of diet intervention was a large effect size. For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed using intervention type and intervention duration. All moderators did not significant difference. Diet intervention has significant positive effects on outcome variables in breast cancer. As a result, it is suggested that the timing of the intervention should be no more than six months, but a strategy for sustaining long-term intervention effects should be added if nutritional intervention is to be administered for breast cancer patients in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, diet, mete-analysis, intervention

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
3194 The Effects on Hand Function with Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

Authors: Fen-Ling Kuo, Hsin-Chieh Lee, Han-Yun Hsiao, Jui-Chi Lin

Abstract:

Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) usually suffered from mild to maximum upper limb dysfunction such as having difficulty in reaching and picking up objects, which profoundly affects their participation in activities of daily living (ADLs). Robot-assisted rehabilitation provides intensive physical training in improving sensorimotor function of the hand. Many researchers have extensively studied the effects of robot-assisted therapy (RT) for the paretic upper limb in patients with stroke in recent years. However, few studies have examined the effect of RT on hand function in children with CP. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Gloreha Sinfonia, a robotic device with a dynamic arm support system mainly focus on distal upper-limb training, on improvements of hand function and ADLs in children with CP. Methods: Seven children with moderate CP were recruited in this case series study. RT using Gloreha Sinfonia was performed 2 sessions per week, 60 min per session for 6 consecutive weeks, with 12 times in total. Outcome measures included the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (FMA-UE), the Box and Block Test, the electromyography activity of the extensor digitorum communis muscle (EDC) and brachioradialis (BR), a grip dynamometer for motor evaluation, and the ABILHAND-Kids for measuring manual ability to manage daily activities, were performed at baseline, after 12 sessions (end of treatment) and at the 1-month follow-up. Results: After 6 weeks of robot-assisted treatment of hand function, there were significant increases in FMA-UE shoulder/elbow scores (p=0.002), FMA-UE wrist/hand scores (p=0.002), and FMA-UE total scores (p=0.002). There were also significant improvements in the BR mean value (p = 0.015) and electrical agonist-antagonist muscle ratio (p=0.041) in grasping a 1-inch cube task. These gains were maintained for a month after the end of the intervention. Conclusion: RT using Gloreha Sinfonia for hand function training may contribute toward the improvement of upper extremity function and efficacy in recruiting BR muscle in children with CP. The results were maintained at one month after intervention.

Keywords: activities of daily living, cerebral palsy, hand function, robotic rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
3193 Enhancing the Safety Climate and Reducing Violence against Staff in Closed Hospital Wards

Authors: Valerie Isaak

Abstract:

This study examines the effectiveness of an intervention program aimed at enhancing a unit-level safety climate as a way to minimize the risk of employees being injured by patient violence. The intervention program conducted in maximum security units in one of the psychiatric hospitals in Israel included a three day workshop. Safety climate was examined before and after the implementation of the intervention. We also collected data regarding incidents involving patient violence. Six months after the intervention a significant improvement in employees’ perceptions regarding management’s commitment to safety were found as well as a marginally significant improvement in communication concerning safety issues. Our research shows that an intervention program aimed at enhancing a safety climate is associated with a decrease in the number of aggressive incidents. We conclude that such an intervention program is likely to return the sense of safety and reduce the scope of violence.

Keywords: violence, intervention, safety climate, performance, public sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
3192 The Mission Slimpossible Program: Dietary and Physical Activity Intervention to Combat Obesity among University Students in UITM Puncak Alam

Authors: Kartini Ilias, Nabilah Md Ahir, Nor Zafirah Ab Rahman, Safiah Md Yusof, Nuri Naqieyah Radzuan, Siti Sabariah Buhari

Abstract:

This study aim to develop and assess the effectiveness of an intervention in improving eating habits and physical activity level of university students of UiTM Puncak Alam. The intervention consists of weekly dietary counselling by registered dietitian and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for three times per week for the duration of 8 weeks. A total of 25 students from the intervention group and 25 students from control group who had BMI equal to or greater than 25kg/m² participated in the study. The results showed a significant reduction in body weight (3.0 kg), body fat percentage (7.9 %), waist circumference (7.3 cm) and BMI (2.9 kg/m²) between pre and post intervention. Besides, there was a significant increase in the level of physical activity among subjects in intervention group. In conclusion, the intervention made an impact on eating habit, physical activity level and improves weight status of the students. It is expected that the intervention could be adopted and implemented by the government and private sector as well as policy-makers in formulating obesity intervention.

