Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 582

Search results for: alkaline pretreatment

582 Effects of Alkaline Pretreatment Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and ‎Wettability of Magnesium Implant

Authors: Mahtab Assadian, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, Mostafa Rezazadeh Shirdar, Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, ‎S. Izman


Corrosion behaviour and surface roughness of magnesium substrate were investigated after NaOH pretreatment in different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 molar) and duration of (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h). Creation of Mg(OH)2 barrier layer after pretreatment enhanced corrostion resistance as well as wettability of substrate surface. Characterization including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to detect the existence of this barrier layer. Surface roughness and wettability of substrate was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement respectively. It is found that magnesium treated by 1M NaOH for 30 min reveals higher corrosion resistance and lower water contact angle of substrate surface. In addition, this investigation indicates that pH value of SBF solution is strongly influenced by different time and concentration of alkaline pretreatment.

Keywords: magnesium, NaOH pretreatment, corrosion resistance, wettability

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581 Optimization of NaOH Thermo-Chemical Pretreatment to Enhance Solubilisation of Organic Food Waste by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Hafizan Junoh, Kumaran Palanisamy, Yip Chan Heng, Pua Fei Ling


This study investigates the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of organic food waste on the performance of COD solubilisation. Both temperature and alkaline agent were reported to have an effect on solubilizing any possible biomass including organic food waste. The three independent variables considered in this pretreatment were temperature (50-90oC), pretreatment time (30-120 minutes) and alkaline concentration, sodium hydroxide, NaOH (0.7-15 g/L). The optimal condition obtained were 90oC, 15 g/L NaOH for 2 hours. Solubilisation has potential in enhancing methane production by providing a high amount of soluble components at an early stage during anaerobic digestion.

Keywords: food waste, pretreatments, respond surface methodology, ANOVA, anaerobic digestion

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580 Screening and Optimization of Pretreatments for Rice Straw and Their Utilization for Bioethanol Production Using Developed Yeast Strain

Authors: Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Min Kyu Oh


Rice straw is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste materials and its annual production is about 731 Mt in the world. This study treats the subject of effective utilization of this waste biomass for biofuels production. We have showed a comparative assessment of numerous pretreatment strategies for rice straw, comprising of major physical, chemical and physicochemical methods. Among the different methods employed for pretreatment alkaline pretreatment in combination with sodium chlorite/acetic acid delignification found efficient pretreatment with significant improvement in the enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. A cellulase dose of 20 filter paper units (FPU) released a maximum 63.21 g/L of reducing sugar with 94.45% hydrolysis yield and 64.64% glucose yield from rice straw, respectively. The effects of different pretreatment methods on biomass structure and complexity were investigated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analytical techniques. Finally the enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used for ethanol production using developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8. The developed yeast strain enabled efficient fermentation of xylose and glucose and produced higher ethanol production. Thus development of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic waste biomass is generic, applicable methodology and have great implication for using ‘green raw materials’ and producing ‘green products’ much needed today.

Keywords: rice straw, pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, FPU, Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8, ethanol fermentation

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579 Development of a Steam or Microwave-Assisted Sequential Salt-Alkali Pretreatment for Sugarcane Leaf Waste

Authors: Preshanthan Moodley


This study compares two different pretreatments for sugarcane leaf waste (SLW): steam salt-alkali (SSA) and microwave salt-alkali (MSA). The two pretreatment types were modelled, optimized, and validated with R² > 0.97. Reducing sugar yields of 1.21g/g were obtained with optimized SSA pretreatment using 1.73M ZnCl₂, 1.36M NaOH and 9.69% solid loading, and 1.17g/g with optimized MSA pretreatment using 1.67M ZnCl₂, 1.52M NaOH at 400W for 10min. A lower pretreatment time (10min) was required for the MSA model (83% lower). The structure of pretreated SLW was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR). The optimized SSA and MSA models showed lignin removal of 80.5 and 73% respectively. The MSA pretreatment was further examined on sorghum leaves and Napier grass and showed yield improvements of 1.9- and 2.8-fold compared to recent reports. The developed pretreatment methods demonstrated high efficiency at enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis on various lignocellulosic substrates.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment, salt, sugarcane leaves

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578 Microwave-Assisted Inorganic Salt Pretreatment of Sugarcane Leaf Waste

Authors: Preshanthan Moodley, E. B. Gueguim-Kana


The objective of this study was to develop a method to pretreat sugarcane leaf waste using microwave-assisted (MA) inorganic salt. The effects of process parameters of salt concentration, microwave power intensity and pretreatment time on reducing sugar yield from enzymatically hydrolysed sugarcane leaf waste were investigated. Pretreatment models based on MA-NaCl, MA-ZnCl2 and MA-FeCl3 were developed. Maximum reducing sugar yield of 0.406 g/g was obtained with 2 M FeCl3 at 700W for 3.5 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR) showed major changes in lignocellulosic structure after MA-FeCl3 pretreatment with 71.5 % hemicellulose solubilization. This pretreatment was further assessed on sorghum leaves and Napier grass under optimal MA-FeCl3 conditions. A 2 fold and 3.1-fold increase in sugar yield respectively were observed compared to previous reports. This pretreatment was highly effective for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.

Keywords: acid, pretreatment, salt, sugarcane leaves

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577 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn


Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes.

Keywords: lignocellolusic biomass, pretreatment, organic acid response surface methodology, biorefinery

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576 Analysis Influence Variation Frequency on Characterization of Nano-Particles in Preteatment Bioetanol Oil Palm Stem (Elaeis guineensis JACQ) Use Sonication Method with Alkaline Peroxide Activators on Improvement of Celullose

Authors: Luristya Nur Mahfut, Nada Mawarda Rilek, Ameiga Cautsarina Putri, Mujaroh Khotimah


The use of bioetanol from lignocellulosic material has begone to be developed. In Indonesia the most abundant lignocellulosic material is stem of palm which contain 32.22% of cellulose. Indonesia produces approximatelly 300.375.000 tons of stem of palm each year. To produce bioetanol from lignocellulosic material, the first process is pretreatment. But, until now the method of lignocellulosic pretretament is uneffective. This is related to the particle size and the method of pretreatment of less than optimal so that led to an overhaul of the lignin insufficient, consequently increased levels of cellulose was not significant resulting in low yield of bioetanol. To solve the problem, this research was implemented by using the process of pretreatment method ultasonifikasi in order to produce higher pulp with nano-sized particles that will obtain higher of yield ethanol from stem of palm. Research methods used in this research is the RAK that is composed of one factor which is the frequency ultrasonic waves with three varians, they are 30 kHz, 40 kHz, 50 kHz, and use constant variable is concentration of NaOH. The analysis conducted in this research is the influence of the frequency of the wave to increase levels of cellulose and change size on the scale of nanometers on pretreatment process by using the PSA methods (Particle Size Analyzer), and a Cheason. For the analysis of the results, data, and best treatment using ANOVA and test BNT with confidence interval 5%. The best treatment was obtained by combination X3 (frequency of sonication 50 kHz) and lignin (19,6%) cellulose (59,49%) and hemicellulose (11,8%) with particle size 385,2nm (18,8%).

Keywords: bioethanol, pretreatment, stem of palm, cellulosa

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575 Development of Microwave-Assisted Alkalic Salt Pretreatment Regimes for Enhanced Sugar Recovery from Corn Cobs

Authors: Yeshona Sewsynker


This study presents three microwave-assisted alkalic salt pretreatments to enhance delignification and enzymatic saccharification of corn cobs. The effects of process parameters of salt concentration (0-15%), microwave power intensity (0-800 W) and pretreatment time (2-8 min) on reducing sugar yield from corn cobs were investigated. Pretreatment models were developed with the high coefficient of determination values (R2>0.85). Optimization gave a maximum reducing sugar yield of 0.76 g/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR) showed major changes in the lignocellulosic structure after pretreatment. A 7-fold increase in the sugar yield was observed compared to previous reports on the same substrate. The developed pretreatment strategy was effective for enhancing enzymatic saccharification from lignocellulosic wastes for microbial biofuel production processes and value-added products.