Keywords: obesity, diet, obesity intervention, physical activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
3191 Indicators for Success of Obesity Reduction Programs in Adolescents; Body Composition and Body Mass Index: Evaluating a School-Based Health Promotion Project in Iran after 12 Weeks of Intervention

Authors: Saeid Doaei

Abstract:

Background: Obesity in adolescence is a primary risk factor for obesity in adulthood. The objective of this study was the assessment of the effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12 to 16 years old boy adolescents. Methods: 96 adolescent boys of two schools of District 5 of Tehran have participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned as intervention school (n=53) and control school (n=43). The height and weight of students were measured with a calibrated tape line and digital scale respectively and their BMI were calculated. The amounts of body fat percent (BF) and body muscle (BM) percent were determined by Bio Impedance Analyzer (BIA) considering the age, gender and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The intervention was implemented in the intervention school, according to the Ottawa charter principles. Results: 12 weeks of intervention decreased body fat percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81 % in the intervention group and increased by .39 % in the control group, P < .01). However, weight, BMI and BM did not change significantly. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that the implementation of comprehensive intervention in obese adolescents may improve the body composition, although these changes may not be reflected in BMI. It is possible that BMI is not a good indicator in assessment of the success of obesity management intervention.

Keywords: obesity, childhood, BMI, nutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
3190 Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Microwave-Assisted Acid Digestion for the Determination of Heavy Metals in Tea Samples

Authors: Abu Harera Nadeem, Kingsley Donkor

Abstract:

Tea is a popular beverage due to its flavour, aroma and antioxidant properties—with the most consumed varieties being green and black tea. Antioxidants in tea can lower the risk of Alzheimer’s and heart disease and obesity. However, these teas contain heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, or Pb, which can cause autoimmune diseases like Graves disease. In this study, 11 heavy metals in various commercial green, black, and oolong tea samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two methods of sample preparation were compared for accuracy and precision, which were microwave-assisted digestion and ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The developed method was further validated by detection limit, precision, and accuracy. Results showed that the proposed method was highly sensitive with detection limits within parts-per-billion levels. Reasonable method accuracy was obtained by spiked experiments. The findings of this study can be used to delve into the link between tea consumption and disease and to provide information for future studies on metal determination in tea.

Keywords: ICP-MS, green tea, black tea, microwave-assisted acid digestion, ultrasound-assisted extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
3189 A Randomized Control Trial Intervention to Combat Childhood Obesity in Negeri Sembilan: The Hebat! Program

Authors: Siti Sabariah Buhari, Ruzita Abdul Talib, Poh Bee Koon

Abstract:

This study aims to develop and evaluate an intervention to improve eating habits, active lifestyle and weight status of overweight and obese children in Negeri Sembilan. The H.E.B.A.T! Program involved children, parents, and school and focused on behaviour and environment modification to achieve its goal. The intervention consists of H.E.B.A.T! Camp, parent’s workshop and school-based activities. A total of 21 children from intervention school and 22 children from control school who had BMI for age Z-score ≥ +1SD participated in the study. Mean age of subjects was 10.8 ± 0.3 years old. Four phases were included in the development of the intervention. Evaluation of intervention was conducted through process, impact and outcome evaluation. Process evaluation found that intervention program was implemented successfully with minimal modification and without having any technical problems. Impact and outcome evaluation was assessed based on dietary intake, average step counts, BMI for age z-score, body fat percentage and waist circumference at pre-intervention (T0), post-intervention 1 (T1) and post-intervention 2 (T2). There was significant reduction in energy (14.8%) and fat (21.9%) intakes (at p < 0.05) at post-intervention 1 (T1) in intervention group. By controlling for sex as covariate, there was significant intervention effect for average step counts, BMI for age z-score and waist circumference (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the intervention made an impact on positive behavioural intentions and improves weight status of the children. It is expected that the HEBAT! Program could be adopted and implemented by the government and private sector as well as policy-makers in formulating childhood obesity intervention.