Keywords: pretreatment, lignocellulosic biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis, delignification

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574 Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment on Saccharification of Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Shady S. Hassan, Brijesh K. Tiwari, Gwilym A. Williams, Amit K. Jaiswal


EU is known as the destination with the highest rate of the coffee consumption per capita in the world. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the main by-product of coffee brewing. SCG is either disposed as a solid waste or employed as compost, although the polysaccharides from such lignocellulosic biomass might be used as feedstock for fermentation processes. However, SCG as a lignocellulose have a complex structure and pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates. However, commonly used pretreatment methods, such as chemical, physico-chemical and biological techniques are still insufficient to meet optimal industrial production requirements in a sustainable way. Ultrasound is a promising candidate as a sustainable green pretreatment solution for lignocellulosic biomass utilization in a large scale biorefinery. Thus, ultrasound pretreatment of SCG without adding harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, ultrasound pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG using different ultrasound frequencies (25, 35, 45, 130, and 950 kHz) for 60 min. Regardless of ultrasound power, low ultrasound frequency is more effective than high ultrasound frequency in pretreatment of biomass. Ultrasound pretreatment of SCG (at ultrasound frequency of 25 kHz for 60 min) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 56.1 ± 2.8 mg/g of biomass. Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose by low frequency ultrasound in water only was found to be an effective green approach for SCG to improve saccharification and glucose yield compared to native biomass. Pretreatment conditions will be optimized, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol.

Keywords: lignocellulose, ultrasound, pretreatment, spent coffee grounds

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573 Thermochemical and Biological Pretreatment Study for Efficient Sugar Release from Lignocellulosic Biomass (Deodar and Sal Wood Residues)

Authors: Neelu Raina, Parvez Singh Slathia, Deepali Bhagat, Preeti Sharma


Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for generating suitable substrates (starch/ sugars) for conversion to bioethanol is the most crucial step. In present study waste from furniture industry i.e sawdust from softwood Cedrus deodara (deodar) and hardwood Shorea robusta (sal) was used as lignocellulosic biomass. Thermochemical pretreatment was given by autoclaving at 121°C temperature and 15 psi pressure. Acids (H2SO4,HCl,HNO3,H3PO4), alkali (NaOH,NH4OH,KOH,Ca(OH)2) and organic acids (C6H8O7,C2H2O4,C4H4O4) were used at 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% concentration without giving any residence time. 1% HCl gave maximum sugar yield of 3.6587g/L in deodar and 6.1539 g/L in sal. For biological pretreatment a fungi isolated from decaying wood was used , sawdust from deodar tree species was used as a lignocellulosic substrate and before thermochemical pretreatment sawdust was treated with fungal culture at 37°C under submerged conditions with a residence time of one week followed by a thermochemical pretreatment methodology. Higher sugar yields were obtained with sal tree species followed by deodar tree species, i.e., 6.0334g/L in deodar and 8.3605g/L in sal was obtained by a combined biological and thermochemical pretreatment. Use of acids along with biological pretreatment is a favourable factor for breaking the lignin seal and thus increasing the sugar yield. Sugar estimation was done using Dinitrosalicyclic assay method. Result validation is being done by statistical analysis.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol, pretreatment, sawdust

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572 Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production

Authors: U. A. Asli, H. Hamid, Z. A. Zakaria, A. N. Sadikin, R. Rasit


This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4 % of sulphuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28 % ammonia solution. Then the EFB biomass was subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.

Keywords: bioethanol, biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fermentable sugars

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571 Repeated Batch Production of Biosurfactant from Pseudomonas mendocina NK41 Using Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Wastes as Substate

Authors: Natcha Ruamyat, Nichakorn Khondee


The potential of an alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soil in Thailand to utilized agro-industrial and agricultural wastes for the production of biosurfactants was evaluated in this study. Among five isolates, Pseudomonas mendocina NK41 used soapstock as substrate showing a high biosurfactant concentration of 7.10 g/L, oil displacement of 97.8 %, and surface tension reduction to 29.45 mN/m. Various agricultural residues were applied as mixed substrates with soapstock to enhance the synthesis of biosurfactants. The production of biosurfactant and bacterial growth was found to be the highest with coconut oil cake as compared to Sacha inchi shell, coconut kernel cake, and durian shell. The biodegradability of agro-industrial wastes was better than agricultural wastes, which allowed higher bacterial growth. The pretreatment of coconut oil cake by combined alkaline and hydrothermal method increased the production of biosurfactant from 12.69 g/L to 13.82 g/L. The higher microbial accessibility was improved by the swelling of the alkali-hydrothermal pretreated coconut oil cake, which enhanced its porosity and surface area. The pretreated coconut oil cake was reused twice in the repeated batch production, showing higher biosurfactant concentration up to 16.94 g/L from the second cycle. These results demonstrated the capability of using lignocellulosic wastes from agricultural and agro-industrial activities to produce a highly valuable biosurfactant. High biosurfactant yield with low-cost substrate reveals its potential towards further commercialization of biosurfactant on large-scale production.

Keywords: alkaliphilic bacteria, agricultural/agro-industrial wastes, biosurfactant, combined alkaline-hydrothermal pretreatment

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570 Comparison of Acid and Base Pretreatment of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Mustafa Ümi̇t Ünal, Nafi̇z Çeli̇ktaş, Aysun Şener, Sara Betül Dolgun, Duygu Keser


The aim of this study was to compare acid and base pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production. Switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (v/v) at 120, 140, 180 °C for 10, 60 and 90. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated switchgrass samples were carried out using three different enzyme mixtures (22.5 mg cellulase and 75 mg cellobiase /g biomass; 45 mg cellulase and 150 mg cellobiase /g biomass; 90 mg cellulase and 300 mg cellobiase /g biomass). Samples were removed at 24-h interval for fermentable sugar analyses with HPLC. The results showed that use of 90 mg cellulase and 300 mg cellobiase/g biomass resulted in the highest fermentable sugar formation. Furthermore, the highest fermentable sugar yield was obtained by pretreatment at 120 °C for 10 min using 1.0 % sodium hydroxide.

Keywords: switchgrass, acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, base pretreatment, ethanol production

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569 Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Properties of Arenga pinnata Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite: Effects of Alkaline Treatment

Authors: Abdul Hakim Abdullah, Mohamad Syafiq Abdul Khadir


In present investigations, thermal behaviours of Arenga pinnata fibres prior and after alkaline treatment were studied. The alkaline treatments were applied on the Arenga pinnata fibres by immersing in the alkaline solution, 6% sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Using hand lay-out technique, composites were fabricated at 20% and 40% by Arenga pinnata fibres weight contents. The thermal behaviours of both untreated and treated composites were determined by employing Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The results show that the TAP owned better results of Storage Modulus (E’), Loss Modulus (E”) and Tan Delta temperatures ranges from 0°C to 60°C.

Keywords: composites, Arenga pinnata fibre, alkaline treatment, dynamic mechanical properties

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568 Bioethanol Synthesis Using Cellulose Recovered from Biowaste

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Noridah Abdullah, Mimi Sakinah


Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates, Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as castor shell waste, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production Cellulose extracted from biomass sources is considered the future feedstock for many products due to the availability and eco-friendly nature of cellulose. In this study, castor shell (CS) biowaste resulted from the extraction of Castor oil from castor seeds was evaluated as a potential source of cellulose. The cellulose was extracted after pretreatment process was done on the CS. The pretreatment process began with the removal of other extractives from CS, then an alkaline treatment, bleaching process with hydrogen peroxide, and followed by a mixture of acetic and nitric acids. CS cellulose was analysed by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The result showed that the overall process was adequate to produce cellulose with high purity and crystallinity from CS waste. The cellulose was then hydrolyzed to produce glucose and then fermented to bioethanol.

Keywords: bioethanol, castor shell, cellulose, biowaste

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567 Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Hybrid Alkaline Cements

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, P. Torgal, J. Barroso Aguiar


Publications on the field of alkali-activated binders, state that this new material is likely to have high potential to become an alternative to Portland cement. Classical alkali-activated cements could be made more eco-efficient if the use of sodium silicate is avoided. Besides, most alkali-activated cements suffer from severe efflorescence originated by the fact that alkaline and/or soluble silicates that are added during processing cannot be totally consumed. This paper presents experimental results on hybrid alkaline cements. Compressive strength results and efflorescence’s observations show that the new mixes already analyzed are promising. SEM results show that no traditional porous ITZ was detected in these binders.