Keywords: childhood obesity, diet, obesity intervention, physical activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3188 Short and Long Term Effects of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Behaviors

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy

Abstract:

Over the last fifty years, maternal sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families have been a priority for researchers. For this reason, attachment-based interventions have been implemented and been shown to be effective in enhancing child development. Most of the time, child outcomes are measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child development shortly after the intervention ended and one-year post-intervention. Methods: Over the seventy-two mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, forty-two were included in this study: 24 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 18 dyads who did not. Intervention and none intervention dyads were matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, the reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex, and family status. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured 3 and 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children were respectively 45 and 54 months old. Findings: Independent-sample t-tests were conducted to compare scores between the two groups and the two data collection times. In general, on differences observed between the two groups three months after the intervention ended, just a few of them were still present nine months later. Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggests that the effects of attachment-based intervention observed three months following the intervention are not lasting for most of them. Those results inform us of the importance of considering the possibility to offer more attachment-based intervention sessions for those highly vulnerable families.

Keywords: attachment-based intervention, child behaviors, child protective services, highly vulnerable families

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3187 A Programming Assessment Software Artefact Enhanced with the Help of Learners

Authors: Romeo A. Botes, Imelda Smit

Abstract:

The demands of an ever changing and complex higher education environment, along with the profile of modern learners challenge current approaches to assessment and feedback. More learners enter the education system every year. The younger generation expects immediate feedback. At the same time, feedback should be meaningful. The assessment of practical activities in programming poses a particular problem, since both lecturers and learners in the information and computer science discipline acknowledge that paper-based assessment for programming subjects lacks meaningful real-life testing. At the same time, feedback lacks promptness, consistency, comprehensiveness and individualisation. Most of these aspects may be addressed by modern, technology-assisted assessment. The focus of this paper is the continuous development of an artefact that is used to assist the lecturer in the assessment and feedback of practical programming activities in a senior database programming class. The artefact was developed using three Design Science Research cycles. The first implementation allowed one programming activity submission per assessment intervention. This pilot provided valuable insight into the obstacles regarding the implementation of this type of assessment tool. A second implementation improved the initial version to allow multiple programming activity submissions per assessment. The focus of this version is on providing scaffold feedback to the learner – allowing improvement with each subsequent submission. It also has a built-in capability to provide the lecturer with information regarding the key problem areas of each assessment intervention.

Keywords: programming, computer-aided assessment, technology-assisted assessment, programming assessment software, design science research, mixed-method

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
3186 Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Melon Shells

Authors: A. Brinda Lakshmi, J. Lakshmi Priya

Abstract:

Cantaloupes (muskmelon and watermelon) contain biologically active molecules such as carotenoids which are natural pigments used as food colorants and afford health benefits. ß-carotene is the major source of carotenoids present in muskmelon and watermelon shell. Carotenoids were extracted using Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) utilising organic lipophilic solvents such as acetone, methanol, and hexane. Extraction conditions feed-solvent ratio, microwave power, ultrasound frequency, temperature and particle size were varied and optimized. It was found that the yield of carotenoids was higher using UAE than MAE, and muskmelon had the highest yield of carotenoids when was ethanol used as a solvent for 0.5 mm particle size.

Keywords: carotenoids, extraction, muskmelon shell, watermelon shell

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
3185 A Semantical Investigation on Physician Assisted Suicide in Canada between 1993 and 2015

Authors: Gabrielle Pilliat

Abstract:

The Supreme Court of Canada rendered unconstitutional the sections of the Canadian Criminal Code which prohibited the Physician-assisted suicide in February 2015. However, in 1993, the same Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Physician-assisted suicide should remain absolutely prohibited. In the light of these historical facts, we will explore how the Supreme Court of Canada was able to make two different decisions 20 years apart. To understand how Canada could rule so differently between 1993 and 2015 about Physician-assisted suicide, we will analyze the content of the Supreme Court of Canada decisions’ discourse of 1993 and of 2015. Our preliminary results indicate that A) the patient autonomy (or the personal choice) has taken over the idea of the preservation of life (or the sacred character of life) in 2015. B) That between 1993 and 2015, the physician is seen differently by the Judges; like an abusive murderer in 1993 and like an objective evaluator in 2015. C) That the patient is seen as a victim in 1993 and more like a hero in 2015.