Keywords: hybrid alkaline cements, compressive strength, efflorescence, SEM, ITZ

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566 Effect of Different Microbial Strains on Biological Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse for Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Authors: Achiraya Jiraprasertwong, Erdogan Gulari, Sumaeth Chavadej


Among agricultural residues, sugarcane bagasse is one of the most convincing raw materials for the production of bioethanol due to its availability, and low cost through enzymatic hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. A pretreatment step is needed to enhance the enzymatic step. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), one of the most abundant agricultural residues in Thailand, was pretreated biologically with various microorganisms of white-rot fungus—Phanerochaete sordid (SK 7), Cellulomonas sp. (TISTR 784), and strain A 002 (Bacillus subtilis isolated from Thai higher termites). All samples with various microbial pretreatments were further hydrolyzed enzymatically by a commercial enzyme obtained from Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the pretreatment with the white-rot fungus gave the highest glucose concentration around two-fold higher when compared with the others.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, microorganisms, pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis

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565 Study on Microbial Pretreatment for Enhancing Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corncob

Authors: Kessara Seneesrisakul, Erdogan Gulari, Sumaeth Chavadej


The complex structure of lignocellulose leads to great difficulties in converting it to fermentable sugars for the ethanol production. The major hydrolysis impediments are the crystallinity of cellulose and the lignin content. To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial pretreatment of corncob was investigated using two bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis A 002 and Cellulomonas sp. TISTR 784 (expected to break open the crystalline part of cellulose) and lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete sordida SK7 (expected to remove lignin from lignocellulose). The microbial pretreatment was carried out with each strain under its optimum conditions. The pretreated corncob samples were further hydrolyzed to produce reducing glucose with low amounts of commercial cellulase (25 U•g-1 corncob) from Aspergillus niger. The corncob samples were determined for composition change by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the results, the microbial pretreatment with fungus, P. sordida SK7 was the most effective for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately, 40% improvement.

Keywords: corncob, enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose, microbial pretreatment

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564 Biogas Production Improve From Waste Activated Sludge Using Fenton Oxidation

Authors: A. Hassiba Zemmouri, B. Nabil Mameri, C. Hakim Lounici


In this study, the effect of Fenton technology pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of excess waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The variation of physicochemical characteristics (TOC, DS, VSS, VS) and biogas volume (as form of value added products) were also evaluated. The preselected operator conditions of Fenton pretreatment were 0.01ml H2O2/g SS, 150 [H2O2]/[Fe2+], 25g/l TS, at 25 °C and 30, 60 and120 min as treatment duration. The main results show a Maximum solubilization and biodegradability (70%) obtained at 120 min of Fenton pretreatment duration. An increasing of TOC in soluble phase related obviously by releasing organic substances of sludge flocs was contested. Improving in biogas volume was also, increased. Fenton oxidation pretreatment may be a promising chemical pre-treatment for a benefic digestion, stabilization and volume reduction.

Keywords: waste activated sludge, fenton pre-treatment, biodegradability, biogas

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563 Bee Colony Optimization Applied to the Bin Packing Problem

Authors: Kenza Aida Amara, Bachir Djebbar


We treat the two-dimensional bin packing problem which involves packing a given set of rectangles into a minimum number of larger identical rectangles called bins. This combinatorial problem is NP-hard. We propose a pretreatment for the oriented version of the problem that allows the valorization of the lost areas in the bins and the reduction of the size problem. A heuristic method based on the strategy first-fit adapted to this problem is presented. We present an approach of resolution by bee colony optimization. Computational results express a comparison of the number of bins used with and without pretreatment.

Keywords: bee colony optimization, bin packing, heuristic algorithm, pretreatment

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562 Optimization of Adsorption Performance of Lignocellulosic Waste Pretreatment and Chemical Modification

Authors: Bendjelloul Meriem, Elandaloussi El Hadj


In this work, we studied the effectiveness of a lignocellulosic waste (wood sawdust) for the removal of cadmium Cd (II) in aqueous solution. The adsorbent material SBO-CH2-CO2Na has been prepared by alkaline pretreatment of wood sawdust followed by a chemical modification with sodium salt of chloroacetic acid. The characterization of the as-prepared material by FTIR has proven that the grafting of acetate spacer took actually place in the lignocellulosic backbone by the appearance of characteristic band of carboxylic groups in the IR spectrum. The removal study of Cd2+ by SBO-CH2-CO2Na material at the solid-liquid interface was carried out by kinetics, sorption isotherms, effect of temperature and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. The last part of this work was dedicated to assess the regenerability of the adsorbent material after three reuse cycles. The results indicate that SBO-CH2-CO2Na matrix possesses a high effectiveness in removing Cd (II) with an adsorption capacity of 222.22 mg/g, yet a better value that those of many low-cost adsorbents so far reported in the literature. The results found in the course of this study suggest that ionic exchange is the most appropriate mechanism involved in the removal of cadmium ions.

Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, isotherms, lignocellulosic, regenerability

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561 Prevention of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation on Fungal Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth Using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

Authors: Eka Sari


Potential degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fungal pretreatment of lignocellulose has led to fermentable sugar yield will be low. This potential is even greater if the pretreatment of lignocellulosic that have low lignin such as water hyacinth. In order to prepare lignocellulose that have low lignin content, especially water hyacinth efforts are needed to prevent the degradation of cellulose and cellulose. One attempt to prevent the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is to replace the substrate needed by the addition of a simple carbon compounds such as glucose. Glucose sources used in this study is molasses. The purpose of this research to get the right of concentration of molasses to reduce the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment process and obtain fermentable sugar yields on high. The results showed that the addition of molasses with a concentration of 2% is able to reduce the degradation of cellulose from 25.53% to 10% and hemicellulose degradation of 20.12% to 10.89%. Fermentable sugar yields produced only reached 43.91%. To improve the yield of glucose is then performed additional combonation of molasses of 2% molasses and co-factor Mn2+ 0.5%. Fermentable sugar yield increased to 67.66% and the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose decreased to 2.44% and 2.71%, respectively.

Keywords: water hyacinth, cellulose, hemicelulose, degradation, pretreatment, fungus

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560 Evaluation of Microwave-Assisted Pretreatment for Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Shady S. Hassan, Brijesh K. Tiwari, Gwilym A. Williams, Amit K. Jaiswal


Waste materials from a wide range of agro-industrial processes may be used as substrates for microbial growth, and subsequently the production of a range of high value products and bioenergy. In addition, utilization of these agro-residues in bioprocesses has the dual advantage of providing alternative substrates, as well as solving their disposal problems. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a by-product (45%) of coffee processing. SCG is a lignocellulosic material, which is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Thus, a pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of such carbohydrates. In this context, microwave pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass without the addition of harsh chemicals represents a green technology. Moreover, microwave treatment has a high heating efficiency and is easy to implement. Thus, microwave pretreatment of SCG without adding of harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, microwave pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG at varying power levels (100, 250, 440, 600, and 1000 W) for 60 s. By increasing microwave power to a certain level (which vary by varying biomass), reducing sugar increases, then reducing sugar from biomass start to decrease with microwave power increase beyond this level. Microwave pretreatment of SCG at 60s followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 91.6 ± 7.0 mg/g of biomass (at microwave power of 100 w). Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose using microwave was found to be an effective and energy efficient technology to improve saccharification and glucose yield. Energy performance will be evaluated for the microwave pretreatment, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol and other high value products.

Keywords: lignocellulose, microwave, pretreatment, spent coffee grounds

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559 Pineapple Waste Valorization through Biogas Production: Effect of Substrate Concentration and Microwave Pretreatment

Authors: Khamdan Cahyari, Pratikno Hidayat


Indonesia has produced more than 1.8 million ton pineapple fruit in 2013 of which turned into waste due to industrial processing, deterioration and low qualities. It was estimated that this waste accounted for more than 40 percent of harvested fruits. In addition, pineapple leaves were one of biomass waste from pineapple farming land, which contributed even higher percentages. Most of the waste was only dumped into landfill area without proper pretreatment causing severe environmental problem. This research was meant to valorize the pineapple waste for producing renewable energy source of biogas through mesophilic (30℃) anaerobic digestion process. Especially, it was aimed to investigate effect of substrate concentration of pineapple fruit waste i.e. peel, core as well as effect of microwave pretreatment of pineapple leaves waste. The concentration of substrate was set at value 12, 24 and 36 g VS/liter culture whereas 800-Watt microwave pretreatment conducted at 2 and 5 minutes. It was noticed that optimum biogas production obtained at concentration 24 g VS/l with biogas yield 0.649 liter/g VS (45%v CH4) whereas microwave pretreatment at 2 minutes duration performed better compare to 5 minutes due to shorter exposure of microwave heat. This results suggested that valorization of pineapple waste could be carried out through biogas production at the aforementioned process condition. Application of this method is able to both reduce the environmental problem of the waste and produce renewable energy source of biogas to fulfill local energy demand of pineapple farming areas.

Keywords: pineapple waste, substrate concentration, microwave pretreatment, biogas, anaerobic digestion

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558 Biorefinery as Extension to Sugar Mills: Sustainability and Social Upliftment in the Green Economy

Authors: Asfaw Gezae Daful, Mohsen Alimandagari, Kathleen Haigh, Somayeh Farzad, Eugene Van Rensburg, Johann F. Görgens


The sugar industry has to 're-invent' itself to ensure long-term economic survival and opportunities for job creation and enhanced community-level impacts, given increasing pressure from fluctuating and low global sugar prices, increasing energy prices and sustainability demands. We propose biorefineries for re-vitalisation of the sugar industry using low value lignocellulosic biomass (sugarcane bagasse, leaves, and tops) annexed to existing sugar mills, producing a spectrum of high value platform chemicals along with biofuel, bioenergy, and electricity. Opportunity is presented for greener products, to mitigate climate change and overcome economic challenges. Xylose from labile hemicellulose remains largely underutilized and the conversion to value-add products a major challenge. Insight is required on pretreatment and/or extraction to optimize production of cellulosic ethanol together with lactic acid, furfural or biopolymers from sugarcane bagasse, leaves, and tops. Experimental conditions for alkaline and pressurized hot water extraction dilute acid and steam explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and harvest residues were investigated to serve as a basis for developing various process scenarios under a sugarcane biorefinery scheme. Dilute acid and steam explosion pretreatment were optimized for maximum hemicellulose recovery, combined sugar yield and solids digestibility. An optimal range of conditions for alkaline and liquid hot water extraction of hemicellulosic biopolymers, as well as conditions for acceptable enzymatic digestibility of the solid residue, after such extraction was established. Using data from the above, a series of energy efficient biorefinery scenarios are under development and modeled using Aspen Plus® software, to simulate potential factories to better understand the biorefinery processes and estimate the CAPEX and OPEX, environmental impacts, and overall viability. Rigorous and detailed sustainability assessment methodology was formulated to address all pillars of sustainability. This work is ongoing and to date, models have been developed for some of the processes which can ultimately be combined into biorefinery scenarios. This will allow systematic comparison of a series of biorefinery scenarios to assess the potential to reduce negative impacts on and maximize the benefits of social, economic, and environmental factors on a lifecycle basis.

Keywords: biomass, biorefinery, green economy, sustainability

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557 Effect of N2 Pretreatment on the Properties of Tungsten Based Catalysts in Metathesis of Ethylene and 2-Butene

Authors: Kriangkrai Aranyarat


The effect of N2 pretreatment on the catalytic activity of tungsten-based catalysts was investigated in the metathesis of ethylene and trans-2-butene at 450oC and atmospheric pressure. The presence of tungsten active species was confirmed by UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy. Compared to the WO3-based catalysts treated in air, higher amount of WO42- tetrahedral species and lower amount of WO3 crystalline species were observed on the N2-treated ones. These contribute to the higher conversion of 2-butene and propylene selectivity during 10 h time-on-stream. Moreover, N2 treatment led to lower amount of coke formation as revealed by TPO of the spent catalysts.

Keywords: metathesis, pretreatment, propylene, tungsten

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556 Fermentation of Wood Waste by Treating with H₃PO₄-Acetone for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Keonwook Nam, Young Hoon Roh


Wood waste is a potentially significant resource for economic and environment-friendly recycling. Wood waste represents a key sustainable source of biomass for transformation into bioethanol. Unfortunately, wood waste is highly recalcitrant for biotransformation, which limits its use and prevents economically viable conversion into bioethanol. As a result, an effective pretreatment is necessary to degrade cellulose of the wood waste, which improves the accessibility of cellulase. In this work, a H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment was selected among the various pretreatment methods and used to dissolve cellulose and lignin. When the H₃PO₄ and acetone were used, 5–6% of the wood waste was found to be very appropriate for saccharification. Also, when the enzymatic saccharification was conducted in the mixture of the wood waste and 0.05 M citrate buffer solution, glucose and xylose were measured to be 80.2 g/L and 9.2 g/L respectively. Furthermore, ethanol obtained after 70 h of fermentation by S. cerevisiae was 30.4 g/L. As a result, the conversion yield from wood waste to bioethanol was calculated to be 57.4%. These results show that the pretreated wood waste can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production and that the H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment can effectively increase the yield of ethanol production.