Keywords: physician-assisted suicide, patient autonomy, choice, sacred character of life, dignity

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
3184 A Social Care Intervention for Improving the Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana

Authors: Tina Abrefa-Gyan

Abstract:

Background: In Ghana and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is a public health threat and also causes medical crises for many who are infected with the virus. Objective: This study tested a social care intervention developed to help improve the quality of life of those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Method: Adult respondents (N = 248) were assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for six weeks. Results: Results of the study revealed significant differences between the treatment and control groups in their reports of quality of life. Respondents reported better quality of life upon receiving the intervention. Implication: This study sheds light on the positive relationship between the intervention and quality of life among those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Conclusion: The intervention is innovative and novel in the setting. It will, therefore, help to reduce the risks such as depression, low cognitive functioning, and low physical functioning associated with low quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana in specific, and in sub-Saharan Africa in general.

Keywords: social care intervention, HIV/AIDS, Ghana, quality of life

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
3183 Humans as Enrichment: Human-Animal Interactions and the Perceived Benefit to the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), Human and Zoological Establishment

Authors: S. J. Higgs, E. Van Eck, K. Heynis, S. H. Broadberry

Abstract:

Engagement with non-human animals is a rapidly-growing field of study within the animal science and social science sectors, with human-interactions occurring in many forms; interactions, encounters and animal-assisted therapy. To our knowledge, there has been a wide array of research published on domestic and livestock human-animal interactions, however, there appear to be fewer publications relating to zoo animals and the effect these interactions have on the animal, human and establishment. The aim of this study was to identify if there were any perceivable benefits from the human-animal interaction for the cheetah, the human and the establishment. Behaviour data were collected before, during and after the interaction on the behaviour of the cheetah and the human participants to highlight any trends with nine interactions conducted. All 35 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire prior to the interaction and immediately after to ascertain if their perceptions changed following an interaction with the cheetah. An online questionnaire was also distributed for three months to gain an understanding of the perceptions of human-animal interactions from members of the public, gaining 229 responses. Both questionnaires contained qualitative and quantitative questions to allow for specific definitive answers to be analysed, but also expansion on the participants perceived perception of human-animal interactions. In conclusion, it was found that participants’ perceptions of human-animal interactions saw a positive change, with 64% of participants altering their opinion and viewing the interaction as beneficial for the cheetah (reduction in stress assumed behaviours) following participation in a 15-minute interaction. However, it was noted that many participants felt the interaction lacked educational values and therefore this is an area in which zoological establishments can work to further improve upon. The results highlighted many positive benefits for the human, animal and establishment, however, the study does indicate further areas for research in order to promote positive perceptions of human-animal interactions and to further increase the welfare of the animal during these interactions, with recommendations to create and regulate legislation.

Keywords: Acinonyx jubatus, encounters, human-animal interactions, perceptions, zoological establishments

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
3182 Models and Metamodels for Computer-Assisted Natural Language Grammar Learning

Authors: Evgeny Pyshkin, Maxim Mozgovoy, Vladislav Volkov

Abstract:

The paper follows a discourse on computer-assisted language learning. We examine problems of foreign language teaching and learning and introduce a metamodel that can be used to define learning models of language grammar structures in order to support teacher/student interaction. Special attention is paid to the concept of a virtual language lab. Our approach to language education assumes to encourage learners to experiment with a language and to learn by discovering patterns of grammatically correct structures created and managed by a language expert.

Keywords: computer-assisted instruction, language learning, natural language grammar models, HCI

Procedia PDF Downloads 416