Keywords: wood waste, H₃PO₄-acetone, bioethanol, fermentation

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555 An Efficient Hybrid Feedstock Pretreatment Technique for the Release of Fermentable Sugar from Cassava Peels for Biofuel Production

Authors: Gabriel Sanjo Aruwajoye, E. B. Gueguim Kana


Agricultural residues present a low-cost feedstock for bioenergy production around the world. Cassava peels waste are rich in organic molecules that can be readily converted to value added products such as biomaterials and biofuels. However, due to the presence of high proportion of structural carbohydrates and lignin, the hydrolysis of this feedstock is imperative to achieve maximum substrate utilization and energy yield. This study model and optimises the release of Fermentable Sugar (FS) from cassava peels waste using the Response Surface Methodology. The investigated pretreatment input parameters consisted of soaking temperature (oC), soaking time (hours), autoclave duration (minutes), acid concentration (% v/v), substrate solid loading (% w/v) within the range of 30 to 70, 0 to 24, 5 to 20, 0 to 5 and 2 to 10 respectively. The Box-Behnken design was used to generate 46 experimental runs which were investigated for FS release. The obtained data were used to fit a quadratic model. A coefficient of determination of 0.87 and F value of 8.73 was obtained indicating the good fitness of the model. The predicted optimum pretreatment conditions were 69.62 oC soaking temperature, 2.57 hours soaking duration, 5 minutes autoclave duration, 3.68 % v/v HCl and 9.65 % w/v solid loading corresponding to FS yield of 91.83g/l (0.92 g/g cassava peels) thus 58% improvement on the non-optimised pretreatment. Our findings demonstrate an efficient pretreatment model for fermentable sugar release from cassava peels waste for various bioprocesses.

Keywords: feedstock pretreatment, cassava peels, fermentable sugar, response surface methodology

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554 The Comparison and Optimization of the Analytic Method for Canthaxanthin, Food Colorants

Authors: Hee-Jae Suh, Kyung-Su Kim, Min-Ji Kim, Yeon-Seong Jeong, Ok-Hwan Lee, Jae-Wook Shin, Hyang-Sook Chun, Chan Lee


Canthaxanthin is keto-carotenoid produced from beta-carotene and it has been approved to be used in many countries as a food coloring agent. Canthaxanthin has been analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system with various ways of pretreatment methods. Four official methods for verification of canthaxanthin at FSA (UK), AOAC (US), EFSA (EU) and MHLW (Japan) were compared to improve its analytical and the pretreatment method. The Linearity, the limit of detection (LOD), the limit of quantification (LOQ), the accuracy, the precision and the recovery ratio were determined from each method with modification in pretreatment method. All HPLC methods exhibited correlation coefficients of calibration curves for canthaxanthin as 0.9999. The analysis methods from FSA, AOAC, and MLHW showed the LOD of 0.395 ppm, 0.105 ppm, and 0.084 ppm, and the LOQ of 1.196 ppm, 0.318 ppm, 0.254 ppm, respectively. Among tested methods, HPLC method of MHLW with modification in pretreatments was finally selected for the analysis of canthaxanthin in lab, because it exhibited the resolution factor of 4.0 and the selectivity of 1.30. This analysis method showed a correlation coefficients value of 0.9999 and the lowest LOD and LOQ. Furthermore, the precision ratio was lower than 1 and the accuracy was almost 100%. The method presented the recovery ratio of 90-110% with modification in pretreatment method. The cross-validation of coefficient variation was 5 or less among tested three institutions in Korea.

Keywords: analytic method, canthaxanthin, food colorants, pretreatment method

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553 Surface Modification of SUS-304 Using Nitriding Treatment for Application of Bipolar Plates of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Wei-Ru Chang, Jenn-Jiang Hwang, Zen-Ting Hsiao, Shu-Feng Lee


Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are widely used in electrical systems as an economical, low-polluting energy source. This study investigates the effects of PEMFC gas nitriding treatment on metal bipolar plates. The test material was SUS304 stainless steel. The study explored five different pretreatment processes, varying the corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity conditions. The most effective process was industrial acid washing, followed by heating to 500 °C. Under the condition, the corrosion current density was 8.695 μA, significantly lower than that of the untreated pretreatment sample flakes, which was measured as 38.351 μA.

Keywords: nitriding, bipolar, 304, corrosion, resistance, pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 389